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HELIX

T E C H N O L O G I E S

HELIX delta-T
for Windows

BELT CONVEYOR
DESIGN PROGRAM

Professional version
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Helix delta-T6 - Overview Page 1 of 1

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design


www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies
Program

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Overview


Welcome to the Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program - an essential tool for engineers, contractors and plant
operators to quickly and easily optimise Conveyor system designs. This program includes features such as
Automatic Selection of Belt with Tension and Power Calculations. The software can perform design calculations
for any type of belt conveyor. It includes a Static Analysis conveyor design section and an optional Dynamic
Analysis program for full flexible body belt calculations.

z Equipment Selection from Databases for Belts, Idlers, Pulleys & Shafts, Gearboxes, Motors, Fluid
Couplings, Brakes etc.
z Draw a sketch of the conveyor Profile and also view a scale drawing and a 3D model of the conveyor.
z Calculate Vertical Curve radii and super-elevation (banking) angles for Horizontal curves.
z Calculate using CEMA, ISO 5048 or the new Viscoelastic method for low resistance rubber belts.
z Dynamic Analysis flexible body calculations.
z Add any number of Conveyor Pulleys, Drives, Loading points, Trippers, Brakes etc.
z Over 70 reports can be viewed, printed or exported to Word, PDF files or Excel etc.

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Helix delta-T6 - Introduction Page 1 of 4

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Introduction


Welcome to the Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program - an essential tool for engineers, contractors and plant operators to quickly
and easily optimise Conveyor system designs. This program includes features such as:

z Automatic Selection of Belt and Tension, Power Calculations.


z Equipment Selection from Databases for Belts, Idlers, Pulleys & Shafts, Gearboxes, Motors, Fluid Couplings, Brakes etc.
z Draw a sketch of the conveyor Profile and also view a scale drawing and a 3D model of the conveyor
z Calculate Vertical Curve radii and super-elevation (banking) angles for Horizontal curves
z Calculate using CEMA, ISO 5048 or the new Viscoelastic method for low resistance rubber belts
z Add any number of Conveyor Pulleys, Drives, Loading points, Trippers, Brakes etc.
z Over 70 reports can be viewed, printed or exported to Word, PDF files or Excel etc.

Helix delta-T has been used as the design tool and proven in many thousands of real conveyor installations in more than 25
countries around the world since 1991. The latest version Helix delta-T 6 brings you even more power and flexibility in your conveyor
designs.

Helix delta-T6 includes the new Dynamic Analysis version which was launched in November 2003 and has been improved and
enhanced in the latest delta-T6 program.

This new version of the program which has full Dynamic Analysis capabilities is essential for designing high powered conveyors and
long overland conveyors. The Dynamic analysis version includes the Standard and Professional versions of the software.

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This new version calculates the transient belt Tensions and Velocities during starting and stopping of a conveyor. It can model the
conveyor belt transient behaviour during Starting Fully Loaded, Starting Empty, Stopping Fully Loaded and Stopping Empty. The
program allows the user to input any number of Drives or Brakes and allows for input of Drive Torque / Speed curves, Delay times,
Braking Torques, Flywheels and inertia effects. After the Dynamic Calculations have been performed, the user can view and Print
two dimensional and surface plot three dimensional graphs for Belt Tensions, Belt Velocities, Strain rates and Takeup movement
versus time step for all points along the conveyor.

The Dynamic calculation process uses sophisticated Variable Step Runge Kutta method integrators for solving the complex
differential equations, including flexible, easy to use boundary condition specification by the user.

The Dynamic Calculations are easy use to use and Engineers who have static conveyor design experience can perform these
complex dynamic simulations using this very powerful software.
Example of Dynamic Analysis - conveyor stopping loaded
Belt Velocities

Belt Tensions

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Helix delta-T6 - Introduction Page 3 of 4

Note Tension rise as conveyor comes to rest and holdback locks up.

The program will automatically calculate the belt tensions in the system, select a suitable belt from the database, calculate the pulley
and shaft sizes required, select a suitable electric motor, fluid coupling and gearbox from the databases, calculate the idler shaft
deflections and bearing life and then present the full conveyor design in reports which can be viewed, printed or exported to Word for
Windows, Excel, PDF files and other applications.

Belt tensions can be viewed graphically, and the Calc section provides useful procedures for calculating discharge trajectories,
hoper pull-out forces, vertical curve radii, horizontal curve banking angles and belt drift, trough transitions distances and other
frequently performed routines. Context sensitive on screen Help will guide you through the operating procedures and provide the
formulae used in the calculations.

You can also create and view a 3D model of the conveyor. The program also allows you to dynamically calculate vertical and
Horizontal curve geometry for the conveyor.

In addition, delta-T provides an in-depth analysis of conveyor belt tensions under different operating conditions such as running fully
loaded, running empty, starting fully loaded, starting empty, braking fully loaded, braking empty and coasting. A new sketch facility
allows users to sketch the conveyor profile and enter data in tabular format.

New Features in delta-T version 6


The new Professional version includes the following features:
x Completely New design report formats - over 70 reports can be generated easily, with excellent presentation of
the design.
x Belt Tension calculations for Running, Starting and Braking including accelerating and stopping times.
x Calculation to ISO, CEMA and VISCO standards with auto friction factor calculation.
x Viscoelastic Calculation using conveyor belt rubber properties for the friction factor calculation. This state of the
art method allows use of Low Resistance Rubber belts and allows the user to design long overland conveyors
economically.
x Bar and 3 D line graphs of belt tensions under different loading and starting and braking conditions.
x Improved Braking calculations including a Brake database and Brake Selection routines. These include adding
constant torque, variable torque and velocity ramp (S curve) controlled braking systems.
x Improved equipment database for Belts, Idlers, Motors, Gearboxes, Fluid Couplings, shaft couplings, holdbacks

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Helix delta-T6 - Introduction Page 4 of 4

and Brakes etc. Copy and Paste data from Excel.


x New Database system compiled directly into the program – this system uses xml files for data storage
eliminates previous issues with the older DBISAM file system.
x Ability to import or copy and paste data directly from xml, csv and Excel spreadsheets to conveyor design or
equipment databases.
x New improved Sketching facility to quickly add pulleys, hoppers and drives to your conveyor.
x New scale drawing system for live feedback on Vertical curve radii - just edit an intersection point on the screen
and the vertical curve is redrawn in front of you so that you can see immediately if you can fit the radius into the
geometry.
x New Horizontal Curve Calculation routines - belt drift and banking angle calculations, with live on-screen
feedback about radii.
x New combined horizontal and vertical compound curve banking angle and belt drift calculations.
x New belt edge tension rise calculations for vertical and horizontal curves.

Design Reports
x Export design reports directly to MS Word® Excel® or PDF® file formats plus others.
x Create a single PDF® file with all design reports in the file.
x Improved Belt Selection routines with diagrammatic feedback on belt width vs. load area and edge distance.
x Improved Take-up Travel distance calculations including thermal expansion, permanent stretch, dynamic stretch
and splice allowance.
x Estimating and Costing schedules for all conveyor equipment from civil & electrical to conveyor components.
x New comprehensive instruction and context sensitive help files
x New Belt Feeder / Hopper pullout calculations.
x New Trough Transition distance calculations.
Dynamic Analysis Calculation Features
x Easily model the belt transient tensions and velocities during Starting and Stopping of conveyors.
x Add Torque Control or Speed Control on drive acceleration and on braking.
x Add Delay times for multiple drives for Dynamic Tuning
x Ramp and S curve starting and stopping control for starting and stopping
x Add Flywheels to pulleys to optimise starting and stopping
x Add Capstan Winch control to take-up ropes to control stopping conveyors.
x Add Low and High Speed Brakes to pulleys as required.
x View the movement of the Take-up pulley during Starting and Stopping
x Predict the maximum Transient Belt Tensions at any point along the conveyor as well as the timing of these
transients.
x Calculate Dynamic run back belt tensions due to holdback locking up
x Compare the Dynamic Calculations results with the rigid body static calculations in the delta-T6.
x Predict the magnitude of transient loads on conveyor structures.
x Calculate the torque loadings on gearboxes and couplings during starting and stopping. Eliminate conditions
which may cause costly equipment failures.
x Calculate Dynamic forces on holdbacks (anti runback devices)
x Perform Dynamic Tuning by changing the start delay times on different drives.
Helix delta-T6 will save you time and reduce your plant capital, maintenance and operating costs.

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Helix delta-T6 - Disclaimer Page 1 of 1

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design


www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies
Program

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Disclaimer


Whilst every care has been taken during the design and development of this computer program and to the best of
our knowledge the selection and performance of all items specified by this program are accurate within normally
accepted tolerances, the use of this program is entirely at the risk of the user. Helix Technologies and the author
of the program shall not be liable for any claims, losses or damages or for any consequences whatsoever arising
out of the use of this program by the user. By continuing with the use of this program, the user hereby indemnifies
Helix Technologies and the author all and any claims which may be made against it of whatever nature arising out
of the use of the program.

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Helix delta-T6 - System Requirements Page 1 of 1

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design


www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies
Program

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - System Requirements


To run the Helix delta-T6 program you need the following:

z Personal computer which can run Windows XP or later.


z Microsoft Windows XP (SP3), Windows Vista or Windows 7
z 32bit or 64bit operating system
z Microsoft .Net Framework 3.5 SP1 software or later (supplied as part of Windows OS)
z 512 Mb of RAM or more. For the Dynamic Analysis version at least 1GB RAM is recommended.
z 175 Mb of Hard Disk space.
z CD ROM disk drive or Internet Connection for installing software.
z USB port.
z For Network version a TCP/IP port is required to be allocated for the License Manager

z 1360 x 768 or better resolution VGA monitor.

z Printers, plotters and networks supported by Windows XP or later (Optional).


z Mouse, keyboard

Send us an email at sales@helixtech.com.au with your details and a request for options to purchase the
program.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program


www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Program Installation and Registration


To install the Helix delta-T program you need to download the setup program from the Helix website, unzip the files and run the
setup.exe program.

To run the Helix delta-T6 program you need: see System Requirements

Program Installation - Standalone Versions

The program is supplied in one of the following file formats:

A) Internet Download

B) CD ROM disk – Run the HelixCDInstaller.exe program

C) Memory Stick Flash Drive – Run the HelixCDInstaller.exe program

D) Multi-user Network and License Manager Version

Program Installation - Multi-user Network Version

This version of the software is also called the License Manager version and it allows installation of a License Manager program on
a computer network which controls the number of multiple concurrent users logged in to use the Helix delta-T6 software at any one
time.

Refer to the Help topic called Multiuser Network Version Installation for help on installaing and managing this version of the
software.

The following information os for the stand alone Registration and USB Dongle versions of the software only.

CD ROM Disk Installation and Flash Drive Installation


Insert the CD ROM in your CD-ROM drive (or the Flash Drive in a USB port), usually designated D: drive. The Autorun program
should start automatically. If it doesn't start automatically open Windows Explorer and navigate to the CD ROM drive. In the
main root directory look for an application file called

HelixCDInstaller.exe and double click to start it. The main form of the installer looks similar to the following

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Click the 'Install Helix Delta-T Conveyor Design Software' button to display the conveyor installation form.

z Choose the Version of the Program, e.g. Demo & Registration version, USB Dongle version if you were supplied with a
dongle or the Network License version which is supplied with a License Manager program to control access.

z Choose your Windows Operating System e.g. Windows 32 bit or 64 bit. To check your system right click on Computer
and choose Properties menu to display your PC details and operating system. It should state whether it is 32 or 64
bit as per sample below.

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z If you are installing the Network Version of the program you will also have to install the License Manager program on the
server computer. Choose the OS version and then press the Install the License Manager Program button. Please
refer to the help topic called Multiuser Network Version Installation for more information.

z Press the Install delta-T6 button - the setup program will start.

z Follow the Setup instructions. The installation program will inform you when the installation is finished. Ensure that the
user has read and write permissions in the directory where the program is being installed.

Installing the Dongle (if applicable):

After installing the files described above, you need to install the Dongle on a USB port on your computer. Simply plug it into a USB
port on your computer. Please wait for Windows to recognize the USB Flash Drive, it may take a few moments.

The USB dongle supplied with the program is unique to your license and is your key to using the software. We recommend that
you insure the USB key on your office insurance policy as we cannot replace a lost or missing dongle without the purchase of a
new software license. Helix will replace a damaged or faulty dongle as a service exchange but the faulty dongle must be returned
to Helix in exchange for the replacement.

After completing the installation the program icon and shortcut will be on your Desktop and also in the Programs list under Helix.
To run the program double click the desktop icon. Remember to read the Getting Started section of the Help file.

On-line Registration version Installation


This version is not supplied with a dongle. You need to install the program then run it to generate your system information. Email
this system information to sales@helixtech.com.au to obtain a Registration code to unlock the program. If you do not register the
program it can be used in Demonstration mode.

1. Please download the software from the link provided when you purchase the software.

2. Save the HelixDeltaT6xxx.zip to a temporary directory on the computer.


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3. Extract the files from the zip file. The zip file contains two files, Setup.exe and HelixDeltaT6xxxx.msi

4. Run the Setup.exe program to install the program - follow the on-screen instructions.

5. Once the program is installed, you will see the program listed in Start, Programs section and on the Windows desktop there
will be shortcut to the program called "Helix delta-T6 Conveyor Design"

6. Run the Helix delta-T6 Program

7. A software Registration form will be displayed.

8.

9. Press the “Send email request for Registration” button. This will open your default email program. Add your contact details
and company name to the bottom of the email and send the email to us.

10. You can then press OK button to continue and use the evaluation version of the program to explore the program and help
file whilst waiting for a response to your registration request from Helix Technologies.

11. Helix Technologies will respond with an email containing a Registration code.

12. Restart the Helix delta-T6 program. The registration form will be displayed once more.

13. Copy the Registration code from the email by highlighting it and then pressing Ctrl + C on your keyboard. Ensure that no
extra characters or training spaces are copied.

14. Then click in the License Key box in the registration form and press Ctrl+V to paste in the registration code. Ensure that no
extra characters or training spaces are pasted.

15. Press the OK button.

16. The Helix delta-T6 program will start. The registration details will be displayed on the status bar at the bottom of the main
form.

17. The registration is complete. Press F1 for help on getting started.

Getting Started
Before you use delta-T we recommend that you print out and read the Getting Started section of the Help File. You can find this
section in the Help File by selecting Help, Contents, Getting Started. The program is supplied with a full electronic version of the
instruction manual in the form of a help file. You can print all or portions of this help file if you require a paper copy. Press F1 for
help anywhere in the program.

If you need help, contact Helix by phone or at the email address supplied.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design


www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies
Program

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Program Removal

To un-install the program, do the following:

Select Start, Settings, Control Panel. Click on the Add / Remove Programs icon. A list of programs installed on
your computer will be displayed. Select the delta-T6 Design program from the list and click the Remove button.
Confirm the removal and follow the instructions of the removal program.

The Helix delta-T6 program does not install any files except those listed in the Program Files, Helix, Helix delta-T6
sub-directory and these can be deleted after un-installing the program.

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Helix delta-T6 - Multiuser Network Version Installation Page 1 of 5

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program I www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies


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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Multi-user Network Version Installation
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Helix delta-T6 is supplied in 3 different versions,
p
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z The Registration Version which requires c a software key to unlock the program on a specific PC.
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z The USB Dongle version which uses a jUSB Flash Drive to activate the program on any PC.
p
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z The Multi-user Network Version which uses a License Manager Program to control the number of concurrent users on a Network.

This help topic explains the installation and use of the Multi-user Network Version also called the License Manager version. For installation of the Registration and
USB Dongle Versions see the help topic called Program Installation.

Software Installation for Multi-user Network Version - overview

This licensing system uses a License Manager program installed on a server computer which controls the number of concurrent users on the network through a
TCP/IP port on the server. This means the delta-T6 Network version software can be installed on as many computers as required and it is then activated on a
specific computer via TCP/IP communication with the server and License Manager program. The License Manager program requires a Registration key which
contains the number of licenses of the Helix delta-T6 Dynamic Analysis, Professional and Standard version of the software purchased. This program will allow
multiple concurrent users to log in and use the program, the number of concurrent users being limited to the maximum number of licenses purchased for each
version of delta-T6.

This installation requires two main installations:

1. Installation of the License Manager software on a computer on the Network

2. Installation of the Helix delta-T6 Network version conveyor design program on each of the client computers

Software Installation of the Helix License Manager Program

The License Manager program may be supplied as a USB Dongle version or a Softkey Registration version. The USB dongle version requires a USB key supplied
by Helix Technologies to activate the program after it has been installed. This version is suppled on the USB key itself. The instructions below relate to the softkey
registration version, only the activation methods are different for the USB Dongle version.

Installing the USB Dongle version License Manager program

1. Insert the CD-ROM or the USB Flash Drive into the computer. The Auto Run program called HelixCDInstaller.exe should run automatically, if not run it
manually.
2. Press the ‘Install Helix Delta-T Conveyor Design Button’
3. The form below will be displayed

4. In the lower group box marked ‘Helix delta-T6 Multi-user Network version’ select the Windows 32 or 64 bit option depending on the server OS.

5. Choose the USB Dongle option in the lower box


6. Press the ‘Install the Helix License Manager Program’ and follow the onscreen instructions to install the License Manager program.
7. Plug in the USB Dongle and wait for the drivers to be installed automatically by Windows.
8. The License Manager program is now ready to run and can be setup as detailed in the Registration Version below, see section marked ‘Using the Helix
License Manager program’.

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Installing the Registration version License Manager program

First download the License Manager program form this link DeltaT6LMRegoSetup.zip The software may also have been supplied on CD-ROM diskette or on a
USB Flash Drive.

Save the zip file to disk then extract the files and run the Setup.exe program to install the program on the computer which will be used as the server computer.

Once the DeltaT6LMRego license manager program is installed, run it and the registration screen screen will be displayed as follows

You need to obtain a valid registration key to unlock the license manager program on this server computer.

1. Press the “Send email request for Registration” button. This will open your default email program. Add your contact details and company name to the
bottom of the email and send the email to us. If your default email application such as Outlook or Windows Live does not open you can click the SysInfo
button which display your system information. Copy this data into an email and email to Helix the request for the registration code along with this system
information. The email address is sales@helixtech.com.au

2. You can then press the OK button to continue to use the evaluation version of the program to explore the program and help file whilst waiting for a response
to your registration request from Helix Technologies.

3. Helix Technologies will respond with an email containing a Registration code.

4. Restart the Helix delta-T6 License Manager program. The registration form will be displayed once more.

5. Copy the Registration code from the email sent to you by Helix by highlighting the code text and then pressing Ctrl + C on your keyboard. Ensure that no
extra characters or trailing spaces are copied.

6. Then click in the License Key box in the registration form shown above and press Ctrl+V to paste in the registration code. Ensure that no extra characters or
trailing spaces are pasted.

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7. Press the OK button.

8. The Helix delta-T6 License Manager program will start. The registration details will be displayed on the status bar at the bottom of the main form.

9. The registration is complete. You now need to setup the TCP/IP Port for the program to use and start the listening process, see below.

Using the License Manager program

Initial Setup

Once you have registered the LM program, when you run it the following form will be displayed.

This form allows you setup the TCP/IP port number to be used for communicating with the client computers running the Helix delta-T6 program over the network.
The network settings are as follows:

1. TCP/IP port number - you can enter any unused port number on your computer. A list of reserved port numbers can be seen on this website Registered
TCP/IP Port Numbers

2. We suggest you use a number larger than 1025 and less than 49151 not listed here as reserved for the Helix License Manager. The default number we use
is 4444.

3. You will need to ensure that any firewalls or anti-virus software on the system will allow communication through this port.

4. The Maximum Allowable Client Idle Time is the maximum time a user can stayed logged in to the license manager with no activity on the client computer.
The default value is 20 minutes, you can alter this time to suit your own criteria. This setting is to prevent a user from logging in, using the program and then
forgetting to shut it down and so locking up a network license unnecessarily. As soon as this time is exceeded, if the user has been idle, the client user will
be logged out and the license recovered for use by other network users.

5. The Maximum no. of records in Log list controls the maximum size of the message list. As soon as the log list reaches this number of lines, the oldest
message in the list will be deleted when a new message is received. You can save this list at any time by using the Save Message List Log File button.

The settings on this form can be edited and when the program is closed down the new settings will be saved in the config.exe file for loading the next time the
program is started. If you edit the Port number, Idle time or Max Records settings, please close and restart the program to make the new settings effective.

Start Listening for Client Connections

Once the LM program has been setup and the port enabled on your system you can start listening for client connections from delta-T6 Network version by
pressing the Start Listening Button.

The program will now listen for connections from the network computers and respond when a successful connection is made. The client computers will require the
Network version of the delta-T6 program to be installed on the individual networked PC's and when the delta-T6 program is run from the client computer a
connection request is sent to the License Manager program.

You can view the connection activity at any time by pressing the Update List Button, a typical list is as follows:

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Message List

The list of connections shows the following information:

1. Date and Time of Connection

2. IP Address of client computer

3. Time setting on Client computer in tics

4. Computer Name of Client computer

5. User and Domain Name on client computer

6. Language and Country Settings on Client computer

7. The Delta-T6 Version the Client computer requested, i.e Dynamic (Dyn), Professional (Pro) or Standard (Std). When the user logs out a DeltaT6Logout
label will be displayed.

8. Project Name being worked on by client computer, can be used for billing time or cost allocation purposes.

9. Project Number being worked on by client computer, can be used for billing time or cost allocation purposes.

This message list can be saved as a text file at any time by using the Save Message List to Log file button. If you load the saved text file into Excel you can sort
the list and calculate how much time each client computer was logged in for and also which projects the software was used for.

You can refresh this list at any time by using the Update List button

Log Lists

Click the Log Lists tab sheet to view the list of users currently logged in and also which program versions they are using.

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If the Client computer makes a request to connect to a certain delta-T6 version such as Dynamic, and the total number of users already logged in exceeds the
number of licenses then the connection request will be refused. The number of licenses available for each version is shown in the label above each list, 2 for each
in the case shown above. The user will need to wait for a license to become available or change the settings to request a different version license.

The delta-T6 version requested by the Client computer is set and controlled in the .ini file on each installation at the client, see the Network Version Client Settings
help topic for details.

Running the License Manager program

Once the LM program is up and running and connections are being received from the client computers it can be minimised. This will put the program on the
System Tray of running programs (normally shown at bottom right hand side of task bar).

You can right click on the tray icon to view the popup menu and choose Open to activate the program form and view the message logs at any time.

The License Manager program must run at all times while client users are using the Network Version delta-T6 program. This LM program should not be stopped
while users are logged in as this may cause an error and loss of data on the Client program.

Shutting Down the Server and Restarting the LM program

If the server computer has to be shut down, first stop the Helix LM program by clicking the Write Data and Stop Listening button and then close the program
using the Exit button. After the server computer has been restarted, you must manually re-start the DeltaT6LMRego.exe program and press the Start Listening
button to activate it. You can then minimise the program to the Tray Icon list.

You must remember to press the Start Listening button after re-starting the LM program.

Automatically Restarting the LM Program

You can set the DeltaT6LMRego.exe program to re-start automatically when the server computer is re-started. To do so add the program to the Windows Start,
Programs, Startup folder. See Windows Help for more details on Automatically starting a program after a reboot.

Also, follow the details shown below.

1. Start the DeltaT6LMRego.exe program.

2. On the main form, switch the 'Automatically Start Listening on application startup' switch to On.

3. Exit the program and Restart it (this saves the switch setting for future)

4. After 10 seconds the program should start listening automatically.

Using this setting will ensure the LM program is re-started automatically after a re-boot of the server computer.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program I www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies


d
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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Multi-user Network Version Installation
_
C
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Helix delta-T6 is supplied in 3 different versions,
p
a
z The Registration Version which requires c a software key to unlock the program on a specific PC.
t
.
z The USB Dongle version which uses a jUSB Flash Drive to activate the program on any PC.
p
g
z The Multi-user Network Version which uses a License Manager Program to control the number of concurrent users on a Network.

This help topic explains the installation and use of the Multi-user Network Version also called the License Manager version. For installation of the Registration and
USB Dongle Versions see the help topic called Program Installation.

Software Installation for Multi-user Network Version - overview

This licensing system uses a License Manager program installed on a server computer which controls the number of concurrent users on the network through a
TCP/IP port on the server. This means the delta-T6 Network version software can be installed on as many computers as required and it is then activated on a
specific computer via TCP/IP communication with the server and License Manager program. The License Manager program requires a Registration key which
contains the number of licenses of the Helix delta-T6 Dynamic Analysis, Professional and Standard version of the software purchased. This program will allow
multiple concurrent users to log in and use the program, the number of concurrent users being limited to the maximum number of licenses purchased for each
version of delta-T6.

This installation requires two main installations:

1. Installation of the License Manager software on a computer on the Network

2. Installation of the Helix delta-T6 Network version conveyor design program on each of the client computers

Software Installation of the Helix License Manager Program

The License Manager program may be supplied as a USB Dongle version or a Softkey Registration version. The USB dongle version requires a USB key supplied
by Helix Technologies to activate the program after it has been installed. This version is suppled on the USB key itself. The instructions below relate to the softkey
registration version, only the activation methods are different for the USB Dongle version.

Installing the USB Dongle version License Manager program

1. Insert the CD-ROM or the USB Flash Drive into the computer. The Auto Run program called HelixCDInstaller.exe should run automatically, if not run it
manually.
2. Press the ‘Install Helix Delta-T Conveyor Design Button’
3. The form below will be displayed

4. In the lower group box marked ‘Helix delta-T6 Multi-user Network version’ select the Windows 32 or 64 bit option depending on the server OS.

5. Choose the USB Dongle option in the lower box


6. Press the ‘Install the Helix License Manager Program’ and follow the onscreen instructions to install the License Manager program.
7. Plug in the USB Dongle and wait for the drivers to be installed automatically by Windows.
8. The License Manager program is now ready to run and can be setup as detailed in the Registration Version below, see section marked ‘Using the Helix
License Manager program’.

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Installing the Registration version License Manager program

First download the License Manager program form this link DeltaT6LMRegoSetup.zip The software may also have been supplied on CD-ROM diskette or on a
USB Flash Drive.

Save the zip file to disk then extract the files and run the Setup.exe program to install the program on the computer which will be used as the server computer.

Once the DeltaT6LMRego license manager program is installed, run it and the registration screen screen will be displayed as follows

You need to obtain a valid registration key to unlock the license manager program on this server computer.

1. Press the “Send email request for Registration” button. This will open your default email program. Add your contact details and company name to the
bottom of the email and send the email to us. If your default email application such as Outlook or Windows Live does not open you can click the SysInfo
button which display your system information. Copy this data into an email and email to Helix the request for the registration code along with this system
information. The email address is sales@helixtech.com.au

2. You can then press the OK button to continue to use the evaluation version of the program to explore the program and help file whilst waiting for a response
to your registration request from Helix Technologies.

3. Helix Technologies will respond with an email containing a Registration code.

4. Restart the Helix delta-T6 License Manager program. The registration form will be displayed once more.

5. Copy the Registration code from the email sent to you by Helix by highlighting the code text and then pressing Ctrl + C on your keyboard. Ensure that no
extra characters or trailing spaces are copied.

6. Then click in the License Key box in the registration form shown above and press Ctrl+V to paste in the registration code. Ensure that no extra characters or
trailing spaces are pasted.

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7. Press the OK button.

8. The Helix delta-T6 License Manager program will start. The registration details will be displayed on the status bar at the bottom of the main form.

9. The registration is complete. You now need to setup the TCP/IP Port for the program to use and start the listening process, see below.

Using the License Manager program

Initial Setup

Once you have registered the LM program, when you run it the following form will be displayed.

This form allows you setup the TCP/IP port number to be used for communicating with the client computers running the Helix delta-T6 program over the network.
The network settings are as follows:

1. TCP/IP port number - you can enter any unused port number on your computer. A list of reserved port numbers can be seen on this website Registered
TCP/IP Port Numbers

2. We suggest you use a number larger than 1025 and less than 49151 not listed here as reserved for the Helix License Manager. The default number we use
is 4444.

3. You will need to ensure that any firewalls or anti-virus software on the system will allow communication through this port.

4. The Maximum Allowable Client Idle Time is the maximum time a user can stayed logged in to the license manager with no activity on the client computer.
The default value is 20 minutes, you can alter this time to suit your own criteria. This setting is to prevent a user from logging in, using the program and then
forgetting to shut it down and so locking up a network license unnecessarily. As soon as this time is exceeded, if the user has been idle, the client user will
be logged out and the license recovered for use by other network users.

5. The Maximum no. of records in Log list controls the maximum size of the message list. As soon as the log list reaches this number of lines, the oldest
message in the list will be deleted when a new message is received. You can save this list at any time by using the Save Message List Log File button.

The settings on this form can be edited and when the program is closed down the new settings will be saved in the config.exe file for loading the next time the
program is started. If you edit the Port number, Idle time or Max Records settings, please close and restart the program to make the new settings effective.

Start Listening for Client Connections

Once the LM program has been setup and the port enabled on your system you can start listening for client connections from delta-T6 Network version by
pressing the Start Listening Button.

The program will now listen for connections from the network computers and respond when a successful connection is made. The client computers will require the
Network version of the delta-T6 program to be installed on the individual networked PC's and when the delta-T6 program is run from the client computer a
connection request is sent to the License Manager program.

You can view the connection activity at any time by pressing the Update List Button, a typical list is as follows:

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Message List

The list of connections shows the following information:

1. Date and Time of Connection

2. IP Address of client computer

3. Time setting on Client computer in tics

4. Computer Name of Client computer

5. User and Domain Name on client computer

6. Language and Country Settings on Client computer

7. The Delta-T6 Version the Client computer requested, i.e Dynamic (Dyn), Professional (Pro) or Standard (Std). When the user logs out a DeltaT6Logout
label will be displayed.

8. Project Name being worked on by client computer, can be used for billing time or cost allocation purposes.

9. Project Number being worked on by client computer, can be used for billing time or cost allocation purposes.

This message list can be saved as a text file at any time by using the Save Message List to Log file button. If you load the saved text file into Excel you can sort
the list and calculate how much time each client computer was logged in for and also which projects the software was used for.

You can refresh this list at any time by using the Update List button

Log Lists

Click the Log Lists tab sheet to view the list of users currently logged in and also which program versions they are using.

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If the Client computer makes a request to connect to a certain delta-T6 version such as Dynamic, and the total number of users already logged in exceeds the
number of licenses then the connection request will be refused. The number of licenses available for each version is shown in the label above each list, 2 for each
in the case shown above. The user will need to wait for a license to become available or change the settings to request a different version license.

The delta-T6 version requested by the Client computer is set and controlled in the .ini file on each installation at the client, see the Network Version Client Settings
help topic for details.

Running the License Manager program

Once the LM program is up and running and connections are being received from the client computers it can be minimised. This will put the program on the
System Tray of running programs (normally shown at bottom right hand side of task bar).

You can right click on the tray icon to view the popup menu and choose Open to activate the program form and view the message logs at any time.

The License Manager program must run at all times while client users are using the Network Version delta-T6 program. This LM program should not be stopped
while users are logged in as this may cause an error and loss of data on the Client program.

Shutting Down the Server and Restarting the LM program

If the server computer has to be shut down, first stop the Helix LM program by clicking the Write Data and Stop Listening button and then close the program
using the Exit button. After the server computer has been restarted, you must manually re-start the DeltaT6LMRego.exe program and press the Start Listening
button to activate it. You can then minimise the program to the Tray Icon list.

You must remember to press the Start Listening button after re-starting the LM program.

Automatically Restarting the LM Program

You can set the DeltaT6LMRego.exe program to re-start automatically when the server computer is re-started. To do so add the program to the Windows Start,
Programs, Startup folder. See Windows Help for more details on Automatically starting a program after a reboot.

Also, follow the details shown below.

1. Start the DeltaT6LMRego.exe program.

2. On the main form, switch the 'Automatically Start Listening on application startup' switch to On.

3. Exit the program and Restart it (this saves the switch setting for future)

4. After 10 seconds the program should start listening automatically.

Using this setting will ensure the LM program is re-started automatically after a re-boot of the server computer.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design


www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies
Program

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Network Version Client Settings


This help topic refers to the settings required in order to use the Network License version of the software. This
information does not apply to the stand alone Demo, Registration or USB Dongle versions of the program.

Network Version Overview

This licensing system uses a License Manager program installed on a server computer which controls the number of
concurrent users on the network through a TCP/IP port on the server. This means the software can be installed on as
many computers as required and it is then activated on a specific computer via TCP/IP communication with the server
and License Manager program. The License Manager program requires a Registration key which unlocks the
program and contains the number of licenses of the Helix delta-T6 Dynamic Analysis, Professional and Standard
version of the software purchased. This program will allow multiple concurrent users to log in and use the program, the
number of concurrent users being limited to the maximum number of licenses purchased for each version of delta-T6.

This software requires two main installations:

1. Installation of the License Manager software on a computer on the Network

2. Installation of the Helix delta-T6 Network version conveyor design program on each of the client computers
which is described in this help topic.

Installing the Delta-T6 Network Version program

The delta-T6 program network version needs to be installed on each client computer that requires to run the delta-T6
program. You can download the Network versions of delta-T6 from one of the following links:

Download the 32bit version from DeltaT6Network32bit - This is installed on the client computers running 32 bit
systems.

Download the 64bit version from DeltaT6Network64bit - This is installed on the client computers running 64 bit
systems.

Save the file to disk and the extract the files from the zip file and run the Setup.exe program. Follow the setup
instructions.

Once the program is installed you need to ensure that the License Manager program is installed and running on the
server computer, see this link for help

License Manager

You also need to have the TCP/IP port number which has been allocated for the Helix delta-T6 Network system. Once
the delta-T6 Network version program is installed and the License Manager program is running, you can run the Helix
delta-T6 program on the client machine after setting up the Network Settings as detailed below.

Setting up the Client Computer Network settings

The first step is to setup the initialisation settings in the .ini file in the directory where the delta-T6 program is installed.
This directory is normally in C:\MyDocuments\UserName\Helix\DeltaT6Network32bit directory (or 64bit)

Look for a file called HelixDeltaT6_LM_config.ini

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Open this file using a text file editor such as Notepad.exe. This file guides the program to look for the server computer
which is running the License Manager (LM) software. The contents should be something like this

The settings and options in this file are as follows:

Line 1: Options are N or I - N means the program uses the server computer Name and I means it uses the server
computer IP Address.

Line 2: Options are the server computer Name (in the above case it was PC1) or you if you set Line 1 to I then you
should enter the IP Address of the server computer eg. 168.192.1.5

Line 3: This is the TCP/IP Port number which is being used on the LM server computer.

Line 4: This is the directory where the log files will be written, (c:\HelixDeltaT6LMLog\Client\), it is only for internal use
and there is no need to change the default setting.

Line 5, 6, 7 and 8: These numbers (250,1,1,1000) are for internal use only and should be left exactly as per the
sample above.

Line 9: This is the Program Version which will be requested from the LM program when you run the delta-T6. The
options are as follows:

z DeltaT6Dyn - will request and run the Delta-T6 Dynamic Analysis version from the License Manager.

z DeltaT6Pro - will request and run the Delta-T6 Professional version from the License Manager.

z DeltaT6Std - will request and run the Delta-T6 Standard version from the License Manager.

You must ensure that the software licenses you bought cover your choice of setting here. If you only bought licenses
for say the Delta-T6 Pro version you cannot request to run the Dynamic or Standard versions etc. If you have a
mixture of licenses bought and installed in the LM program you can request one of the version using this setting, and if
there is an empty slot in the licenses at the time of your connection request, your request will be granted and the
program will run. If no licenses are available at the time then you will be informed that no licenses are available and
execution of the program will stop. The settings are case sensitive, enter exactly as shown.

Line 10: Sound ON - Options are Sound ON or Sound OFF. This allows the program to make a beep sounds during
the connection process indicating the communication has taken place. The default setting is Sound OFF.

Edit the file in Notepad.exe and save it.

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The above image shows the help tags in a sample file, the help tags should not be included in your file.

Once you have made the file settings, save this .ini file and you can now run the delta-T6 Network version program
after starting the License Manager program on the server computer.

Altering the Network Settings

You can alter the contents of the .ini file at any time and then re-start the Helix delta-T6 program and these new
settings will be used, or you can change some of the network settings from inside the delta-T6 program. Run the
program and then go to the Network main menu and then choose the License Manager Network Menu

The following form will be displayed.

You can use this form to alter the settings in the .ini file described above. This form is especially useful if you try to log
on using one version of the software, say the Dynamic version and you get a message saying there are no licenses
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currently available. In this case you can then click the Professional Version radio button and press the Save
Settings button. Then exit this form and continue running the program and it will now request a DeltaT6Pro license
from the License Manager, and if it is available, you will be logged in, allocated a license and you can continue using
the software until you exit the program at which time your license will be freed up for other users.

If there are no licenses available when you run the program, you will get a message to this effect and the program will
stop running.

It is not necessary to reset these Network settings every time you start the delta-T6 program, they will be automatically
read in from the .ini file each time you run the program. You only need to change the settings if you wish to use a
different version of the program or if there is no current license available for the version you are trying to run.

Once the delta-T6 Network version program is installed, the .ini settings have been made and the License Manager
program is running, you can run the Helix delta-T6 program on the client machine.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Getting Started

Quick Start

Creating a conveyor model in Helix delta-T is an 8 stage process:

1. Open a New file (or look at the extensive list of demo files and use the Save as menu to copy one of them.)
2. Draw the Conveyor Sketch and enter the X,Y,Z coordinates and belt wrap in the Pulley Co-ordinates tab.
3. Check the input data by viewing the Scale Drawing.
4. Enter the conveyor Section capacity, idler spacing, skirts and scrapers in the Sections tab
5. Go to each input form in the Input menu on the main form and enter the required details
6. Press the ISO, CEMA or VISCO buttons to calculate the conveyor
7. Refine and optimise the design by checking Drive Traction, Belt sag, Starting Stopping reports etc and adding brakes if required.
8. View and print the design reports.

Save the File as you go along. Press F1 for Help at any point in the program or use the Help Contents or Search menus.

Detailed Getting Started Steps

In more detail, to start using Helix delta-T6 follow these steps :

z Start the program and select the File, New menu.

z Type in a new file name - for example - My new Conveyor 101 and press Save. A new design file will be created in xml format. See the xml Files
help topic for details about xml.

z Now create the conveyor sketch profile. Press the Conveyor Sketch tab sheet and add pulleys into the conveyor using the button toolbar on the
left. Refer to the Drawing Conveyor Profile help topic.

z Link the Drive Pulleys using the yellow Link to Drive No column in the Pulley coordinates table. Every conveyor must have at least one Drive
Pulley and one Take-up pulley. Remember to enter a Drive in the Drives Table and link the drive pulley to the Drive number in the drives list. See
Entering Drive Details.

z After you have added the pulleys, hoppers and intersection points into the sketch you can enter the conveyor X,Y,Z coordinates - see Entering
the Conveyor Length, Lift, X,Y,Z coordinates help topic. This includes the belt wrap and contact angles on the pulleys.

z Now you can enter the Conveyor Sections data such as the Capacity in tph on each section, the idler spacing, skirt length, number of scrapers.
See the Input Section Capacity, Idler Spacings help topic.

z Next you can input the Pulley Dimensions or if you prefer you can leave this until later.

z Now check your input data using the Scale Drawing tabsheet to view the plan and elevation of the conveyor. If the drawing looks wrong you need
to correct the X,Y,Z coordinates.

z If the conveyor has Vertical Curves you can input the the curve radius and see it on the scale drawing.

z Go to the Input main menu and work your way down each of the menu items - open each input form and enter the data required

Input Menus

Now you need to go the Input main menu and work your way down each of the menu items - open each input form and enter the data required.
Remember to press F1 for help at any stage.

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z Input Project Details

z Input Conveyed Material

z Input Belt Details

z Input Viscoelastic Belt Details if you are going to use the VISCO calculation method - this is recommended for long conveyors.

z Input Takeup Details

z Input Carry Idlers and Input Return Idlers

z Input Drive Details - this input is essential. The from also has the input tabsheets for the other drive equipment listed below.

Now you can proceed to input the other drive details such as
z
Input Motors - this input is required as the motor power affects belt tensions etc. The following equipment inputs are optional and only required
for detailed design.
z
Input Gearboxes
z
Input Fluid Couplings
z
Input High Speed Coupling
z
Input Low Speed Coupling
z
Input Brakes
z
Input Holdbacks
z
Input Starters.
Finally you can input the pulley shaft material and allowable shaft deflection using the Input Pulley Shaft Materials form.

Conveyor Calculation

Now you have completed all the inputs and you can perform the calculation.

Press the ISO button and the calculation will be performed. You may get some Warning messages some are critical and some relate only to non critical
equipment selections. You must attend to the critical warning messages by altering your input data.

After the calculation the Design Summary tabsheet on the right side of the main form will be displayed as below.

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This summary shows a snap shot of the conveyor - you can copy it to the clipboard and paste in the report document or email etc.

Check the Belt Capacity used and the Belt Strength used and Installed Power used are within the desired limits. Adjust the inputs to manual
selection to change the belt or installed power and choose different belt width and speed for capacity.

You can also press the CEMA and VISCO buttons in additon to using the ISO calculation method and compare the results from the different methods.

Check the Conveyor Design

After doing the calculations it is important to check there is sufficient Takeup tension for correct Drive Traction the Starting and Braking cases as the
program only calculates sufficient tension for the running case, this being the minimum the conveyor will operate with.

z Check the Takeup and Drive Traction report from the Reports menu.

z Check the Tension Summary for Belt Sag report and adjust takeup if necessary.

z Check the Starting and Stopping Report to see the starting times and stopping times. The starting time should not be too short for large or long
conveyors, adjust the Starting Torque Factor in the Drive Inputs to alter the starting times. Normally we try to get the stopping time to less than
10 seconds but this may not be possible on large or long conveyors. If the stopping times are excessive, you can add a brake torque to the drive
(or a add a low speed brake pulley) and adjust the torque until the desired stopping times are obtained.

After adjusting the belt, motor, brakes, drive inertia or takeup mass you must repeat the design checks shown above.

You must remember to re-calculate after changing the input data and also remember to save your design file.

View and Print Reports

After fine tuning the design you can view and print one of the many reports, we suggest starting with Design Summary Report and then working your
way down the Reports menu.

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You should view and check the reports in this menu. You can also export the reports to PDF file format, print them and make one single Combined
Report - see the Report Settings help topic for more details.

View Belt Tension Graphs

You can view graphs of the belt tensions by right clicking in the Conveyor Sketch panel and choosing the View Graphs menu, see Belt Tension Graphs
help topic.

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Horizontal Curves

For horizontally curved conveyors you can input the data and calculates the curve banking angles required as explained in the Horizontal Curve
Calculations form.

Dynamic Analysis

For large installed power conveyors, say 500kW or more, or for long conveyors, say 1km or more we recommend that you perform a dynamic analysis.
see the Dynamic Analysis chapters in the help file for details. Because the dynamic analysis is easy to do we recommend that it is performed even on
regular in-plant conveyors, it may just highlight a potential problem not shown by the static analysis calculation methods.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design


www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies
Program

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Using the Datacontrol


Helix delta-T is supplied many places where you can add, delete or edit data.

You can use the Data Control to perform actions on your data:

The Plus button adds a new record


The X button deletes the current record

The Arrow buttons let you navigate up and down the table

View the Tool tips popup by hovering your mouse over the data control buttons.

If you are using one of the many data tables you can also perform the following:

z Select the row by clicking the left column to highlight the entire row then press Del on keyboard to delete a record

z Use Ctrl + C to copy text

z Use Ctrl + V to Paste text

z Right click on all Tables, Images and Drawing areas to see if there is a Popup menu available.

In many database tables you can filter the displayed data by selecting a Category from the drop down box on the
datacontrol, for example Belt Categories box in above image. The copy button will copy the currently selected item to
the current design file, or you can right click in the table and select the menu to transfer data.

See the Equipment Database Files help topic for location of files

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design


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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - XML Files

XML files

The Helix delta-T program uses xml (Extended Markup Language) files to store the conveyor design and
equipment database files. The xml files are structured text files which means they can be read and edited using
any text editor such as the Windows Notepad.exe program. This means that the data can be easily checked and
manipulated by other programs if required.

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Conveyor Design Files

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Each conveyor's design data is also stored in a single .xml file. This file is structured to store the pulley items and
other data in tables as required.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design


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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Files

Creating a new Conveyor Design File

Start the program - the main form will be loaded, it will be empty. Select the File, New menu.

and when the Open file dialogue is displayed type in a new file name, for example "My new conveyor CV01" and
press the Save button. You do not need to type the file extension (.xml). A new file with this name will be opened
and you can then proceed to add pulleys and intersection points and the other conveyor inputs required. Refer to
the Getting Started section of the Help file

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - File New, Open, Save as


The Helix delta-T program has normal Windows file operations. When you start the program it is empty and you need
to:

z Open an existing file or

z Open a New file

Once you have opened a file you can edit it and complete the inputs and calculations. You must save the file before
closing the program or opening another file.

z Save File - this saves the current file in the current file name shown on the title bar of the main form

z Save as - you can save the current file under a new file name using this menu. The original file will be retained
as it was the last time it was saved.

All the design data is saved in a single xml file. You can save files to any valid file location such as My documents or to
any other PC on the network or to a USB external drive or Flash Drive.

See the Import old delta-T5 file help topic for using older version design files in the new delta-T6 program.

Use the File menu shown below to access these operations.

The program also keeps track of recent files and you can open these by clicking on the file name in the menu above

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the Exit menu.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program


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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Importing older delta-T5 Design files


The delta-T6 program uses xml files to store the conveyor design data and the older delta-T5 program used multiple DBISAM files to store the
data. We have provided a conversion program which allows you to open the older delta-T5 file and save the design in a bridging xml format.
You can then open a new file in delta-T6 and import the old version design into the new file.

Quick Instructions

You can download a copy of the Helix delta-T5 to Helix delta-T6 converter utility program from
http://www.helixtech.com.au/ftp/pub/HelixdeltaT5toT6Converter.zip

Save this zip file to your PC then the extract the files and put the HelixdeltaT5toT6Converter.exe file in the directory where the older Helix
delta-T5 program is installed - usually c:\ProgramFiles\HeliDelta-T5Pro.

Then run the converter program, open your older T5 design file and convert it to the xml file. Then open the delta-T6 program, open a New
design file and use the Open delta-T5 xml File menu to import the converted xml file into your new design file in delta-T6.

Detailed Instructions

This is what the converter program looks like.

Delta-T5 to Delta-T6 Conversion utility Program

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Follow these steps to upgrade an older delta-T5 file to the new delta-T6 format:

1. Download the conversion program from the Helix website at http://www.helixtech.com.au/ftp/pup/HelixdeltaT5toT6Converter.zip Save
this file to a temporary directory on your computer. Extract the HelixdeltaT5toT6Converter.exe file from the zip file.

2. Install the delta-T5 to delta-T6 conversion utility program by copying the HelixdeltaT5toT6Converter.exe file to the location
where your normal Helix delta-T5 program is running from. This is usually c:\ProgramFiles\Helix\DeltaT5Pro or Delta-T5Dyn
depending on the version

3. Run the HelixdeltaT5toT6Converter.exe Converter program by double clicking it from Windows Explorer. It will open the main delta-
T5 form. To run the converter program you need a full installation of the Helix delta-T5 program as the converter program uses the
database engine installed with the main program. It does not matter which version of T5, it can be Lite, Standard, Professional or
Dynamic Analysis.

4. Open the old delta-T5 design file using the File Open menu. See sample above.

5. The old T5 design file will be displayed in the converter program

6. Use the File, Export to XML menu to save the design file as an XML text file. The file will be stored as "Delta-T5_File_......." with the

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original filename appended. This means that all the xml bridging files will start with ""Delta-T5_File_ and end with the .xml extension.
Note that this type of xml file does not have the final structure required by the delta-T6 program, it is a hybrid file and needs to be
imported into a new delta-T6 file.

7. Open the Helix delta-T6 program.

8. Use the File, New menu to create a new empty design file. See the Creating a New Conveyor Design File help topic.

9. Use the File, Open delta-T5 xml file menu as shown below. The program will open the T5 xml file and convert from the old delta-T5
structure to the new structure. You should then check all the input data and then re-calculate the conveyor before using the design
Reports.

10. You may have to re-input some of the equipment data selections or at least check that the data is available in the new equipment
database files if the equipment selection mode was set to Auto in the old file. Also, the new program has new databases for items such
as shaft couplings and holdbacks which were not in the old T5 program.

11. Remember to Save the imported file in the new delta-T6 program after importing the old one.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Warning and Error Messages


When you run a conveyor calculation the program may display some Warning messages. These messages are to
alert the user to calculation, input or equipment selection errors encountered during a calculation. Some
messages are critical and mean that the calculations could not be completed and the results should not be used.
Other messages are not critical and only affect the the selection of equipment such as motors, gearboxes etc.

Critical Warning Messages

The following messages are critical and the conveyor calculation results must not be used until the input data
is corrected and the message is no longer displayed:

Insufficient Drive Traction - this is a serious warning as it indicates belt slip. Correct it by adding more takeup
mass or increasing wrap angle on Drives. See Entering Drive Details help topic.

Calculation aborted due to missing drive link - this means there is a missing Link to Drive No. in the pulley
data table or there is no Drive in the Drives table for that drive or brake pulley. Correct this input before
proceeding.

The total load share % of all drives is not equal to 100%. Ensure that the input load share % for all drives =
100%. Calculation aborted. Load share on drives must be in direct proportion to the installed power on the drive
pulley and total must equal 100%.

The conveyor does not have a takeup pulley in the list. There must be one takeup in the system. Calculation
stopped.

Error - Link to Drive No. ... not found in the Pulley Data List. Ensure that each Drive pulley has a valid
LinkToDriveNo input in the pulley data table and that each drive has a unique Drive No. See Entering X,Y,Z
coordinates help topic

There are no suitable belts in the current belt category called ... - this means that a belt could not be selected
so the calculations cannot be performed. You must do a manual belt selection. This is a very important error, do
not ignore it.

The maximum number of iterations has been reached before the calculations were completed. Increase
the number of iterations or increase the takeup mass increment and re-calculate. This means the calculation
stopped before it was completed and so the results cannot be used.

Belt Allowable Strength Exceeded - this message means the running tensions exceed the rated tension for the
belt - check tensions and selected belt, you may decide that it is a borderline case and leave it as is but you have
been warned.

Belt Width Selected too narrow and stiff for correct Empty Belt Troughing. Belt will not trough correctly when
empty. Select a different or wider belt.

These messages cannot be switched off.

Equipment Selection Warning Messages

If the warning messages relate to equipment selection errors such as not finding a motor or gearbox or fluid
coupling or brake they are not critical, it just means that the reports for these equipment items will not be
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complete.

These messages include:

Idler Shaft Deflection exceeds allowable deflection.


Capacity entered is less than maximum capacity in conveyor sections - this relates to calculating the conveyor
cross-section capacity. The Design capacity in the Input Belt details must be larger or equal to maximum capacity
on any individual conveyor section.
Brake Temperature exceeds 300 degree C - this means the disc will run hot and this should be avoided by
using a larger diameter and thicker disc or slower speed. On very long conveyors it may unavoidable for
emergency stops.
Belt Width not correct on Idler report - you have entered an idler with a different belt width than the selected
belt width.
Belt Tension Rise exceeds Allowable Tension rise - this appears on the Starting Stopping report if the starting
or braking tension exceeds the allowable rise, usually 150% of operating tension.

The Idler Speed exceeds 600rpm warning message is only there to inform the user that the idler is running quite
fast. 600rpm used to be quite a high speed for idler rollers and suppliers used to recommend going up to a larger
roll diameter when speed exceeded 600rpm, however with modern trends towards high speed conveyors this
situation occurs more frequently. The important thing is that the idler bearing life remains acceptable and this can
be seen on the Idler Report. You can switch off this warning message, see below.

Warning Message Preferences

You can switch off the some of the non-critical warning messages. For example you may doing a quick feasibility
study where you want to make some quick conveyor sizing calculations and you may not be interested in all the
equipment selection details. In this case you do not want to waste time inputting data about motors, gearboxes,
couplings, holdbacks, brakes etc. so you can leave the selection input to Auto for these items and run the
calculations. If some equipment item cannot be found in the selected database you will get a warning message
every time you run a calculation. You can switch off these warning messages by using the switches on the
Preferences, Warning Message tabsheet.

These settings are stored in the program configuration settings when you exit the program and are propagated to
all the design files you open.

There are many other messages in the program, most are self explanatory, if in doubt correct the input to get rid

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of the warning message.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Dataform and Datagrid Input


You can enter the Input data in two ways.

z Datagrid Input from the main form

z Detailed Input forms from the Input menu

The first input method is to use the Datagrid Input tabs on the right hand side of the main form as shown below. This is intended for quick access to input data and allows you to quickly edit
data, but there are fewer descriptions and limited information to guide you.

The second input method is to use the individual input forms located under the main form, Input menu.

You can use both the Input forms and the Datagrid inputs but we recommend that you use the Input Menu forms to start with until you are familiar with the input data required. The Help file
topics refer to the individual Input forms.

Click the Input menu on the main form and explore all the Input forms.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design


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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Drawing Conveyor Profile


To input data for a conveyor you need to start by creating a New file and then by inputting pulleys, intersection points
etc. to make a model of your conveyor. To draw the conveyor follow these steps:

z Open a New file. The blank conveyor profile will be displayed with buttons on left hand side for adding new
pulleys, drives etc and an empty Pulley Data table below the sketch area.

z Normal convention is to work from the loading end (Tail) of the conveyor to the discharge (Head) end and then
back to the beginning. We normally start with the Tail end at the left hand side of the screen with the horizontal
distance X increasing towards the right hand side.

z The conveyor items are added using the Toolbar to left of sketch area - see below.

To input an item into the conveyor click on the button. The item will be drawn at top left of sketch and added at the end
of the pulley table.

z Add a Tail pulley by pressing the Add a new Pulley button on the toolbar. A new pulley will be drawn in the
sketch at the top left and also added to the Pulley coordinates table below the sketch

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z Drag the pulley downwards in the sketch by left clicking on it holding the mouse button.

z Now add a loading Hopper (Hopper) and drag it down to the right of the tail pulley.

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z Now add an Intersection Point (Int. Pt) and drag it down to the right of the hopper.

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Note the Intersection point has been added to the table as well as to the sketch. The sketch draws all items in the table.

Add two more intersection points then a Drive pulley, then a Pulley, then a Takeup pulley and another Pulley. Drag
them to the screen to look like this

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Note - every conveyor must have at least one Take-up pulley and one Drive pulley

You will notice that the belt is drawn to the top and bottom of each pulley and does not correct in the sketch. You can
correct this by editing the pulley Contact and Departure angle in the Pulley co-ordinate table. The Contact and
Departure angles use a normal mathematical co-ordinate system. For example if you have a conveyor with a 12 degree
incline to the head pulley.

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For example, edit the drive pulley Contact Angle to be 102 degrees and the departure angle to be 282 degrees and the
Wrap angle to be 180 and the direction of Rotation to be Clockwise. Then change the following pulleys as follows:

Contact Departure Wrap


Pulley No Rotation
Angle Angle Angle
6 - Drive 102 282 180 Clockwise
Anti-
7 - Pulley 102 180 78
Clockwise
8 - Takeup 0 180 180 Clockwise
Anti-
9 - Pulley 0 102 102
Clockwise

the Direction of rotation informs the software of the wrap direction of the between contact and departure angles. The
sketch will now look something like this

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Now continue by adding the return belt intersection points to complete the model of your conveyor as shown below.

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You can edit any of the items in the list by clicking in the PType column and then choosing the type of item from the
drop down list.

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You can also Insert and Delete items form the list.

To Delete an item or pulley, select the Delete tool on the toolbar and then click on the item in the sketch. Press Yes at
the Are you sure prompt and the item will be deleted.

To Insert a pulley, select the Selection tool and then Right Click on the preceding item in the list, then select the Insert
Item menu. The current item will be duplicated and new item drawn in the sketch and added to the list. You can then
drag the new item to its correct position in the sketch.

Choose the Inert menu after right clicking on an item. There are other
menu options too.

ScreenX ScreenZ coordinates

You will notice as you drag items on the screen, their ScreenX and ScreenZ coordinates change. These are the
locations of the items in screen pixels. You can edit the ScreenX ScreenZ values in order to line up items exactly in the
sketch. X is horizontal distance and Z is elevation.

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See the next help topic called Entering the Conveyor X,Y,Z coordinates

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Drawing Preferences


You can alter the appearance of the Profile sketch drawing on the main form by using the Preferences, Drawing
Settings tabsheet on the main form.

This allows you to alter the Line widths, arrow sizes and 'jaggedness' or smoothness of the lines drawn. You can
also display more details than just the Pulley Number on the profile sketch such as the Type, Description, X,Y,Z
coordinates, font size etc. Make some changes and go back to the Conveyor Sketch tab to see the changes.
These settings are stored in the program configuration settings when you exit the program and are propagated to
all the design files you open.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Entering Conveyor Length, Lift


First add the pulleys and other items to your conveyor by drawing the conveyor profile.

To enter the conveyor geometry we need to specify the X, Y Z coordinates of each item or pulley in the conveyor.

X coordinate is the horizontal position of the item in plan and elevation view

Y coordinate is the offset from horizontal line in the plan view

Z coordinate is the elevation of the item in elevation view. It is often best to use the actual elevation or RL of the item, this makes it easy to check against drawings.

Now you can edit the X, Y Z values in the Pulley coordinates table to match the actual conveyor you are modelling. It is convenient to start with the X coordinate of the Tail pulley as zero and
work from there but you can start at any value, including negative values. The Y coordinate can be left as zero except if you are modelling a conveyor with horizontal curves in which case
you need to enter the Y values so that the conveyor is three dimensional.

X,Y, Z coordinates

Enter some X and Z coordinates as follows:

No PType X Y Z Remarks
1 Pulley 0 0 0 coordinate is centre of pulley shaft - started at zero X at tail pulley centre
coordinate is bottom of belt line - beginning of loading section is 2m from
2 Hopper 2 0 0.3 Tail pulley say - it is 0.3m higher than centre of Tail pulley because we
assume the Tail pulley radius is 0.3m
3 Int. Pt 0 0.3 coordinate is bottom of belt line - end of loading section of hopper.
coordinate is bottom of belt line - end of level section of conveyor and
4 Int. Pt 0 0.3
Intersection Point of concave vertical curve

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Intersection Points

An intersection point can be any point in the conveyor where there is a change of grade (slope) or where the conveyor idler spacing changes or any intermediate point along the conveyor you
wish.

Break long sections up into say three sections for better accuracy

We recommend that you break long sections into multiple sections as the program uses the average belt sag over a conveyor section to calculate the friction factor f and if you have a very
long section the belt sag at the beginning may be high but it soon reduces and if you break the section into say three lengths you will get a more accurate friction factor calculation.

Complete the entry of all the X, Z coordinates as follows:

We have entered the X and Z values and also edited the PType column to show the Tail and Bend pulley descriptions at item numbers 1, 7 and 9. They were added merely as Pulley items
originally and this refines the description.

Link to Drive column

The yellow Link to Drive No column is blank except for the Drive row. Each Drive (and Brake) has extra input data which is entered in the Drives table and this column specifies which Drive
in the Drives table is linked to this Drive in the sketch. In this case there is only one drive in the conveyor and no low speed brake pulleys but you can have conveyors with any number of
drive or brake pulleys. When you add a Drive or Brake pulley into the sketch the program will add a new Drive to the Drives Table - see Drives & Brakes tab sheet on right hand side of main
form. You must ensure that the Link to Drive No cell links the Profile Sketch to the correct drive number on the Drives Table.

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Refer to the Entering Drive Details help topic for details on drives and brakes.

We now need to check our coordinate inputs and the best way to this is to view the Scale Drawing. Refer to the Scale Drawing Help topic to see how this works.

After completing the Pulley Coordinates inputs you can move on to inputting the conveyor Sections data for capacity, idler spacing and so on.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Input Sections Capacity etc.


To input the conveyor section data such as load on each section, idler spacing, skirt length and belt scrapers, click on the Sections
tabsheet on the main form to display the following:

A conveyor Section is the portion of conveyer between the pulley items and intersection points added when you draw the conveyor. The
section is where we specify the load on belt, idler spacing and other information. Section Lengths and Lifts are calculated from the
X,Y,Z coordinates you input in the Pulley Data tabsheet. Section 1 is from Pulley item 1 to Pulley item 2, section 2 from Pulley Item 2 to 3
and so on.

The first step is to select the Section Type in the SectType column. The choices is Carry or Return section. Carry sections have carry
idlers and return sections have return idlers - see Input Idlers help topic. In our new file example above sections 1 to 5 will be Carry and 6
to 11 Return.

The Description column is for user descriptions.

Length and Lift are calculated from X,Y,Z coordinates.

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Capacity - enter the material load on the Section in metric tonnes per hour. Both Carry and Return sections can have a load on them and
you can load progressively as well. For example if you have 3 loading hoppers the first section after the first hopper may have say
1000tph then after the second hopper 2000tph and for the rest of the conveyor up to the discharge all sections will be (say) 3000tph. You
can model the conveyor with any sections loaded or unloaded. This allows you to model a partially loaded conveyor such as when
feeding in material or running out the conveyor after stopping the feed. The program automatically calculates four scenarios:

z Fully Loaded conveyor is the conveyor with the load on the belt as input in the Section table.

z Empty conveyor - all sections unloaded

z Inclines and Level Sections loaded - all rising sections and level sections with the load as input in each section and with falling
sections unloaded.

z Declines only loaded - all falling sections loaded at the capacity input in the Sections table with all level and rising sections
unloaded.

For any special load cases which may occur you need to change the capacity by loading the sections and then running the calculation
and viewing the fully loaded conveyor reports.

Idler Spacing - enter the Idler spacing distance for the section, units are m. You need to break up a section if the idler spacing changes
by inserting an intersection point. This allows you to enter a different spacing for second portion.

You can right click and choose the Edit all Idler Spacings menu to display the following:

Enter the carry idler and return idler spacing and press Adjust All. All carry and return sections will be edited accordingly.

Skirt Length - enter the length of skirted conveyor in each section. This is not the length of the individual skirts but the length of conveyor
which is skirted. The additional tension to pull the material through the skirted section is calculated as detailed in the Skirt Friction
calculation.

No of Scrapers - enter the total number of belt scrapers, belt cleaners and V ploughs in the section. See Belt Scraper calculation help
topic.

Idler Rotating Mass - enter the rotating mass of each idler set if you wish to override the Idler input values for a section of conveyor. The
program will automatically use the Carry Idler (or Return Idler) rotating mass you input in the Idler Inputs form when you do the
calculations if the value in this cell is set to Zero. If it is a non zero value then it will use the input value for rotating mass calculations.
This feature allows you to input special rotating mass values for special sections of conveyor such as Impact Idler sections.

Friction Factor input - this column allows to input a conveyor friction to use for each section. If you enter a zero it will automatically
calculate a Friction Factor for you. You can override the Auto calculation by entering a factor here for individual or all sections. You may
want to do this for special cases such as conveyors operating in low temperature environments, see Temperature Correction help topic.
To edit all sections' friction, right click and choose the Adjust Friction Factors menu to display the following:

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Adjust all sections or only Carry or Return sections as required.

f Calculated - this column shows the friction factor calculated by the program if you enter a Zero in the input f column. If you enter a non
zero f value it will use that value and show it in this column as well.

Tension Adjustment - this column allows you to enter additional tensions (in kN) into the conveyor system at the section. It may be a
tension to pull material out from a feed hopper, or a discharge plough or additional tension to drive a tripper car etc. See Hopper Pull Out
Forces help topic for more details.

Once you have input all the details including the Section capacity the Profile Sketch will be redrawn and loaded conveyor sections shown
with a Red line to indicate it is a loaded section.

For the new conveyor model being built as a sample edit the Sections table to show data as shown above.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Pulley Dimensions


To input the pulley dimensions go to the Pulley Dimensions tabsheet on the main form:

Auto Pulley Selection

You can let the program select the required pulley sizes based on the belt manufacturers minimum pulley diameters - see Belt Database. In this case the Manual Input column is left
unchecked as it is above. When the program calculation is performed, the belt will be selected, the belt tensions calculated and then a suitable pulley diameter selected from the Pulley
Database. The pulley diameter will be the minimum diameter for the belt at the % rated tension or next pulley size up from the minimum, depending on what is in the pulley database (must
have the Allow Selection switch ON in the pulley database). Pulley dimensions such as shell diameter and thickness, face width and thickness, bearing centres etc. are selected from the
pulley database and based on belt width and bearing width to get shaft length. The Moment of Inertia J for the pulley is automatically calculated form the dimensions selected. The pulley
rpm and gearbox ratio are also calculated as well as the conveyor system masses and these are used to calculate the starting and stopping tensions and times of the conveyor. The pulley
shaft diameter at the hub locking element and at the bearing are calculated using the method shown in the Pulley Shaft Calculations help topic. Pulley and shaft masses are calculated from
these dimensions.

Force Selection to a minimum diameter

If you enter a Minimum Pulley Diameter in the column provided, the program will select this pulley size (or the next size up) from the pulley database, provided that this diameter is larger
than or equal to the minimum diameter required by the belt. So effectively this column allows you to automatically get the pulley dimensions sized up to a minimum diameter, but still sizes the
pulley shaft, face width etc including the moment of inertia using the Automatic methods as above.

Manual Input Pulley Dimensions

If you switch the Manual Input column to ON for a pulley then you must type in the dimensions to use for the pulley and shaft including:

Shell Diameter
Face Width
Shell Thickness
Lagging Thickness
End Disc Thickness
Bearing Centres
Shaft Length

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Shaft Dia at Hub


Shaft Dia at Bearing
Inertia J

The inputs listed above will be used for the calculations and you must ensure that you enter correct values for all of the above dimensions. See image below.

All other columns will be calculated values include the new Shaft Calculated Deflection Diameter Ddef, Shaft Calculated Dia at Brg Dt, Pulley and Shaft Masses and pulley speed in rpm.

Note that if you use the Manual Input method the pulley Inertia J is not calculated for you. This allows you to make your own calculations of inertia and also to add allowances for special
pulleys or for inertia of discs for brakes or other equipment. The program will calculate the pulley equivalent mass based on the inertia J that you input here. You can use the Calculate a
Pulley Inertia quick calculation under the Calculations menu to do the inertia calculations.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Scale Drawing


To view a scale drawing of the conveyor click on the Tab sheet labelled Scale Drawing near the top of the main form.
The following should be displayed

The top drawing box is the Plan view of the conveyor and shows the X, Y plane. The second drawing box is the side
elevation (longsection) and shows the X, Z plane. You can see from the above image that the X, Z coordinates we have
input in our sample conveyor look about right.

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Scale Drawing Toolbar

You can use the Zoom button on the left of each box to zoom in or out. Press the Magnifying glass (zoom) button, then
scroll the mousewheel to zoom in or out and use the scroll bars on the drawing to navigate to the section of the drawing
you want.

Press the Box button to restore the normal view of the scale drawing. The default button is the selection arrow button.

You will see there are no vertical curves drawn. See the Vertical Curves Input help topic to enter and draw the vertical
curves.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Vertical Curves Input


To specify a Vertical Curve radius click on the Vertical Curves tab sheet on the main form (below Profile sketch). The
following will be displayed

Move to the Vertical Curve Radius column and at the curve intersection points enter the vertical curve radius in metres.
So for this example we enter 500m and 200m at Int. Pt 4 and 5 respectively. Press Enter. The elevation view is redrawn
with two red curves showing the location of the and curvature of the vertical curves as below.

You can alter the radius and press enter to redraw the curve. The software will calculate the minimum radius required for
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Concave and Convex vertical curves and you should complete the rest of the conveyor inputs, do the conveyor
calculations and then view the Vertical Curves Report. Then return to this input and enter the required minimum radius.

If your conveyor has a Horizontal curve then the curve is drawn in the same way in the top box using the X, Y
coordinates as per the sample below which is taken from the Demo 04 Horizontal Curve Conveyor Example demo file.

You will see there are multiple Int. Pt's along the horizontal curve. Because this is a long curve, it is more accurate to
enter the X,Y,Z coordinates along the curved path of the conveyor, even though the points are part of the same constant
radius curve, in this sample case it is 2500m radius. Refer to the Horizontal Curves Calculation help topic for more details
on horizontal curves.
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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Input Project Details


Click the Input menu on the main form and select the Input Project Details option.

If you click the Input Project Details menu the following form will be displayed

Enter the Company or organistaion name - this appears at the top of the design reports and printouts.

Click the Load Logo button to load an image file to be included on the design reports. You can clear the image by using
the Clear button.

You can set a switch to display or not display the logo (and the conveyor profile drawing) in the Reports Table on the
main form in the Reports tabsheet. Refer to the Report Settings help topic.

Enter Project details design date etc.

Minimum Site Temperature is important for calculations purposes as temperatures below 0 degrees C will require
adjustment of the conveyor friction factor. See the Temperature Adjustment factor Kt help topic

Conveyor Number also appears on reports and the designers comments are intended for you to record any notes,
revisions, changes etc. made in the design calculations

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Input Material Details


To enter the conveyed material details select the Input menu then select the Input Conveyed Material menu to display
the form shown below:

You can enter the material details directly or you can use the Open Material Database button to select a material from
the database for use in your conveyor. Refer to the Materials Database help topic for more details about using the
database.

Required Data

The form contains the details used by the program for selecting equipment and for calculations and is required input data
for each material. These include Low Bulk Density (used for belt cross-section capacity calculations) and High Bulk
Density, Maximum Lump Size and Surcharge Angle.

Enter the material Low Bulk Density. This density is used for the belt capacity calculation and belt width selection.

Enter a material High Bulk Density. This value is used for the belt load support calculations and belt cover selections.

Enter the material Maximum Lump size. If the material is uniform, i.e. it contains less than 10% fines, then click on the
Uniform check box. If the material is mixed with fines and smaller lumps, leave the Uniform check box blank.

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Enter the Surcharge Angle of the material. This is the angle (from the horizontal) which the material will form during
transportation. It must be less than the Angle of Repose.

Click on the Flowability Check Box which applies to this material.

Click on the Abrasion Factor Check Box which applies to this material.

Enter any Miscellaneous Characteristics of the material in the large text box provided. Use a new line for each
characteristic. This is an optional field.

Optional Details marked with *

There is some additional data which you can input if it is available. If not you can leave the fields blank or input estimated
data. This data will appear on the design reports and is for information purposes.

Enter the Maximum Recommended Belt Speed. This value is for information purposes only. If the design belt speed is
higher, this value is ignored during the selection process.

Enter the Angle of Repose. This is the angle at which the material stockpile sides will form.

Enter the Maximum Recommended Incline Angle for the material. The program will not over-ride the design process if
the incline angle is larger than this value. It is for information purposes only.

Save Material to Database

You can save the material details to the database for future use - use the Save to Material Database button provided.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Input Belt Details


To enter the belt and belt speed details select the Input menu then select the Input Belt Details menu to display the form shown below:

You need to enter all the data on this form except for the calculated values.

Design Capacity in metric tonnes per hour (tph). This value is used for the cross sectional area capacity calculations for the belt. It must be equal to or larger
than the maximum capacity you input on any of the individual Sections of the conveyor in the main form Sections table.

Belt Speed - conveyor belt speed. You can use the Recommended Speeds help topic to look up a table of recommended belt speeds. Note that as conveyor
technology improves, the recommended belt speeds are increasing. Consult your idler and belt manufacturer for their recommendations if you are unsure or if
you want to increase speeds beyond those given in the table.

Note regarding Belt Speed: Power absorbed is affected by the belt speed entered. An increase in belt speed increases the power required to drive the empty
belt, however, the power required to lift the load remains the same. Belt power in kW = Te x V.

Belt Width - Select a belt width from the drop down box. You can edit or add your own belt widths to the program by using the Belt Database form under the
Data, Belt Database main menu. See the Belt Database help topic for more information.

Idler Trough Angle - Select a trough angle from the drop down box. You can edit or add your own idler trough angles to the program by using the Belt
Database form under the Data, Belt Database main menu. See the Belt Database help topic for more information.

Press the Re-calculate button to calculate the conveyor capacity and redraw the cross section. Note the Idler roller dimensions drawn are input in the Carry
Idler Inputs data form. A sample cross section is shown.

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You will see from the above that at the default capacity of 777tph the idler rollers and belt width selected appear too large. You can adjust the inputs using the
Idler input forms. For the purposes of this help file topic we will leave the capacity at 777tph and details as above even though they are probably not what you
will require for your conveyor.

Belt Top Cover Thickness - enter the top cover thickness. See Recommended Belt Covers help topic if you are unsure.

Belt Bottom Cover Thickness - enter the bottom cover thickness, normally about one third of the top cover thickness. See Recommended Belt Covers help
topic if you are unsure.

Enter the maximum allowable Belt Sag % between idlers. If a loaded troughed belt sags too much spillage can occur. The default value is 2%. The formula used
to calculate sag is:

where: y is the sag in m


S is the idler spacing in m
Wb is the mass of belt in kg/m
Wm is the mass of load in kg/m
T is the belt tension in N
g is gravitational acceleration in m/s2

The % sag is normally limited to a maximum of 5% during stopping and starting and 3% maximum during running, although many designers use 2% sag during
running. Increasing allowable sag may decrease the take-up mass required (if the sag is the limiting factor), but it may also increase the effective tension as the
friction may be increased. Refer to Conveyor Sections input help topic for more details.

The program will print the belt sag under the various operating conditions such as running loaded or during braking on the Reports, Tension Calculation
Reports, Tension Summary Belt Sag menu on the main form.

Belt Mass input. You may enter a belt mass for the program to use. If you enter a zero value, the program will calculate the belt mass for you from the belt
carcass mass plus the cover masses. This is the belt mass for the actual belt width selected, not the mass per unit width as entered in the Belt Database.

Maximum Allowable Tension Rise - This is the allowable belt tension rise during starting, usually limited to a maximum of 150% of operating tension by the
belt manufacturers. Refer to the Starting Stopping Times report form for more details on the actual tension rise calculated.

Enter the Allowable Belt Edge Tension Rise. This is the allowable tension rise in a troughed belt due to convex curve effects - the raised edge of the belt has
to stretch to fit around the curved section. Refer to Vertical Curve Calculations.

Enter the Percentage Belt Mass to use for Belt Lift-off radius calculations. As the belt wears, the mass reduces and so the down force in the concave vertical
curve is reduced. This input allows you to calculate the minimum curve radius required to prevent belt lift-off using a reduced or worn belt mass. Refer to
Vertical Curve Calculations.

Concave Curve Safety factor - this safety factor increases the calculated required minimum curve radius in direct proportion. For example, a factor of two will
double the minimum required radius. For most applications a factor of 1 to 1.2 may be used, but if in doubt use 1.2.

Auto or Manual Belt Selection

You can allow the program to select a belt for you or you can set it to Manual and either input the belt properties or select a belt from the Belt Database to use
for the calculations. Click the Manually Selected Belt Details tabsheet.

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Enter the belt details in each input box. Refer to the Belt Database help topic for details about the inputs.

Auto Selection

Choose the Auto selection option in the Belt Selection Mode option box. Choose a Belt Category from the category drop down box. If no categories are listed
use the Open Belt Database button to open the database form and then open a Belt Database file. Click the Copy Belt button in the database form (at the top)
and Exit the Database file and the program should now list the categories in the database file in this Category selection box. You can also right click on the belt
you want to use in the database table and then choose the Copy to current Design menu.

If Auto Selection mode is chosen the program will open the belt category chosen and then cycle through it from the weakest belt, performing the conveyor
calculations until a belt of sufficient strength is found. The belts are sorted by belt Allowable Operating strength and then by number of plies. If the Takeup
Selection mode is set to Auto then it will increment the takeup mass until sufficient minimum belt sag and sufficient belt traction for the running conditions is
obtained.

If there is not a strong enough belt to do the duty then it will give a warning that no Belt selection was possible. In this case do not use the calculated results,
either change the inputs or make a manual belt selection ensuring that the belt selected is strong enough.

You must check the Drive Traction and Belt Sag after running the calculations to ensure there will not be excessive belt sag or insufficient Drive Traction.

You can now proceed to the other inputs such as Carry Idler Inputs.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Input Takeup Details


To input the Takeup details select the Input, Input Takeup Details menu from the main form. The following form will be displayed:

Select the Type of Takeup from the drop down box:

Fixed Centres - The belt is pre-tensioned by jacking a pulley into a fixed position prior to running the conveyor. The Average belt tension remains constant at the preset
setting so when the conveyor runs and the drive tension increases on the tight side, there is a corresponding drop in tensions on the return side belt. This drop in T2
tension means that an additional tension is required in the system to ensure that there is sufficient drive traction. Helix recommends that for a fixed tensioning system an
increased drive factor Cw is used. If the recommended drive factor is say 0.5 then add 0.3 and use a drive factor Cw of 0.8. See Entering Drive Details help topic for
details of drive traction calculations. This adjustment is not made automatically and must be made by the designer.

Vertical Gravity - a weight suspended vertically below a pulley free to move up or down as the belt stretches and contracts. Belt tension at the Takeup pulley = ½mg
where m is Takeup mass including pulley mass and g is gravitational acceleration.

Horizontal Gravity - a Takeup pulley mounted on a trolley mounted on rails and connected to a weight via a rope system. Belt tension at the Takeup pulley = ½mg -
sheave losses where m is Takeup mass including pulley mass and g is gravitational acceleration and sheave losses are tension used to rotate rope sheaves. Refer to
typical Crane code standards such as Australian Standard AS1418 for estimate of sheave losses or use 2% per sheave.

Winch - a Takeup pulley mounted on a trolley mounted on rails and connected to a constant tension winch via a rope system. Belt tension at the Takeup is controlled at a
constant value. Care has to be taken to ensure that the winch system can react fast enough to the belt stretch and contraction. On large conveyors it is essential to do a
dynamic analysis in order to determine how fast the Takeup needs to respond. The Helix delta-T dynamic analysis program version can perform these calculations. These
winch systems are often used in confined spaces such as underground mines where insufficient height is available for a gravity Takeup. They are also commonly
incorporate a "Loop Storage" belt storage system with a system of pulleys mounted on a movable trolley and this system is designed to store long sections of belt for easy
deployment when the conveyor length is continually advanced such as during tunnelling operations.

The Vertical Gravity, Horizontal Gravity and Winch type takeups are all calculated in the same way i.e as constant tension takeups. The takeup tension is calculated as

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being = ½mg so if a rope reaving arrangement adds mechanical advantage adjust the takeup mass you input to give the correct belt tension at the takeup.

Auto Calculate Takeup mass - the program will start with a small mass and keep incrementing it until there is sufficient takeup tension for the Drive Traction and also to
limit the belt sag to the value you input in the Input Belt details form. Switch this ON and then enter the takeup mass increment size and the maximum number of
iterations. For a small conveyor you can use an increment size of say 50 or 100kg. For a large conveyor an appropriate increment may be 500 or 1000kg.

If the program reaches the maximum number of iterations before there is sufficient takeup mass, increase the increment mass step size or the number of iterations.

Important note: - the program sizes the takeup mass to suit the conveyor Running condition for Running Full and Running Empty for belt sag and drive traction. This
will be the minimum takeup mass which can be used on the conveyor, however it may not be enough for the chosen starting and stopping methods of the conveyor. You
must check if there is sufficient Drive Traction and Belt Sag tension for the starting and stopping conditions. Refer to Takeup and Drive Traction Report and the Tension
Summary Belt Sag Report to check this. Adjust the Starting method to reduce the starting torque and adjust braking and add flywheels if necessary to control belt sag
during stopping or override the Auto takeup mass and increase it for the starting and stopping conditions. This increase in takeup tension will increase belt tensions and
may increase the belt class and size of equipment required. The Dynamic analysis help section explains the control of belt tension during stopping in more detail.

Manual Takeup mass input - Switch off the Auto switch and then enter a Takeup mass to use for the calculations. The takeup tension will be controlled to = ½mg for
takeups except the Fixed Centres type. For the Fixed Centres takeup type this mass will set the tension for the stationary conveyor and the tension at the takeup pulley
will be adjusted to keep the total average tension in the conveyor a constant value for all running, starting and stopping conditions.

Takeup Mass Calculated - this is the value calculated if you use the Auto calculation.

Refer to the Tension Summary Report for details of the rigid body (static analysis) calculated takeup movement to enter in the Dynamic Travel up and Down boxes above.
The values for takeup travel shown on this report are calculated by treating the belt as a rigid body which is an approximation. On long conveyors or conveyors with a high
installed power (say 500kW or more) it is recommended that a Dynamic Analysis be performed using the Dynamic version of Helix delta-T and that the dynamic analysis
results be used for the dynamic travel up or down.

Takeup Travel Estimation inputs

This section allows you to estimate the required takeup travel for the conveyor. The sketch on the right hand side shows the inputs required. For horizontal gravity takeups
the movement would be horizontal not vertical but the same inputs are required.

Enter the values required for Top and Bottom safety margin, splice length allowance and the travel up or down for belt stretch - refer to the Tension Summary Report for
the values of travel between stationary and starting full (say) or running and Braking full. Use the worst case travel in these inputs. For long or high powered conveyors
(>500kW) we recommend a Dynamic Analysis to get the actual values of the the belt stretch and takeup movement.

The Termal Expansion of the belt affects the travel and this can be calculated using the inputs and the Calc Expansion button. The default expansion co-efficient for
Steel belts is 1.17E-05 m/m belt length per degree C change in temperature. For fabric and other belts you will need to get the figures from your supplier, but usually
fabric belts are relatively short so the thermal expansion is not much.

Permanent Belt Stretch - this is the amount by which the belt is expected to stretch from its new condition under use. It is also called the permanent set and should be
obtained from the belt manufacturer. A value of 0.15% may be used for steel belts in the absence of data from the supplier.

Use the Calc Total Travel button to sum up the individual values to give a total estimated travel. You can view and print a report using the Reports, Takeup Travel
Report main form menu.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Input Carry and Return Idlers


To enter the belt and belt speed details select the Input menu then select the Input Carry Idlers menu (or return idlers) to
display the form shown below:

The program allows you to input the idler details directly into this form or you can open the Idler Database and select an idler to
use for the calculations. Use the Open Idler Database button to open the database form and then open a Idler Database file.
Scroll down the list of idlers until you find the one required and click in the row. Click the Copy Idler button in the database form
(at the top) and Exit the Database file and the program should now show the selected idlers properties in the input boxes. You

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can also right click on the idler you want to use in the database table and then choose the Copy this Idler to Carry Idler in
current Design menu.

Enter the required data in the input boxes. Refer to the Idler Database help topic for an explanation of all the input data for an
idler.

Select the Bearing type - Ball or Roller. This alters the Bearing Life calculation.

Belt Deviation Load calculator

This section of the form allows you to estimate the load on the idler rolls due to the belt tension.

The default value for belt deviation load is 500N. In a convex vertical curve, the belt tension imposes an additional load on the
carry side idlers, this load being a function of the belt tension at the curve, the curve angle and the idler spacing. The program
adds this load to the other idler loads imposed by the belt mass, roll rotating mass and dynamic factors. It then calculates the
resulting deflections and expected bearing life for that idler.

If the conveyor does not have a convex curve, this value can be set to zero, although it is recommended that that you allow for
an additional load which could be applied due to misalignment of adjacent idlers. This load is also known as the Belt Deviation
Load and it can be calculated from the following formula:

where Pdev = Belt Deviation Load in N


Trun = Belt Tension in kN
D = Misalignment of idler in mm
g = gravitational acceleration in m/s2
L = idler spacing in m

Normal installations have a deviation of 3 mm on the carry side and 6 mm on the return side.

The Belt Deviation load can be calculated using the Calc button on the form. The program uses the actual Deviation Load you
input in the input box for the Idler bearing life and shaft deflection calculations so you can just enter a value if you wish. The idler
offset Distance is shown for information only and is not actually used when you perform the conveyor calculations, but it does
appear on the design reports.

Enter the Dynamic Load Factor, Ca. The default value is 0.009. This is a factor that is added to the load on the idler roll due to
movement of the load on the roll. See Recommended Idler Dynamic Load Factor.

Repeat the input process for the Return Side idlers. Note that the Dynamic Factor to input for Return Idlers is set to a default
value of 1.4, as the type of material has no influence on the return idlers.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Entering Drive Details


Each conveyor must have at least one Drive pulley and a conveyor may have as many Drive pulleys as you wish. Each Drive's details are added in
the Drives & Brakes tab sheet on the main form or in the Input Drive Details form from the main Input menu. Each Drive has a number and this
number must be specified in the Link to Drive No column in the Pulley Coordinates table under the main sketch - see the help topic called Entering
the Conveyor X,Y,Z coordinates

To enter the Drive details select the Input menu then select the Input Drive Details form shown below

You can also input the Drive details in the Input tabsheets on the right hand side of the main form - see the Data Forms and Data Grid Input help
topic.

The Drives Table tab sheet shows the list of drives in the conveyor. You can add new Drives or delete drives by using the Drives data control at the
top of the form - press the + button to add a drive and X button to Delete a drive, or select the row in the table and press the Delete button.

You must ensure that the Drive No is unique as it must correspond the the Link to Drive No value in the Profile Sketch. You can edit the values for
the drive in the table or you can get a detailed view of the drive inputs by clicking the Drive Traction & Wrap tab sheet.

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This form is where we capture the drive pulley friction and wrap angles etc. Fill in the details in each text box starting from top left:

z Drive No - unique integer value links to Profile Sketch

z Drive Type - Select from drop down box

z Enter the belt wrap angle in degrees on the drive pulley - you can use the Calculate Wrap Angle button to calculate a wrap using the form
shown in the Calculate Wrap Angle help topic.

z If you tick the Auto check boxes the program will look up a default friction factor and calculate the drive factor Cw for you automatically
depending on the lagging type and pulley condition selected in the drop down boxes. The lookup table for the friction is as follows:

Values of co-efficient of friction, µ under Running conditions

Pulley co-efficient of friction µ


Type of Lagging
Pulley
Bare Steel Rubber Ceramic
Condition
Wet 0.10 0.20 0.25
Moist 0.15 0.25 0.35
Dry 0.30 0.35 0.45

For starting conditions, a higher co-efficient of friction may be used. This value is usually 0.10 more than the running co-efficient of friction. From
Euler, the tension ratio

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Also and effective Tension Te = T1 -T2

The drive factor is calculated automatically from the Wrap angle and co-efficient of friction µ.

Definition of Drive Factor Cw

where Cw is the drive factor


e is the base of the Naperian log
µ is the coefficient of friction between pulley and belt
theta is the angle of wrap in radians

For Fixed Pulley Centre belt tensioners - for conveyors without an automatic gravity type takeup tensioner it is important to increase the Drive
factor Cw to compensate for the drop in belt tension which will occur at the slack side of the drive during running and starting. The belt is pre-
tensioned by jacking a pulley into a fixed position prior to running the conveyor. The Average belt tension remains constant at the preset setting so
when the conveyor runs and the drive tension increases on the tight side, there is a corresponding drop in tensions on the return side belt. This drop
in T2 tension means that an additional tension is required in the system to ensure that there is sufficient drive traction. Helix recommends that for a
fixed tensioning system an increased drive factor Cw is used. If the recommended drive factor is say 0.5 then add 0.3 and use a drive factor Cw of
0.8. See Input Takeup Details help topic for details of takeup inputs. This adjustment is not made automatically and must be made by the designer.

From the above, it is apparent that as the effective tension Te on a drive increases, the T2 slack side tension must be increased to prevent slippage.
This means that the counterweight mass needs to be increased. Alternatively, increasing the Wrap angle will increase the contact area between belt
and pulley and therefore increase the effective tension, which can be input.

It is common to use two drive pulleys to increase wrap angle in order to be able to reduce the takeup tension required and consequently the belt
strength class. For example take the following conveyor with a single drive and dual drive pulley

Dual Drive Conveyor 2 Dual Drive Conveyor 3


Tensions / values Single Drive Conveyor Remarks
motors motors
Belt Speed m/s V 3m/s 3m/s 3m/s
All
Installed Power kW 1 x 450kW motor 2 x 225kW 3 x 150kW
450kW
2 motors on primary and 1 on
1 motor on 1 pulley 1 motor on each drive pulley
secondary
Pulley Condition Moist Moist Moist
Pulley Lagging Rubber Rubber Rubber
Coefficient of friction µ 0.25 0.25 0.25
Wrap angle º drive 1 180º 180º 180º
Wrap angle º drive 2 - 180º 180º
kW = Te
Effective tension Te drive 1 150kN 75kN 100kN
xV
Effective tension Te drive 2 - 75kN 50kN
Cw =
Cw drive 1 (drive factor calculated) 0.838 0.838 0.838
T2/Te
Cw drive 2 (drive factor calculated) - 0.838 0.838

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Intermediate tension T3 - 137.85kN 91.9kN T2 + Te


T2 = Cw
Minimum Required T2 (Cw x Te) 125.7kN 62.85kN 41.9kN
x Te
M = T2
Required Takeup mass 25.6t 12.8t 8.5t *1000 *
2 / 9.81
T1 = T2
T1 (tight side tension) 275.7kN 212.85kN 191.9kN
+ Te
Belt rating High Lower Lowest

It can be seen from the table above that for the same conveyor duty adding a drive pulley reduces the total T1 tension and using 3 motors (2 on
primary and 1 on secondary drive) reduces the tension even more.

On the right hand side of the drive input form we need to input the following (see image above)

z Load Share % on drive pulley - this is the % of total installed power on the drive pulley. For example for a dual drive with equal motors the
load share % is 50% on each drive. For a drive system with 2 pulleys and three motors, 2 on the primary and 1 on the secondary the load
share % is 67% and 33% respectively. The total must be exactly 100%

z Enter the estimated Drive Efficiency %. This is the combined efficiency of all equipment from the motor output shaft to the pulley shaft and
includes gear reducer, high speed (fluid coupling) and low speed coupling. It excludes the efficiency of the motor as electric motors are
normally rated at the output shaft. Refer to the Drive Efficiency lookup table for recommended values.

z Starting Torque Factor % for a fully loaded and empty start- this value determines the motor torque during starting. The % factor is applied
to the full load motor torque. It is used to calculate the torque available from the drive to accelerate the conveyor. For a squirrel cage electric
motor starting direct on line, a value of between 200% and 230% is normally used. If a fluid coupling or some other form of soft-start device is
used, this value may fall as low as 130%. The lower the value, the longer the starting time and the lower the starting tensions. For a VVVF
variable speed drive controlled start you should adjust the Starting Torque factor until the desired Starting Time is calculated. Then adjust the
Starting Torque factor for empty conveyor to yield the same starting time as the loaded conveyor. The Starting torque factor can be any
number, for example 25%. It can also be a negative number which is a requirement for starting regenerative conveyors. Refer Dynamic
analysis help topics for more details on starting conveyors and torque speed principles.

z Drive Inertia inputs - enter the inertia values in kg-m2 of all items in the drive train including Motor inertia. The inertia values are referred to
the high speed shaft of the reducer. Drive Inertia = Motor + HS Coupling + Fluid Coupling + Gearbox + Brake disc + Flywheel. The Drive
pulley inertia is calculated and added by the software along with all the other pulleys. The Low Speed coupling inertia can be added to the
Drive Pulley inertia in the Pulley Dimensions input table on the main form.

The Total Drive Inertia is a very important input value as it affects the system equivalent mass and the starting and stopping belt tensions and
acceleration times of the conveyor. The Drive Equivalent mass is calculated using the square of the gearbox ratio, and so changing the gearbox
ratio or pulley diameter can affect the starting and stopping tensions of the conveyor. For example, a flywheel fitted on a 4 pole motor drive will have
an equivalent mass of about 2.25 times [(1500/1000)^2 = 2.25 ] the same flywheel on a 6 pole motor drive and as F = ma, if you increase mass m,
then acceleration rate a is reduced for the same starting torque force F. High drive inertia reduces starting belt tensions, and should not be over -
estimated.

When a fluid coupling is fitted, you should enter only the proportion of the fluid coupling and motor inertia which has to be accelerated
simultaneously with the conveyor belt, not the proportion which is accelerated before the main conveyor has to start moving.

The low speed coupling inertia (coupling between gearbox output shaft and pulley shaft) should be added as part of the Pulley inertia, or
alternatively if the device is fitted to the low speed side of the drive, the inertia is adjusted by the square of the reducer ratio to obtain an equivalent
High-Speed Side inertia and then included in the Total Drive inertia value.

Moment of inertia, J = mR² (SI units)


where J is in kgm2
m is the mass in kg
R is the radius of gyration in m

You can look-up typical Moments of Inertia for AC motors in the Inertia Look-up table.

Note: Some motor manufacturers publish moment of inertia figures in MKS units as GD² values - you must convert these to J values.

J = GD²/4

Press the Calculate Total Inertia button to sum the input values. The total will be inserted in the Total Drive Inertia box.

Now you can proceed to input the other drive details such as

Input Motors

Input Gearboxes

Input Fluid Couplings


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Input High Speed Coupling

Input Low Speed Coupling

Input Brakes

Input Holdbacks

Input Starters.

Each of the above has a separate help topic.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program


www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Calculate Wrap Angle


To calculate a belt wrap angle on a drive or snub pulley select the Input, Input Drive Details menu and then the Drive & Wrap tab
sheet, see Entering Drive Details help topic. Then press the Calculate Wrap button - the following will be displayed

Enter the dimensions and angles required then press Calculate Wrap button to get the wrap angles on drive and snub pulley. If you
press the Transfer Wrap Angle to current Drive button the calculated value is transferred to the current Drive pulley inputs.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Input Motors


Click the Input menu on the main form and select the Input Drive Details option.

Drives Datacontrol

Notice the Drives Datacontrol arrows at the top of the Input Drives form - you need to repeat the input data for
each drive pulley in the conveyor and you can navigate to the drive number by using the datacontrol buttons.
Once you have input all the data for a drive such as Motors, Gearbox, Couplings, Brakes etc you can use the
Copy Drive button to copy the complete Drive's data to a new drive. You must then ensure the Drive Number is
linked to the main conveyor in the profile sketch via the Link To Drive No column. Click the Motors tabsheet.

If you click the Input Motors menu the following form will be displayed

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Manual or Automatic Equipment selection

You can allow the program to select a suitable motor based on the absorbed power at the drive or you can
manually input the motor data.

Auto Selection

Choose the Auto selection option in the Motor Selection Mode option box. Choose a Motor Category from the
category drop down box. If no categories are listed use the Open Motor Database button to open the database
form and then open a Motor Database file. Click the Copy to Drive button in the database form and Exit the
Database file and the program should now list the categories in the database file in this Category selection box.

Motor Selection Safety factor is a factor applied to select the motor power rating. The program calculates the
effective tension Te of the conveyor then multiplies Te by belt speed to get the power. It then multiplies total
power by the Load share % on the drive, divides by the number of motors on the drive to get a power value per
motor, applies the Drive Efficiency % and then applies the Motor Selection Safety factor to get a minimum motor
rating. It then finds the next motor size in the database and selects that motor. For example

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Te = 170kN, Belt speed = 3m/s, No of Drives = 1, No of motors on drive = 2, Drive Efficiency = 95%, Motor
Selection safety Factor = 1.1

Belt power = 170kN * 3m/s = 510kW / 2 motors = 255kW each. 255kW / 0.95 drive efficiency x 1.1 safety factor
= 295.3kW. The next motor size in the database is 315kW so this is the size selected. For small motors such as
1.1kW to 15kW it is common to use a safety factor of 1.2 and this reduces as motor sizes increase. For
regenerative conveyors the kW are multiplied by the drive efficiency.

Motor Selection Safety Factor guide


Motor Size Range Suggested Selection Safety Factor
1.1kW to 18.5kW 1.2 or 1.25
22kW - 55kW 1.15 or 1.2
75kW - 450kW 1.1 or 1.15
above 450kW 1.05

Once the Category is specified and the Auto option selected, you can input the Voltage and Number of Poles
required and the Motor Selection Safety factor and then you can move on to other drive input forms. When you
do the calculations, the program will select a motor for you.

Manual Selection Motor Inputs

Choose the Manual option in the dropdown box. You can input the Motor details directly or you can select a motor
from the Motor Database. To Select a motor from the Database, click the Open Motor Database button. The
Motor Database form will be displayed. Select a motor category and scroll down to the required motor, right click it
and select the Copy this Motor to current Drive in design file menu. The motor you selected in the database
will be copied to the Motor Inputs form. You can then accept these inputs and continue or you can edit them and
even save the edited data back to the Motor Database using the Save to Motor Database button.

Required Motor Input Details

Enter the Motor Voltage, Number of Poles, Power Rating, Full Load Speed in rpm, Moment of Inertia in kgm2 and
Motor Shaft Diameter in mm. You need to get all this data from your supplier, or at least estimate them. See the
Motor Inertia Lookup table for a guide on inertia values if you don't have actual values.

The Motor Efficiency values and Power Factors are used in the Motor Report (program calculates the efficiency
and power factor at the absorbed power), but if you do not have these you can use the default values.

Optional Motor Input Details

You can then input the optional motor details which are not used for calculations but are displayed and printed on
the output reports. It is best to enter these details if you have them available.

Now you can move on to entering the Input Gearbox details

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Input Gearboxes


Click the Input menu on the main form and select the Input Gearbox Details option.

Drives Datacontrol

Notice the Drives Datacontrol arrows at the top of the Input Drives form - you need to repeat the input data for
each drive pulley in the conveyor and you can navigate to the drive number by using the datacontrol buttons.
Once you have input all the data for a drive such as Motors, Gearbox, Couplings, Brakes etc you can use the
Copy Drive button to copy the complete Drive's data to a new drive. You must then ensure the Drive Number is
linked to the main conveyor in the profile sketch via the Link To Drive No column. Click the Motors tabsheet.

If you click the Input Gearbox menu the following form will be displayed

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Manual or Automatic Equipment selection

You can allow the program to select a suitable gearbox based on the torque at the pulley shaft calculated from the
motor power multiplied by the gearbox service factor or you can manually input the gearbox data.

Auto Selection

Choose the Auto selection option in the Gearbox Selection Mode option box. Choose a Gearbox Category from
the category drop down box. If no categories are listed use the Open Gearbox Database button to open the
database form and then open a Gearbox Database file. Click the Copy to Drive button in the database form and
Exit the Database file and the program should now list the categories in the database file in this Category
selection box. You can also right click on the gearbox you want to use in the database table and then choose the
Copy to current drive menu.

Gearbox Selection Service Factor is a factor applied to select the gearbox torque rating. The program

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calculates the effective tension of the conveyor then selects the motors after applying drive efficiency. It then
calculates the equivalent torque produced by the motor at the pulley shaft, multiplies this torque by the Gearbox
Service Factor and then finds the next gearbox size in the database and selects that gearbox.

For example

Te = 170kN, Belt speed = 3m/s, No of Drives = 1, No of motors on drive = 2, Drive Efficiency = 95%, Motor
Selection safety Factor = 1.1

Belt power = 170kN * 3m/s = 510kW / 2 motors = 255kW each. 255kW / 0.95 drive efficiency x 1.1 safety factor
= 295.3kW. The next motor size in the database is 315kW so this is the motor size selected. Motor speed is
1475rpm and pulley speed is 100rpm say.

Motor torque = 315kW * 1000 * 60 / (2Pi) / 100rpm at pulley shaft = 30,080Nm x Service Factor of 1.5 so required
minimum gearbox torque rating is 45,120Nm.

Plus / Minus Speed Tolerance - this input is for the Auto Selection mode - the program will calculate the required
gearbox ratio and then look for the first gearbox in the selected database which has the required minimum torque
rating and which has a ratio which falls between the Plus and the Minus speed percentage you input.

Once the Category is specified and the Auto option selected, you can input the Service Factor and Speed
Tolerances then you can move on to other drive input forms. When you do the calculations, the program will
select a gearbox for you.

Manual Selection Motor Inputs

Choose the Manual option in the dropdown box. You can input the Gearbox details directly or you can select a
gearbox from the Gearbox Database. To Select a motor from the Database, click the Open Gearbox Database
button. The Gearbox Database form will be displayed. Select a gearbox category and scroll down to the required
gearbox, right click it and select the Copy this Gearbox to current Drive in design file menu. The gearbox you
selected in the database will be copied to the Gearbox Inputs form. You can then accept these inputs and
continue or you can edit them and even save the edited data back to the Gearbox Database using the Save to
Gearbox Database button.

Required Gearbox Input Details

Enter the Code, Size, no of Stages, Ratio, Torque Rating, Maximum and Minimum Speed in rpm and the moment
of inertia of the gearbox in kgm2. You need to get all this data from your supplier. If you don't have actual values,
then just enter an estimate. These inputs are only used for selection of the gearbox and for the reports. All critical
conveyor calculations such as equivalent mass, pulley speeds etc. are made from the required gearbox ratio, not
the selected gearbox ratio.

Optional Gearbox Input Details

You can then input the optional gearbox details which are not used for calculations but are displayed and printed
on the output reports. It is best to enter these details if you have them available.

Now you can move on to entering the Fluid Coupling details

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Input Fluid Couplings


Click the Input menu on the main form and select the Input Fluid Coupling Details option.

Drives Datacontrol

Notice the Drives Datacontrol arrows at the top of the Input Drives form - you need to repeat the input data for
each drive pulley in the conveyor and you can navigate to the drive number by using the datacontrol buttons.
Once you have input all the data for a drive such as Motors, Fluid Coupling, Couplings, Brakes etc you can use
the Copy Drive button to copy the complete Drive's data to a new drive. You must then ensure the Drive Number
is linked to the main conveyor in the profile sketch via the Link To Drive No column. Click the Motors tabsheet.

If you click the Input Fluid Coupling menu the following form will be displayed

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Manual or Automatic Equipment selection

You can allow the program to select a suitable Fluid Coupling based on the motor power rating and the peak
torque % required for the fluid coupling or you can manually input the Fluid Coupling data.

Auto Selection

Choose the Auto selection option in the Fluid Coupling Selection Mode option box. Choose a Fluid Coupling
Category from the category drop down box. If no categories are listed use the Open Fluid Coupling Database
button to open the database form and then open a Fluid Coupling Database file. Click the Copy to Drive button in
the database form and Exit the Database file and the program should now list the categories in the database file
in this Category selection box. You can also right click on the Fluid Coupling you want to use in the database
table and then choose the Copy to current drive menu.

Motor Poles - enter the number of poles for the motor on this drive. The Fluid coupling power rating is dependent

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on the speed.

Slip % - enter the rated slip % for the coupling, default is 3%

Peak Torque % This factor limits the coupling selection to a coupling with a Peak Torque rating equal to or less
than the value input.

2 Second Run-up Torque % this is the % of full load torque which the coupling develops two seconds after
initiation of the start.

Fluid Coupling Selection

The coupling selection procedure includes a static and a dynamic component. The static element checks whether
the coupling peak torque % is less than or equal to the allowable peak torque % limit specified under the Input
Fluid Coupling / Soft Starter dialogue box. If the peak torque % of the coupling is less than the required peak
torque % and the coupling can transmit the power (i.e. it's kW rating is Iarger than or equal to the motor kW) then
the second check is done.

This second check involves calculating a so called 'Ramping Time' for the conveyor, and then checking if the
slope of the coupling ramp is less than the conveyor required ramp slope.

The required ramping time is given by:

Rt=L.a.

where Rt = Ramping Time in seconds


L = Conveying Distance in m
a = a slope factor and depends on the type of conveyor belting.

a = 0.005625 for Solid Woven PVC belts


a = 0.0042 for Fabric belts
a = 0.002714 for Steel belts

The coupling ramp slope is determined by its run-up torque % rating after 2 seconds. If this torque rating yields a
slope which is lower than the conveyor ramping time slope, then the coupling is suitable.

The couplings in the database may be classified as follows:

Class of Coupling Peak Torque % Run-up Torque %


Traction Coupling 200% 200%
Single Delay 160% 150%
Double Delay 150% 120%
Soft Start 140% 75%
External Fill 130% 50%

The above method of coupling selection is a practical method of arriving at a correct coupling selection based on
empirical data.

Once the Category is specified and the Auto option selected, you can input the Motor Poles and Peak Torque
% then you can move on to other drive input forms. When you do the calculations, the program will select a Fluid
Coupling for you.

Manual Selection Motor Inputs

Choose the Manual option in the dropdown box. You can input the Fluid Coupling details directly or you can

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select a Fluid Coupling from the Fluid Coupling Database. To Select a motor from the Database, click the Open
Fluid Coupling Database button. The Fluid Coupling Database form will be displayed. Select a Fluid Coupling
category and scroll down to the required Fluid Coupling, right click it and select the Copy this Fluid Coupling to
current Drive in design file menu. The Fluid Coupling you selected in the database will be copied to the Fluid
Coupling Inputs form. You can then accept these inputs and continue or you can edit them and even save the
edited data back to the Fluid Coupling Database using the Save to Fluid Coupling Database button.

Required Fluid Coupling Input Details

Enter the Code, Size, no of Stages, Ratio, Torque Rating, Maximum and Minimum Speed in rpm and the moment
of inertia of the Fluid Coupling in kgm2. You need to get all this data from your supplier. If you don't have actual
values, then just enter an estimate. These inputs are only used for selection of the Fluid Coupling and for the
reports. All critical conveyor calculations such as equivalent mass, pulley speeds etc. are made from the required
Fluid Coupling ratio, not the selected Fluid Coupling ratio.

Optional Fluid Coupling Input Details

You can then input the optional Fluid Coupling details which are not used for calculations but are displayed and
printed on the output reports. It is best to enter these details if you have them available.

Now you can move on to entering the High Speed Coupling details

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design


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Program

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Input High Speed Couplings


Click the Input menu on the main form and select the Input High Speed Coupling Details option.

Drives Datacontrol

Notice the Drives Datacontrol arrows at the top of the Input Drives form - you need to repeat the input data for
each drive pulley in the conveyor and you can navigate to the drive number by using the datacontrol buttons.
Once you have input all the data for a drive such as Motors, High Speed Coupling, Couplings, Brakes etc you can
use the Copy Drive button to copy the complete Drive's data to a new drive. You must then ensure the Drive
Number is linked to the main conveyor in the profile sketch via the Link To Drive No column. Click the Motors
tabsheet.

If you click the Input High Speed Coupling menu the following form will be displayed

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Manual or Automatic Equipment selection

You can allow the program to select a suitable High Speed Coupling based on the motor power rating and the
motor torque or you can manually input the High Speed Coupling data.

Auto Selection

Choose the Auto selection option in the High Speed Coupling Selection Mode option box. Choose a High
Speed Coupling Category from the category drop down box. If no categories are listed use the Open Coupling
Database button to open the database form and then open a Coupling Database file. Click the Copy to Drive
button in the database form and Exit the Database file and the program should now list the categories in the
database file in this Category selection box. You can also right click on the High Speed Coupling you want to use
in the database table and then choose the Copy to current drive menu.

Torque Rating - this is the main selection parameter for the coupling.

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Service Factor - enter the required selection service factor. The default is 1.5 but it depends on the
manufacturer.

Maximum Bore Diameter This is for the motor shaft, the motor shaft should be less than or equal to coupling
max bore.

Minimum Bore Diameter is the smallest motor shaft accommodated by the coupling.

Maximum Rotation Speed - The motor speed should be less than this value.

High Speed Coupling Selection

The coupling selection procedure calculates the motor torque and multiplies by the Service Factor to get a
required torque rating then selects the first coupling in the database which meets this minimum torque
requirement. A speed rating check is also done.

Manual Selection Coupling Inputs

Choose the Manual option in the dropdown box. You can input the High Speed Coupling details directly or you
can select a High Speed Coupling from the High Speed Coupling Database. To Select a coupling from the
Database, click the Open Coupling Database button. The High Speed Coupling Database form will be displayed.
Select a Coupling category and scroll down to the required High Speed Coupling, right click it and select the Copy
this Coupling to current Drive in design file menu. The High Speed Coupling you selected in the database will
be copied to the High Speed Coupling Inputs form. You can then accept these inputs and continue or you can edit
them and even save the edited data back to the High Speed Coupling Database using the Save to High Speed
Coupling Database button.

Optional High Speed Coupling Input Details

You can then input the optional High Speed Coupling details which are not used for calculations but are displayed
and printed on the output reports. It is best to enter these details if you have them available.

Now you can move on to entering the Low Speed Coupling details

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design


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Program

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Input Low Speed Couplings


Click the Input menu on the main form and select the Input Low Speed Coupling Details option.

Drives Datacontrol

Notice the Drives Datacontrol arrows at the top of the Input Drives form - you need to repeat the input data for
each drive pulley in the conveyor and you can navigate to the drive number by using the datacontrol buttons.
Once you have input all the data for a drive such as Motors, Low Speed Coupling, Couplings, Brakes etc you can
use the Copy Drive button to copy the complete Drive's data to a new drive. You must then ensure the Drive
Number is linked to the main conveyor in the profile sketch via the Link To Drive No column. Click the Motors
tabsheet.

If you click the Input Low Speed Coupling menu the following form will be displayed

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Manual or Automatic Equipment selection

You can allow the program to select a suitable Low Speed Coupling based on the motor power rating and the
drive pulley speed or you can manually input the Low Speed Coupling data.

Auto Selection

Choose the Auto selection option in the Low Speed Coupling Selection Mode option box. Choose a Low Speed
Coupling Category from the category drop down box. If no categories are listed use the Open Coupling
Database button to open the database form and then open a Coupling Database file. Click the Copy to Drive
button in the database form and Exit the Database file and the program should now list the categories in the
database file in this Category selection box. You can also right click on the Low Speed Coupling you want to use
in the database table and then choose the Copy to current drive menu.

Torque Rating - this is the main selection parameter for the coupling.

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Service Factor - enter the required selection service factor. The default is 1.5 but it depends on the
manufacturer.

Maximum Bore Diameter This is for the pulley shaft, the shaft should be less than or equal to coupling max bore.

Minimum Bore Diameter is the smallest shaft accommodated by the coupling.

Maximum Rotation Speed - The pulley speed should be less than this value.

Low Speed Coupling Selection

The coupling selection procedure calculates the motor torque and multiplies by the Service Factor to get a
required torque rating then selects the first coupling in the database which meets this minimum torque
requirement. A speed rating check is also done.

Manual Selection Coupling Inputs

Choose the Manual option in the dropdown box. You can input the Low Speed Coupling details directly or you
can select a Low Speed Coupling from the Low Speed Coupling Database. To Select a coupling from the
Database, click the Open Coupling Database button. The Low Speed Coupling Database form will be displayed.
Select a Coupling category and scroll down to the required Low Speed Coupling, right click it and select the Copy
this Coupling to current Drive in design file menu. The Low Speed Coupling you selected in the database will
be copied to the Low Speed Coupling Inputs form. You can then accept these inputs and continue or you can edit
them and even save the edited data back to the Low Speed Coupling Database using the Save to Low Speed
Coupling Database button.

Optional Low Speed Coupling Input Details

You can then input the optional Low Speed Coupling details which are not used for calculations but are displayed
and printed on the output reports. It is best to enter these details if you have them available.

Now you can move on to entering the Input Brake details

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Input Brakes


Click the Input menu on the main form and select the Input Brake Details option.

Drives Datacontrol

Notice the Drives Datacontrol arrows at the top of the Input Drives form - you need to repeat the input data for each drive pulley in the
conveyor and you can navigate to the drive number by using the datacontrol buttons. Once you have input all the data for a drive such as
Motors, Low Speed Coupling, Couplings, Brakes etc you can use the Copy Drive button to copy the complete Drive's data to a new drive. You
must then ensure the Drive Number is linked to the main conveyor in the profile sketch via the Link To Drive No column. Click the Brakes
tabsheet.

Important Note about Brakes


There are two input requirements for brakes

z The first is the equivalent Low Speed Brake Torque to be applied at the pulley shaft.
This torque is converted to a belt line force and all belt tensions are adjusted accordingly during the calculation process and a resulting
stopping time is calculated and displayed on the Starting Stopping Report. Check Takeup mass and drive traction after adjusting the
brake torque.

z The second is input the data required to select a brake calliper under the Input Brake Details menu.

z If you do not have a brake fitted on a drive set the Brake Selection Mode to No Brake on Drive. This is the default setting when you add
a new drive.

The Belt Tension and conveyor Stopping times are calculated by using the Braking Torque you input on the Drive or Brake pulley. This input is
on the tabsheet under the Profile Sketch on the main form. To input a brake on a drive or brake pulley, click the Brakes tabsheet on the main
form and input the brake torque to apply.

Once the low speed braking torque has been optimised you can proceed to the second stage which is to select the brake calliper and disc
required to give you the low speed torque required.

Low Speed Braking Torque

To add a brake to a drive or brake pulley is easy. Select the Brakes tab sheet on the main form. In the Braking Torque column, enter the value
of the Low Speed Braking torque, in kNm, to apply at this drive or brake pulley. The program will apply this torque during the stopping
calculations and the belt tensions under braking will be calculated. You can view the stopping times on the Conveyor Starting Stopping report
and adjust the braking torque up or down as required. You can have as many brakes as you wish in the system. The additional inertia of the
brake disc should be added in Drive Inertia input field.

Input Low Speed Equivalent Brake Torque

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If you click the Input Brake Details menu the following form will be displayed

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This form is used for selecting or inputting the brake calliper details.

If you do not have a brake fitted on a drive set the Brake Selection Mode to No Brake on Drive. This is the default setting when you add a new
drive.

Manual or Automatic Equipment selection

You can allow the program to select a suitable brake calliper based on the Brake Design Torque you input in this form. The program will
calculate the torque generated by the calliper clamping force, pad offset distance and brake disc diameter and select a calliper for you. It will
also calculate the disc temperature rise after the number of consecutive stops you input.

Auto Selection

Choose the Auto selection option in the Brake Selection Mode option box. Choose a Brake Category from the category drop down box. If no
categories are listed use the Open Brake Database button to open the database form and then open a Brake Database file. Click the Copy to
Drive button in the database form and Exit the Database file and the program should now list the categories in the database file in this Category
selection box.

Manual Selection Brake Inputs

Choose the Manual option in the dropdown box. You can input the Motor details directly or you can select a motor from the Motor Database.
To Select a brake from the Database, click the Open Brake Database button. The Brake Database form will be displayed. Select a brake
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category and scroll down to the required brake, right click it and select the Copy this Brake to current Drive in design file menu. The brake
you selected in the database will be copied to the Brake Inputs form. You can then accept these inputs and continue or you can edit them and
even save the edited data back to the Brake Database using the Save to Brake Database button.

Required Brake Input Details

Choose the Brake Location, Brake Type.

Enter the Design Braking Torque. This torque is the braking torque that the brake will be required to transmit. If the Brake is fitted to the high-
speed side of the drive, the torque that the brake has to input is reduced by the gearbox ratio, less any gearbox losses. You can use the
following conversion from Low Speed torque to High Speed torque:

For example if the Low Speed toque is say 10 kNm, the reducer ratio is 16:1 and the Reducer Efficiency is 94% then

High Speed torque = 10 x 1000 / (16 x 0.94) = 665.9 Nm

Enter the Disc Speed of the brake. If it is a high speed brake, this would be the motor speed reduced by Fluid Coupling slip. E.g. 1450 x (1 -
0.03) = 1406.5 rpm. If the brake is a low speed brake, the disc speed should be equal to the pulley rpm. Click on the appropriate High Speed or
Low Speed option in the brake location drop down box.

To arrive at some of the brake input data, you may have to do a design calculation first and then input the brake data, such as motor speed,
pulley speed etc. It may also be necessary to adjust the Low Speed braking torque input values once you have done the Brake Selection and
obtained the actual braking torque which will be applied by the brake.

Enter the Disk Diameter and Disc Thickness and the Ambient Temperature. The Disc Thickness should normally be between 15mm and
50mm, and diameters from 300mm to 1000mm are common. Another guide is to use a disc diameter of about 70% of the pulley diameter for
high speed brakes.

Enter the Design Stopping Time. This time is calculated by the program and can be viewed on the Conveyor Starting Stopping report.

The number of Consecutive stops and the Average number of stops per hour are used for the thermal design calculations for the brake.

The Disc Temperature after the total number of consecutive stops will be calculated and displayed on the Brake Report form. As a rule, the
brake disc temperature should not exceed 300 degrees C. If the temperature exceeds this value, you should increase the disc diameter,
increase the disc thickness or select a larger brake with a larger Pad offset Width W.

Choose a Disc Material - Mild Steel (u = 0.4) or Stainless Steel. (u = 0.25). The program suggests the co-efficient of friction between pads and
disc, but you may enter your own values.

Optional Brake Input Details

You can then input the optional brake details which are not used for calculations but are displayed and printed on the output reports. It is best to
enter these details if you have them available.

Brake Calculated Values

These values are re-calculated every time you do a calculation and you can use them for other inputs, such as the Brake Disc Inertia on the
Drive Inputs form.

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Helix delta-T6 - Input Holdbacks Page 1 of 2

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design


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Program

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Input Holdbacks


Click the Input menu on the main form and select the Input Drive Details option.

Drives Datacontrol

Notice the Drives Datacontrol arrows at the top of the Input Drives form - you need to repeat the input data for each
drive pulley in the conveyor and you can navigate to the drive number by using the datacontrol buttons. Once you have
input all the data for a drive such as Holdbacks, Gearbox, Couplings, Brakes etc you can use the Copy Drive button to
copy the complete Drive's data to a new drive. You must then ensure the Drive Number is linked to the main conveyor in
the profile sketch via the Link To Drive No column. Click the Holdbacks tabsheet.

If you click the Input Holdbacks menu the following form will be displayed

Manual or Automatic Equipment selection

You can allow the program to select a suitable Holdback based on the holdback torque required at the drive or you can
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manually input the Holdback data. If there is no holdback fitted on the drive then uncheck the Holdback is Installed on
Drive check box. You can proceed to the other inputs. Holdback Inputs do not affect the conveyor calculations in anyway
except when performing a Dynamic Analysis in which case it is important to ensure the Holdback is Installed check box is
on or off depending on installation.

Auto Selection

Choose the Auto selection option in the Holdback Selection Mode option box. Choose a Holdback Category from the
category drop down box. If no categories are listed use the Open Holdback Database button to open the database form
and then open a Holdback Database file. Click the Copy to Drive button in the database form and Exit the Database file
and the program should now list the categories in the database file in this Category selection box.

Once the Category is specified and the Auto option selected, enter the holdback location and then you can run the
calculations and then return to this form to check the selected holdback. When you do the calculations, the program will
select a Holdback for you.

Manual Selection Holdback Inputs

Choose the Manual option in the dropdown box. You can input the Holdback details directly or you can select a
Holdback from the Holdback Database. To Select a Holdback from the Database, click the Open Holdback Database
button. The Holdback Database form will be displayed. Select a Holdback category and scroll down to the required
Holdback, right click it and select the Copy this Holdback to current Drive in design file menu. The Holdback you
selected in the database will be copied to the Holdback Inputs form. You can then accept these inputs and continue or
you can edit them and even save the edited data back to the Holdback Database using the Save to Holdback Database
button.

Required Holdback Input Details

Enter the Holdback Internal / External type, Roller Type, Lubrication, Maxim Torque Rating, Maximum Speed and Lift off
speed. The Lift off speed relates to sprag type holdbacks where the centrifugal force during rotation lifts the sprags or
rollers off the ratchet or cams and reduces wear during operation.

You need to get all this data from your supplier. If you don't have actual values you can estimate them. A source of
information is http://www.ringspann.com

Optional Holdback Input Details

You can then input the optional Holdback details which are not used for calculations but are displayed and printed on the
output reports. It is best to enter these details if you have them available.

Holdback Calculated Values

These values are re-calculated every time you do a calculation and you can use them for other inputs.

Now you can move on to entering the Pulley Shaft Material details.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design


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Program

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Input Pulley Shaft Material


Click the Input menu on the main form and select the Input Pulley Shaft Material Details option.

The following form will be displayed

Enter the Pulley allowable Shaft stress. The allowable stress is usually taken to be 41 Mpa (6000psi) for axle
steels such as EN8 or K1045 and 55Mpa (8000psi) for high strength Alloy steels such as AISI 4140.

The Allowable Shaft deflection at the pulley hub is normally limited to 5 minutes of arc which is 0.00145 radians.
Values exceeding this can affect the locking elements such Ringfeder or Bikon.

Helix Technologies has a dedicated Pulley Shaft Design program based on Australian Standard AS1403, please
refer to the Helix website Helix delta-D Shaft Design link.

The method of calculations used in Helix delta-T is shown in the Pulley Shaft Calculation help topic.

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Helix delta-T6 - Horizontal Curve Calculations Page 1 of 7

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Horizontal Curve Calculations


A picture of a horizontally curve conveyor is shown below - note the idlers are tilted up on the inside of the curve in order to prevent the belt from straightening and
falling off the conveyor.

Horizontal Curve Calculation theory

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<===Positive Belt Drift Negative Belt Drift ===>

The belt tension T in a curved belt has a resultant force Ft towards the centre of the curve. The resultant force Ft is given by

where Ft is motivating force towards centre of curve, T is belt tension, Is is idler spacing and R is horizontal curve radius.

This motivating force needs to be balanced by tilting up the idler on the inside of the curve. The weight of the belt and material (if loaded) creates a balancing force to
oppose the motivating force. The trick is to know how much to tilt the idler and ensure that the conveyor can operate under all conditions.

Negative Belt Drift - If you tilt the idlers up too much the belt will drift away from the centre of the curve and this is called a negative belt drift

Positive Belt Drift - If the idler is not tilted up enough the forces will not be in balance and the belt will tend to drift towards the centre of the curve.

The objective is to select a banking angle which will result in negative belt drift under some operating conditions and positive belt drift under others and ensure that the
belt and material will stay on the conveyor. If the banking angle required or belt drift is excessive you need to increase the curve radius or decrease the belt tension.
Normally Helix Technologies aims to limit the banking angle to a maximum of about 8 degrees on the loaded side of the belt.

Horizontal Curve Calculations

To calculate the banking angles required and resulting belt drift in Horizontal curves requires you to first input the conveyor geometry including entering the X, Y, Z co-
display the
ordinates for the points along the conveyor. See the Entering X,Y,Z following form. help topic. Once you have the conveyor geometry you can go to the Input, Input
co-ordinates
Horizontal Curves menu on the main form. This will

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As can be seen from the above image the first sections of the conveyor are straight and the Y co-ordinates entered are all 0. Then from point 6 onwards the Y co-
ordinates are increasing as the offset increases. The drawing is actually for a single horizontal curve but in order to improve accuracy of the geometry multiple points
have been added along the curve path.

The radius of the curve is entered in the Horiz Curve Radius column, in this case it is a constant radius and it is drawn by the software as a red line. It is often best to
draw the conveyor in a CAD drawing program and obtain the X,Y,Z points from the CAD drawing

Once you have drawn the conveyor and entered the curve radii, click the Horizontal Curve Detail Tab to display the following:

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The Horizontal Curves Datacontrol above the graph allows you to scroll through all the intersection points in the conveyor that are horizontal curves. as you scroll
through the curves, the details of the curve are displayed in the Horizontal Curve Inputs tabsheet on the right hand side of the form. The inputs in these tables are
extracted from other input data in the program but the following inputs relate specifically to the Horizontal curves:

Horizontal Curve Radius - this is a very important input, the larger the radius the less the resultant force towards the centre of the curve. Always use the maximum
radius that can be incorporated in the conveyor.

Material Mass per m - this is a calculated value from the capacity on the conveyor section

Idler Spacing - this input affects the motivating force, see formula at top of form.

Banking Angle - this is the angle at which the idler set is tilted up on the inside of the curve. If you alter this value and press Enter, the program will re-calculate the
Belt Drift for all the operating conditions of the conveyor and draw them in the main Graph on the form.

Belt Drift Graph - this graph shows the amount the belt will drift for the particular load and operating case. For instance the Starting Empty belt drift is usually the
highest positive belt drift and is shown by the intersection of the green graph with the "Starting Empty" vertical line. The Braking Full (or Coasting Full if no brakes are
fitted) graph will usually be the highest negative belt drift calculated. The belt drift is

The Idler Face Widths also affect the calculations considerably, sometimes it is necessary to use an idler roll with a longer face width than you normally would for the
belt selected. Getting more belt and material load on the centre roller increase the balancing forces. Three roll idlers are better than 2 roll idlers because 2/3 of the belt
and material are balancing versus half for a two roll system.

Idler to Belt Friction - some designers allow for a friction force between the belt and idler to counter the tendency of the belt to drift up the idlers. The inputs for the
us1, usm and us2 are Coulomb friction factors. Helix recommends that these are set to zero because if the belt is wet the force will be considerably reduced.

The Conveyor Tensions tab shows the belt tensions at the curve under the various operating conditions.

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Belt Tension Rise - The belt is elongated on the outside of the horizontal curve due to the curvature and this induces an additional tension in the outside edge and a
reduction in tension in the inside edge. The Tension Rise is calculated and shown. You should ensure that when this additional tension is added to the operating belt
tensions that it remains within acceptable limits. The normal allowable tension rise during running is 15% and starting is 150% - the belt manufacturer must provide the
limits for the belt. When this tension rise is subtracted from the lowest tension it should remain above the allowable minimum sag tension.

The Belt Cross Section Drawing tab shows a drawing of the carry idler tilted at the banking angle you input for the curve.

You can copy the Belt Drift Graphs into the Windows clipboard using the Copy button above the graph and then paste these graphs into a Word document as part of a
report.

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In the graph above the banking angle is bit too large because the negative drift is more than positive drift. This was done purposely on this conveyor as subsequent
points along the horizontal curve have higher belt tensions resulting in more positive drift and it was decided to keep the whole curve at 4 degrees banking. you may of
course vary the banking angle along the curve or even at each idler station if you wish, but this is harder to implement on site.

Adjustable Angle Idlers - it is good practice to provide a means of adjusting the banking of the idlers on site in order to allow fine tuning of the banking angle.

Side Guide Rollers - it is common to install side guide rollers to prevent the belt from slipping off the idler set completely in the case of excessive belt drift which may
be cause by uneven loading or belt tension variations - refer photo at the top of this help topic for an example of the side guide rollers.

Belt Troughability - it is important the belt is flexible enough to trough correctly under the loaded and empty conditions.

Photo of Horizontally Curved Conveyor

A photo of a 4400m long 4400tph Horizontally curved conveyor with 2000kW installed power. It can be seen from Google Earth at 22°48'10.79''S and 119°14'06.82"E.

Horizontal Curve Reports can be generated and printed or saved for each curve - see Horizontal Curve Report help topic.

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Helix delta-T6 - Equipment Database Files Page 1 of 3

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program


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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Equipment Database Files

Equipment Database Files

The equipment database files are xml files. You can open any of the database files from the main Data file menu on the
main form.

Data file location

These files are initially installed in the ...\Data subdirectory of the main program location (see below), with each database
such as Belts, Idlers etc. having its own subdirectory. To view or edit any of the design files go to the Main Data menu and
choose the database you wish to open. When the database form opens, the program will look for the equipment data file in
the last location it was used from. If the form is blank after opening you will need to locate the relevant data file and open
the file using the File, Open menu. When you exit the database form this location will be stored in the program's
configuration file so that next time you go to the database it will automatically open this file.

Although the data files and the conveyor design files are all .xml files they are not interchangeable. That is you cannot open
the Belt data file from the Idlers data form as the structure is different. This is the reason that we install them in different
directories and if you locate the files on a server computer, for example, we recommend that you keep the subdirectory
structure.

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Setting up the Data file locations after first installing the Program

It is necessary to point the program to the location of the data files after installing the program or if you wish to locate the
data files in a new location such as on a common server computer.

z To do this you need to go to the Data menu on the main form and open each of the Database forms in turn. When
the form opens, if it is blank select the File, Open menu.

z Navigate to where the ...\Data\.. directories are located and open the relevant file. The data tables will be populated.

z Now press File, Save and then exit the form. The location of the data file will be stored in the program configuration
file called DeltaT6.exe.config The next time the program needs the database it will look in the last saved location.

z These steps also apply if you open a new file and import an older delta-T5 design file.

Belt Database form

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Helix delta-T6 - Using the Datacontrol Page 1 of 1

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Program

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Using the Datacontrol


Helix delta-T is supplied many places where you can add, delete or edit data.

You can use the Data Control to perform actions on your data:

The Plus button adds a new record


The X button deletes the current record

The Arrow buttons let you navigate up and down the table

View the Tool tips popup by hovering your mouse over the data control buttons.

If you are using one of the many data tables you can also perform the following:

z Select the row by clicking the left column to highlight the entire row then press Del on keyboard to delete a record

z Use Ctrl + C to copy text

z Use Ctrl + V to Paste text

z Right click on all Tables, Images and Drawing areas to see if there is a Popup menu available.

In many database tables you can filter the displayed data by selecting a Category from the drop down box on the
datacontrol, for example Belt Categories box in above image. The copy button will copy the currently selected item to
the current design file, or you can right click in the table and select the menu to transfer data.

See the Equipment Database Files help topic for location of files

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Helix delta-T6 - Materials Database Page 1 of 3

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program


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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Materials Database


The delta-T program is supplied with a database for materials. You can use the material data supplied with the program or add your own
material data. Refer to the Equipment Database Files help topic for more details on the location of the files.

Select the Data, Material Database menu form the main form. The following form will be opened.

If the form is blank select the File, Open menu and navigate to the ...\Data\Materials subdirectory of where the program is installed (or to
wherever you have located your xml data files). Open the materials .xml file and it will display the materials in the table.

Adding New Records, Deleting Records

You can add a new record by going the end of the table and typing in a description in last row of the table. Then enter the other data in
the cells provided or go to the Detail view to see all data required for the record. You can also use the Datacontrol to add new records or
to delete records. Refer to the Using the Datacontrol help topic.

Importing Data from Excel® or spreadsheets

You can save data in CSV (Comma Separated Values) file format and then use the Data, Import from CSV file menu to import data into
your xml data file.

You can also export data to Excel® etc. using these menus.

Sorting Data

You can sort the data by selecting a category form the Categories dropdown box. To restore all data choose All as the category.

Detail Data view

You can click on the material Details tabsheet to see the individual material details such as the form below

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Required Data

The top portion of the form contains the details used by the program for selecting equipment and for calculations and is required input
data for each material. These include Low Bulk Density (used for belt cross-section capacity calculations) and High Bulk Density,
Maximum Lump Size and Surcharge Angle.

Enter the material Low Bulk Density. This density is used for the belt capacity calculation and belt width selection.

Enter a material High Bulk Density. This value is used for the belt load support calculations and belt cover selections.

Enter the material Maximum Lump size. If the material is uniform, i.e. it contains less than 10% fines, then click on the Uniform check
box. If the material is mixed with fines and smaller lumps, leave the Uniform check box blank.

Enter the Surcharge Angle of the material. This is the angle (from the horizontal) which the material will form during transportation. It
must be less than the Angle of Repose.

Click on the Flowability Check Box which applies to this material.

Click on the Abrasion Factor Check Box which applies to this material.

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Enter any Miscellaneous Characteristics of the material in the large text box provided. Use a new line for each characteristic. This is an
optional field.

Optional Details

The Optional Details are additional data which you can input if it is available. If not you can leave the fields blank or input estimated data.
This data will appear on the design reports and is for information purposes.

Enter the Maximum Recommended Belt Speed. This value is for information purposes only. If the design belt speed is higher, this
value is ignored during the selection process.

Enter the Angle of Repose. This is the angle at which the material stockpile sides will form.

Enter the Maximum Recommended Incline Angle for the material. The program will not over-ride the design process if the incline angle
is larger than this value. It is for information purposes only.

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Helix delta-T6 - Belts Database Page 1 of 3

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Belts Database


The delta-T program is supplied with a database for belts. You can use the belt data supplied with the program or add your own belt data. Refer to the
Equipment Database Files help topic for more details on the location of the files.

Select the Data, Belt Database menu from the main form. The following form will be opened.

If the form is blank select the File, Open menu and navigate to the ...\Data\Belts subdirectory of where the program is installed (or to wherever you have
located your xml data files). Open the belts .xml file and it will display the belts in the table.

Adding New Records, Deleting Records

You can add a new record by going the end of the table and typing in a description in last row of the table. Then enter the other data in the cells provided
or go to the Detail view to see all data required for the record. You can also use the Datacontrol to add new records or to delete records. Refer to the
Using the Datacontrol help topic.

Importing Data from Excel® or spreadsheets

You can save data in CSV (Comma Separated Values) file format and then use the Data, Import from CSV file menu to import data into your xml data
file.

You can also export data to Excel® etc. using these menus.

Sorting Data

You can sort the data by selecting a category form the Categories dropdown box. To restore all data choose All as the category.

Detail Data view

You can click on the belt Details tabsheet to see the individual belt details such as the form below

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Required Data

The top portion of the form contains the details used by the program for selecting equipment and for calculations and is required input data for each belt.
These include Belt Strength, Rated Operating Tension and masses etc.

Enter the belt Description and Belt Class. If it a fabric reinforced belt enter the number of plies, for steel or solid woven belts enter a 0 for plies. Cjoose
the reinforcing material from the drop down box.

Enter a Belt Strength. This value is breaking strength of the belt per unit width and is used for belt safety factor calculations.

Enter the Rated Tension of the belt - this is the allowable maximum operating running tension of the belt in per unit width units.

Enter the belt Carcass thickness in mm - the thickness excluding the covers

Enter the belt Carcass mass. This is the mass of the belt with zero top and bottom covers.

Enter the Belt Modulus in kN/m. This will be used for belt Elastic Elongation calculations.

where BM = Belt Modulus, delta T is change in belt tension, L is total belt length and Bw is belt width

Enter the density (specific gravity) of the rubber covers. If unknown, a figure of 1.13 may be used.

Enter the cost of the belt covers per unit volume of rubber. This cost is added to the carcass cost to arrive at an estimate of the belt cost.

Enter the minimum pulley diameters for type A, B and C Pulleys at 61-100% of rated tension, 31-60% of rated tension and <30% of rated tension. The

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program will select the pulley diameters based on the calculated tension at the pulley and this minimum diameter.

Pulley Type Description


A Drive Pulleys, High Tension Head Pulley.
B Tail Pulley, Bend Pulleys, Take-up Pulleys, Snub Pulleys > 30 degree angle of wrap.
C Snub Pulleys < 30 degree angle of wrap

Enter the maximum allowable belt width for correct load support at the material densities of 800, 1200, 1600, 2400 and 3000 kg/m3 respectively.

Enter the minimum belt width for correct Empty Belt Troughing at 20, 35 and 45 degree troughing angles. Note: It is possible for the program to select a
belt width which can carry the tonnes per hour required, but because of the narrow width being less than that specified for correct empty belt troughing,
the program rejects that belt (and class) and goes to the next belt or returns a message saying that “No belt selection was possible”. Use the manual belt
selection override to increase the belt width selected.

The program will select an appropriate cover thickness based on the abrasiveness of the material and the belt trip rate or frequency factor. The bottom
cover will be selected at 1/3 of the top cover thickness unless a minimum cover thickness is specified in the input routines. Refer to the Belt Covers help
topic for more details.

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Helix delta-T6 - Motor Database Page 1 of 2

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program


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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Motor Database


The delta-T program is supplied with a database for electric motors. You can use the motor data supplied with the program or add your
own motor data. Refer to the Equipment Database Files help topic for more details on the location of the files.

Select the Data, Motor Database menu form the main form. The following form will be opened.

If the form is blank select the File, Open menu and navigate to the ...\Data\Motors subdirectory of where the program is installed (or to
wherever you have located your xml data files). Open the motors .xml file and it will display the motors in the table.

Adding New Records, Deleting Records

You can add a new record by going the end of the table and typing in a description in last row of the table. Then enter the other data in the
cells provided or go to the Detail view to see all data required for the record. You can also use the Datacontrol to add new records or to
delete records. Refer to the Using the Datacontrol help topic.

Importing Data from Excel® or spreadsheets

You can save data in CSV (Comma Separated Values) file format and then use the Data, Import from CSV file menu to import data into
your xml data file.

You can also export data to Excel® etc. using these menus.

Sorting Data

You can sort the data by selecting a category form the Categories dropdown box. To restore all data choose All as the category.

Detail Data view

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You can click on the Motor Details tabsheet to see the individual motor details such as the form below

Required Data

The top portion of the form contains the details used by the program for selecting equipment and for calculations and is required input data
for each motor. These include Voltage, Poles, Power Rating, Speed (full load), Inertia and Motor Shaft Diameter.

The Motor Efficiency values and Power Factors are used in the Motor Report (program calculates the efficiency and power factor at the
absorbed power), but if you do not have these you can use the default values.

Optional Details

The Optional Details are additional data which you can input if it is available. If not you can leave the fields blank or input estimated data.
This data will appear on the design reports and is for information purposes.

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Helix delta-T6 - Brake Database Page 1 of 2

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program


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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Brake Database


The delta-T program is supplied with a database for brakes. You can use the brake data supplied with the program or add your own brake
data. Refer to the Equipment Database Files help topic for more details on the location of the files.

Select the Data, Brake Database menu from the main form. The following form will be opened.

If the form is blank select the File, Open menu and navigate to the ...\Data\Brakes subdirectory of where the program is installed (or to
wherever you have located your xml data files). Open the brakes .xml file and it will display the brakes in the table.

Adding New Records, Deleting Records

You can add a new record by going the end of the table and typing in a description in last row of the table. Then enter the other data in the
cells provided or go to the Detail view to see all data required for the record. You can also use the Datacontrol to add new records or to
delete records. Refer to the Using the Datacontrol help topic.

Importing Data from Excel® or spreadsheets

You can save data in CSV (Comma Separated Values) file format and then use the Data, Import from CSV file menu to import data into
your xml data file.

You can also export data to Excel® etc. using these menus.

Sorting Data

You can sort the data by selecting a category form the Categories dropdown box. To restore all data choose All as the category.

Detail Data view

You can click on the brake Details tabsheet to see the individual brake details such as the form below

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Required Data

The top portion of the form contains the details used by the program for selecting equipment and for calculations and is required input data
for each brake. These include Voltage, Poles, Power Rating, Speed (full load) and Inertia.

Enter the Brake description and Caliper description.

To switch off a Brake, set the Allow Selection column to False by clicking in the cell and selecting False. This will mean that the program
will not select this item during the design calculations. This is a useful feature for rationalising equipment sizes, or for forcing the program
to select a particular brake.

Enter the Caliper Size, Minimum Clamping Force of the brake, Loss of Force per mm of gap, Maximum allowable air Gap, and the Pad
offset distance.

Optional Details

The Optional Details are additional data which you can input if it is available. If not you can leave the fields blank or input estimated data.
This data will appear on the design reports and is for information purposes.

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Helix delta-T6 - Holdback Database Page 1 of 2

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Holdback Database


The delta-T program is supplied with a database for holdbacks. You can use the holdback data supplied with the program or add your own
holdback data. Refer to the Equipment Database Files help topic for more details on the location of the files.

Select the Data, Holdback Database menu form the main form. The following form will be opened.

If the form is blank select the File, Open menu and navigate to the ...\Data\Holdbacks subdirectory of where the program is installed (or to
wherever you have located your xml data files). Open the holdbacks .xml file and it will display the holdbacks in the table.

Adding New Records, Deleting Records

You can add a new record by going the end of the table and typing in a description in last row of the table. Then enter the other data in the cells
provided or go to the Detail view to see all data required for the record. You can also use the Datacontrol to add new records or to delete
records. Refer to the Using the Datacontrol help topic.

Importing Data from Excel® or spreadsheets

You can save data in CSV (Comma Separated Values) file format and then use the Data, Import from CSV file menu to import data into your
xml data file.

You can also export data to Excel® etc. using these menus.

Sorting Data

You can sort the data by selecting a category form the Categories dropdown box. To restore all data choose All as the category.

Detail Data view

You can click on the holdback Details tabsheet to see the individual holdback details such as the form below

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Required Data

The top portion of the form contains the details used by the program for selecting equipment and for calculations and is required input data for
each holdback. These include holdback type, roller type, lubrication and importantly the Torque rating and maximum speed. Lift off speed is the
speed at which the sprags or rollers will be lifted by centrifugal force.

A torque limiting holdback has an inbuilt maximum holdback torque which if exceeded allows the unit to rotate. These holdbacks are used where
two or more units are installed on a single pulley to ensure that they share the load. You need to get all this data from your supplier. If you don't
have actual values you can estimate them. A source of information is http://www.ringspann.com

See the Input Holdback Details help topic for more details.

Optional Details

The Optional Details are additional data which you can input if it is available. If not you can leave the fields blank or input estimated data. This
data will appear on the design reports and is for information purposes.

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Helix delta-T6 - Coupling Database Page 1 of 2

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program


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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Coupling Database


The delta-T program is supplied with a database for couplings. You can use the coupling data supplied with the program or
add your own coupling data. Refer to the Equipment Database Files help topic for more details on the location of the files.

Select the Data, Coupling Database menu from the main form. The following form will be opened.

If the form is blank select the File, Open menu and navigate to the ...\Data\Couplings subdirectory of where the program is
installed (or to wherever you have located your xml data files). Open the couplings .xml file and it will display the couplings in
the table.

Adding New Records, Deleting Records

You can add a new record by going the end of the table and typing in a description in last row of the table. Then enter the
other data in the cells provided or go to the Detail view to see all data required for the record. You can also use the
Datacontrol to add new records or to delete records. Refer to the Using the Datacontrol help topic.

Importing Data from Excel® or spreadsheets

You can save data in CSV (Comma Separated Values) file format and then use the Data, Import from CSV file menu to
import data into your xml data file.

You can also export data to Excel® etc. using these menus.

Sorting Data

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You can sort the data by selecting a category form the Categories dropdown box. To restore all data choose All as the
category.

Detail Data view

You can click on the Coupling Details tabsheet to see the individual coupling details such as the form below

Required Data

The top portion of the form contains the details used by the program for selecting equipment and for calculations and is
required input data for each coupling. These include Torque Rating, Minimum and Maximum Bore for shafts, maximum speed
and Inertia.

Optional Details

The Optional Details are additional data which you can input if it is available. If not you can leave the fields blank or input
estimated data. This data will appear on the design reports and is for information purposes.

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Helix delta-T6 - Fluid Coupling Database Page 1 of 3

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program


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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Fluid Coupling Database


The delta-T program is supplied with a database for electric fluid couplings. You can use the fluid coupling data supplied with
the program or add your own fluid coupling data. Refer to the Equipment Database Files help topic for more details on the
location of the files.

Select the Data, Fluid Coupling Database menu from the main form. The following form will be opened.

If the form is blank select the File, Open menu and navigate to the ...\Data\FluidCplgs subdirectory of where the program is
installed (or to wherever you have located your xml data files). Open the fluid couplings .xml file and it will display the fluid
couplings in the table.

Adding New Records, Deleting Records

You can add a new record by going the end of the table and typing in a description in last row of the table. Then enter the other
data in the cells provided or go to the Detail view to see all data required for the record. You can also use the Datacontrol to add
new records or to delete records. Refer to the Using the Datacontrol help topic.

Importing Data from Excel® or spreadsheets

You can save data in CSV (Comma Separated Values) file format and then use the Data, Import from CSV file menu to import
data into your xml data file.

You can also export data to Excel® etc. using these menus.

Sorting Data

You can sort the data by selecting a category form the Categories dropdown box. To restore all data choose All as the

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Helix delta-T6 - Fluid Coupling Database Page 2 of 3

category.

Detail Data view

You can click on the Fluid Coupling Details tabsheet to see the individual fluid coupling details such as the form below

Required Data

The top portion of the form contains the details used by the program for selecting equipment and for calculations and is required
input data for each fluid coupling.

Enter the Size, Poles, Power Rating of the coupling. All data should be entered as blank values may cause an error during the
design calculations. If you do not know a value, enter an estimate or 9999 or some other value you can recognise as a dummy
value.

Enter the Peak Torque %. This is the peak torque of the coupling expressed as a percentage of the motor torque. Usual values
are given in the table below.

Enter the Two Second run-up torque. This is the torque % which the coupling reaches Two seconds after starting, and
determines the "Steepness" of the Torque Ramp.

Refer to the Input Fluid Coupling help topic ofr more details

Optional Details

The Optional Details are additional data which you can input if it is available. If not you can leave the fields blank or input

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estimated data. This data will appear on the design reports and is for information purposes.

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Helix delta-T6 - Idler Database Page 1 of 3

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Idler Database


The delta-T program is supplied with a database for electric idlers. You can use the idler data supplied with the program or add your own idler
data. Refer to the Equipment Database Files help topic for more details on the location of the files.

Select the Data, Idler Database menu from the main form. The following form will be opened.

If the form is blank select the File, Open menu and navigate to the ...\Data\Idlers subdirectory of where the program is installed (or to wherever
you have located your xml data files). Open the idlers .xml file and it will display the idlers in the table.

Adding New Records, Deleting Records

You can add a new record by going the end of the table and typing in a description in last row of the table. Then enter the other data in the cells
provided or go to the Detail view to see all data required for the record. You can also use the Datacontrol to add new records or to delete records.
Refer to the Using the Datacontrol help topic.

Importing Data from Excel® or spreadsheets

You can save data in CSV (Comma Separated Values) file format and then use the Data, Import from CSV file menu to import data into your xml
data file.

You can also export data to Excel® etc. using these menus.

Sorting Data

You can sort the data by selecting a category form the Categories dropdown box. To restore all data choose All as the category.

Detail Data view

You can click on the Idler Details tabsheet to see the individual idler details such as the form below

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Required Data

The top portion of the form contains the details used by the program for selecting equipment and for calculations and is required input data for
each idler. These include Description, Type Code and Size. The Ratio and the Torque Rating are used during the Auto Selection process.

Enter the Idler Category description. The records are sorted alphabetically by category description.

Enter the Idler description, and Series description, Drawing number

Enter Belt Width for this idler

Enter the number of idler rolls.

Enter the roll diameter in mm.

Enter the troughing angle in degrees.

Enter the shaft diameter in mm. This is also sometimes called the idler series. This value is used for shaft deflection calculations.

Enter the bearing number or designation.

Enter the bearing dynamic C rating in N. This value will be used for bearing L10h life calculations.

Now enter the roll face widths for each idler in mm.

Enter the bearing centres and support centres.

The Face To Support Dim is the dimension from the roll face edge to the support point.

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The Support Centre dimension is the Face Width plus twice the Face To Support Dim value.

The Face To Brg Dim is the dimension from the Roll face edge to the bearing.

The Bearing Centre dimension is the Face Width minus twice the Face To Brg Dim value.

Enter the allowable shaft deflection at the bearing. This is usually a limitation of the bearing design and is between 8 to 12 minutes.

Enter the rotating mass of all the idler rolls combined i.e. the sum of the individual Roll rotating masses. (Some previous versions of Helix delta-T
(v4) used the individual rotating masses.)

Enter the Idler Set mass - for information only.

Enter the Frame Fixing Width of the Idler - used for Horizontal curve banking angle and packing height calculations, otherwise for information only.

Enter the idler prices, if available, or use a zero.

The User Data cell is for any other information you may want to store.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Gearbox Database


The delta-T program is supplied with a database for electric gearboxes. You can use the gearbox data supplied with the program or add your own gearbox data. Refer to the
Equipment Database Files help topic for more details on the location of the files.

Select the Data, Gearbox Database menu from the main form. The following form will be opened.

If the form is blank select the File, Open menu and navigate to the ...\Data\Gearboxes subdirectory of where the program is installed (or to wherever you have located your xml
data files). Open the gearboxs .xml file and it will display the gearboxs in the table.

Adding New Records, Deleting Records

You can add a new record by going the end of the table and typing in a description in last row of the table. Then enter the other data in the cells provided or go to the Detail
view to see all data required for the record. You can also use the Datacontrol to add new records or to delete records. Refer to the Using the Datacontrol help topic.

Importing Data from Excel® or spreadsheets

You can save data in CSV (Comma Separated Values) file format and then use the Data, Import from CSV file menu to import data into your xml data file.

You can also export data to Excel® etc. using these menus.

Sorting Data

You can sort the data by selecting a category form the Categories dropdown box. To restore all data choose All as the category.

Detail Data view

You can click on the Gearbox Details tabsheet to see the individual gearbox details such as the form below

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Required Data

The top portion of the form contains the details used by the program for selecting equipment and for calculations and is required input data for each gearbox. These include
Description, Type Code and Size. The Ratio and the Torque Rating are used during the Auto Selection process.

Optional Details

The Optional Details are additional data which you can input if it is available. If not you can leave the fields blank or input estimated data. This data will appear on the design
reports and is for information purposes.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Pulley Database


The delta-T program is supplied with a database for pulleys and shafts. You can use the pulley data supplied with the program or add your own pulley
data. Refer to the Equipment Database Files help topic for more details on the location of the files.

Select the Data, Pulley Database menu from the main form. The following form will be opened.

If the form is blank select the File, Open menu and navigate to the ...\Data\Pulleys subdirectory of where the program is installed (or to wherever you have
located your xml data files). Open the pulleys .xml file and it will display the pulleys in the table.

Adding New Records, Deleting Records

You can add a new record by going the end of the table and typing in a description in last row of the table. Then enter the other data in the cells provided
or go to the Detail view to see all data required for the record. You can also use the Datacontrol to add new records or to delete records. Refer to the
Using the Datacontrol help topic.

Importing Data from Excel® or spreadsheets

You can save data in CSV (Comma Separated Values) file format and then use the Data, Import from CSV file menu to import data into your xml data
file.

You can also export data to Excel® etc. using these menus.

Sorting Data

Data is sorted by pulley shell diameter.

Pulley Details

Pulley Required Data

Enter the Pulley Shell Diameter, Shell Thickness and End Disc Thickness in mm.

Enter the Shell Diameter of the pulley excluding lagging. Lagging is added in the design file.

Set the Metric value to ticked for a metric pulley or blank for a pulley with dimensions in Inches.

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Enter the Shell Thickness - this value is used to calculate the pulley inertia.

Enter the End Disc Thickness - this value is used to calculate the pulley inertia, so enter the average thickness if it has tapered end discs.

To switch off a Pulley, set the Allow Selection column to off by clicking in the cell and clearing the tick. This will mean that the program will not select this
item during the design calculations. This is a useful feature for rationalising equipment sizes, or for forcing the program to select a particular pulley.

Enter the Cost per kg for the pulley and the drawing number if available.

Pulley Widths Details

Pulley Widths Required Data

Enter the Belt Width and Pulley Face Width, Bearing Centres and Bearing Centres for a discharge pulley (with chute).

To switch off a Belt Width / Pulley, set the Allow Selection column to off by clicking in the cell and clearing the tick. This will mean that the program will not
select this item during the design calculations. This is a useful feature for rationalising equipment sizes, or for forcing the program to select a particular
pulley width.

User data is for your own data.

Shaft Details

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Pulley Shafts Required Data

Enter the Pulley Shaft Hub Diameter, Bearing Diameter, Bearing Width in mm and Bearing Designation.

Enter the Shaft Diameter at the Hub.

Enter the Shaft Diameter at the Bearing.

Key in the width of the Bearing. This value is added to the bearing centres to calculate the shaft length.

Enter the bearing designation. This value is optional and for information only.

Enter the cost of the pulley shaft per unit mass. This cost per kg will be used to calculate a cost for the pulley in the Cost Estimating portion of the
program.

Enter the cost of the bearing. Two bearings are added for the shaft costing.

To switch off a Pulley Shaft, set the Allow Selection column to off by clicking in the cell and clearing the tick. This will mean that the program will not select
this item during the design calculations. This is a useful feature for rationalising equipment sizes, or for forcing the program to select a particular pulley.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Starters Database


You can store information about Starters for conveyors for use in the Dynamic analysis version of the software. This information relates to how the conveyor si
started and stopped. The Starters information can cover any type of control for starting and stopping and it includes:

Types of Starters and Brakes

z Electric induction motors starting Direct On Line (DOL)

z Electric Induction motors starting Star Delta

z Electric Direct Current (DC) motors

z Wound Rotor (slip ring) motors with variable rotor resistance circuits

z Fluid Coupling devices

z Electro Magnetic drives

z Variable Voltage Variable Frequency (VVVF) electronic starters

z Variable Speed Drives (VSD)

z Constant Torque brakes

z Variable Torque brakes

z VVVF electric motor braking (regenerative control)

z Others

The Helix delta-T program allows you to input data to simulate all of the above type of starting and stopping control.

Classes of Starters and Brakes

The main types of control are

z Torque vs Speed control

z Speed vs Time control

z Constant Torque Brakes

Refer to the Torque Speed principles help topic for details about the types of starters.

To access the starters database click the Data, Starters Database menu item in the main form to display the starters database:

Torque Speed curve

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The database form has a table of data at the top left. This is where you enter the category, description and type of starter. The table on the top right hand side is
where the data for the selected starter is displayed. When you click from one starter to the next, the right hand table is refreshed and the data in the right hand
table is drawn in the Graph below the table. The image above is a for a Torque Speed curve. In this case you enter data in the Speed % and the Torque %
columns in the data table and this is what is drawn in the graph. The dynamic analysis calculation will ensure that a drive with this starter will follow this
relationship.

Refer to the Torque Speed principles help topic for details about the types of starters.

Speed Time curve

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The image above is a for a Speed vs Time curve. In this case you enter data in the Speed % and the Time columns in the data table and this is what is drawn
in the graph. The dynamic analysis calculation will ensure that a drive with this starter will follow this relationship. So after say 2 seconds the speed will be 5%
and after 50 seconds it will 35% and so on. In this case the Drive pulley will follow this acceleration ramp.

Refer to the Torque Speed principles help topic for details about the types of starters.

Constant Torque Brakes

If the Drive or Brake pulley is fitted with a constant torque brake (this applies to most conveyor brakes such as the fail safe spring applied hydraulically released
disc brakes) then you need to select this Type from the drop down box when selecting the type for the dynamic analysis calculations. The actual torque value is
entered in the main form Input Brakes tabsheet in the program.

Speed vs Time Brakes

In this case we select the Speed - Time type and then enter a speed deceleration curve by typing in data in the Speed % and Time columns, starting at 100%
speed and ending at zero speed after t seconds. See image below.

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The brake will control the pulley to stop by following an S curve from 100% Speed to zero speed after 30 seconds in the above case.

How to Edit the curve data

Once you have entered data for a specific type of curve you can copy and then edit the curve quickly. For example, you may have entered a S curve ramp with a
starting time of say 30 seconds. You may now want the same shape of curve but a different starting time, say 60 seconds. You can do this easily as follows:

1. Select the curve you want to edit

2. Press the Copy Starter / Brake button at the top if the table. The selected starter will be copied along with the curve data and inserted at the bottom of the
table.

3. Selected to new copy of the starter and the curve will be re-drawn.

4. Press the Adjust Torque, Adjust Speed or Adjust Time button above the curve points data table depending on what you want to adjust.

5. The following form will be displayed

6.

7. Enter the adjustment factor. Eg. to double the time values, enter a 2.0 or to halve the torque values enter a 0.5 etc. The press OK. The values will be
adjusted.

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8. Press the Redraw curve button to redraw the curve with the adjusted values.

Using the Copy Starter button means that you can keep the original curve for future use and use the new adjusted curve and also keep it for future use. In this
way you can quickly build a database of different types of starters or brakes. You can also make starter calculations in a spreadsheet such as Excel and then
create a new Starter in the table, choose the type and then typ in the data for Torque, Speed and or Time.

Delete Starter

To Delete a Starter us the Delete button. This will clear the curve point data and the starter description as well.

All this data is stored in the Starters and Points tables in the xml file.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program


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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Cost Estimating


The program is provided with a worksheet for estimating the cost of the conveyor equipment and installation. The system allows you to
create a Cost Category and then to add any items you wish in the category. It uses a Master - Detail relations ship to display the data.

Click the Estimating, Cost Estimating Form menu on the main form. The following form will be displayed:

The upper tale contained the cost categories. if the form is blank you can add your own categories by typing in a description for the category.
Then add as many line items in the lower table to add to the category. You can enter a quantity, unit rate and then press the Calculate Totals
button to extend the cost. The Selling price is determined by applying the gross margin % to the total cost using the Selling Price = Total
Cost / (1 - Margin%).

Extract quantities from conveyor design file

You can extract the description and quantities for equipment from the design file. Right click in the table to get the pop-up menu and the
choose from the following list to extract the details from the design file.

Once you have added all the categories and cost items you can use the top Recalculate Totals button to calculate the category totals.

You can view and print a Cost Estimating Report by using the Reports menu or the button on the Reports tabsheet.

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Copying Estimating Data from previous design file

If you have already set up a cost category and item list in previous design file you can copy it into the current or any other design file by
editing the .xml file. The estimating data is stored in two tables in the xml file, they are called CostCat and CostItems.

Open the .xml design file Windows Notepad or any text file editor. Scroll down to the CostTab and CostItems section of the file and highlight
all the data from the first <CostTab> to the </CostItem> and press Ctrl V to copy to clipboard. Then open the other design .xml file and paste
this data over the same <CostTab> ..... </CostItem> in the new file. Now when you open the design file in delta-T and go to the Estimating
form the data will be shown and you can edit it as required.

This method of editing the xml file can be used for design file input data, it is easy to transfer data from one design file to another.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Equipment Lists


The program is provided with a set of Equipment lists which can be compiled from multiple conveyor design files. After doing a number of Conveyor
Design Calculations you may want to construct equipment schedules. These schedules summarise the equipment from a number of designs onto
one report. For instance, you may do 5 conveyor designs and then construct a schedule showing the Belt details for the 5 conveyors on one report.
Equipment schedules are also provided for Idlers, Motors, Pulleys, Fluid Couplings and Gearboxes.

In addition, you can set up a Project Design Summary Report. This is a summary of the main conveyor design features from any number of
conveyors, such as belt details, speed, capacity etc. You can export this report to PDF, Word (RTF) Excel etc. and use it as basis for your own
customised reports.

To construct Equipment Schedules, first do your conveyor designs. Each design should be done in a New Conveyor Design File.

Select the Reports, Equipment Lists main menu option. The following from will be displayed.

Use the Add File button to select the files you want to extract the lists from

Now go to the Equipment Lists tabsheet

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Choose the list you want to create and display or you can View All List Reports. These reports can be saved as PDF or other files and then
emailed to your supplier for obtaining pricing, drawings etc.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Reports Settings Table


You can adjust the report display settings and which reports to display and print using the Report Table Settings.

If you click the Reports tabsheet on the main form the following will be displayed

The Report names are shown in the table - do not edit these names as they are used internally by the program to identify reports.
There are a number switches for each report.

The Print Report switch determines whether a report will be printed or included when you use the Reports, Combined Report (All
Reports) menu.

The Display Sketch switch is for displaying the Conveyor Profile sketch in the report, you can choose not to display it on a report.

The Display Logo switch is for displaying the Company Logo in the report, you can choose not to display it on a report. See Input
Project Details help topic for loading your own logo.

The Display Comments switch is for displaying the Designer Comments in the report footer, you can choose not to display it on a
report.

After editing the report table you must Save the settings using the save button. These settings are saved in the Units.xml file in the
main program directory.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Design Summary Report


To view the Design Summary use the Reports, Design Summary Report menu to display the following report.

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This output screen summarises the salient points of your design. It shows brief details about the design, ranging
from the Material Details, Conveying distance, Tensions, Installed Power, Belt and Idlers to Pulley Diameters.

The information on this report is usually sufficient for a feasibility study or a design check.

The Designers Comments section allows you to record details about the load case or other assumptions made.

To purchase a license to use the software, please click on the following Purchase License link
or send us an email at sales@helixtech.com.au with your details and a request for options to purchase the
program.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Belt Details Report


To view the belt details report use the Reports, Belt Details Report menu to display the following report.

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The belt details report gives details relating to the belt strength, capacity load area etc. as well as showing a
sketch of the cross-section of the load on the belt for both the high and low bulk density cases. In addition, the
flooded belt load area and masses are given. This Flooded condition is when the belt is loaded up to its edge.

Standard edge distances are also given, being 5.5% of belt width plus a 20mm margin as detailed in the CEMA
and ISO specifications.

You will note slight differences in load area between CEMA and ISO calculations due to different methods used
by each code.

Note, it is possible to perform calculations using a belt which has full skirts or a sidewall belt - do a manual
calculation of the effective load area of the sidewall or skirted belt, then adjust the belt width downwards (and
adjust the material surcharge angle) until the same area is calculated by the program. Now the material mass per
unit length will be correct and any tension calculations will be as for a skirted or sidewall system.

You may also add a 90 degree troughing angle idler to the database and use this for the sketch of the load area,
however it is the users responsibility to ensure that the load area used by the program is the actual load area
required.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Belt Flap Report


The tensioned belt supported by the idlers may be modelled as a simply supported plate. This belt has an inherent natural frequency dependent on the span between
idlers, mass of belt and material if present and the tension in the belt. The rotating idler roll also has a natural frequency induced by its eccentricity. If the natural
frequency of the belt and the rotating idler coincide, resonance occurs. This resonance can have a damaging effect on the idler rolls, bearings and the conveyor
structure itself and should be avoided by altering either the idler spacing, belt speed, mass of belt or belt tension.

The delta-T program has a Design Report which calculates the Idler Roll frequency and the Belt Transverse Wave frequency for each section of conveyor, and if
the belt frequency and the idler frequency fall within +/- 10% of each other, a warning flag will be raised. Multiple frequency modes are also calculated.

Belt and Idler Resonance

After performing a design calculation, select the Reports main menu then the Belt Flap menu. The following report form will be displayed.

Belt and Idler Resonance Report

The Tension at the beginning and end of each conveyor section is used to calculate the belt sag and then the Belt Transverse wave frequency, resulting in a range of
frequencies for the conveyor section. This range is compared to the Idler Roll excitation frequency.
The sample report shown above shows the calculated values for the Belt Transverse Wave frequency range and the Idler Roll excitation frequencies. If these two
frequencies, or multiples of the frequencies, fall within plus or minus 10% of each other a warning flag is raised in the last column of the report. The second last column
shows the critical idler spacing for the first mode, ie when n=1.

Usually, the carry side of the belt will be loaded and the mass of material will have a significant damping effect on the belt transverse wave amplitude.

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The tensions used are for the conveyor running fully loaded, as this is mode in which the conveyor will be operated for most of the time.

Avoid the Warning 2 case

Helix Technologies have observed the behaviour of many conveyors and we have come to recognise that the belt flap case to avoid is the one with the mode 2
warning. In this case the belt transverse wave frequency is half the idler rotation frequency and this is the case the cause the material to bunch up on the belt inducing
increasing vibrations which in turn cause more material to bunch up and so on. See picture material bunching below.

Material Build-up on idlers

The calculations for the idler roll excitation frequency are based on an 'out of round' idler roll with a single cusp or TIR abnormality. However, in practice, material build-
up on the idler roll may result in more than one high spot on the idler, and this can alter the idler excitation frequency.

Some of the formulae used in the calculations are given below:

Refer to Reference Flexural Behaviour of Tensioned Conveyor Belts - A. Harrison

Also, from Bulk Solids Handling Vol 15 N0 4, Application of Beam Elements part II by G. Lodewijks:

The Transverse vibration of the belt is given by

Where Vb is the belt speed and C2 the wave speed of the transverse waves.

Further more

Where g = gravitational acceleration in m/s2


l = idler spacing, m
Ks = Belt Sag

The frequency of the Belt is given by

Where fb = Belt Frequency


C2 as above
B is the ratio of belt velocity to C2

The idler roll excitation frequency is given by:

Where fi = Idler Excitation frequency


Vb = belt speed
D = Idler roll diameter

Example of Material Bunching - Warning mode 2 case

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In the picture above you can see how the material has bunched up on the conveyor. This is a long yard conveyor carrying iron ore and it is loaded evenly from a
conveyor at the tail end but due to the presence of the mode 2 belt resonance the material bunches up on the conveyor and the whole support structure vibrates up and
sown to the extent that structural failures have occurred. The Warning 2 case in the Belt Flap report must be designed out where possible. On some conveyors such as
stacker / reclaimers the position of the machines alters the belt tensions and this results in the position of the resonance to move along the conveyor. This makes it
impossible to design out completely.

Mix up idler spacing

In order to prevent the resonance occurring it is recommended that the idler spacing be changed to random spacing. This moves the Belt Frequency as the spacing
changes and so does not allow resonance to build up.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Belt Tension Graphs


You can view Line and Bar Graphs of the belt tensions in the conveyor by right clicking in the Conveyor Sketch panel and selecting the View Bar
Graph of Belt Tensions or View Line Graph of Belt Tensions menu. The following are samples of the graphs drawn.

Line Tension Graphs

Use the Display Tension Options menu at the top of the form to display the belt tensions under different operating conditions.

Bar Tension Graphs

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To view the tension graphs for the different operating conditions such as Starting or Braking use the menu at the top left of the form to display these
graphs. You can edit the colours and graphs display using the Graph Edit button and you can copy the graph to the Windows clipboard and paste it into
a report document by sung the Copy button on the graph toolbar.

Graph Edit and Copy toolbar

Zoom Graph function

You can also zoom in on the graphs. Right click in the graph at the top left corner of the area to enlarge and then hold your mouse down and drag down
and to the right and release the left mouse button. The graphs will be re-drawn and display the rectangular area selected selected. To Zoom out repeat
the draw rectangle process but draw form bottom right to top left and let mouse go to re-draw the graph at 100% setting.

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Zoomed view from bar graph shown above.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program


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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Brake Details Report


To view the brake details report use the Reports, Brakes Report menu to display the following report.

Brake selection and equipment details are given here. The Program sorts the brake database in the following order

Category, Metric, Allow Selection, Minimum Clamping Force

and then selects the first brake which meets the torque requirements:

z The Disc diameter is reduced to an Effective diameter by subtracting the Pad Offset width or distance from the radius, and the
braking Torque is calculated using the Clamping force, the co-efficient of friction and the effective disc radius.

z The Design Stopping Time. This time is calculated by the program and can be viewed on the Conveyor Starting and Stopping
design report.

z The number of Consecutive stops and the Average number of stops per hour are used for the thermal design calculations for the
brake.

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z The Disc Temperature after the total number of consecutive stops will be calculated and displayed on the above form. As a rule,
the brake disc temperature should not exceed 300 degrees C. If the temperature exceeds this value, you should increase the
disc diameter, increase the disc thickness or select a larger brake with a larger Pad offset Width W.

Refer to the Input Brake Details form for inputs to select the brake calliper and equipment. Note the Braking Torque on the pulley used for
belt tension and stopping times calculations is input on the Pulley Brakes tabsheet on the main form

See the Dynamic analysis help topic called Dynamic Analysis Inputs for details about conveyor brakes using constant torque or speed
ramp stopping.

Refer to the Input Drive Details form for more information about drives.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design


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Program

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Drive Details Report


To view the Drives Report use the Reports, Drives Report menu to display the following report.

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This report shows the Drive pulley details input, load share on drive, drive traction input details and pulley
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dimensions. It also shows the couplings and brakes if any and the details of the drive train inertia inputs.

Also the selected gearbox ration and required gearbox ratio are shown along with required and actual belt speed.

Holdback / Backstop Torque

This report indicates whether a backstop or holdback device is required. The method used to determine this is:

Force required to Lift the load = Net lift x Mass of Material x g


Horizontal Force = Te x 1000 - Net lift x Mass of Material x g

If LiftForce x 2 > Horizontal force then a backstop is required

The backstop torque = Drive Pulley Radius (m) x (LiftForce - HorizontalForce / 2)

The Backstop torque calculated using the above method will be a maximum when only the inclined sections of
conveyor are loaded.

Note: For multiple drives, the total backstop torque required is shown at each drive motor report.

The worst case scenario for a backstop would be if the belt was restrained (jammed fast) at some point and an
attempt to start the conveyor was made. In this case, the motor would deliver up to 3 times full load torque into the
belt. When the motor overload trips, the backstop would be required to hold this torque. This value is shown on
the report for information.

Dynamic Holdback Forces

Helix Technologies recommends that a Dynamic Analysis is performed in order to determine the actual dynamic
run back forces, they can be significantly higher than the static analysis case - refer to Dynamic Analysis
Holdback Torque Calculation help topic for details.

Refer to the Input Drive Details form for more information about drives.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Fluid Coupling Details Report


To view the Fluid Couplings report use the Reports, Fluid Couplings Report menu to display the following report.

The database structure for soft start devices was originally designed around Fluid Couplings, however, the increasing use of other types
of starting device to limit torque, has prompted a change to a generic device database. You can enter any type of device in the database,
not only fluid couplings.

Note: If a suitable device is not found in the database, a warning message will be displayed during the Design Calculation. You should
select a Fluid Coupling or Starter manually, or enter suitable data in the database.

You can make the program ignore the Fluid Coupling Selection Procedure by Setting the Direct Drive option button to ON in the Input
Fluid Coupling / Soft Starter form. Refer to the Input Fluid Couplings help topic.

Setting the Direct Drive button to ON makes the program ignore the Fluid Coupling Selection procedure, but it retains the Starting
Torque % Factor you input. For example, if you have a squirrel cage AC motor (direct Start torque % = 220% say) controlled by a VVVF
soft starter, you can set the Direct Drive option to ON, enter (say) 120% Starting Torque factor for the drive and the program will use the
120% starting torque value for the calculations.

See the Dynamic analysis help topic called Torque Speed Principles for details about starting conveyors.

Fluid Coupling Selection

The coupling selection procedure includes a static and a dynamic component. The static element checks whether the coupling peak
torque % is less than or equal to the allowable peak torque % limit specified under the Input Fluid Coupling / Soft Starter dialogue box. If
the peak torque % of the coupling is less than the required peak torque % and the coupling can transmit the power (i.e. it's kW rating is
greater than or equal to the motor kW) then the second check is done.

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This second check involves calculating a so called 'Ramping Time' for the conveyor, and then checking if the slope of the coupling ramp
is less than the conveyor required ramp slope.

The required ramping time is given by:

Rt = L.a.

where Rt = Ramping Time in seconds


L = Conveying Distance in m
a = a slope factor and depends on the type of conveyor belting.

a = 0.005625 for Solid Woven PVC belts


a = 0.0042 for Fabric belts
a = 0.002714 for Steel belts

The coupling ramp slope is determined by its run-up torque % rating after 2 seconds. If this torque rating yields a slope which is lower
than the conveyor ramping time slope, then the coupling is suitable.

The couplings in the database may be classified as follows:

Class of Coupling Peak Torque % Run-up Torque %


Traction Coupling 200% 200%
Single Delay 160% 150%
Double Delay 150% 120%
Soft Start 140% 75%
External Fill 130% 50%

The above method of coupling selection is a practical method of arriving at a correct coupling selection based on empirical data.

Acknowledgments: Mr. Atholl Surtees, Surtees and Son, Voith Agents, Johannesburg, RSA

Refer to the Input Drive Details form for more information about drives.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program


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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Gearbox Details Report


To view the Gearbox details report use the Reports, Gearbox Report menu to display the following report.

Gearbox selection and equipment details are given here. Note that if a Fluid coupling is present, the required gearbox ratio takes into
account the % Slip of the Fluid coupling.

The Program sorts the gearbox database in the following order

Category, Metric, Allow Selection, No Of Stages, Max Torque, Ratio

and then selects the first gearbox which meets the requirements:

Torque Required = Motor FL Torque x Service Factor (default 1.5)


Speed Required is calculated from Required Pulley speed plus or minus the Speed Selection Tolerance %.

Note that a closer speed ratio may be found by decreasing the Plus and Minus Speed ratio tolerances, and if No Gearbox Selection was
possible, it could be because the program is looking for a ratio within a too narrow speed band.

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Refer to the Input Gearbox Details form.

See the Dynamic analysis help topic called Torque Speed Principles for details about starting conveyors and the Dynamic Analysis
Holdback Torque Calculation help topic for details about holdback torque calculations.

Refer to the Input Drive Details form for more information about drives.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design


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Program

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Horizontal Curve Report


To view the Horizontal Curve Report go to the Input, Horizontal Curve Calculations menu on the main form.
The Horizontal curve calculation form will be opened and you can complete the calculations as described in the
Horizontal Curve Calculations help topic. Once completed, you can view a report for each horizontal curve in the
conveyor by clicking the View Report button above the belt drift graphs.

The following report will be displayed.

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This report records the input and calculated data for the curve and includes a belt drift graph. You can generate a
report for each horizontal curve by navigating to the curve and then pressing the View Report button. You can
save the reports as pdf files.

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Program

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Idler Details Report


To view the Idler Details report use the Reports, Idler Details Report menu to display the following report.

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A warning message will be displayed if the idler Shaft Deflection exceeds the allowable deflection.

The Load on the Centre Roll of the idler includes the load from the belt mass, material mass and the belt deviation
load which may be due to idler misalignment or to a convex curve load. This belt deviation load is an input value
and may be calculated on the Input Idler Details form

The Idler load also includes an Idler Dynamic Load Factor which is related to the speed of the belt and the lumps
in the material and whether there is a cushioning layer of fines. For return idlers the Dynamic Load factor is
usually input as 1.4 to cater for belt flapping loads.

The Idler Bearing life (L10h) is calculated and the user should ensure that this L10h life is sufficient for the duty. If
not, select an idler with higher load rating bearing. Normal life requirements range from 20,000 hours upwards,
depending on the specifications and requirements of the project.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program


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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Motor Details Report


To view the Motor Details Report use the Reports, Motors Report menu to display the following report.

Each drive motor will be listed. Motor data is extracted from the motor database or from user inputs. The motor efficiency and power
factor are calculated from the 50%, 75% and 100% load values using a regression method.

Note: If a suitable motor is not found in the database, a warning message will be displayed during the Design Calculation. You should
then either enter a motor detail manually or add a suitable motor to the database so that the program can select it.

The Motor power rating required is taken from the Belt Power x Load share % on drive divided by the Drive Efficiency input and then
multiplied by the Motor Selection Safety factor. The next motor size in the database with the correct voltage, poles and frequency will be
selected.

If you find that a motor is not being selected it could be because you have entered a voltage that is not available in the selected database
category.

Refer to the Input Drive Details form for more information about drives.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design


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Program

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Pulley and Shaft Details Report


To view the Pulley Detail Reports use the Reports, Conveyor Pulleys Report menu or Conveyor Pulley
Dimensions Report menu or the Pulley Design Datasheet menu or the Conveyor Pulley Shafts Report menu
to display the following reports.

Note: Shaft length = Bearing Centres + 2 x Bearing Width + Shaft Extension Length.
Pulley diameters marked with an * indicate the pulley dimensions have been overridden and input by the user.
Refer to the Shaft Calculations help topic for details on pulley shaft calculations.

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Note: Shaft length = Bearing Centres + 2 x Bearing Width + Shaft Extension Length.
Pulley diameters marked with an * indicate the pulley dimensions have been overridden and input by the user.
Refer to the Shaft Calculations help topic for details on pulley shaft calculations.

Helix Technologies has a more detailed Pulley Shaft calculation program based on Australian Standard
AS1403. Please refer to the Helix web site link below for more details.
Pulley Shaft Design to AS1403 Standards

For a sample pulley design using this program see Worked Example Calculation AS 1403

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design


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Program

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Takeup and Drive Traction Report


To view the Takeup and Drive Traction Report use the Reports, Starting and Stopping Report menu to display
the following report.

This report indicates whether there is sufficient T2 (Slack Side) tension on the Drive pulleys to prevent belt
slippage during Running, Starting and Braking conditions.

The Required T2 value is compared to the actual T2 value, and if the difference is negative (a negative surplus T2
Tensions) the take-up mass needs to be increased. The suggested additional take-up mass is calculated and
shown.

You should adjust the Take-up mass upwards by the amount shown. Use the Input Take-up Details form
and then re-calculate.

Alternatively you can increase the wrap angle by adding snub pulleys or multiple drive pulleys or changing the
lagging to to improve the drive factor.

Notes regarding Drives and Belt Slippage follow - also refer to the Entering Drive Details form.

Values of co-efficient of friction, µ under Running conditions


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Pulley co-efficient of friction µ


Type of Lagging
Pulley
Bare Steel Rubber Ceramic
Condition
Wet 0.10 0.20 0.25
Moist 0.15 0.25 0.35
Dry 0.30 0.35 0.45

For starting conditions, a higher co-efficient of friction may be used. This value is usually 0.10 more than the
running co-efficient of friction. From Euler, the tension ratio

Also and effective Tension Te = T1 -T2

The drive factor is calculated automatically from the Wrap angle and co-efficient of friction µ.

Definition of Drive Factor Cw

where Cw is the drive factor


e is the base of the Naperian log
µ is the coefficient of friction between pulley and belt
theta is the angle of wrap in radians

For Fixed Pulley Centre belt tensioners - for conveyors without an automatic gravity type takeup tensioner it is
important to increase the Drive factor Cw to compensate for the drop in belt tension which will occur at the slack
side of the drive during running and starting. The belt is pre-tensioned by jacking a pulley into a fixed position prior
to running the conveyor. The Average belt tension remains constant at the preset setting so when the conveyor
runs and the drive tension increases on the tight side, there is a corresponding drop in tensions on the return side
belt. This drop in T2 tension means that an additional tension is required in the system to ensure that there is
sufficient drive traction. Helix recommends that for a fixed tensioning system an increased drive factor Cw is used.
If the recommended drive factor is say 0.5 then add 0.3 and use a drive factor Cw of 0.8. See Input Takeup
Details help topic for details of takeup inputs. This adjustment is not made automatically and must be made by the
designer.

From the above, it is apparent that as the effective tension Te on a drive increases, the T2 slack side tension must
be increased to prevent slippage. This means that the counterweight mass needs to be increased. Alternatively,
increasing the Wrap angle will increase the contact area between belt and pulley and therefore increase the
effective tension, which can be input.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design


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Program

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Tension Summary Report


To view the belt tension table use the Reports, Tension Calculation Reports, Tension Summary Run / Start
menu to display the following report.

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This report shows the belt tensions under the different operating conditions. The minimum and maximum tensions
are shown. You can also view these tension values in the Belt Tension Graphs form.

The belt elongation and takeup travel are also shown in the table with more details about the belt tension tension
calculations shown in the . See the Belt Tension Summary Belt Sag report.

The Tension Calculations Detail Report shows a breakdown of the tension calculations and also the takeup travel
calculation.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design


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Program

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Tension Calculation Details Report


To view a detailed breakdown of belt tension calculations select the belt tension table use the Reports, Tension
Calculation Reports, Run Fully Loaded Tensions menu to display the following report.

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This report shows the breakdown of how the belt tensions are arrived at. You can view a separate report for the
belt running empty, or the the Inclines loaded or the Declines loaded reports as well. At each station in the
conveyor the T1 and T2 tensions are shown along with the primary and secondary tension calculated values. The

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columns display the following:

Station number, length and lift

T1 is the tight side tension on the pulley

‚‚‚‚‚‚‚‚ T2 is the slack side tension on the pulley


‚‚‚‚‚‚‚‚ Tp is the tension required to rotate the pulley - i.e. overcome bearing friction losses and the
additional tension required to wrap the belt around the pulley. It is calculated in accordance with the CEMA
Appendix 3 method.
‚‚‚‚‚‚‚‚ Te is the effective tension input at a drive pulley
Tension adj. is the column where the user input tension adjustments have been added, for example for
Hopper pull-out forces.
Material Acceleration is the force required to accelerate the material at the loading points
‚‚‚‚‚‚‚‚ Material acceleration is the Tension required to accelerate the material on the belt from rest to the
belt speed. Every time the program encounters an increase in capacity from one section to the next, it will
automatically add this Acceleration tension.
‚‚‚‚‚‚‚ Skirt Friction is the tension required to overcome the friction between the material and the skirts.
Refer to the Skirt Friction help topic for more details.
‚‚‚‚‚‚‚‚ Scraper Friction is the tension required to overcome the friction between the belt and scrapers and
ploughs and other cleaning devices. Refer to the Belt Scrapers help topic for more details.
‚‚‚‚‚‚‚‚ Section Effective Tension is the effective tension over the section due to the belt and material
moving over the idlers plus the tension required to lift (or lower) the belt and material (if applicable). Refer to
the ISO Calculation or the Friction Factor help topic for more details.
‚‚‚‚‚‚‚‚ The Friction Factor column shows the actual friction factor used to arrive at the effective tension
over the section. This factor may be an input value, or it may be calculated using the tables described in the
Input Conveyor Sections details form help topic. If you input a zero friction factor for the conveyor section,
then the program will calculate a value for you, using the ISO, CEMA or VISCO method depending on which
method you use for the calculation.
The summary panel at the bottom of the Loading Tensions report shows the minimum and maximum values, total
values as well as average tensions for this loading condition. The weighted average stationary belt tension is also
calculated and subtracted from the weighted average tension for this loading condition, and when the belt
modulus is applied, the resulting belt elongation and take-up movement are calculated.

The Belt Power for this loading condition is also shown.

Takeup Movement

The Take-up movement and belt elongation are also calculated using the Belt Modulus, Belt Length and change
in average tension in the belt as shown on the bottom left panel of the report. The belt elongation is determined
from the following:

Using the example above the belt elongation = 96.93 * 630.7 / (129600 * 1.8) = 0.262m and the takeup carriage
will move half this distance.

Similar reports are produced for the Belt Running Empty, Inclines and Level Sections only loaded, and
Declines and Level sections only loaded.

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Refer to the Belt Tension Graphs help topic to view a graph of the tensions.

The belt elongation and takeup travel are also shown in the table with more details about the belt tension tension
calculations shown in the . See the Belt Tension Summary Belt Sag report.

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Program

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Tension Summary Belt Sag Report


To view the belt sag and tension table use the Reports, Tension Calculation Reports, Tension Summary Belt
Sag menu to display the following report.

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This report shows the belt tensions under the different operating conditions. The idler spacing and resulting belt
sag % are also shown in the table. Generally the maximum belt sag for the loaded belt running condition is limited
to a maximum of 2% and for starting and braking the maximum sag should not exceed 5%. The allowable sag %
values are user inputs in the Input Belt Details form and this help topic also shows the formula used for calculating
the belt sag between idlers.

If the sag exceeds these values you should adjust one of or a combination of the following to decrease the belt
sag:

z Increase takeup mass

z Adjust Starting Torque Factor

z Adjust Braking Torque

z Increase Drive inertia - add flywheels or use larger gearbox ratio

Important Note Regarding Takeup Mass Calculation

The program will Automatically (if the Auto Calc Takeup switch is on) calculate the minimum takeup tension
required to yield the maximum allowable belt sag for the Running Full and Empty conditions but for starting and
stopping conditions the user needs to manually adjust the takeup mass or adjust the Starting Torque or the
Braking torque as required.

The reason for this is that the minimum takeup mass required is the one which gives sufficient drive traction and
limits the belt sag for the Running condition. You cannot have less takeup than is required for the running
condition. You can alter the starting method (starting torque factor) and braking torque or drive inertia to reduce
the takeup mass required for the starting and stopping conditions, or you can choose to increase the takeup mass
for the starting and braking if you prefer.

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To sum up, the program calculates:

1. For the Running Full and Empty cases the minimum takeup mass required for Drive Traction and to limit belt
sag.

2. The user must then adjust the takeup mass or the starting and stopping factors for the Starting and Braking
cases to ensure there is sufficient takeup for these cases. See the Entering Drive Details help topic and the Input
Brakes help topic.

This approach will yield the most economical belt selection as the minimum belt strength is the one required for
the running conditions and the starting and stopping methods can be fine tuned to match the running takeup
requirements.

See the Belt Tension Summary Report and you can also view these tension values in the Belt Tension Graphs
form.

The belt elongation and takeup travel are also shown in the table with more details about the belt tension tension
calculations shown in the . See the Belt Tension Summary Belt Sag report.

The Tension Calculations Detail Report shows a breakdown of the tension calculations and also the takeup travel
calculation.

Excessive belt sag - this is an extreme case after the conveyor broke a pulley shaft, however it is possible that
excessive belt sag will occur on a conveyor at the beginning of an inclined section of conveyor during the stopping
loaded case. Helix recommends that a Dynamic Analysis is performed in order to check for low tensions during

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starting and stopping.

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Helix delta-T6 - Starting and Stopping Report Page 1 of 5

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design


www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies
Program

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Starting and Stopping Report


To view the Starting and Stopping Report use the Reports, Starting and Stopping Report menu to display the
following report.

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This Report summarises the Static Analysis (rigid body) Starting and Stopping time calculations for the conveyor
as well as giving the mass of material that will be discharged during the conveyor stopping time. It is
recommended that for large or long conveyors a full Dynamic Analysis is performed to get a detailed view of the

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conveyor tensions and belt velocities during starting and stopping - refer to the Dynamic Analysis help topics for
more details.

Acceleration

To start a conveyor, the tension at the drives needs to overcome the resisting or 'effective tension' of the conveyor
system. As long as the Tension available to start the conveyor exceeds the effective tension, the conveyor will
start moving. The rate of acceleration depends on the margin between the Starting tensions and the resisting
tensions and the mass to be accelerated. The mass of the belt, Material, Idlers, Pulleys and Drive inertia are
converted to an equivalent mass at the belt line and shown in the top left panel for the report.

where F is the effective tension + the drive losses


m is the total moving mass
a is the deceleration rate

F is basically the motor torque x starting torque factor divided by pulley radius x drive efficiency less the effective
tension for the load case. So F and m are known and acceleration rate a is calculated. All this assumes a rigid belt
but this is not the case in reality, hence the dynamic analysis is more accurate.

Drive Inertia

Note the Drive Inertia can be a significant amount of the total mass to be accelerated and the equivalent mass at
the drive is calculated from the drive inertia J using the following:

You can see from the above that the motor speed has an exponential affect on the drive equivalent mass, so if
form example you change the motor speed from a 4 pole motor to a 6 pole motor, (assuming the same inertia) the
equivalent mass of the drive will decrease by a factor of 2,25 and so your starting belt tensions will be increased
significantly.

Deceleration

The deceleration rates are calculated from the drive inertia and the inertia of the belt and material on the belt, as
well as the inertia of the drives, pulleys and idlers. The deceleration rate is given by the formula

where F is the effective tension + the drive losses


m is the total moving mass
a is the deceleration rate

and

where a is the deceleration rate

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V is the belt speed


t is the starting or stopping time

The coasting distance S is given by:

The discharge mass is given by

where Wm is the mass of material per unit length ( kg/m)

Braking and Conveyor Coasting

Braking and Conveyor Coasting times are also calculated for loaded and empty conveyor conditions. The Braking
force is entered as a low speed torque on the drive pulley, which is converted to a force once the drive pulley
diameter has been determined. If the brake is fitted on the High Speed Side of the reducer (which is normally the
case) you must convert the braking torque to a low speed torque before entering the value in the Pulley Data,
Pulley Brakes table on the main form. You can do this using the following conversion.

The Low Speed Brake Torque = High Speed Brake Torque * Reducer Ratio * Reducer Efficiency % / 100.

For example, High Speed Brake torque = 1500 Nm, reducer ratio = 18:1, reducer efficiency = 95%

LS Brake Torque = 1500 x 18 x 95 /100


= 25650 Nm
= 25.65 kNm which is the value that should be entered on the drive pulley.

Maximum Belt Starting Tension Percentage

This is the maximum allowable increase in belt tension during startup divided by the maximum allowable
operating belt tension. It is used to calculate the maximum allowable acceleration rates during starting. The
default value is 150%

This increase in starting tension multiplied by the belt rated tension minus the effective tension Te becomes the
accelerating force available to start the conveyor. Using the formula F = ma and the belt speed V, an acceleration
rate and thus a starting time is calculated. This starting time is compared to the starting time calculated using the
allowable peak torque starting percentage (see next item) and the longest starting time of the two is chosen as
the minimum starting time required. Thus, the belt starting tension percentage will only affect the conveyor
allowable starting time if it is calculated to be the limiting case when compared to the motor and fluid coupling
drive starting requirements.

Motor Acceleration Torque Percentage

This Percentage value limits the extent to which the peak drive torque may rise to, expressed as a percentage of
the motor full load torque. The selection of the fluid coupling depends on this limitation, as the value of the peak
torque percentage of the fluid coupling must be less than or equal to this percentage. See Fluid Coupling / Soft
Starter for details.

The acceleration rates and starting time of the conveyor are also affected by this starting torque value. The lower
the value, the lower the starting time required, provided that the allowable tension rise in the belt is not the limiting
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factor. (See item above)

To vary the Starting time of the conveyor, change the Starting Torque % input value on the Input Drives form.

A conveyor fitted with oversized motors may cause an excessive Tension Rise in the belt during starting. The
program will issue a warning message during the calculation process if this happens.

The program allows you to input different Starting Torque percentages for a Full and Empty belt. This situation
would only occur if the Startup system was specifically designed to do so. In these special cases, the Starting
torque of an empty belt is lower than for a full belt (inclined conveyors).

Flywheels

The inertia of the pulleys and drives are reduced to equivalent masses and added to the belt, material, and idler
rotating masses. A high inertia at a certain point will keep the belt moving for longer during stopping, and increase
the starting time during starting. Fitting a flywheel at a pulley will allow you to alter the behaviour and Starting /
Stopping tensions of the conveyor. A flywheel may be simulated by adding the equivalent moment of inertia of the
flywheel to that of the pulley. This can be done in Pulley Dimensions input form.

The moment of inertia can be calculated as follows:

Moment of inertia, (SI units)

where J is in kgm2
m is the mass in kg
R is the radius of gyration in m

For example, the Moment of inertia of a flywheel 1m in diameter and 30mm thick would be:

Where 7850 is the density of the steel in kg/m3

So the Moment of inertia J in kgm2 is:

The Low Speed inertia may be calculated using the reducer ratio as follows:

You can look-up typical Moments of Inertia for AC motors in the Inertia Look-up table.

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Helix delta-T6 - Vertical Curves Report Page 1 of 6

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Vertical Curves Report


After building the conveyor model and performing the calculation you can view the Vertical Curves Report. Select the Reports, Vertical Curves Report menu on the main
form. The report will be generated and displayed, a sample is shown below:

This report has a top panel which shows the conveyor profile along with the input data for the vertical curves such as belt mass, wear allowance, belt modulus and so on,
followed by a table of the Tension Calculations and required vertical curve radii for the different curve points in the conveyor.

The Curve Tension Safety factor is merely a safety factor applied to the calculated required radius. So if you enter a factor of 1.2 the radius will 1.2 times the minimum
radius calculated using the formulae shown below.

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The vertical curve calculation report shows the belt lift off radius calculations as well as minimum radii for limiting Edge Tension rise and Centre Tension radii at each point
along the conveyor. The largest radius for Concave curves or the Minimum Radius for Convex curves for all conditions and checks is then added to the last column of the
report. This radius should then be transferred back as an input into the program under the Vertical Curves Input form, and a check made on the Longsection Drawing of
the conveyor that this curve radius can actually fit into the geometry of the conveyor.

The last column on the report shows the maximum radius required at the intersection point.

At each curve the belt tension is shown for the operating condition (e.g running full, starting empty etc.) Then the required minimum radius for this belt tension is shown in
the Radius column. This is repeated for the other operating conditions such as Starting and Braking and the largest required radius is shown in the last column. This
means the Design Radius you input in the Pulley Vertical Curves Input form must be larger than or equal to this required radius.

Concave Curves

For concave curves three checks are done. The first is for belt lift off. The belt tension at a concave curve will lift the belt off the conveyor if the resultant force towards the
centre of curvature is larger than the gravitational force holding it down. If you decrease the curve radius, you increase the resultant force and so the belt may lift off.

For Concave curve Belt Lift-off calculations, the reduced belt mass is used. i.e. the worn belt mass. The % worn is input under the Input Belt Details form.

The worst case for lift off is usually when the conveyor is loaded up to the curve and unloaded in the curve and the Helix program uses this case to calculate the radius
required in the Fully Loaded columns in the report. Because there is no material weight in the curve the belt may lift.

The following formulae have been used for the curve calculations:

Concave Curves

minimum radius to prevent belt-lift off

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where R = radius of curve in m


S = safety factor (usually 1.2) see Input Belt Details form
W = belt width in mm
Tu = tension at curve in kN/m - (note units - kN per m)
B = worn belt mass per lineal m
g = gravitational acceleration in m/s

Note: The program automatically calculates the lift off radius with the conveyor loaded up to the curve IP and unloaded beyond this IP. This is to cover the case when
material is feeding in and the conveyor is loaded up to the curve and not yet loaded over the full curve. This case is shown as the radius required in the Fully Loaded
column of the report. The user should ensure that the worst cases for belt tension under all possible loading conditions should be considered by loading and unloading
sections of the conveyor as may be experienced in operation.

Length of curve

where X = Length of curve in m


a = angle of incline or change of grade, in degrees

Concave Curves - Limit Edge sagging Fabric belts

where R = radius of curve in m


n = 0.222 Sin(Troughing angle)
E = belt modulus in kN/m
W = belt width in mm
Tu = belt tension at curve in kN/m

In concave curves the belt edges tend to open out and if the tension drops too low the belt edges will sag excessively.

Concave Curves - Limit Edge sagging Steel belts

where R = radius of curve in m


theta = Troughing angle
E = belt modulus in kN/m
W = belt width in mm
Tu = belt tension at curve in kN/m

Concave Curves - Maximum Centre Tension

where R = radius of curve in m


n = 0.222 Sin(Troughing angle)
E = belt modulus in kN/m
W = belt width in mm
m = edge tension rise factor = 1 + Edge Tension % / 100 - e.g. 1.15
Tr = rated maximum operating tension for belt in kN/m
Tu = belt tension at curve in kN/m

Convex curves - limit edge tension rise

where R = radius of curve in m


n = 0.222 Sin(Troughing angle)
E = belt modulus in kN/m
W = belt width in mm
m = edge tension rise factor = 1 + Edge Tension % / 100 - e.g. 1.15
Tr = rated maximum operating tension for belt in kN/m
Tu = belt tension at curve in kN/m

Convex curves - to avoid centre buckling

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where m = edge tension rise % / 100 e.g. 0.15


other variables as detailed above.

As a rule, the worst case for convex curves is when the belt is running fully loaded and the belt is new. For concave curve lift-off, the worst case is generally during
starting with the belt loaded up to the concave curve and empty after the curve. If there is more than one concave curve in the conveyor, you should run different load
cases for each curve loaded up to the intersection point.

See Input Belt Details form for details of input requirements. Different loading conditions are entered in the Conveyor Sections input form.

Examples of belt lift off at a Tripper

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Helix delta-T6 - Pulley Shaft Calculations Page 1 of 2

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design


www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies
Program

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Pulley Shaft Calculations


Idler and pulley shaft bearing life calculations are performed using the L10h bearing life formula. Helix
Technologies has a dedicated Pulley Shaft Design program based on Australian Standard AS1403, please refer
to the Helix website Helix delta-D Shaft Design link.

The shaft calculations in Helix delta-T are based on the running tensions using the following formulae:
Resultant Force on shaft

where R is the resultant force on the pulley in kN


T1 is the tight side tension in kN
T2 is the slack side tension in kN
theta is the angle of wrap of the belt on the pulley

The Deflection Diameter is given by:

where Dd is the deflection diameter in mm


E is the Modulus of Elasticity = 210000 Mpa
alpha is the allowable angular deflection in minutes - default is 5 minutes
R is the resultant force on the shaft in N
L is the bearing centres in mm

in mm

Note that pulley hub centres are assumed to be the same as the belt width on the pulley.

The cshaft torque formula used is :

where T is the torque in Nmm


P is the installed power in kW
n is the pulley rotational speed in rpm

The bending moment is given by

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where M is the bending moment in Nmm


R is the resultant force

in mm

Minimum shaft Diameter combined stresses Dt

where all symbols are as detailed above. Refer to The Machinery’s Handbook or similar for more details.

The allowable stress is usually taken to be 41 Mpa for axle steels and 55Mpa for higher strength alloy steels such
AISI 4140.

Consult your pulley manufacturer before finalising shaft details.

The program allows a margin of 3mm on the diameter calculated to the diameter selected. For example, if the
diameter calculated is 127.9 mm and there is 125mm shaft in the database, the 125mm will be selected. This is to
prevent the program from oversizing the shaft when the calculated diameter is only marginally larger than the
shaft diameters available.

Note: For Drive pulleys, the shaft size is selected on the larger diameter of the Torsion diameter and the
Deflection diameter.

Helix Technologies has a dedicated Pulley Shaft Design program based on Australian Standard AS1403, please
refer to the Helix website Helix delta-D Shaft Design link.

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Helix delta-T6 - Skirt Friction Page 1 of 2

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design


www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies
Program

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Skirt Friction


The program will calculate the additional tension due to friction between the skirt and the belt and the material and
the skirt and add this tension to the tension of the conveyor section where you enter a Skirt Length in the
Sections table on the main form.

See ISO 5048 and DIN 22101

where Ts is the skirt resistance in N


u is the coefficient of friction between material and belt - usually 0.5 - 0.7
I is the conveyor capacity in m3/s
L is the length of skirted conveyor belt in m
V is the belt speed in m/s
r is the material density in kg/m3
b is the effective width of skirt = 2/3 belt width

Enter the length of Skirted Conveyor in the Sections table on the main form.

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See the Input Sections help topic.

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Helix delta-T6 - Belt Scrapers Page 1 of 1

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design


www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies
Program

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Belt Scrapers


The following formula is used to calculate the additional tension caused by the belt scraper, belt cleaner (or V
ploughs) on the belt.

where Ts is the scraper tension in N


n is the number of scraper blades
W is the belt width in mm
g is gravitational acceleration in m/s2

To include the Scraper resistance input the Number of scrapers or V ploughs in each conveyor Section see Input
Sections help topic

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Helix delta-T6 - Hopper Pullout Forces Page 1 of 2

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design


www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies
Program

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Hopper or Feeder Pullout Forces


You can calculate the additional forces required to pull material out of a hopper or bin. Select the Calcs, Calculate
Pullout Force from Hopper menu from the main form. The following form will be displayed:

This form allows you to calculate the Additional Tension required to pull a material out of a hopper. This additional tension
is mainly due to the shearing action required to pull the material out of the hopper opening. The methods shown and used
are quick estimation methods and it must be pointed out that the design of feeders and calculating the loads is a complex
subject and requires testing of the material properties which is beyond the scope of this program. The methods shown
here do not require any testing or special material properties and are provided as an estimate of loads.

Once you have the magnitude of these Pullout force tensions, you should design the Feeder as a normal conveyor and
add the Pullout Tension as a Tension Adjustment in the Input Sections form.

Two methods of calculation are offered - Bruff's method and the method proposed in the Bridgestone conveyor design
manual. Generally, Bruff's method is more conservative and is the preferred choice for safety.

You will note that two Tensions are given:

Starting or Initial Pull-out force

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Running or Flow conditions Pullout force.

The higher Starting force is required to overcome the interlocking (or bridging) of the material whilst stationary. Once it is
flowing, the force required reduces.

Calculation Procedure.

z Build a model of the conveyor


z Go to Calcs and enter the hopper dimensions and material properties
z Press Calculate
z Transfer the Pullout Resistance Tension for Running to the Conveyor Sections, Tension Adjustment column.
z Re-calculate the Conveyor using ISO, CEMA or VISCO buttons
z The Tension Adjustment will have been added to the conveyor model - details can be seen in the Tension
Calculation Reports.
z Note the conveyor absorbed and installed power and the Starting Torque Factor which depends on starting method
and motor.

Now you should substitute the Running Pullout Tension with the Starting Pullout Tension in the Tension adjustment and
re-calculate the conveyor. If the absorbed power is less than the Installed Power x Starting Torque factor then there is
sufficient power and torque to start the conveyor. A numeric example is shown below:

Conveyor Speed = 1.0m/s, belt power = Te x Belt Speed.

Effective Tension (3kN) and Absorbed power without Tension Adjustment = 3kW say.

Calculate hopper and add a Running Tension adjustment of 2kN say. Te is now 5kN and absorbed power 5kW. Installed
power is selected as 7.5kW motor started Direct on Line with starting torque factor of 200% FLT.

The Starting Tension adjustment is (say) 4 x Running = 8kN say. So for starting the Te becomes 3 + 8 = 11kN or 11kW
and we have available 7.5kW x 200% = 15kW so it is OK.

After Calculations are done you can view, Print or Export the report.

Note that Bruff's formula uses the square of the hopper opening x square of hopper length. This means that the pullout
forces increment exponentially with hopper opening dimensions and so are very sensitive to slot opening size.

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Helix delta-T6 - Feeder Calculation - Theoretical Method Page 1 of 2

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Feeder Calculation - Theoretical Method


You can calculate the additional forces required to pull material out of a hopper or bin. Select the Calcs, Calculate Feeder Loads menu from
the main form. The following form will be displayed:

This form allows you to calculate the Additional Tension required to pull a material out of a feeder, bin or hopper. This additional tension is
mainly due to the shearing action required to pull the material out of the hopper opening. The method used here is the 'Theoretical' method
developed first by arnold and McLean and the then refined by A.W. Roberts and others. Many papers have been published on this subject and
some are quite complex, however, Helix have refined the inputs to those shown in this form. The material in the feeder will require testing in
order to determine the wall frcition and effective angle of internal friction.

The initial surcharge factor qi is calculated and then the feeder vertical load is calculated using qi, see formula shown on form.

Alternatively, two other emperical methods of calculation are offered - Bruff's method and the method proposed in the Bridgestone conveyor
design manual, see the Calcs, Calculate Pull-out Force from Hopper menu.

Input your feeder and material data and then once you have obtained the feeder vertical and horizontal pull out loads you can use the method
shown below to model the belt feeder conveyor.

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Once you have the magnitude of these Pullout force tensions, you should design the Feeder as a normal conveyor and add the Pullout Tension
as a Tension Adjustment in the Input Sections form.

You will note that two Tensions are given:

Starting or Initial Pull-out force

Running or Flow conditions Pullout force.

The higher Starting force is required to overcome the interlocking (or bridging) of the material whilst stationary. Once it is flowing, the force
required reduces.

Calculation Procedure.

z Build a model of the conveyor


z Go to Calcs, Feeder Calculations and enter the hopper dimensions and material properties
z Press Calculate
z Transfer the Feeder Flowing Horizontal Resistance Force Ff to the Conveyor Sections, Tension Adjustment column.
z Re-calculate the Conveyor using ISO, CEMA or VISCO buttons
z The Tension Adjustment will have been added to the conveyor model - details can be seen in the Tension Calculation Reports.
z Note the conveyor absorbed and installed power and the Starting Torque Factor which depends on starting method and motor.

Now you should substitute the Running Pullout Tension with the Starting Pullout Tension in the Tension adjustment and re-calculate the
conveyor. If the absorbed power is less than the Installed Power x Starting Torque factor then there is sufficient power and torque to start the
conveyor. A numeric example is shown below:

Conveyor Speed = 1.0m/s, belt power = Te x Belt Speed.

Effective Tension (3kN) and Absorbed power without Tension Adjustment = 3kW say.

Calculate hopper and add a Running Tension adjustment of 2kN say. Te is now 5kN and absorbed power 5kW. Installed power is selected as
7.5kW motor started Direct on Line with starting torque factor of 200% FLT.

The Starting Tension adjustment is (say) 4 x Running = 8kN say. So for starting the Te becomes 3 + 8 = 11kN or 11kW and we have available
7.5kW x 200% = 15kW so it is OK.

After Calculations are done you can view, Print or Export the report.

The following references are shown if you would like to research these methods further.

References

z McClean A.G, Arnold P.C, 'A simplified approach for the evaluation of feeder loads for mass flow bins', Powder & Bulks Solids
Technology Vol.3 No.3
z A.W Roberts et.al, 'Wall Pressure-Feeder Load Interactions in Mass Flow Hopper/Feeder Combinations', Bulk Solids Handling Vol 6
No.4,
z A. E Maton, 'Belt Feeder Design: Starting Load Calculations', Bulk Solids Handling 8 2009

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Discharge Trajectory


You can calculate the Trajectory of the material as it leaves the head pulley of a conveyor. Select the Calcs, Calculate Discharge Trajectory
menu from the main form. The following form will be displayed:

This form allows you to calculate the Trajectory and print the trajectory co-ordinates. You can also draw lines such as impact plates and
rockboxes in the drawing to assist you to position these correctly.

Trajectory Input Data

Belt Speed - conveyor speed, Discharge radius at belt line and discharge radius at lump on burden.

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You can input two discharge radii - one for a particle sitting at the belt line and one for a particle (a lump say) which is on top of the material on
the belt. This system yields an 'envelope' which should cover the spread of the material (ignoring wind etc) during its path towards the ground.

Incline angle at discharge is the approach angle of the belt transition from Trough to Flat. If it is an incline up to the pulley the angle is a
positive value, if the belt is declining towards the pulley it is a negative value.

The Time after discharge is broken into the number of Calc increments you input and the program calculates the relative X and Y co-ordinates
of the particle, relative to the Pulley Centre line, at these time increments.

The X and Y co-ordinates can be viewed and printed by selecting the View Print Report button.

Draw Plate or Rock Box

You can draw lines such as impact plates and rockboxes in the drawing to assist you to position these correctly. Click the Draw Line on Graph
tabsheet and then enter the X and Y postions of the lines to be drawn. The lines are drawn in sequence.

You can copy the graph to the Windows clipboard using the button provided and you can view or print a report.

The trajectory calculation method is based on Newton's laws of motion and is detailed in the CEMA manual. It takes into account the
centrifugal force due to the momentum of the material at discharge. There are many factors which influence the trajectory path and we
recommend the use of the Helix DEM Chute Design program for detailed discharge chute design.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Bearing Life Calculation


You can calculate the Trajectory of the material as it leaves the head pulley of a conveyor. Select the Calcs, Calculate
Bearing Life L10h menu from the main form. The following form will be displayed:

Enter the load on the bearing (half the resultant force on the pulley), the Bearing Dynamic C rating and rotating speed.
choose the type of bearing (Ball or Roller) and then press Calculate.

The bearing life is calculated as follows:

Where L10h is the basic rating life in hours


C is the dynamic load rating of the bearing in N
P is the load on the bearing in N (half the pulley load)
P = 3 for ball bearings
P=10/3 for roller bearings
N is rotational speed in rpm

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Transition Distance Calculation


You can calculate the available and required traction on a drive or brake pulley. Select the Calcs, Calculate Transition
Distance menu from the main form. The following form will be displayed:

These calculations are based on the ISO 5293:2004 standard. Input the required information in the input boxes. Then press
the Calculate H button to get the trough depth. You can now adjust the pulley offset distance by inputting various Transition
Depth h dimensions and pressing the Calculate Transition button to see the effects of adjusting the pulley offset. It is
common practice to have a zero pulley offset at the tail pulley of level conveyors in order to allow the belt to drain water at the
tail pulley.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Drive Traction Calculation


You can calculate the available and required traction on a drive or brake pulley. Select the Calcs, Calculate Pulley
Traction menu from the main form. The following form will be displayed:

These calculations are based on the formulae shown on the form. Enter the pulley T1 and T2 tensions, the co-efficient of
friction and the belt wrap angle. Press the Calculate button and the Drive Factor, Minimum Required T2 and minimum
required wrap angle will be calculated.
See the Entering Drive Details and the Calculate Wrap Angle help topics for more information and a sample calculation
for using dual drive pulleys. Recommended friction co-efficients are given the Entering Drive Details help topic, link
above.

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Helix delta-T6 - Lookup Belt Covers Page 1 of 1

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Lookup Belt Covers


The Abrasion factor is used in the cover selection of the belt.

Minimum Belt Cover Thickness is listed in the following table. The program uses these parameters for the
automatic belt cover thickness calculation, and then searches the belt database and selects the first cover
thickness equal to or larger than this value. The bottom cover is selected as one third of the thickness of the top
cover.

(sometimes called “Trip Rate”)

where Frequency Factor is in seconds


L = Conveying distance in m
V = Belt Speed in m/s

Minimum Belt Top Covers in mm


No Abrasion or LightAbrasion Medium Abrasion Heavy Abrasion
Freq.Factor 12 50 150 >150 12 50 150 >150 12 50 150 <150
12 1.6 3.0 6.3 8.0 3.2 6.3 10 10 8.0 10 10 10
25 1.6 2.5 3.2 5.0 2.5 3.2 6.3 10 4.0 8.0 10 10
40 1.6 2.5 3.2 5.0 2.5 3.2 4.0 5.0 3.2 4.0 8.0 10
60 1.6 2.5 3.2 5.0 2.5 3.2 4.0 5.0 3.2 3.2 6.3 10
90 1.6 2.5 3.2 5.0 2.5 3.2 4.0 5.0 3.2 3.2 6.3 6.3
120 1.6 2.5 3.2 5.0 2.5 3.2 4.0 5.0 3.2 3.2 5.0 6.3
180 1.6 2.5 3.2 5.0 2.5 3.2 4.0 5.0 3.2 3.2 5.0 6.3
240 1.6 2.5 3.2 5.0 2.5 3.2 4.0 5.0 3.2 3.2 5.0 6.3

The bottom cover is usually taken as one third of the top cover thickness.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Lookup Belt Speeds


Recommended Maximum Belt Speeds are given in the table below:

RECOMMENDED MAXIMUM BELT SPEEDS - CEMA MANUAL


MATERIAL BEING
BELT SPEED m/s BELT WIDTH mm
CONVEYED
2.5 450

3.5 750
Grain or other free flowing non-
abrasive material
4 1050

5 2400
2 450

Coal, damp clay, soft ores, 3 900


overburden and earth, fine
crushed stone 4 1500

5 2400
1.8 450
Heavy, hard, sharp-edged ore,
coarse-crushed stone 2.5 900

3 >900
Foundry sand, prepared or
damp, shakeout sand with small
cores, with or without small 1.8 Any Width
castings (not hot enough to
harm belting)
Prepared foundry sand and
similar damp (or dry abrasive)
1.0 Any Width
materials discharged from belt
by rubber-edged plows
1.0,
Non-abrasive materials
discharged from belt by means Any Width
of plows except for wood pulp
where 2.0 is preferable
Feeder belts, flat or troughed,
for feeding fine, non-abrasive, or
0.25 - 0.5 Any Width
mildly abrasive materials from
hoppers and bins
4.0 - 8.0 Depends on % loading cross
Long Overland Conveyors section, maximum lump size,
large variation possible horizontal curves etc.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Lookup Idler Spacing

Recommended Idler spacing is shown in the table below:

Suggested Normal Spacing of Belt Idlers


Troughing Idler Spacing, m Return
Idler
Bulk Density of Material kg/m3 Spacing
Belt Width 500 800 1200 1600 2400 3200
mm
450 1.7 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.4 3.0
600 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.2 3.0
750 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.2 3.0
900 1.5 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.0 3.0
1050 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.9 0.9 3.0

1200 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.9 0.9 3.0


1350 1.4 1.2 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.9 3.0
1500 1.2 1.2 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9 3.0
1650 1.2 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.75 0.75 2.4

1800 1.2 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.75 0.75 2.4


2100 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.75 0.75 0.60 2.4
2400 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.75 0.60 0.60 2.4

Source: CEMA Handbook, 2nd Edition, Pg. 68

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Drive Efficiencies


Mechanical Efficiencies of speed reduction equipment.

Type of Reducer Approximate Efficiency %


V belts and pulleys 94%
Roller Chain and cut sprockets, open guard 93%
Roller Chain and cut sprockets, oil bath lubrication 95%
Single Reduction Helical Gear reducer 95%
Double Reduction Helical Gear reducer 94%
Triple Reduction Helical Gear reducer 93%
Worm Gear Reducers (20:1 ratio) 90%
Worm Gear Reducers (20:1 to 60:1 ratio) 70%
Worm Gear Reducers (60:1 to 100:1 ratio) 50%
Cut Spur Gears 90%
Cast Spur Gears 85%

Source: CEMA handbook, Fenner Power Transmission Handbook

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Inertia Lookup Table


The following table lists typical Rotor inertia values for AC Electric motors. As a guide, these values can be
multiplied by 1.25 and used as the Input Value for Drive Inertia, if exact figures are not available.

J moment of Inertia AC motors


Moment of Inertia [ kg-m2] for different rpm
Power kW 3000 rpm 1500 rpm 1000 rpm 750 rpm
11 0.055 0.065 0.1 0.25
22 0.13 0.24 0.33 0.73
30 0.19 0.35 0.73 0.9
45 0.31 0.43 1.2 1.7
55 0.6 0.7 1.5 2.4
75 1.2 1.2 2.4 3.2
90 1.4 1.4 2.9 4.0
110 2.2 2 3.5 6.0
250 3.7 5.6 9.1 13

Note: Some motor manufacturers publish moment of inertia figures in MKS units as GD² values. These should be
converted to J values as follows.

J = GD²/4
Note that values for DC motors and Wound Rotor motors may vary significantly from these values which are
supplied as a guide only. Consult the manufacturer for exact details.

Moment of inertia, J = mR² (SI units)

where J is in kgm2
m is the mass in kg
R is the radius of gyration in m

For example, the Moment of inertia of a flywheel 1m in diameter and 30mm thick would be: J = 1/2 x mass x
Radius²

Radius = 0.5, mass m = Pi D/4 = Pi x 0.03 x 7850 = 185kg where 7850 is the density of the steel in kg/m3

So the Moment of inertia J in kgm2 is: J = 1/2 x 185 x (0.5)² = 23.125 kg-m2

The Low Speed inertia may be calculated using the reducer ratio as follows: LS inertia = HS inertia x Ratio²

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Helix delta-T6 - Idler Dynamic Factor Ca Page 1 of 1

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Idler Dynamic Load Factor Ca


Idler rollers are subjected to dynamic forces due to lumps and material impacting the idlers. This dynamic load is
affected by the impact energy ½V² and this program will adjust the load on the idlers as the square of the belt
speed.

Recommended Idler Dynamic Load Factors are shown in the table below:

Dynamic Load Factor, Ca


Type of Bulk Material Fixed Idler Set Suspended (Catenary) Idler Set
Fine-grained Material 0 0
Individual small chips 0.005 0
Coarse Chips on layer of cushioning
0.009 0.005
material
Coarse Chips without layer of
0.014 0.009
cushioning material
Exclusively Coarse lumps weighing
0.050 0.02
up to 100kg

The Dynamic Factor is calculated from :

where F is the Dynamic load factor, Ca is the Factor from the table above and V is the belt speed in m/s

The dynamic factor F is multiplied by the load on the idler roll imposed by the mass of the material on the roll.

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Helix delta-T6 - Material Flowability Page 1 of 1

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Material Flowability


General Characteristics of Materials, Flowability, Surcharge Angle and Angle of Repose

Very Free Flowing Free Flowing Average Flowing Sluggish


5 deg Angle of 10 deg Angle of 20 deg Angle of 25 deg Angle of 30 deg Angle of
Surcharge Surcharge Surcharge Surcharge Surcharge
0 -19 deg Angle of 20 -29 deg Angle of 30 -34 deg Angle of 34 -35 deg Angle of > 40 deg Angle of
Repose Repose Repose Repose Repose
Material Characteristics
Uniform size, very
Irregular, granular or Irregular, stringy,
small rounded Rounded, dry
lumpy materials of Typical common fibrous, interlocking
particles, either wet polished particles of
medium weight, such materials such as material, such as
or very dry, such as medium weight, such
as anthracite coal, bituminous coal, wood chips,
dry silica sand, as whole grain and
cottonseed meal, stone, most ores bagasse, tempered
cement, wet beans
clay foundry sand
concrete.

See also Angle of Repose Surcharge Angle Flowability

Reference: Belt Conveyors for Bulk Materials - CEMA, 2nd Edition, pg. 39

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Temperature Correction


Cold weather increases the Idler Frictional resistances as well as the flexing resistance of the Belt during operation. This increased
friction is catered for by multiplying the normal Friction Factor values by a factor Kt. Details of the Kt values versus temperature are
given in the CEMA manual.

To apply a Temperature correction factor, Select the Duty / Input, Input Project details main menu. The Project Details form allows
you to enter a minimum expected site temperature, and a Kt factor is calculated. This Kt factor is applied to the Friction factor
calculated.

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The charts show how Kt varies with temperature. Note that only temperatures below freezing point result in a Kt value larger than 1.

Special grease for idlers and bearings may be required for operation at temperatures below -15 degrees F (-26 deg C). Conveyor
belting may also be affected. Check with equipment suppliers.

In high ambient temperature regions, the power required to drive the conveyor is not affected, but there may be limits on motor and
gearbox operations. Again, check with suppliers on the thermal ratings of equipment for temperatures above 35 deg C.

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Helix delta-T6 - Takeup Travel Distance Page 1 of 1

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Takeup Travel Distance


The take-up stroke or movement depends on a number factors including Belt Elastic Elongation, Permanent Belt
Stretch and Initial Belt stretch. The following table gives a guideline on take-up travel distances which should be
allowed:

Screw or Manual Take-up

Minimum Take-up Travel in % of Centre Distance


Fastened joints Vulcanised Splices
Operating 100% of 75% of 100% of 75% of
Tension RatedTension RatedTension RatedTension RatedTension
Belt Type
All Fabric Belts 1.5% 1% 4% 3%

Automatic or Gravity Take-up

Minimum Take-up Travel in % of Centre Distance


Fastened joints Vulcanised Splices
100% of 75% of 100% of 75% of
Operating Tension
RatedTension RatedTension RatedTension RatedTension
Belt Type
Fabric - Cotton
1.5% 1% 4% 3%
Fibre
Fabric - Cotton /
1.5% 2.5% + 0.65m 2% + 0.65m
Nylon
Fabric - Rayon /
1% 1% 1.5% + 0.65m 1% + 0.65m
Nylon
Fabric - Nylon 2% 1.5% 2.5% + 0.65m 2.5% + 0.65m
0.25% +
Steel Cable - - 0.25% + SpliceLength
SpliceLength

Note: These distances are for normal conveyors where the Drive is at or close to the discharge end of the conveyor.
For conveyors with drives located close to the loading end or regenerative conveyors a proper dynamic analysis
should be performed to determine actual takeup travel.

You can refer to the Tension Calculation Reports in the main form Reports menu for details of the take-up
movement due to Elastic Elongation of the belt due to tension changes between stationary and operating conditions.

For more detailed instructions refer to the Input Takeup details help topic.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Viscoelastic friction factor calculation


method

Friction factor f

Conveyor resistances have traditionally been estimated using a Coulomb friction factor applied to the mass per m
of the load and conveyor belt.

where u is the co-efficient of friction,


m is mass and g is 9.81m/s2

This friction factor is usually estimated to be between 0.015 and 0.035. Use of the ISO and CEMA buttons in the
Helix delta-T program will use the appropriate friction factor calculated in accordance with CEMA tables or the belt
sag vs f factor tables shown in the Helix help file topic called Input Sections

You can also override the Automatic friction factor calculation by inputting the value you want to use for each
Section on the Sections tab sheet, in the f.

Long level conveyors

Whilst the above methods work very well for in-plant and inclined conveyors, there is evidence from existing
conveyor installations, that if the conveyor is very long (say more than 4km) and does not have a large vertical lift
and is operating in a hot climate, the traditional methods have been known to yield a friction factor which is higher
than the measured friction factor. For example, the Channar 10km long conveyor operated by Rio Tinto in
Western Australia has been measured to have an equivalent friction factor of about 0.011 under some operating
conditions. This low friction factor results in a much lower power requirement, in the Channar case the conveyor
can operate with two drives totalling 1400kW whereas the traditional methods predicted a power requirement of 3
drives totalling 2100kW.

It is apparent that the large discrepancy on long conveyors between conventional methods and actual measured
values is due to the cumulative effects a large number of small variations between the predicted and actual friction
factors for the conveyor. On short conveyors, the errors are not significant, but on long ones, where the bulk of
the power required goes into overcoming internal conveyor friction and not on lifting the load, the errors
accumulate until they are significant.

Much research has been undertaken and many papers have been published on the subject - See References in
this help file for details.

Helix Technologies have reviewed these papers, and with assistance of consultants and other Engineers,
formulated a method of calculating and predicting the friction factor for these conveyors. This method has been
incorporated in the program and can be used to refine the friction factor estimate for the conveyor. This
calculation method is intended to allow the design engineer to justify the use of a particular friction factor based
on making up the friction factor based on known input data, rather than relying purely on experience and
judgment to decide on a friction factor.

Main Conveyor Resistances

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In this Helix delta-T program we deal with four main components of the conveyor resistance. These are:

Belt to Idler Indentation resistance - fi

Belt and Material Flexure Resistance- fm

Idler Rotation or Drag resistance - fr

Frictional resistance caused by belt scuffing over forward tilted, skew and misaligned idlers - ft

Total friction factor f = fi + fm + fr + ft

This friction factor is calculated for each individual conveyor Section, allowing you to alter idler spacing of
individual sections in order to optimise power consumption.

There are many other secondary resistances such as Belt Scrapers, Skirts, Material Acceleration etc. but these
are covered in the normal conveyor calculations by the program and so are not considered as part of the friction
factor.

Proportion of Friction factor

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Indentation Resistance - Belt on Idler

Indentation Resistance

This resistance is caused by the idler roll pressing into the relatively soft belt cover rubber. It is intuitively apparent that the more the penetration of the
idler roll into the belt cover, the more resistance there is likely to be. Many people have researched this subject and names such as Jonkers, Spaans,
Hager, Maton, Lodewijks and Wheeler come to mind. . See References
From this research it is evident that the main factors which affect the indentation resistance are the actual rubber properties of the belt cover, the
diameter of the idler rolls and the load on the idler roll, which for a fixed tonnage and belt speed is dependent on the idler spacing.

Jonkers developed the following formula for the Indentation resistance

Where F' is the Indentation resistance


Z is the belt rubber cover thickness
E' is the Dynamic Modulus of the rubber cover in N/mm2
Tan(delta) is the Loss Factor Tan(delta) property of the rubber cover
D is the idler roll diameter
Br is the idler face width
Qr is the load on the idler
This Resistance is calculated for centre and wing roll idlers and summed to get the total indentation resistance for the conveyor section under
consideration, and then the friction factor fi for indentation is obtained by the program.

The parameters E' and Tan(delta) for the belt rubber cover properties are obtained by a laboratory test procedure called Dynamic Mechanical
Analysis, usually performed by the Belt manufacturer or specialist laboratories. There is DIN standard number 53513 which covers the procedure for
obtaining these values and they are normally in the following ranges

E ' = 4 to 35 Mpa

Tan(delta) = 0.1 to 0.6

These values are dependent on the temperature of the rubber as well as the rate of deformation (in radians per second or Hz) of the rubber cover,
which in turn is related to belt speed, idler roll diameter and idler spacing. The deformation rate is calculated by the Helix delta-T program and it is
shown on the Viscoelastic Friction Factor report. It normally ranges from about 300 rad/s up to 3000 rad/s.

Rolling Resistance Factor RRF

It is convenient to combine the E' and Tan delta values into a single Rolling Resistance Factor (RRF).

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The lower the RRF the lower the friction factor will be. Typical low end values of RRF are in the 0.06 to 0.08, so if you use a RRF value of say 0.07
this will be a low resistance belt.

Dynamic Mechanical Analysis - Sample Data for 4 types of rubber.

Rubber Sample 1

Temp deg C E' Tan(delta)


-50 35 0.7
-40 18 0.55
-30 8 0.4
-20 6 0.25
-10 5.5 0.19
0 5.2 0.16
10 4.85 0.14
20 4.64 0.13
30 4.5 0.11
40 4.4 0.1
50 4.3 0.09

Rubber Sample 2

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Temp deg C E' Tan(delta)


-30 27 0.58
-20 14 0.38
-10 10 0.25
0 9 0.192
10 8.2 0.17
20 7.5 0.144
30 7.2 0.132
40 6.95 0.118
50 6.5 0.108

Rubber Sample 3

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Temp deg C E' Tan(delta)


-30 37 0.58
-20 17.5 0.38
-10 11.4 0.25
0 9 0.192
10 8.2 0.17
20 7.2 0.144
30 6.3 0.132
40 5.95 0.118
50 5.85 0.108

Rubber Sample 4

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Temp deg C E' Tan(delta)


-30 7.3 0.306
-20 6.2 0.21
-10 5.5 0.17
0 5 0.152
10 4.6 0.147
20 4.3 0.142
30 4 0.139
40 3.7 0.135
50 3.45 0.128

The curves and tables above show typical values of Low Resistance rubber Dynamic Mechanical Analysis showing E' and tan(delta) values. Rubber
properties can vary widely and it is important for users to obtain data from their own suppliers, or obtain independent laboratory analysis
of the rubber.

The curves above are from tests carried out at a deformation frequency of 10Hz. The values will increase as the deformation frequency increases,
and for a frequency of 1000Hz, the values may be about 10 percent higher than shown here. The increase in E' and Tan(delta) due to frequency
increase may be estimated as 10 percent per decade on a log scale. i.e. 10% for a jump from 1 Hz to 100 Hz, a further 10% for a jump from 100 Hz to
1000Hz etc. Refer to [10] "Physical Testing of Rubber by R.P Brown, page 149. See References

The user must ensure that the input values for the E' and Tan(delta) are applicable to both the temperature and the deformation rate. There are
methods, namely Williams Landel Ferry (WLF) and Arrenhius for adjusting the E' and Tan(delta) values - refer to references for details.
At different temperatures and frequencies, the rubber properties can vary over a wide range and it is important to use the applicable E' and Tan(delta)
values for your operating conditions. It is also worth noting that the deformation of the rubber increases the rubber temperature due to hysteresis, and
this in turn reduces the E' and Tan(delta) values, however, a decrease in Tan(delta) reduces the indentation resistance proportionally whilst a
reduction in E' increases the resistance by the power of 1/3.

Some texts indicate that for most rubbers at room temperature, the E' and Tan(delta) values reduce by 1% for every 1 degree C increase in
temperature, and that the E' and Tan(delta) values increase by 10% for every decade increase in the deformation frequency. E' and Tan(delta) values
should not be extrapolated linearly, as the rubber can pass through a transition zone where large variations in E' can have a big effect on the Tan
(delta) values as well. Care must be taken to ensure that the values used in the program have been estimated from the so called 'Master Curve' for
the rubber using appropriate WLF shift factors.

Certain rubbers may contain a large proportion of filler such as carbon black, and this changes the properties of the rubber, possibly even reducing
the amount of indentation due to the added 'stiffness' of the rubber due to the filler, but also increasing the loss factor Tan(delta).

Factors which affect the Indentation rolling resistance

The following factors indicate the sensitivity of the indentation rolling resistance. For example, if you alter input data by a factor of 2, the following
influence on the indentation resistance factor fi will result:

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Vertical load on the belt is factored exponentially to a power of 2^4/3 = 2.52

Diameter of Idler rolls is factored 2^2/3 = 1.58

Viscoelastic Property E' is factored as 0.5^1/3 = 0.79

Viscoelastic property Tan(delta) is directly proportional i.e factor is 2 times.

Belt Cover thickness is factored 2^1/3 = 1.26

Belt Speed increases the deformation frequency and E' and Tan(delta) increase marginally as the frequency increases, so belt speed increase will
generally increase indentation rolling resistance. The user must ensure that the E' and Tan(delta) values used in the input data are applicable at the
actual deformation frequency calculated and shown on the calculation reports. However, belt speed decreases the vertical load, which has a
significant effect as seen from the factor above.

Idler Spacing - closer idler spacing reduces the load on the individual rolls, but increases the number of idlers in turn increasing the rim drag and
skew and tilt resistance. It also has a marked effect on belt sag, which in turn affects the material and belt flexure resistance which is very sensitive to
changes in belt sag.
Belt Condition - worn belt
It is worth noting that the friction factor can reduce significantly with a worn belt. If measurements on power consumption are being made on existing
conveyors, it is important to record the actual belt mass and cover thicknesses of the worn belt and to use this mass for the calculations.

Design Optimisation and Sensitivity Analysis

The Helix delta-T program combines all of the factors affecting the power calculations so that the user can quickly perform a sensitivity analysis to
determine the optimum configuration by trial and observation.

Even if you do not have exact figures for the belt rubber tan(delta) properties, or the idler rim drag, or the misalignment of the idlers, you can still
optimize your design. Change the idler spacing, note the effect on friction factor, change belt speed, change the idler roll diameters, note the effect,
change rim drag, note effects etc.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Belt and Material Flexure


This resistance can be described as the resistance caused by the bending and flexing of the belt over and
between each idler roll along with the flexure of the material over each idler roll. It is apparent that if you had a
perfectly flat belt which did not sag at all between idlers, then there would be no flexure resistance. This implies
that the flexure resistance is proportional to the belt sag between idlers.

The Helix delta-T program uses a method developed by Ozster, Behrens and Vincent (See References) and it
depends on the amount of belt sag, which in turn depends on load per m, idler spacing and belt tension. Now belt
tension depends on takeup mass and also on belt sag, so an iterative process is required in order to determine
the belt sag vs belt tension equilibrium values, and hence the Flexure resistance.

According to Behrens, the flexure resistance friction factor is given by the following:

Where C4 is a function of the troughing angle


C5 a function of number of idler rolls and configuration .i.e. 3 or 4 or 5 roll idlers
m is an exponent function of the troughing angle (0.76 for 45 deg, 0.83 for 35 deg)
n is an exponent function of the troughing angle (2.06 for 35 deg and 2.26 for 45 deg)
T is the belt tension in kgf

The delta-T program shows the Flexure friction factor fm calculated in the Viscoelastic friction factor report, as
well as the percentage this makes up of the total friction factor.

According to Wheeler, the material flexure resistance is proportional to the kinematic internal friction angle of the
bulk material - see [10] in References

Adjustment factor for Flexure

In the Helix delta-T software, rather than having an input value for the internal co-efficient of friction for the
material, we have provided an adjustment factor for the material flexure fm. This adjustment factor allows the user
to adjust the fm values according to the material properties.

Length of Conveyor Section

Because the friction factor due to material and belt flexure varies with the amount of belt sag, and in turn belt sag
is dependent on belt tension, it is important to try to balance the lengths of individual sections of conveyor. You
should avoid having exceptionally long sections of conveyor in the model, as the friction is calculated based on
the average belt tension over the section of conveyor. Having very long or unbalanced length sections can
allocate more or less weight to the section in the form of a high or low friction factor than it deserves.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Idler Rolling Resistance

Idler Rotation resistance

The idler rolls have a rolling resistance due to seal drag and bearing rolling friction. Once again, many
experiments, research and papers have been published on this subject. Bearing friction formulae are also
published in bearing manufacturers catalogues - refer to SKF and FAG catalogues for more details.

Seal drag and effects of viscosity of the lubricant are more difficult to quantify as these can vary not only due to
manufacturing variations but also due to site conditions such as temperature, ingression of dust, age of
installation etc. For this reason, the Helix delta-T program uses a simple input for the rolling resistance and this is
the actual resistance per roll. The resistance per roll is usually in the range of between 1N to 4N per roll.

Some idler manufacturers have published measured data and we reproduce data from Sandvik Materials
Handling (Prok Idlers) below as a guide. Actual rolling resistance may be substantially different due to site
conditions - consult your supplier.

Rolling Resistance for Prok Idlers

Rim Drag
Idler Roll Diameter
per Roll
Series mm
N
10 102 1.55
11 114 1.53
12 127 1.50
05 114 1.60
15 127 1.58
20 152 1.55
22 127 2.10
23 152 1.90
25 127 2.40
30 152 2.35
32 178 2.25
35 152 2.60
40 178 2.50
45 152 3.20
50 178 3.00
54 152 3.50
59 178 3.30
59(impact) 178 3.00
55 152 3.90
60 178 3.80
65 194 3.70

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*Above figures are on the conservative side

Figures above are tested at 4 m/s belt speed and after 2 hours running with Shell Albania grease. Prok are
constantly striving to improve designs and reduce the roll drag - we recommend that you obtain the latest data
from your supplier.
In some cases the actual rolling resistance can be significantly lower due to the idlers becoming "run-in". This is
due to smoothing of the bearings, freeing up of the labyrinth seals, bedding in of the lip seals, and reduction in
grease viscosity due to temperature rise. It is known that for 152mm 3 roll idlers this rolling resistance has
reduced to 1.18N per roll on carry idlers and 1.2 N per roll on vee return idlers.

More information can be obtained from the South African bureaux of Standards SABS 1313 - 1: 2002 and also
SABS 1313 - 1: 1998 and DIN standard.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Idler Skew and Tilt misalignment

Idler Skew and Forward Tilt

If the idler rolls are not aligned perpendicular to the belt travel direction, a scuffing resistance results. The
magnitude of this scuffing resistance depends on the amount of misalignment as well as the co-efficient of friction
between the belt and idler roll. The co-efficient of friction will in turn depend on whether the belt surface is dry, wet
or moist.
The inputs are the amount of Skew angle in degrees, which is the misalignment in a plan view of the conveyor
and also the amount of forward tilt angle in degrees for wing rollers. The user can adjust the amount of Skew and
Tilt angle to suit the average misalignment of the idlers in the installation.

The scuffing resistance is calculated from the load on each conveyor roll using the co-efficient of friction between
belt and idler roll of u = 0.35.
Scuffing Resistance

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Where u = 0.35 is co-efficient of friction


mg is down-force on roll in N
theta is skew angle in degrees.

Where the conveyor has inclined side roll idlers such as normal 3 roll idlers and you input both a skew and a
forward tilt angle, the angle theta in the resistance calculations is taken as the square root of the sum of the
squares of the individual angles.

Where alpha is the Skew angle and


beta is the Forward Tilt angle.

Default values for the Skew and Tilt angles can be taken as 0.1 degrees.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Viscoelastic Calculation References

The following references were used during the development of the Viscoelastic method of calculation in this program :

Ref Paper Title Authors Publication


1 The Indentation Rolling Resistance of Belt Conveyors C.O Jonkers Fordern und heben vol.30 (1980) No 4
2 Large Capacity Belt Conveyors - Motion Resistance Evaluation Z.F. Oszter, W.k.Behrends, D.Vincent Mining
Engineering, December 1980
3 The Effects of Idler Alignment and Belt Properties on Conveyor Belt Power Consumption A.E. Maton Bulk Solids
Handling Vol 11 No 4 January 1991
4 The Development of Low Friction Belt Conveyors for Overland Applications D.E Beckley Bulk Solids Handling Vol 11 No
4 January 1991
5 The Rolling Resistance of Conveyor Belts G. Lodewijks Bulk Solids Handling Vol 15 No 1 January 1995
6 Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers John D Ferry University of Wisconsin
7 Physical Testing of Rubber R.P. Brown Technical Manager RAPRA Technology Ltd, U.K
8 Properties of Polymers D.W. van Krevelen, P.J Hoftyzer Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co, Amsterdam
9 The Calculation of the Main Resistances of Belt Conveyors C. Spaans Bulk Solids Handling Vol 11 No 4 November 1991
10 Bulk Solid Flexure Resistance Craig A Wheeler Bulk Solids Handling Vol 25 (2004) No 4
11 Calculating Flexure Resistance of Bulk Solids Transported on Belt Conveyors Craig A. Wheeler, Alan W. Roberts, Mark
G. Jones Particle Systems Characterisation 21 (2004)
12 Application of Time Temperature Superposition Principles to DMA TA Instruments www.tainst.com
13 Application of Time Temperature Superposition Principles to Rheology TA Instruments www.tainst.com
14 Viscoelasticity and dynamic mechanical testing - AN004 A. Franck, TA Instruments Germany www.tainst.com
15 The Power of Rubber - Part 1 L.K Nordell Bulk Solids Handling Vol 16 No 3 November 1993
16 The Energy Saving Design of Belts for Long Conveyor Systems M. Hager and A Hintz Bulk Solids Handling Vol 13 No
4 November 1993
17 Theory and Practice of Engineering with Rubber P.K. Freakley and A.R Payne Applied Science Publishers Ltd, London
18 Overland Conveyors Designed for Efficient Cost and Performance L.K Nordell Bulk Solids Handling Vol 26 (2006) No 1
19 DIN 53513 - Determination of the viscoelastic properties of elastomers on exposure to forced vibration at non-resonant
frequencies Deutche Industrial Norm DIN 53513
http://webstore.ansi.org/ansidocstore/
20 Indentation Rolling Resistance of Belt Conveyors - A Finite Element Solution Craig A Wheeler Bulk Solids Handling Vol
26 (2006) No 1
21 Elastomers, Collected Applications of Thermal Analysis Mettler Toledo, GmbH http://us.mt.com/mt/products
22 Investigation on Causes and Value of the Indentation Rolling Resistance of Belt Conveyors M. Hager, L. Overmeyer
and F. Scholl Bulk Solids Handling Vol 25 (2005) No 2
23 Theoretical basis industrial applications of energy-saving and increased durability of belt conveyors Jerry Antoniak Acta
Montanistica Slovaca Rocnik * (2003) Eislo 2-3
24 Mechanical Properties of Solid Polymers, 2nd edition I.M Ward John Wiley & Sons

Acknowledgement: Helix Technologies wishes to acknowledge, with gratitude, the valuable assistance provided by Mr. A.
E. Maton in the development of the Viscoelastic calculations, including passing on his considerable knowledge in this field,
as well as for testing and verification of the software against known conveyor installations.

For specific references relating to the general calculations please see the References Help topic.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Viscoelastic friction factor - Belt Properties


Input
Select the Input, Input Viscoelastic Belt Properties main menu to show.

The first tab sheet is for the belt properties.

Enter Description for the belt rubber - this is for record purposes.

Enter the Dynamic Modulus E' for the top cover of the belt. This value should be adjusted for the expected
operating temperature of the belt cover as well as the calculated deformation frequency which will be realised
(refer Viscoelastic Friction Factor Report for the calculated frequency), remembering that running the conveyor
raises the temperature, however, at low temperatures, the E' value is usually higher. A higher E' values results in
a lower indentation resistance. Also, at higher frequencies, the E' value usually increases.

Enter the Loss Factor Tan(delta) for the top cover. Again this must be for the temperature and frequency for the
calculation case. Refer to the Viscoelastic friction - Indentation help topic.

You can also input a Rolling Resistance Factor RRF which is calculated from

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use the Calc buttons to calculate the RRF after inputting the E' and tan delta
values. You can also back calculate the tan delta value if the cursor is in the RRF input box. See the Indentation
Resistance help topic for an explanation.

Repeat above inputs for the belt bottom cover rubber.

If the conveyor has a belt turnover on the return belt run which turns the belt over after the takeup or head end
so that the clean side of the belt is in contact with return rollers (same side as in contact with carry rollers), then
click the Conveyor has belt turnover on return run button to ON. This ensures that the bottom cover rubber
properties are also used for the return belt run.

Enter an adjustment factor for the Material and Belt flexure friction factor. The program uses the methods
developed by Behrens for estimating the flexure resistance flexure resistance. This paper was based on Iron Ore
conveyors, and so if your application has an appreciably lower or higher material flexure resistance, you can
adjust the values up or down. Wheeler [10, 11] has published research into the effects of the Internal Co-efficient
of Friction of the material on this flexure resistance. As a guide for Iron Ore use an input of 1.0, for very sharp
angular course ores such as crushed dolomite use 1.2 and for free flowing materials such as wheat use (say) 0.7.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Viscoelastic friction factor - Idler Inputs


Select the Input, Input Viscoelastic Belt Properties main menu and then the Idler Details tabsheet to show

The Idler Roller Details tab sheet requires the inputs relevant to the Viscoelastic Calculations which are not already captured by the
program elsewhere, such as in the idler input forms.

These inputs allow you to input different Roll Diameters and roll length for centre and Wing Rollers. For example, increasing the
centre roller to the next size up may have a significant reduction in indentation rolling resistance.

Enter the Centre Roll Diameter in mm for the Carry Side - the current selected idler diameter is shown in grey.

Enter the Wing Roll Diameter in mm for the Carry Side - the current selected idler diameter is shown in grey.
Enter the Centre Roll Rim Drag in N per Roll. This value is multiplied by the number of rollers to get the total resistance per idler
set. See the Idler Rolling Resistance help topic.

Repeat inputs for Wing Rollers and also for Return Idlers.

For Vee type 2 roll carry or return idlers, enter the Idler Roll data in the Centre Roll input section. Data in the Wing roll sections will
be ignored. For 4 roll idlers, the two centre roller data is taken from the Centre Roll inputs and the two outer roller data is from the
Wing Roll inputs. 5 roll idlers are one Centre roll and 4 wing rollers.

Now input the Idler Set Skew Angle and Forward Tilt angle. See Idler Skew and Tilt for details of the angles and nomenclature.
You can use a value of 0.1 for each of these if in doubt, but it depends on the installation accuracy of the conveyor.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Viscoelastic friction factor Report


The following form shows the Viscoelastic belt properties friction factor report form.

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You must use the VISCO calculation method before using this report.

This form records the Belt Rubber properties used for the calculation as well as the idler diameters, rim drag and
skew and tilt angles used.
It displays the total friction factor f for the fully loaded condition in red and the f factor for the empty conveyor in the
last column.
The individual components of the friction for Indentation, Material and Belt Flexure, Idler Drag and Idler Skew and
Tilt are also shown, along the percentage each of these components contributes to the total.
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The actual indentation deformation frequency is also shown in radians per second. Note 1 Hz = 2Pi rad/s.

It is interesting to note the proportions for the 4 main components of the friction factor different configurations of
idler spacing, loading, belt speed, idler drag and skew and tilt values.

Users can alter one input value and note the effect on the friction factor, and so by trial and error arrive at an
optimal design for the conveyor.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program


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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Dynamic Analysis - Introduction

Dynamic Analysis module


A new version of the program which has full Dynamic Analysis capabilities has been available in Helix delta-T since 2003.
This version calculates the transient belt Tensions and Velocities during starting and stopping of a conveyor. It can model the
conveyor belt transient behaviour during Starting Fully Loaded, Starting Empty, Stopping Fully Loaded and Stopping Empty. The
program allows the user to input any number of Drives or Brakes and allows for input of Drive Torque / Speed curves, Delay
times, Braking Torques, Flywheels and inertia effects. After the Dynamic Calculations have been performed, the user can view
and Print two dimensional and surface plot three dimensional graphs for Belt Tensions, Belt Velocities, Strain rates and Takeup
movement versus time step for all points along the conveyor.

The Dynamic calculation process uses sophisticated Variable Step Runge Kutta method integrators for solving the complex
differential equations. All the numerical analysis is compiled into the program and it does not require any other software to
perform the calculations or display graphs etc. It also allows flexible, easy to use boundary condition specification by the user.

The Dynamic Calculations are easy use to use and Engineers who have static conveyor design experience can perform these
complex dynamic simulations using this very powerful software.

z Easily model the belt transient tensions and velocities during Starting and Stopping of conveyors.

z Add Torque Control or Speed Control on drive acceleration.

z Add Delay times for multiple drives for Dynamic Tuning

z Add Flywheels to pulleys to optimise starting and stopping

z Add Brakes to pulleys as required.

z Calculate Dynamic Runback forces and size holdbacks for dynamic loads

z View the movement of the Takeup pulley during Starting and Stopping

z Predict the maximum Transient Belt Tensions at any point along the conveyor as well as the timing of these transients.

z Compare the Dynamic Calculations results with the rigid body static calculations in the delta-T5.

z Predict the magnitude of transient loads on conveyor structures.

z Calculate the torque loadings on gearboxes, holbacks and couplings during starting and stopping. Eliminate conditions
which may cause costly equipment failures.

z Perform Dynamic Tuning by changing the start delay times on different drives

3D Belt Tensions Graph

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Sample of Belt Velocity Graph for conveyor starting

Sample Belt Tension Graphs for conveyor starting full

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Takeup Travel Graph

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program


www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Dynamic Analysis Overview


Helix delta-T uses a Finite Element model of the conveyor to perform the dynamic analysis. The conveyor is broken up into
segments, and for each segment, we use a Kelvin solid model, which is a spring in parallel with a viscoelastic element, as shown
below:

Kelvin Solid Model

Conveyor Model Diagram

The conveyor model created and captured in the normal delta-T program is automatically broken up into segments in the
Dynamic Calculation process. The program already knows the geometry of each section of conveyor, as well as the idler spacing,
rotating masses, resistances, inertias, drive power and location, takeup mass and the equivalent mass of each element in the
conveyor. The Dynamic calculation breaks the standard conveyor sections into smaller segments. The designer can specify the
maximum segment length to be used.

Delta-T uses the Finite Element method of dynamic analysis.


Once the conveyor is segmented, the moving mass, length etc. of each segment is known. The Tension force acting on segment
i at time t is given by the sum of the spring and viscoelastic Tension forces, Ts and Tv respectively. At each time step of say 0.1
seconds, the rate of change of velocity, combined with the strain on each conveyor segment is calculated. The peripheral force at
the drive pulleys is the motivating force. The main conveyor resistances, represented by the Coulomb friction factor f, which is a
function of instantaneous belt tension and belt sag at the segment under consideration, are taken into account. All idler roller
rotating masses and pulley, drive and brake inertias are included in the acceleration and tension calculations. The Drive Torque
or Velocity is input graphically, and the resulting Belt Tensions, strains and belt Velocities are output for each time step and for
each point along the conveyor. These values are presented graphically for ease of interpretation.

Graphs of the dynamic analysis can be viewed and printed for the following:

Conveyor Loading
Graph of 2 Dimension Graphs 3 Dimension Graphs
Starting Fully Loaded Empty Fully Loaded Empty
Braking Fully Loaded Empty Fully Loaded Empty
Coasting Fully Loaded Empty Fully Loaded Empty
Takeup Travel Fully Loaded Empty Fully Loaded Empty

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Starting Tensions 3D graph

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Dynamic Analysis - Drive Torque Speed Principles

Helix delta-T allows the designer to control the starting of a conveyor by means of

z Torque Speed Control - Starting


z Speed Time Control - Starting
z Constant Torque Brake - Stopping
z Speed Time Curve Control - Stopping

All of the above controls can be programmed in by entering data in the Starters Database and the using these curves to control the conveyor during the dynamic analysis.

Torque Speed Control


Torque control means that the Torque, expressed as a % of Full Load Torque is the controlled parameter at the Drive. This means that the Driving Peripheral force on the drive pulley is
controlled and the magnitude of the force depends on the actual pulley speed at each time step expressed as a % of Full Load Speed.

Typical Starting Torque Curve for an Induction motor

Typical Induction Motor starting Curve input into Delta-T program

The delta-T program allows you to model each Drive's Starting Torque vs Speed characteristics. The method used is a tabular description of the % of Full Load Torque vs the % of Full load
speed. All you need to do is enter the Torque % at the relevant % Speed values and the program will draw the curves for you and then use regression methods to get the actual values of
Torque to apply during the calculation process.

Speed Control and Regenerative Drives

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The Full Load Speed and Torque and is reached when 100% Speed is reached. Note that if the conveyor tries to run at speeds above the Full load speed of the motor, the available torque
from the drive drops off rapidly, and the Conveyor load will then tend to bring to reduce the speed. Above the asynchronous speed the torque is reversed ie it becomes negative and the
motor acts as brake.

This overspeed braking effect is very important in Conveyor operation and Dynamic Analysis, as it helps to control the drive speed and keep it from overspeeding. For regenerative
conveyors, the motor operates in the band above the 100% FL speed range and thus acts as a brake.

Load Torque vs Drive Torque

During the Dynamic Analysis calculations, the Torque supplied by the drive is applied to the drive pulley. When the Drive starts, the Starting Torque is applied and as the drive pulley
accelerates, the Torque % along the curve is progressively applied until the pulley reaches 100% of Full Load speed. If the drive pulley is pushed over the full load speed by a Tension wave,
the Torque reduces to below the Load Torque and the drive slows down. Eventually equilibrium is reached where the Drive Torque equals the Load Torque.

Load Sharing between Drives

If two or more induction motors are installed on a conveyor drive (or multiple drive pulleys) the motors will almost certainly have slightly different torque speed characteristics. If we examine
two motors' torque speed curves close to the full load speed we may have something like the curve shown below:

The above equilibrium explains why Squirrel Cage electric motors automatically load share. If one Drive takes less than its fair share of load, the other drives takes more share. This causes
the second drive to slow down, and as it slows down, the first drive will automatically take more load.

See the help topic called Dynamic Analysis Load Sharing for more details about conveyors with two drives.

Wound Rotor or Slip Ring Motor

Slip ring motors or wound rotor motors are a variation on the standard cage induction motors. The slip ring motor has a set of windings on the rotor which are not short circuited, but are
terminated to a set of slip rings for connection to external resistors and contactors. The slip ring motor enables the starting characteristics of the motor to be totally controlled and modified to
suit the load. As the motor accelerates, the value of the rotor resistance can be reduced altering the start torque curve in a manner such that the maximum torque is gradually moved towards
synchronous speed. This results in a step controlled starting torque from zero speed to full speed at a relatively low starting current. The sliprings and brush assemblies need regular

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maintenance which is a cost not applicable to the standard cage motor.

Typical Torque Speed Curve for a Slip Ring Wound Rotor Motor

The above graph shows the motor performance when the rotor resistance is varied. The resistors can be switched on fixed time steps or on reaching a % speed setting. Torque is drawn as a
PU (Per Unit) basis above graph and is shown and input as % of full load torque in Helix delta-T.

Wound Rotor Motor Speed Torque Curve Input into Delta-T

Note the speed curve is input for speeds above 100% to simulate the negative torque the motor will develop if pushed above 100% speed. Delta-T applies the calculated torque at each time
step to the Drive pulley according to the relationship shown in the Torque speed Curve. This means that the program can model any Torque Speed relationship you wish.

WR Switched Resistances for an Empty Conveyor

For an empty conveyor the torque speed may look something like the one below. Because the load is say only 25% to 30% of the motor FLT the conveyor will accelerate to a large degree on
the first or second resistance step with the remaining acceleration occurring at closely spaced intervals until the normal run resistance is finally connected. We still need to show the negative
torque curve beyond the 100% speed mark as this controls the conveyor belt speed, both in practice on actual conveyors and in the Helix Dynamic analysis calculations.

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Fluid Coupling Torque Control

A Fluid Coupling is a device consisting of an impeller and a runner where the impeller is driven by the motor and torque is transmitted to the runner by fluid between the impeller and runner.
This allows the motor to start freely and as fluid is drawn into the impeller / runner interface, the torque on the output shaft of the fluid coupling increase gradually until it is sufficient to move
the conveyor and accelerate it. To use a Fluid Coupling Start in Helix delta-T, merely enter the output shaft Torque Speed curve for the fluid coupling as a dataset in the Torque Speed curve
table. The program will then use whatever shape of curve you specify.

Cross sectional drawing of a soft start fluid coupling and some typical Torque speed curves - Drawing and Graphs Courtesy Voith Transmissions.

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The Green line is the torque speed curve to be entered into the Helix delta-T program.

Fluid Coupling curve entered into Helix delta-T

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Speed Time Control


The second method of starting control is known as Speed Control or a Velocity Ramp control. This method of control does not specify the amount of Torque applied to the Drive pulley. It
specifies a pulley Speed at each time step during acceleration and sufficient Torque is applied in order to maintain the specified speed. This method of starting is usually provided by
electronic solid state Variable Speed Drives which control the motor speed accurately to with fractions of a percent of Full Load Speed.

A typical linear Velocity Ramp

In the above starting speed ramp the speed increases linearly with time with a dwell time of 5 seconds when speed reaches 5% of speed. In this case the starter type is selected as Speed
Time and the % Speed and Time is seconds are input into the starter database..

S curve Acceleration Ramps

Notably A. Harrison and L. Nordell have proposed various 'S' curve acceleration ramps. Both of these starting methods can be simulated in delta-T. Refer to the papers on these subjects in
the References section for more details.

Cycloidal Front S curve - Harrison Model

This form of S curve was first proposed by Dr Alex Harrison and it is called a cycloidal front characteristic.

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The cycloidal front curve is derived from

The maximum acceleration is a = V/2 when t = T/2

S curve - Nordell Model

This form of S curve was first proposed by Nordell. It takes the form

This S curve is obtained as follows:

Nordell's model has a higher acceleration than Harrison's but a lower Jerk (first derivative of acceleration)

In delta-T, you are free to use any Velocity ramp you wish - merely type in the speed time values and the program will do the rest. You can also derive your own relationships using a
spreadsheet program such as Excel and then paste the values into delta-T.

See the help topic called Dynamic Analysis Load Sharing for more details about conveyors with two drives.

Aborted Start Torque Speed Curve

You can model an aborted start by truncating the Drive Torque vs Speed curve. For example, if the start is aborted at 85% of Full load Speed the following (simplified) Torque speed curve
could be used to model the conveyor.

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With the above curve, the drive will accelerate and at a speed equal to 85% of the Full Load Speed of the conveyor the drive torque will be cut to zero. By observing the tension graphs the
belt tensions can be determined for the aborted start.

Braking
The Helix delta-T program allows you to program a Speed Time graph to apply to a braking stop. The principle is the same as the Speed time starting method except that it is applied when
the conveyor is stopping. The full speed of the conveyor is taken as 100% speed and the brake pulley will follow the Speed Time you curve you input down to zero % speed. A sample is
shown below.

VVVF and Variable Speed Starters

Variable Voltage Variable Frequency starters (VVVF) are basically electronic controllers which can control induction motor speed and torque by varying the electrical supply to the motor.
They are also called Variable Speed Drives or VSD's. These starter can be programmed so that they will start a conveyor motor and force it follow a Speed Time curve such as the ones
detailed above. They have speed loop feedback from the motor and control the motor speed to follow the programmed ramp by varying the torque the motor is developing. If the motor speed
is falling behind the curve the torque is increased, if it is getting ahead of the curve the torque is decreased. This forces the motor to follow the programmed Speed Time curve. It is interesting
to note the even though we program it to Speed Time parameters, it is still actually a torque control start.

These VVVF Drives can also be used to control the stopping of a conveyor by ramping down the torque in a controlled manner to follow a Speed Time curve such as the one shown under
the Braking heading above. To to program this type of stopping use a Brake or Drive pulley with an S curve as shown above.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Starters Database


You can store information about Starters for conveyors for use in the Dynamic analysis version of the software. This information relates to how the conveyor si
started and stopped. The Starters information can cover any type of control for starting and stopping and it includes:

Types of Starters and Brakes

z Electric induction motors starting Direct On Line (DOL)

z Electric Induction motors starting Star Delta

z Electric Direct Current (DC) motors

z Wound Rotor (slip ring) motors with variable rotor resistance circuits

z Fluid Coupling devices

z Electro Magnetic drives

z Variable Voltage Variable Frequency (VVVF) electronic starters

z Variable Speed Drives (VSD)

z Constant Torque brakes

z Variable Torque brakes

z VVVF electric motor braking (regenerative control)

z Others

The Helix delta-T program allows you to input data to simulate all of the above type of starting and stopping control.

Classes of Starters and Brakes

The main types of control are

z Torque vs Speed control

z Speed vs Time control

z Constant Torque Brakes

Refer to the Torque Speed principles help topic for details about the types of starters.

To access the starters database click the Data, Starters Database menu item in the main form to display the starters database:

Torque Speed curve

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The database form has a table of data at the top left. This is where you enter the category, description and type of starter. The table on the top right hand side is
where the data for the selected starter is displayed. When you click from one starter to the next, the right hand table is refreshed and the data in the right hand
table is drawn in the Graph below the table. The image above is a for a Torque Speed curve. In this case you enter data in the Speed % and the Torque %
columns in the data table and this is what is drawn in the graph. The dynamic analysis calculation will ensure that a drive with this starter will follow this
relationship.

Refer to the Torque Speed principles help topic for details about the types of starters.

Speed Time curve

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The image above is a for a Speed vs Time curve. In this case you enter data in the Speed % and the Time columns in the data table and this is what is drawn
in the graph. The dynamic analysis calculation will ensure that a drive with this starter will follow this relationship. So after say 2 seconds the speed will be 5%
and after 50 seconds it will 35% and so on. In this case the Drive pulley will follow this acceleration ramp.

Refer to the Torque Speed principles help topic for details about the types of starters.

Constant Torque Brakes

If the Drive or Brake pulley is fitted with a constant torque brake (this applies to most conveyor brakes such as the fail safe spring applied hydraulically released
disc brakes) then you need to select this Type from the drop down box when selecting the type for the dynamic analysis calculations. The actual torque value is
entered in the main form Input Brakes tabsheet in the program.

Speed vs Time Brakes

In this case we select the Speed - Time type and then enter a speed deceleration curve by typing in data in the Speed % and Time columns, starting at 100%
speed and ending at zero speed after t seconds. See image below.

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The brake will control the pulley to stop by following an S curve from 100% Speed to zero speed after 30 seconds in the above case.

How to Edit the curve data

Once you have entered data for a specific type of curve you can copy and then edit the curve quickly. For example, you may have entered a S curve ramp with a
starting time of say 30 seconds. You may now want the same shape of curve but a different starting time, say 60 seconds. You can do this easily as follows:

1. Select the curve you want to edit

2. Press the Copy Starter / Brake button at the top if the table. The selected starter will be copied along with the curve data and inserted at the bottom of the
table.

3. Selected to new copy of the starter and the curve will be re-drawn.

4. Press the Adjust Torque, Adjust Speed or Adjust Time button above the curve points data table depending on what you want to adjust.

5. The following form will be displayed

6.

7. Enter the adjustment factor. Eg. to double the time values, enter a 2.0 or to halve the torque values enter a 0.5 etc. The press OK. The values will be
adjusted.

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8. Press the Redraw curve button to redraw the curve with the adjusted values.

Using the Copy Starter button means that you can keep the original curve for future use and use the new adjusted curve and also keep it for future use. In this
way you can quickly build a database of different types of starters or brakes. You can also make starter calculations in a spreadsheet such as Excel and then
create a new Starter in the table, choose the type and then typ in the data for Torque, Speed and or Time.

Delete Starter

To Delete a Starter us the Delete button. This will clear the curve point data and the starter description as well.

All this data is stored in the Starters and Points tables in the xml file.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program


www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Dynamic Analysis Input Form


To perform a Dynamic Analysis you need to have the Dynamic Analysis version of the software. Press the Dynamic Analysis
button on the main form. The following form will be displayed:

This form has two tabsheets, Dynamic Model inputs and Drive and Brake Details. For each conveyor we need to input
additional data about the dynamic analysis calculations and this is input on the Dynamic Model tab. We also need to input the
type of starter and or brake for each drive and brake in the conveyor and this is done on the Drive and Brake Details form.

Dynamic Belt Inputs

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These inputs include details such as the starting or stopping the conveyor, calculation run time etc. Starting from the top left of
the form we have the Dynamic Belt Inputs. These must be input for each conveyor.

Enter the Belt Modulus in kN/m. This will be used for belt Elastic Elongation calculations in the dynamic analysis.

where BM = Belt Modulus, delta T is change in belt tension, L is total belt length and Bw is belt width

Conveyor Belt Spring constant K is a calculated value, you do not need to edit it it is calculated when you press the Calc
Spring Constant button which you must do after entering the Belt Inputs

Enter the Maximum Conveyor Section Element length in m. This is the length of section to be used in the dynamic analysis.
It should be not more than about 1/10th of the conveyor centres, so if the conveyor is say 5km long use a value of 500m or
less. The smaller the value the more accurate the calculations but the longer it will take.

Note, the program will use the length of section you input from the X,Y,Z values in the main inputs. It is only long sections of
conveyor which need to be split up into shorter sections using the Maximum length you enter here. So if the sections has a
length of say 800m entered by X,Y,Z and you enter maximum length here of 500m, then the 800m length will be split into 2 x
400m sections for the dynamic calculations.

Slow Dynamic Calculations

If the dynamic analysis is running very slowly it is probably because your conveyor contains one or more relatively short
sections of belt between pulleys. For example a snub pulley located close the drive pulley may only have a belt length of say
1m. The program needs to calculate the elongation of the belt at each iteration in the dynamic analysis and if the section is
short you need a large change in tension to get any elongation (refer Belt Modulus above). So for short sections the software
has to work with very small numbers and in some cases (even though we work to 19 digits or so) the numbers are just too
small to calculate and this can cause the results to be indeterminate or for the calculation to run very slowly. So to speed up or
avoid this situation, adjust the X value of the snub pulley so that there is say 5m of belt between it and the Drive pulley and
then run the Dynamic calculations. They will run much faster and the extra length of say 4m will have negligible effect on the
results especially if the conveyor is thousands of metres long.

Enter the Dynamic Friction f Adjustment Factor. This is a factor for increasing or decreasing the dynamic resistances. The
default value is 1.0, at which no adjustment is made and the standard friction factors as used in the normal program will be
used. If you know the conveyor has a low friction you can enter a number of say 0.80 or for low temperature installations you
may want to use high friction and so enter 1.20 or so. If you enter a 1.0 the program will use the friction factor calculated using
the ISO friction factors but based on the Dynamic Tensions. This is a very important distinction of Helix delta-T, it uses the
instantaneous tension to calculate the belt sag and then calculates a friction factor for the current time step during the dynamic
analysis. This gives the most accurate dynamic analysis results because if the tension is low at the time, the sag is more and

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friction is higher. The program continually adjusts the friction to suit the tension at each section along the conveyor at each
time step during the analysis. Other programs do not do this and so cannot get correct dynamic analysis results.

Enter the Total System Moving mass - this is actually calculated and entered for you from the static analysis model - see the
Starting and Stopping Report for the details. It is the sum of the Belt Mass, Material Mass, Idler Rotating Masses, Pulley and
Drive Equivalent Masses. You can edit it if you wish by we recommend that you run it as calculated.

Dynamic Calculation Inputs

These are required inputs and relate mainly to the run times.

Enter a Calculation Run Time span in seconds. This is the amount of time over which the calculations will be performed. If
you are not sure, enter a value of say 60 seconds. You can always return to this input and adjust it later, if for instance it
appears too long or too short. This value forms the X axis of the output graphs.

Enter a Start / Stop Reference time Tref. This value must be larger than zero and must be less than the Run Time Span. It is
an approximate time span for (say) starting the conveyor and can be looked up in the main conveyor calculations. If you are
unsure, use a value of about half of the Run Time Span for short conveyors and one tenth the start time for long conveyors.
The smaller the Tref input, the more accurate the dynamic analysis but the longer it takes to run the calculation. If the dynamic
calculations are taking a long time (and you have adjusted the short sections of conveyor) the you can increase this Tref time
and retry the calculation. Also, if it runs quickly, reduce the Tref and run it again. Normally a value of 3 seconds on a starting
time of say 10 to 20 seconds is small enough. A lot depends on the flexibility of the belt, a relatively;y stiff belt will run slower
with the same Tref as a flexible belt because the strain values are higher and easier to calculate.

Enter Time Step Interval dt - this is the time step used for the dynamic analysis. The default value is 0.1 seconds and this is
the maximum recommended value. The smaller the dt value the more accurate the dynamic analysis, but the longer the
calculation time. A value of 0.05 or 0.02 is commonly used, but usually 0.1 is good enough.

After entering the Run time, Tref and dt press the Calculate Delay Time Tau button. This calculates Tau (which depends on
Tref) and the Viscoelastic Damping Constant b. You will notice that if you decrease the Tref input and press Calc Tau, the
Tau value also decreases and this results in a more accurate dynamic analysis but takes longer to run. You can adjust the Tau
value upwards if the calculation is taking a long tome to run, but this reduces the accuracy. To reduce run time adjust the very
short sections of conveyor by moving the X coordinate a small amount, see Slow Dynamic Calculations above.

Note also that if the dynamic analysis graphs have a furry or zig zag curve this indicates numerical instability and by reducing
the Tau value (decreasing Tref) you will improve the numerical calculation accuracy.

Fine Tuning the Dynamic Analysis

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The furry pattern shown in the above graph is not excessive but if the jagged curve has a high amplitude then it is best to re-
run the dynamic analysis using a smaller Tref and smaller Tau, a smaller time step dt and a smaller maximum section
length or a combination of all of these.

Runge-Kutta Internal Step size - default is 0.001. This is used for solving the differential equations. This value is only used if
you switch off the Use Variable Step ODE Solver switch.

Use Variable Step ODE Solver - we recommend that you leave this ON. The program will use the Dormand Prince adaptive
step size method with error correction rather than the fixed step Runge-Kutta method. See Dormand Prince for more details.

Press the Calculate Delay Time Tau button - do not forget to press this button after completing inputs for run time and Tref.

Takeup Mass & Lock Capstan Winch - Optional Inputs

There are some additional inputs which relate to tension control during stopping conveyors. On all conveyors, when you cut
the drive power, a low tension is propagated back down the conveyor belt towards the tail end. At the same time the takeup
moves up due to reducing tension, but the return side belt continues to feed in around the tail pulley causing the belt to tend to
bunch up on the carry side. This causes low tensions in the conveyor and if the tensions drop below the allowable sag tension,
the belt will droop between idlers and may even sag down onto the return belt. However, the takeup will adjust tensions and
the low tension at a point recovers as the wave moves along the belt until it decays completely.

In order to control or reduce the low tensions, you can do a few things:

z Increase Takeup mass - this requires a stronger belt. structures etc.

z Add Flywheels to Drive to keep the belt running after power is cut and control the low tensions

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z Add a brake after the takeup pulley

z Lock the takeup to prevent it relaxing the belt

All or a combination of the above can be used to control low tensions during stopping. The inputs for the group box called
Takeup Mass & Lock Capstan Winch are for the 4th option. Basically, we lock in the belt stretch by clamping the takeup trolley
rope using a capstan winch brake and this has the effect of temporarily increasing the takeup tension. When the conveyor
starts and runs, the belt stretches and elongates and the takeup moves to accommodate the stretch. The average belt tension
is increased from the average at stationary to the average during running and we can lock in this tension increase by
preventing the takeup from moving when power is cut. If we assume some number this becomes clearer:

Ave Tension stationary = 100kN


Ave Tension Running = 150kN
Delta T = 50kN

So at maximum we can lock in an extra 50kN which is equivalent to increasing the takeup mass m = F/2g = 2500kg
approximately. There will be some time delay and this extra tension will not be applied instantaneously so we need to capture
some information for this case:

Takeup Mass Static Calculations - this is the takeup mass m from the normal calculations

Takeup Tension is = ½mg

Average Tension Running Full is the calculated average tension in the belt during running - it is calculated for you.

Average Tension Stationary is the calculated average tension in the belt when stopped - it is calculated for you.

Belt Stretch Tension Available is the difference between run full and stationary tension- it is calculated for you.

Additional Tension to add at takeup for Capstan / Winch - you need to input this value - it cannot be more than the Belt
Stretch Tension Available but it can be less depending on the capstan winch brake torque setting. You can set the winch brake
torque to give you this additional tension force.

Capstan / Winch Application Time Delay - this is the reaction time of the winch brake. The default value is 0.5 seconds. It
has to be quick because otherwise the takeup will move and the belt will have relaxed before you can lock in the stretch
tension, but it is also not instantaneous. We recommend a response time of 0.5 seconds.

Lock-up Takeup Weight Rope with winch during Stopping - switch this ON if you want to apply the capstan during the
dynamic analysis calculations. It should only be switched on for the Stopping dynamic calculations. Run the calculation with
this on and with it off and then compare the results. You will see with it on the takeup tension is increased thus raising all the
tensions in the conveyor.

Choose Starting, Stopping and Operating Mode

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Choose which mode you want to calculate

Starting and Fully Loaded or Empty

Stopping Braking and Fully Loaded or Empty - brakes in static analysis Input Brakes are applied

Stopping Coasting means no brakes are applied in the case of the constant torque brakes and choose full or empty.

It is best to run only one Starting or Stopping case at a time because if adjustments are required you can see the results after
the first run.

Next we need to specify how the conveyor will be started and also input the Brake details if it is brake pulley. See Dynamic
Analysis Input Starters help topic.

After selecting the starters and brakes you can do the dynamic calculations by pressing the Start Dynamic Analysis button.
The dynamic analysis will be performed and the current time step dt and the elapsed time in seconds will be shown on the
status bar at the bottom of the form along with a progress bar and % completed tag. Once the analysis is completed the
Dynamic Results form will be displayed and you can explore the graphs.

You can stop the dynamic analysis calculations - press the Cancel Dynamic Analysis button twice to abort the calculations.
If you cancel the calculation it is best to close the input form and re-open it because this re-sets all the memory settings and
refreshes the dynamic objects in memory. If you do not close and re-open the form there may be some extra results displayed
in the graphs.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Dynamic Analysis Input Starters


Before you can run the Dynamic Analysis calculations we need to capture information about the method of starting the conveyor. The Torque Speed
Principles help topic explains the different methods and the Starters Database explains how to add new starters and brake curves.

To select a starter click the Dynamic Analysis button on the main form. The Dynamic Inputs form will be displayed. On the first tabsheet you enter
the Dynamic Model Inputs. Every Drive and Brake pulley must have a either a Torque Speed or a Speed Time curve input before the dynamic analysis
can be run. Click the Drive & Brake Details tabsheet to display the following form:

The top of the form has a datacontrol which allows you to navigate through the Drives list. Each Drive and Brake must have a dataset allocated.

Selecting a Torque Speed or Speed Time curve

1. Click the Datacontrol to move to the first Drive / Brake in the list.

2. Click the Open Database button. This takes you to the Starters Database form.

3. Scroll down to the Torque Speed curve or Speed Time curve you want to use for this drive or brake pulley. If the dataset is not already added
then you can add a new curve using the instruction detailed for the Starters Database, link shown above.

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4. Now click on the Starter curve you want to use and then Press the Copy to Drive button in the database form. The selected starter's data will be
copied from the database to your current drive (or brake) pulley. The database form will be closed with a prompt to save changes, select yes.

5. The selected starters data will be graphed as per the sample Torque Speed graph shown above. If you selected a Speed Time curve it would be
displayed.

6. The Starter No. will be shown in the input box - do not edit this manually as it is used to sort the Points table to show the particular starter for the
current drive. If this input is blank the dynamic analysis cannot be done.

7. Ensure that the Starter Type is correct for the curve points selected or entered. Torque Speed, Speed Time or Constant Torque Brake are the
options. All starters should be one of the first two options, a brake can be any of the three options. If Constant Torque Brake is selected then the
curve points will not be used in the dynamic analysis, the program will apply the brake torque you input in the main form, see Input Brakes.

8. If the Drive or Brake pulley is fitted with a holdback then you must check the Holdback is installed on drive checkbox. It is only necessary to
put a hold back on one drive if the drive pulleys are close together otherwise an artificial belt tension value could be "trapped" between the
pulleys by the holdback during the analysis, so just use one holdback for the calculations.

9. Start or Brake Delay Time input - you can input a time in seconds to delay the activation of the currently selected drive or brake. This delay
means the starter or brake will be activated until this time is passed in the dynamic analysis calculations. This is a very useful input when dealing
with Tripper and Tail pulley drives which may be located a long way from the head drives. To determine the delay time required, run the dynamic
analysis with a zero delay time. Then examine the Velocity Graphs in the Dynamic Results form and note at what time after starting the belt
starts to move at the tripper or tail drive - this is the delay time required. Note that the tripper drive velocity might start initially but it will soon stall
due to overload.

10. Select the Brake Type form the drop down list. If it is a Drive Pulley fitted with the brake then it must be a Constant Torque Brake type because
we can't allocate a starting and a braking curve to one pulley. If it is a brake pulley it can be any of the options listed but if you choose one other
than Constant Torque Brake then you must ensure that you enter a curve as for a Drive described in 5 above.

11. Navigate to the Next Drive in the Drives list using the datacontrol arrows.

12. Repeat the Selection of a Starter from the database working from point 2 above.

13. Repeat the selection process for each drive and or brake pulley in the list.

If the drive list item is a brake pulley it will be shown as Brake next to the Drive no input box.

Constant Torque Brake

If the drive item is a Brake pulley you have two options namely a Variable Speed Time controlled brake or a Constant Torque Brake. For the first
option see the Starters Database help topic, you have to select a speed time curve for the brake.

Constant Torque Brake - in this case the torque applied at the brake pulley is a constant torque and this is input on the Input Brakes tab on the main

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form, so it not necessary to select a speed time curve, provided that the Starter Type is also set to

Design Comment are for you to input notes about the specific dynamic analysis run and these can be viewed on the dynamic result reports.

You are now ready to do the Dynamic Analysis, click the Dynamic Model Inputs tabsheet and complete the inputs if not already done then run the
dynamic analysis calculation.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program


www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Dynamic Analysis Load Sharing


Conveyors which have more than one drive require load sharing to take place between the drives otherwise one drive may become
overloaded.

Load Sharing during Torque Speed control starting

Fortunately electric induction motors have a built-in ability to load share - see the Torque Speed Principles help topic and read the
section on load sharing. When we perform a dynamic analysis on a conveyor, if the Torque Speed starting curve method is used on
the conveyor drives then load sharing will happen automatically because as the one motor takes more load it slows down and so
naturally forces the other motor to take more load. So this means load sharing is automatic. The load share on a drive is kept in the
same ratio as the installed power on the drive pulley.

Velocity Ramp Starting load Sharing

When we use two Velocity Ramp starter curves in the model the load sharing will no longer be automatic. This means if we have two
drives close together and they are programmed to follow a Speed Ramp curve, even though the speed may follow this curve there is
no guarantee that the load will be shared between the drives. In practice the VSD drives are linked in Master - Slave arrangement with
a speed loop feedback. This means that the Slave drive is programmed to always follow the speed (and torque) of the Master drive by
monitoring the actual speed of the rotors or the current draw or both.

However in the Dynamic modelling we do not have this loop feedback yet because the resulting loads (tensions) are what we are
actually trying to simulate.

How to ensure Load Sharing in the Dynamic Analysis model

1. Set the Primary Drive to the Velocity Ramp Starter.

2. Set the Secondary Drive to a Torque Speed Curve. The secondary drive is the one closest to the Takeup pulley. This will ensure
that the takeup keeps the T2 tension tight on the secondary drive, and the Secondary drive keeps the T2 tension tight on the Primary
drive.

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Drive number 17 is the Secondary and Drive no 15 is the Primary Drive in the Demo 11 Screen Feed Tripper Conveyor Dual
Drive.xml Sample File - this is the source of these results. For Regenerative conveyors such as the one shown in Demo 10 sample
file the Secondary drive is the first one in the list, the drive closest to the takeup pulley.

Example of Velocity Ramp on Primary Drive (Master Drive)

Example of Torque Speed Curve for Secondary Drive (Slave Drive)

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The above curve is drawn and input for a conveyor where the total conveyor Absorbed power is about 80% of the total installed
power, so that is why we input a torque curve of about 80% for the secondary drive. This will ensure that it inputs about 80% of its
installed power to the model during the Dynamic calculations and will ensure the belt tensions are correct in the dynamic analysis.

Example of Dynamic Belt Velocity graph

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The graph above shows the belt velocity with the Primary Drive set to a 30 second S curve ramp and the Secondary Drive set to the
80% Torque Speed curve.

Example of Dynamic Belt Tensions Graph

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The graph above shows the belt tensions with the Primary Drive set to a 30 second S curve ramp and the Secondary Drive set to the
80% Torque Speed curve. You can see how much tension the secondary drive is inputting during the starting phase. The secondary
Drive is the number 18 light Orange coloured graph line. You can see how the tension drops slightly once it reaches the full running
speed after 30 seconds.

See the Demo 11 Screen Feed Tripper Conveyor Dual Drive.xml Sample File - this is the source of these results.

Do not put both drives on a Velocity Ramp curve - they will not load share.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Dynamic Results Form


After completing the Dynamic Analysis calculations the Dynamic Results form will be displayed. Initially the form will be a blank form.

Belt Velocity Graphs - Starting Full

Click the Draw Velocities button to display the velocity graphs.

It is best to draw the belt velocities first because you can verify that the conveyor has started (or stopped) as intended. In the sample above you can see the Drive
pulley velocity rises initially to about 2.2m/s and the the drive slows as more and more belt comes on stream. The Tail Brake pulley (black line) is stationary for
about 7 seconds before it also starts to move. The whole conveyor then accelerates in series of steps until the drive pulley reaches the final belt speed of 4.4m/s
after about 26 seconds in the above case. You will see that the Tail Brake pulley actually goes overspeed and the belt speed varies quite a lot, fluctuating up and
down. This is due to the energy stored as tension when the belt is stretched. The belt velocity will settle at the belt speed if the dynamic analysis is run for long
enough.

The red line here shows the velocity of the takeup carriage. This is not the speed of the belt at the takeup, it is the speed of the actual takeup pulley carriage. It too
will eventually settle at zero under steady state running.

The graphs in the help topic above are taken from a model of a conveyor described in an article titled the 'Power of Field Measurements' published in Bulk Solids
Handling vol. 18 No.3 July/Sept 1998 page 425. Further details can be seen in the following link Dynamic Analysis Case Study.

Plot any Point in Conveyor

You can choose to plot any point along the conveyor belt - select the Locations from the Drop Down box on the right hand side of the form. They are added to the
list of points to plot.

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After selecting a point to plot press the Draw Velocities (or Draw Tensions) button to redraw the curve. In the case below the light brown line for Int. Pt 7 has been
added to the graph. All the points in the list will be drawn. To delete a point and omit it from the graph double click on it in the list and it will be removed.

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Belt Tensions Graph - Starting Full

After viewing the belt velocities and verifying them we can view the tensions - press the Draw Tensions button to display something like this:

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In this graph you can see how the belt tension at the Primary Drive pulley (blue line) increases rapidly to about 185kN. This is Torque Controlled Start see Torque
Speed Principles help topic. The tension at the Secondary drive is about 110kN, in this case the drives are equal power. The tension at the drives remains high
until the 26 second mark at which time the drive pulleys reach belt speed and the torque reduces. Then they rise again and finally fall reaching a low point at 50
seconds before fluctuating. They will settle at the run tensions and these can be seen in the Static Analysis tension graphs on the main form. A comparison of the
static and dynamic tensions is recommended in order to verify the model.

In the graph above the tail pulley tension starts to rise after 7 seconds, the same time that the pulley start to move (see velocities). The belt tension at the takeup
(red line) is pretty constant as it is controlled by the takeup weight.

This sample is a 6km coal conveyor with a narrow belt so it is relatively flexible (St800 x 800mm wide) and a lot of energy is stored and released in the belt
stretching and contracting.

Belt Safety Factor during starting

The belt safety factor is calculated (you may need to go to Options tabsheet to set the calculation to on) from the belt strength (800kn/m x 0.8 ) / 229kN = 2.79 and
shown on the bottom of the graph, in this case it is only 2.79 indicating the starting torque is too high and software start is required. Normally a belt safety factor of
about 5 is acceptable, but the belt splice design must be able to accommodate this.

Zoom and Pan graphs

All the graphs in delta-T have a zoom function. To zoom in left click at the top right hand side of the area you want to zoom into, hold the mouse left button down
and the drag the mouse down and to the right. Release it and the program will zoom into the framed area you selected. Repeat to zoom in further.

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Zoomed view from graph above

To zoom out left click in the graph and move the mouse up and to the left then release the left button and it will redraw the full graph for you.

Takeup Travel Graph

Click the Draw Takeup Travel button to display the following graph which shows how the takeup carriage moves with time. Maximum travel is just over the 11m in
this case.

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Copy Graph to Clipboard

You can copy the currently displayed graph to the Windows clipboard by using the Copy button from the graph tool bar.

Paste the graph image into a Word document or other program to make a report.

Graph Settings - Chart Editor

You can use the Edit button (try square button) to open a graph editor program such as the one shown below:

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This chart editor have many options for redrawing and editing the graph from line colours to graph types to 3D settings and even adding notes and your own
legends to the graphs.

You can edit titles and also Export the dynamic analysis data for use in other applications such as Excel. Click the Export tab and follow your instincts.

3D Tension Graphs

You can view a 3 dimensional plot of the conveyor belt tensions such as the one below - select 3D Graphs tab and press Draw Tensions.

In the above example the Tail brake pulley is at the left, the high wall is the Primary Primary drive and the flat section along the middle the takeup which is almost
constant tension. The right hand side of the graph is the return belt with right edge being back at the tail. You can draw "slices" through this 3D graph by selecting
a point drawing it in the 2D graphs.

The maximum and minimum tensions in the system can be seen in the legend on the right hand side.

Graph Options

The graph options tab has graph settings - experiment with these settings to see the effect on the graphs.

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Re-run the Dynamic Analysis this time selecting the Stopping Braking conveyor Full options. Now you can view the stopping

Belt Velocity Graphs - Stopping Braking Full

Click the Draw Velocities button to display the following.

Actual Belt Velocities Measured for this conveyor

The graph above is the actual measured belt velocities for this conveyor stopping full. Refer to article titled the 'Power of Field Measurements' published in Bulk
Solids Handling vol. 18 No.3 July/Sept 1998 page 425. Further details can be seen in the following link Dynamic Analysis Case Study.

In the measured case the power was cut at the 17 second mark and the Head pulley velocity can be seen to drop to about 3m/s then move down in stages to rest
at 42 seconds, ie. 24 seconds later. This compares almost exactly with the graph predicted by the Helix delta-T program see above graph for belt velocities. The
Tail pulley runs on for about 7 to 8 seconds before slowing rapidly and then levelling out eventually stopping at 24 seconds.

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Belt Slip

However, the tail brake pulley itself locked up at the 26 second mark or 9 seconds after power was cut, shown as belt slip in the measured graph. Examination of
the belt tension graph from the Helix program shown below, shows that the belt tension at the tail brake drops to zero at the 9 second mark. This explains why the
tail brake pulley locked up when it did. The Tension graph shows the tension recovers at the 16 second mark and this is when the belt slip ceased on the
measured values in graph above. The Dynamic Analysis shows this tail brake will be problem in operation.

Actual tail brake pulley and belt speed measurements were taken on this conveyor using equipment shown in the photo below. Pulley speed and belt speed was
measured in order to determine time of belt slip.

Photo and graph below courtesy Trans Tech Publications, Bulk Solids Handling Vol 18 No. 3

Belt Tension Graphs - Stopping Braking Full

Click the Draw Tensions button

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Note the Tail brake tension (black line) drops low at the 9 second mark and explains why the Tail brake pulley locked up causing belt slip in the actual measured
situation. These low tensions have to be designed out using increased takeup tension, flywheels, capstan winch on takeup or location of brake after the takeup -
these methods shown in the Dynamic Inputs help topic. The tension recovers at the 16 second mark which is when the belt slip ceased.

On some shorter conveyors you may see the belt tensions drop very low or even go to negative values. This does happen on conveyors but it the tension recovers
within a short period of time, say within 2 seconds or less, then there is not enough time for the conveyor belt to have an adverse reaction. However, if the duration
of the low tensions is more than 4 seconds it will have an adverse reaction and this has been observed on many installed conveyors where material spillage is a
common problem after emergency stops. We recommend that if low tensions are present the design is altered to eliminate them using a combination of increased
takeup tension, flywheels, capstan winch on takeup or location of brake after the takeup.

Holdback Torque Calculation

The blue line in the graph above for the primary drive pulley shows how the belt tension at the drive increases as the drive pulley stops and the Holdback locks in
place. In this case the torque on the holdback would be (T1-T2) x pulley radius = (60 - 30) x radius kNm where 30kN is the T2 tension at the takeup. On high lift
conveyors the timing of the tension rise can affect the torque imposed on the holdbacks. See Dynamic Analysis Holdback Torque Calculation help topic for more
details.

Takeup Movement - Stopping Braking Full

Click the Draw Takeup Travel button to display the following graph which shows how the takeup carriage moves with time. Maximum travel is just over the 4.6m in
this case.

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Belt Tension Graphs - Stopping Braking Full 3D Graph

Click the Draw Tensions button on the 3D Graphs tab to display a 3D view of the tensions.

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Save and Retrieve Dynamic Results

You can save the dynamic analysis results in a file for future use. This allows you to revisit the results without having to re-do the dynamic analysis. In the Dynamic
Results form, select the File, Save File as menu. Then enter a name the file will be saved in a file with a .dyn extension.

You can retrieve the results form a previously saved dynamic analysis by using the File, Open File menu. Select the .dyn file and it will be opened. Then select the
Graph to Display from the drop down box at the top right hand side of the form and press Draw Velocities, Draw Tensions etc to view the graphs.

In the demo version of the program we have provided some sample files of dynamic analysis. Use the Reports, Dynamic Analysis Results From from the main
form to open the Dynamic Results form then use the File Open File menu to access the demonstrations.

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Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program


www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Dynamic Analysis Holdback Torque Calculation


You can calculate the torque which will be applied to the holdbacks on a conveyor using the Dynamic Analysis module. Build the model of the
conveyor and perform a normal dynamic analysis for the conveyor stopping fully loaded. Ensure that you switch on the 'Holdback is fitted to
Drive' checkbox in the Dynamic Drive Inputs form. When the Dynamic Results form is displayed after running the dynamic analysis check the
Belt Velocities graph and then look at the Belt Tensions graph. You will see that at the time the drive comes to a stop there is a tension rise at
the drive pulley. The example below demonstrates this:

Iron Ore Loadout Conveyor with high lift

The following example is based on a conveyor with 32m lift and 1260kW installed power transporting 9400tph of iron ore.

Belt Velocity Graphs - Stopping Braking Full with Holdback

Click the Draw Velocities button to display the following.

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It can be seen in the above graph the Drive pulley comes to a stop at the 4.2 second mark and after this the time the velocity remains firmly
clamped at zero velocity by the holdbacks.

Belt Tension Graphs - Stopping Braking Full with Holdbacks

Click the Draw Tensions button to display the following.

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We can see in the above graph there is a large tension rise after the Drive pulley comes to rest at 4.2 seconds. In fact in this case the run back
tension of 440kN at the drive is more than the running full tension of 410kN. The runback torque is given by

(T1 - T2) x pulley radius = (440 - 130) x 0.612m = 189.7kNm. So the holdbacks must be able to take this torque plus some safety factor. If the
holdback is installed on the gearbox intermediate shaft you can proportion the torque by the ratio to the shaft speed.

We now repeat the above calculation without a holdback.

Belt Velocity Graphs - Stopping Braking Full without Holdback

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Helix delta-T6 - Dynamic Analysis Holdback Torque Calculation Page 4 of 5

You can see from the above graph that without a holdback the drive pulley reaches zero speed and then continues to run at an increasing
negative velocity indication the conveyor is running backwards.

Belt Tension Graphs - Stopping Braking Full without Holdbacks

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There is no significant tension rise without the holdback fitted and tensions waves will decay over time as they cycle around the conveyor.

For record purposes use the Reports, Dynamic Calcs Input Data report to record the settings you used for running the dynamic analysis.
See the Dynamic Results form help topic for other details about the dynamic analysis graphs.

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Helix delta-T6 - References Page 1 of 2

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design


www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies
Program

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - References

The following general references were used during the development of this program :

BELT CONVEYORS FOR BULK MATERIALS, Conveyor Equipment Manufacturers


Association (CEMA), 2nd onwards
HAND BOOK OF CONVEYOR AND ELEVATOR BELTING, Goodyear Tire and Rubber
Company
CONVEYOR BELT DESIGN MANUAL, Bridgestone
CONVEYOR BELT DESIGN MANUAL, Dunlop Industrial Products
CONVEYOR BELT SYSTEM DESIGN, Continental
CONTINUOUS MECHANICAL HANDLING SYSTEMS - BELT CONVEYORS WITH
CARRYING IDLERS ISO 5048, International Standards Organisation
BELT CONVEYORS FOR BULK MATERIALS, Deutsche Norm, DIN 22101
THE MELCO PRECISMECA BELT CONVEYOR IDLER ROLL, Melco Mining Supplies (Pty)
Ltd
CONVEYOR IDLERS - MATHEMATICAL SELECTION CRITERIA, Adi Fritella
Criteria for Minimising Transient Stress in Conveyor Belts A. Harrison Mech Eng
Transactions 1983
On the Appropriate Use of dynamic Stress Models for Conveyor Design A. Harrison Bulk
Solids Handling Vol 8, No 6 December 1988
Future Design of Belt Conveyors using Dynamic Analysis A. Harrison Bulk Solids Handling
Vol 7, No 3 June 1987
On the application of beam elements in Finite Element Analysis of Belt Conveyors Part 1 G.
Lodewijks, Netherlands Bulk Solids Handling Vol 14, No 4 October 1994
Analysis of Belt dynamics in Horizontal Curves of Long Belt Conveyors G. Schulz, Germany
Bulk Solids Handling Vol 15, No 1 Jan/March 1995
Transient Belt Stresses During Starting and Stopping: elastic Response simulated by FEM
L.K. Nordell, Z.P. Ciozda, USA
Bulk Solids Handling Vol 4, No 1 March 1984 Technical Requirements for Operating
Conveyor Belts at High Speed A. Harrison and A.W. Roberts Bulk Solids Handling Vol 4, No
1 March 1984
Flexural Behaviour of Tensioned Conveyor Belts A. Harrison The Institute of Engineers,
Australia
Experimental Investigations and Theory for the Design of a Long-Distance Belt Conveyor
System H. Funke & F.K. Konneker, Germany Bulk Solids Handling Vol 8, No 5 October 1988
Stress Front Velocity in Elastomeric Belts with Bonded Steel Cable reinforcement A. Harrison
Bulk Solids Handling Vol 6, No 1 February 1986
Analysis of a Long Belt Conveyor using the Multi-body Dynamics Program Hyung-Suk Han et
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Helix delta-T6 - References Page 2 of 2

al, Korea Bulk Solids Handling Vol 16, No 4 Oct/Dec 1996


Uphill and Downhill Conveying of Important Mass Flows G. Schulz, Germany Bulk Solids
Handling Vol 15, No 4 Oct/Dec 1995
Feedback Control of Conveyor systems L.F. Wee and G. Ledwich, Australia Bulk Solids
Handling Vol 19, No 1 Jan/March 1999
Non-Linear Dynamics of Belt Conveyor systems G. Lodewijks, Netherlands Bulk Solids
Handling Vol 17, No 1 Jan/March 1997
Dynamic Behaviour of steel cord conveyor belts A. Harrison Colliery Guardian vol 221 sept
1981 pg 459
Transient Stresses in long conveyor belts A. Harrison Further Results in the Analysis of
Dynamic Characteristics of Belt
Conveyors Schulz G Bulk Solids Handling, Vol.13, No. 4, p. 705-710. November 1993.
Schulz G.:
Calculation of the Dynamics of Long Belt Conveyors Viscoelastic Properties of conveyor belts
modeling of vibration phenomena in belt conveyors during starting and stopping Zur, T.W
Bulk Solids Handling, Vol.6, No. 3, p. 705-710. November 1986.

For specific references relating to the Viscoelastic method of calculation please see the
Viscoelatic References Help topic.

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Helix delta-T6 - Viscoelastic References Page 1 of 1

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design Program www.helixtech.com.au Helix Technologies

Helix delta-T Conveyor Design - Viscoelastic Calculation References

The following references were used during the development of the Viscoelastic method of calculation in this program :

Ref Paper Title Authors Publication


1 The Indentation Rolling Resistance of Belt Conveyors C.O Jonkers Fordern und heben vol.30 (1980) No 4
2 Large Capacity Belt Conveyors - Motion Resistance Evaluation Z.F. Oszter, W.k.Behrends, D.Vincent Mining
Engineering, December 1980
3 The Effects of Idler Alignment and Belt Properties on Conveyor Belt Power Consumption A.E. Maton Bulk Solids
Handling Vol 11 No 4 January 1991
4 The Development of Low Friction Belt Conveyors for Overland Applications D.E Beckley Bulk Solids Handling Vol 11 No
4 January 1991
5 The Rolling Resistance of Conveyor Belts G. Lodewijks Bulk Solids Handling Vol 15 No 1 January 1995
6 Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers John D Ferry University of Wisconsin
7 Physical Testing of Rubber R.P. Brown Technical Manager RAPRA Technology Ltd, U.K
8 Properties of Polymers D.W. van Krevelen, P.J Hoftyzer Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co, Amsterdam
9 The Calculation of the Main Resistances of Belt Conveyors C. Spaans Bulk Solids Handling Vol 11 No 4 November 1991
10 Bulk Solid Flexure Resistance Craig A Wheeler Bulk Solids Handling Vol 25 (2004) No 4
11 Calculating Flexure Resistance of Bulk Solids Transported on Belt Conveyors Craig A. Wheeler, Alan W. Roberts, Mark
G. Jones Particle Systems Characterisation 21 (2004)
12 Application of Time Temperature Superposition Principles to DMA TA Instruments www.tainst.com
13 Application of Time Temperature Superposition Principles to Rheology TA Instruments www.tainst.com
14 Viscoelasticity and dynamic mechanical testing - AN004 A. Franck, TA Instruments Germany www.tainst.com
15 The Power of Rubber - Part 1 L.K Nordell Bulk Solids Handling Vol 16 No 3 November 1993
16 The Energy Saving Design of Belts for Long Conveyor Systems M. Hager and A Hintz Bulk Solids Handling Vol 13 No
4 November 1993
17 Theory and Practice of Engineering with Rubber P.K. Freakley and A.R Payne Applied Science Publishers Ltd, London
18 Overland Conveyors Designed for Efficient Cost and Performance L.K Nordell Bulk Solids Handling Vol 26 (2006) No 1
19 DIN 53513 - Determination of the viscoelastic properties of elastomers on exposure to forced vibration at non-resonant
frequencies Deutche Industrial Norm DIN 53513
http://webstore.ansi.org/ansidocstore/
20 Indentation Rolling Resistance of Belt Conveyors - A Finite Element Solution Craig A Wheeler Bulk Solids Handling Vol
26 (2006) No 1
21 Elastomers, Collected Applications of Thermal Analysis Mettler Toledo, GmbH http://us.mt.com/mt/products
22 Investigation on Causes and Value of the Indentation Rolling Resistance of Belt Conveyors M. Hager, L. Overmeyer
and F. Scholl Bulk Solids Handling Vol 25 (2005) No 2
23 Theoretical basis industrial applications of energy-saving and increased durability of belt conveyors Jerry Antoniak Acta
Montanistica Slovaca Rocnik * (2003) Eislo 2-3
24 Mechanical Properties of Solid Polymers, 2nd edition I.M Ward John Wiley & Sons

Acknowledgement: Helix Technologies wishes to acknowledge, with gratitude, the valuable assistance provided by Mr. A.
E. Maton in the development of the Viscoelastic calculations, including passing on his considerable knowledge in this field,
as well as for testing and verification of the software against known conveyor installations.

For specific references relating to the general calculations please see the References Help topic.

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