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Bali, Indonesia, June 1ST – 6TH , 2014

Operation of Large Dams

Under Changing Climate
Case Study on Kotmale Dam –Sri Lanka
Ministry of Irrigation and Water Resources Management, Mahaweli Authority of Sri Lanka

Kotmale Dam is one of the five major headwork projects completed in the middle of 1980. It is a
174×106 capacity reservoir which has been formed by an 87 m high, 600 m long concrete face
rock fill dam with the country’s second largest hydropower plant of capacity 201 MW. Water
storage of this dam is the life blood of farmers in the north central province dry zone area for
secure food availability. Hence this reservoir assures irrigation water mainly for major irrigation
schemes B, C and H. This dam operation is in accordance with irrigation requirement and
conjunctive use of hydro power. However when it is regular flood or flash flood due to intense
rainfall event, as there are many large dams within the downstream cascade system, dam needs to
operate in such a way that it should not have any adverse effect on the downstream community or
property. Therefore the operation of dams is a vital factor especially for sustainable and optimum
use of available water concerning the safety of the general public and property with the changing
climate. When Kotmale dam operational data from 1985 to 2013 are analyzed change in climate
patterns, uncertainty of climate, unexpected extreme hydrological events are evident. Most of
such extreme events have occurred irregularly. Hence dam operators should have sound
understanding of these unforeseen hydrological events and their consequence. In order to cope
with these challenges dam operators need to have responsible experience, instantaneous, correct
and timely decision making capabilities.

Keywords: Changing Climate, Dam Operations, Extreme hydrological events, flood, Irrigation


There are 103 distinct rivers basins that covers about 59,217 km2 (90 % total land area) of
the country with their basins. Higher percentage of water resources in these basins is used
for irrigated agriculture and hydropower generation with other stakeholders use. At
present there are 86 large dams, 234 medium dams and over 12,000 small dams in Sri
Lanka. Some of these dams are as old as 2,500 years. The stored water of these dams is
the life blood of grass root farmer families in the country to secure food availability. Safe
operation of large dams for managing water for irrigation, domestic recreational,
industrial and environmental needs as well as managing flood is a challenging task for
water professionals involving in dam operation. However as not in the past now dam
operation needs to handle under changing climate. Climate change is commonly defined
as a statistically significant variation in either mean state of the climate or in its
variability, persisting or an extended period. In other simple words climate change is

VII - 25

Bali, Indonesia, June 1ST – 6TH , 2014

Water reservoirs and expected climate changes

E. Bednárová, & M. Minárik

Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology, Bratislava, Slovakia

B. Lipták
Slovak Water Management Enterprise, Banská Štiavnica, Slovakia

A. Kasana, & P. Mackovjak

Vodohospodárska výstavba, Bratislava, Slovakia

The role of artificial water reservoir in society is indispensable. They are the only instrument which
can at least partially reduce the uneven distribution of water on Earth at the time and in the space.
Rich, 7000 year old history of reservoir and dams construction is sufficient proof thereof. Rational
water management, creating water supplies for the population, but also for the flora and fauna in
the dry period and contribution to the protection of society against flooding during extreme rainfall
is without reservoirs unthinkable. The history of dam construction in Slovakia dates back to the
early 16th century, but especially to the first half of the 18th century, when it was built about 70
water reservoirs. Their development stimulated the development of the mining industry in the
vicinity of Banská Štiavnica. The surroundings of the town were rich in silver and gold ores. The
modern history of the construction of water reservoirs is linked to the post-war period. Although
Slovakia is not among the countries with acute water shortage, reservoirs have their own
justification. The reason is that the northern part of Slovakia is a part of the hydrological roof of
Europe, with high fluctuating of river discharges, with the alternation of dry and wet periods. In
addition, the Slovak territory is marked by diverse geological and hydrogeological composition,
with various supplies of groundwater. In this paper attention is paid to certain issues relating to
the importance reservoirs in Slovakia in the past, present and future, in relation to expected
climate changes.

Keywords: climatic changes, drought, floods, reservoir, dam

VII - 24

Bali, Indonesia, June 1ST – 6TH , 2014

Big Dam Reservoirs and Their Role

in Limiting the Consequences of Floods and Droughts in Poland
J. Winter
Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, Warsaw, Poland

A. Kosik
Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, Warsaw, Poland

E. Sieinski
Institute of Meteorology and Water Management,
Dams Monitoring Center, Warsaw, Poland

A. Wita
Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, Warsaw, Poland

Information about natural disasters causing damage over vast areas appear every day. Such events
are more frequent due to climate change. We face various misfortunes caused by forces of nature,
mostly floods and droughts.
Natural floods can be divided according to range, size and origin. Floods caused by dam failure
must also be added to the division. Droughts are completely different events which can be
catastrophic although they are long- lasting and their beginning could be difficult to mark.
Drought and flood are different events as one of them deals with the excess of water while the other
with the lack of it. This polarity enables one action to be a remedy for both of them. The
construction of dam reservoirs helps to retain water during flood and release it during drought. In
dam reservoirs in Poland there is not much water stored. The total capacity of main dam reservoirs
is approximately 4 bln m³ which amounts to 6% of the annual outflow. Most of it is retained in
reservoirs of more than 3 mln m³ with most of the water in those of over 100 mln m³ with their total
volume of 2100 mln m³. The construction of dam reservoir is often an area of social conflicts
(including relocation of inhabitants, excluding vast area out of use) as well as ecologic. It must be
noted that with the present state of ecologic competence as well as available technical solutions,
many of those negative effects can be successfully limited or even eliminated.
In the article examples of reservoir management is presented aiming at limiting the consequences
of floods and droughts. It also describes the water management draft in Poland until 2030 to
improve flood and drought safety by constructing dam reservoirs. The article also quotes and
analyses conflicts with society or ecologic organisations which tend to be very emotional.

Key words: dam water management, floods, droughts, environment conditions

VII - 23

Feriyanto Pawerunsi1, Adi Umar Dani1, Subandi1, Eka Rahendra1,

Sumardji1, Pandu S.W. Ageng2 & Hermawan3
The Pompengan Jeneberang Large River Basin Organization, Makassar, Indonesia
Makassar Municipal Water Authority (Indonesia Water Supply Association), Makassar, Indonesia
Water Resources Consultant of Pompengan Large River Basin Organization , Makassar, Indonesia

On March 26, 2004, Bawakaraeng caldera collapse is a disaster for Bili Bili Reservoir in connection
with global climate change in the upstream of reservoir, a potential area for conservation and a water
catchment area. The caldera collapsed disaster damaged several areas in downstream for example
1,500 ha of irrigation area and 32 people died. Consequently, about 6,333 people were evacuated to
safe location. Most of the agricultural lands in the area have been converted into horticultural lands,
brought negative impacts on environmental carrying capacity which leads to increased areas of
critical lands, surface erosion and increased runoff. Critical lands extending to 219.74 km², spread
over the Gowa and Takalar regency and Makassar City. At the present, the watershed is dominated
by dry-land farming which covers an area of 47%. The area of underbrush is larger than forest area,
which is 20.3%. This condition causes an increase on the rate of erosion that leads to the reservoir.
About 22,934 million m³ sedimentation in the Bili Bili reservoir after the disaster of the Bawakaraeng
caldera collapsed is a serious problem. Consequently, both dry season and rainy season clean water
cannot be distributed to consumers any time inder Somba Opu Raw Water Treatment Plant (RWTP)
because of raw water in the reservoir have a high turbidity. In dray season existing irrigation in
Gowata regency cannot develop this cropping sufficiently. To solve the problem by sharing and
transfer water two reservoirs. Based on study the Jenelata reservoir will store 224 million m3 raw
water for 24.000 Ha irrigation, 500 l/sec RWTP and the Bili Bili reservoir capacity is 375 million m3
for 270 million m3 irrigation, 35 million m3 for RWTP. The benefit expected by this method will be
sharing water from Bili Bili and Jenelata reservoir for development of existing irrigation in Gowata
and Takalar regency including water drinking development in Makassar City.

Keywords: Sharing water, Bili bili and jenelata reservoir, Food and water drinking development,
Global climate change

VII - 22


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VII - 21
Herman Idrus and Anton Mardiyono
Jasa Tirta II Public Corporation, Purwakarta, Indonesia


A reliable supply of drinking water for urban residents is one of the primary requirements for full
and productive economic participation. The city of Jakarta and its strategic surrounding areas are
unable to provide their constituents with acceptable access to a reticulated water supply. While there
are several reasons for this deficiency, supply availability is one of the major contributing factors.
Djuanda Reservoir plays strategic role since has the capacity to supply more than 80% substantial
quantities of raw water to Jakarta and its strategic surrounding areas. Increasing the provision of
water services will address the basic needs of the population, underpin the growth of the region, and
help achieve the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). 10 m3/s design capacity
of Jatiluhur Drinking Water Project has main objective to improve the reliability, quantity and
quality of drinking water available to the residents of DKI Jakarta, Kota Bekasi, Kabupaten Bekasi
and Kabupaten Karawang. The feasibility of the project will depend on the raw water availability
and its continuity, which will challenge the Citarum Cascade Dams Operation indeed.
Hydropower as little or no greenhouse emission source of energy has role in supporting the global
policy on climate change. The Citarum cascade reservoirs have a combined effective volume of 3,276
x 106 m3 with 1.937,5 MW Installed capacity hydropower depends on water availability (temporal
and spatial),and to optimally use water for generating electricity hydropower requires good water
resources conditions which refers to reservoir operation for multiple uses that imply to climate
change status in the basin. The most significant factors that are to affect hydropower generation by
climate changes are a rise of temperature, changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration.
Presently, in order to cope with Climate Change, several methodology arrangements of Annual
Operational Plan for Citarum Cascade Reservoirs and HPPs already condacted, including HPPs
operation to cope with temporary inflow increment. Generally, optimizing of equal sharing operation
among the three Dams should consider scenarios to maintain the reservoir normal water level, in
order to secure the raw water availability of future drinking water project implementation and
sustain the dams and reservoirs function.

Keywords: cascade dams operation, DMI water security, climate change

VII - 20

Bali, Indonesia, June 1ST – 6TH , 2014

Multipurpose Water Uses of Hydropower reservoirs:

On-going Frameworks and Examples
Emmanuel BRANCHE
Senior Economist Engineer, Sustainable Development Department, Hydropower Division, EDF

There is an increasing consensus that water scarcity and water quality issues will increase
dramatically in many parts of the world over the next decades. These trends will have profound
social, economic and political consequences, with impacts on food, energy, trade, the environment
and potentially international relations. The production and use of energy and the capture and use
of water are vital to the economy and the health and welfare of all nations. Harmonizing water use
between energy generation, food production and other uses so that these needs complement each
other rather than compete against each another is mandatory. A nexus approach can enhance
water, energy and food security by increasing efficiency, reducing trade-offs, building synergies
and improving governance across sectors.
Water and energy are two key components for the development of a country, and hydropower is as
the crossroads of those two components. In addition to electricity, hydropower with reservoirs
development often contributes to other benefits: most important ones are water supply, flood and
drought management, irrigation, navigation, fisheries, and recreational activities.
Electricité de France (EDF) and the World Water Council (WWC) have agreed to work on “the
multipurpose water uses of hydropower reservoirs”. This framework bridges between the 6th World
Water Forum in Marseille (France) in 2012 and the 7th in Daegu (Republic of Korea) in 2015, and
it will deal with: i/ providing tools that will minimize tensions between different water uses in the
context of water-energy-food nexus and climate change, ii/ establishing good practices of
governance, and iii/ addressing the financing of those reservoirs as well as economical issues of
developing and operating such multipurpose water uses and hydropower reservoirs.
This initiative is closely linked with the ICOLD Committee on “Multipurpose Water Storage
This paper presents the EDF approach, and first results of this framework.

Keywords: Multipurpose, water-energy-food nexus, hydropower reservoirs, governance, climate

change, financing, economics.

VII - 19
Flood Analysis for Spillway Discharge Capacity and Increasing
Reservoir Storage for Dam Improvement from Overtopping and Dam
Break for 6 Reservoirs in Lower Mae-Ngat Basin, Mae-Tang district,
Chiangmai Province, Thailand
Chatchai Pedugsorn
Head of Dam safety, Engineering Management Division
Regional Irrigation Office 1, Royal Irrigation Department

Januwat Lertsilpachalearn
Director of Regional Irrigation Office Region I
Regional Irrigation Office 1, Royal Irrigation Department

Jirachai Patanapongsa
Irrigation Engineer, Project Planning Group, Engineering Management Division.
Regional Irrigation Office 1, Royal Irrigation Department

There are 6 reservoirs risked from dam break located in lower Mae-Ngat basin, Mae-Tang
district, Chiangmai Province, northern of Thailand for agricultural purpose. Mae-Napag dam,
Mae-Pon dam, Mae-Pajum dam, Mae-Horpra dam, Huai-Phudin dam and Mae-Reom dam are
damaged by flow overtopping and dam break in every 4-5 years causing losses of lives and
property. After flood routing analysis for spillway discharge potential from as-built drawing and
ground survey data, the result shows that spillway capacity for 6 dams can support only about 50
year return period while RID (Royal Irrigation Department) criteria for spillway capacity of large
dam should be PMF (Probable Maximum Flood), spillway capacity of medium dam should be 500
year return period and spillway capacity of small dam should be 100 year return period.
Freeboard of 6 earth dams from flood surcharge, wind wave, seismic wave, earth embankment
freeboard are not sufficient. Detail design to improve dam and aperture structure to prevent
overtopping and dam break are compose of increasing spillway capability at design flood 500 year
return period, heightening dam crest, increasing reservoir capacity and spillway capacity. Slope
stability analysis together with seepage analysis are accomplish for detail design. Construction
plan to improve 6 dams from overtopping propose in 1 year with 12 million- US dollars.

Keywords : Flood Analysis, Overtopping and Dam Break

VII - 18

Bali, Indonesia, June 1ST – 6TH , 2014

The sluice gate management system

for Yangtze River mainstream dams operation

LIU Yu, LI Hui

Three Gorges Cascade Dispatch & Communication Center, Chengdu, China

The Gezhouba, Three Gorges, Xiangjiaba, Xiluodu projects which have been put into service along
the Yangtze River mainstream are huge water conservancy complexes, which were built, managed
and operated by the China Three Gorges Corporation for the multiple purposes including flood
mitigation, navigation improvement, power generation. The dispatching and operation of the sluice
gates of each complex plays the key role of ensuring complex security and realizing flood control
and navigation benefits. The four projects typically represent the development history of
dispatching and management of the sluice gates in the huge hydropower stations in China from the
1980s till now. Among them, the Xiluodu - Xiangjiaba cascade hydropower stations realize the
remote gate dispatching control by the dispatch and control center hundreds of kilometers away
from the complex, which indicates the top level of the dispatching and management of the sluice
gates in the huge hydropower stations in China at present. The thesis introduces the differences of
the sluice gate management between Three Gorges - Gezhouba cascade and Xiluodu - Xiangjiaba
cascade hydropower stations and their technical development. It puts emphasis on the work flow
and technical issues relevant to the remote dispatching and control in Xiluodu - Xiangjiaba
cascade, which cover the automation systems related to the sluice gate remote control and
operation, and the relationship between each system as well as the work flows of the sluice gate
dispatching and remote control operation.

Keywords: Sluice gate, dam operation management, reservoir dispatch, remote control, Yangtze
River mainstream.

VII - 17

Bali, Indonesia, June 1ST – 6TH , 2014

Are we sustainable? The threads for hydropower.

M. Detering
RWE Innogy, Essen, Germany

In the opinion of the broad public large dams and reservoirs are built to last forever. Hydropower
is considered as a renewable and sustainable source of energy. But at a closer look a significant
share of hydro assets bear a number of issues which prove these facilities being clearly not

If taking a closer look at such installations, an expert will feel two weird implications. The first one
is that if analyzed on a long term scope, a sustainable operation usually turns out to be far more
economic than a short term focus, also on these plants. It’s just single drivers to be considered
which prevent these plants from not being operated sustainably. The second guess is that negative
samples also affect the rest of the hydro world. Despite being taken care of in a sound way, proper
hydro facilities also are associated with unpleasant questions by the public, often leading to
legislative restrictions.

Major threads for hydropower are reservoir sedimentation and plant degradation, both a result of
short term interests from stakeholders lacking long term interests. The author recommends
techniques to deal with these effects as well as methods to analyze developments and to ensure real
sustainability. By this, the reader will obtain a summary of hands-on tools to ensure sustainability
in practice.

Keywords: Hydropower, Sustainability, Assessment, Sedimentation, Degradation

VII - 16

Bali, Indonesia, June 1ST – 6TH , 2014

Moroccan experience in monitoring and inspecting the hydraulic

equipment and the implementation of dam safety


Vice President Moroccan Committee on Dams

Head of the Division Réalization and Maintenance


Dams are a precious heritage that requires the mobilization of heavy investment. These
hydraulic structures require constant monitoring and regular maintenance.
Any dam failure or malfunction can have serious consequences on people and properties
located downstream. Hence, it is required to take measures for maintaining the equipments,
used for the monitoring, in good working conditions.
With a heritage of major das (more than 200 dams in operation, a fifteen dams under
construction and at least three programmed dams per year), The Kingdom of Morocco has
developed an expertise and a know-how in terms of design, construction and maintenance
The Moroccan experience in equipment inspection and maintenance domain has gone
through several stages with different stakeholders. According to predefined guidelines for
each dam, it mainly consists of:
• Ongoing monitoring by operating teams;

• Yearly inspection;

• Recording and interpretation of instruments’ measurements;

• Monitoring approach and preventive maintenance.

However, the scrutiny of some identified shortcomings and problems leads to suggesting
some recommendations for improving the manner actions are taken and practices are
standardized in terms of dams’ safety.
Indeed, like what is adopted in some countries, Government Authorities have launched an
ambitious project (under study) aiming the adoption of a regulation on dams’ safety. It will
clarify the role of stakeholders as well as their responsibilities. It will also set standards and
methods related to equipments’ control in order to avoid, as much as possible, the risk of
serious failures.

VII - 15



Jasa Tirta I Public Corporation, Malang, Indonesia

The impacts of global climate change (i.e. floods, sedimentation, etc.) have been recognized as the
main threat of the sustainability of water resources infrastructures (i.e. dams, barrages, etc.). In
the basin level, reservoir is the most susceptible infrastructure to the impacts, particularly to
sedimentation. It will progressively reduce the reservoir storage and in many cases threatens the
function of dam as the flood control in the basin.Due to sedimentation, the gross storage capacity
of all reservoirs in Brantas river basin is reduces into 376 million m3 (58.62 percent of the initial
gross storage capacity). Some flood events, such as in 2007, whereby the water level of Sutami dam
increased about 10.10 m in 36 hours, indicates the vulnerability of a sedimented dam to the
impacts of climate change. This vulnerability condition reflects the urgent needs of an effective
adaptation strategy to the impacts of climate change. One of the adaptation strategies is by
optimizing the operational rule of reservoir water level, especially in the rainy season. By
maintaining the water level at a certain elevation below the High Water Level (HWL), begin from
the middle of the rainy season until the end of the rainy season, may provide some additional
emergency flood storage at the reservoir. The objective of this paper is to discuss briefly the
effectiveness of reservoir’s control water level management as a new strategy to adapt with the
impacts of climate change in the basin level, especially related to the flood hazard mitigation.

Keywords: climate change, adaptation, control water level, sedimentation, dam

VII - 14

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VII - 13
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VII - 12

Bali, Indonesia, June 1ST – 6TH , 2014

Operation of Estuary Barrage and Weirs in the Nakdong River

during the Flood Period

K.S. Jun, K. Min & M.J. Kim

Graduate School of Water Resources, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea

A numerical model was developed that can simulate gate openings of estuary barrage and a
series of weirs as well as the unsteady flow in the Nakdong River, Korea. It is a multiply-connected
network model based on the Preissmann's four-point scheme and the Newton-Raphson method. The
computational model can appropriately simulate composite flows at multi-functional weirs
including weir overflow, orifice-type flow, and fluvial-type flow. Operation strategies for weirs
were established such that gates are closed for water level below a certain reference level and gate
openings increase as the water level rises. Various operation strategies for the Nakdong Estuary
Barrage were also adopted. The prescribed operation conditions were well simulated by the model,
and sensitivities to the parameters of the gate operation strategy were analyzed. The computational
model developed herein has been utilized in establishing operational strategies during flood
periods for a series of the weirs and the Nakdong Estuary Barrage. This has been done by
simulating several historical flood events for various alternatives of gate operation, and then
selecting the best strategy based on the simulation results.

Keywords: Unsteady Flow Model, Gate Operation, Weirs, Estuary Barrage, Nakdong River

VII - 11

Bali, Indonesia, June 1ST – 6TH , 2014


Case Study : Darma Dam, Kuningan-West Java
Deny Ramadhani
Independent Monitoring and Evaluation Dam Operation Improvement and Safety Project
National Planning Board (BAPPENAS), Jakarta, Indonesia

Arno Adi Kuntoro

Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia

Donny Azdan & Abdul Malik Sadat Idris

National Planning Board (BAPPENAS), Jakarta, Indonesia

Dam operation rules are currently being developed through an agreement among stakeholders
such as Ministry of Public Works, Ministry of Forestry, National Electrical Company, the farmers,
local government and others. This agreement is approved by the Governor through the Secretariat
of Water Management Implementation and Procedures (SPKTPA). The agreement then becomes a
reference for stakeholders in dam operation. These existing rules usually derived from stochastic
hydrological model which use the past hydrological data. On the other hand, current condition
shows that the rainfall and drought season patterns are now changing as some research says as an
effect of global climate change and regional climate variability.
Considering that the operation of the dam is very important as the reference for water resources
planning for each of the stakeholders, it is necessary to develop more accurate predictive rainfall
model by considering several scenarios of climate change and regional climate variability. This
rainfall prediction model will be used as basic data for hydrologic calculations to determine the
inflow discharge of the dam.
It is expected that a better inflow prediction will generate more accurate and optimum dam
operation rules. Hopefully with better operation rules and planning, operation of the dam can
increase crop yields as well as contributes to a better flood control system

Keywords: Dam Operation Rule, Climate Change, Climate Variability, Predictive Rainfall Model

VII - 10
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VII - 9

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VII - 8

Bali, Indonesia, June 1ST – 6TH , 2014

A Role Concept of Reservoir Operation

for Sustainable Water Supply to Subak Irrigation Schemes
Case Study of Yeh Ho River Basin
Mawiti Infantri Yekti, Bart Schultz, and Laszlo Hayde
UNESCO-IHE, Chair Group Land and Water Development, Delft, the Netherlands

Mawiti Infantri Yekti and I Nyoman Norken

Udayana University, Civil Engineering Department, Bali, Indonesia


A Subak irrigation scheme, primarily in Bali, Indonesia concerns an irrigation scheme of which the
construction, operation and maintenance is based on agreed principles of technology, management
of agriculture and religious community. Subak irrigation schemes are an example of water
resources management, distribution and supply of irrigation water in a perfect vision on social
welfare in a river basin. The decision-making process in a Subak irrigation scheme takes into
account political, economic, social and cultural (religious) aspects. Multifunctional ecosystems in
a sustainable way of agriculture are implemented in the Subak irrigation schemes, particularly in
the technology of such systems.
In the middle of the twentieth century, as consequence of ongoing population growth and land
conversion Balinese farmers were having difficulties in meeting the ever-growing demand for rice.
In addition, the problem of insufficient water in the dry season developed. In order to increase the
irrigation water supply in the Yeh Ho River Basin the government constructed the Telaga Tunjung
Dam, based on the cultivated hectares of paddy fields (sawah). However, since the dam was built
the downstream river flow was reduced quite significantly and the process of water sharing among
the Subak irrigation schemes was changed. Due to this there are serious conflicts on the water
sharing among the farmers within the Yeh Ho River Basin.
This paper develop the concept of the role of Telaga Tunjung reservoir operation that can used as
a scientific knowledge for further study and therefore an optimal reservoir operation strategy in
relation to the Subak irrigation schemes operation, the capability to support agricultural
productivity at upstream, midstream and downstream level are needed. The technological and
socio-agricultural aspects, the application of local cropping patterns and indigenous water
management are regarded as the boundary conditions. In order to achieve the optimal scenario
and therefore a technical system analysis is needed. A technical system analysis of an efficient and
systematic rational approach used to gain the best operation of the system in which its approach is
based on the available information. An optimization technique is formed by combining the behavior
of the system with analytical modeling. Components of the system behavior in the optimization
technique are then considered as constraints, while the purpose of the system is optimized by the
objective function. A model based on linear programming optimization will be developed to identify
the best distribution of water resources in the Yeh Ho River Basin.

Keywords: reservoir operation, sustainable water supply, Subak irrigation schemes, optimization

VII - 7

Bali, In une 1ST – 6THH , 2014

ndonesia, Ju


N. Abolvaset
Dam deppartment, Ashenab Consultiing Engineerss company, Taabriz, Iran

V. No
Associate profe
fessor, Facultyy of Civil Engiineering, Univversity of Tabrriz, Tabriz, Irran

A. Mih
Dam deppartment, Ashenab Consultiing Engineerss company, Taabriz, Iran

Optimmization of reservoirs operation
o is one of the most imporrtant tasks iin the field of water
resouurces managgement. In fact, vital requuirement for sufficient usse of water aand energy resources
clearr the necesssity of doinng integratedd planning and right operation oof dams. Nowadays, No
tradittional singlee objective models
m have been
b changeed to multi–oobjective models for the planning
of a multiple
m reseervoirs system
m in a river basin. In thiis study the release
r for irrrigation dem
mand and
envirronment, floood controllinng and recreeational usin ng (which, soometimes maay be in conf nflict with
each other) are reepresented asa objectives to be satisfieed in an optim mal manner.
Withiin this frameework, the mathematica
m l model of two
t reservoiirs system inn Sefidrud watershed
(Nortthern Iran) with three objectives is i formulated d and the system
s paraameters and decision
variaables are deffined. The prroblem invollves finding appropriate releases froom various reservoirs
in thhe system inn order to satisfy
s the multiple
m objjectives. Thee method ussed is based d on the
appliication of goaal programm ming approacch.
With comparing results of opptimization models m of th
his paper, the model thaat has high reliability
indicees was chosen as a bestt model. Finally to consider uncertaainties and aalso for achieeving the
fo reservoirss operation, because of th
generral method for he consideraable advantagges of linguiistic rules
in beetter inferringg and interppretation of systems,
s an adaptive neuuro based fuuzzy inferencce system
(ANF FIS) approacch is used to t construct operation rulesr for theese multipurp
rpose reservo oirs. The
results of the AN NFIS modelss shows thaat ANFIS can be applied successfullly and provvide high
accurracy for the management
m t of the reserrvoirs system
Keywwords: Reservoirs, Operaation, Multi objective
o Opptimization, Simulation,
Adaptive Neeuro
Fuzzyy Inference System.

VII - 6

Bali, Indonesia, June 1ST – 6TH , 2014

An assessment of the effects of reservoirs storage on water availability

under climate change scenarios
A. Granados, L. Garrote, A. Iglesias & F.J. Martín-Carrasco
Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid, Spain

An assessment of the role of reservoir storage as a measure of adaptation to climate change is
presented in this paper. The study is based on an evaluation of water availability in 567 basins that
cover most of the territory of continental Spain. The evaluation of water availability was carried
out with the model "Water Availability and Adaptation Policy Analysis" (WAAPA). WAAPA focuses
on the quantitative evaluation of maximum potential water withdrawal for different types of
demands. WAAPA performs the simulation of water resources systems at the monthly time scale
and allows the estimation of the maximum demand that can be supplied at every node of the river
network under given reliability requirements. Water availability was analyzed for the control
scenario 1960-1990 and for several climate change scenarios for the time horizon 2070-2100.
Climate change scenarios were taken from two previous studies. In one of them, only changes in
mean annual flows were considered, while in the other changes in the coefficient of variation were
also included. Both set of scenarios imply significant reductions of mean annual flow in most
Spanish basins, while projections of changes in the coefficient of variation are less consistent. A
sensitivity index to climate change was defined as the ratio between the changes in mean annual
flow and changes in water availability. This sensitivity index was studied as a function of reservoir
storage for all basins. It was found that the availability of reservoir storage can significantly
mitigate the impact of climate change, especially in the case where only changes in the mean are
considered. Results show a greater sensitivity to the variability of the coefficient of variation.

Keywords: Regulation. Reservoir storage. Climate change. Water availability.

VII - 5

Bali, Indonesia, June 1ST – 6TH , 2014

Increasing the Minimum Residual Flow at Monstalvens Dam (Switzerland)

F. Blasi
Lombardi Engineering Ltd., Switzerland

L. Savoldelli
Groupe E Greenwatt SA, Switzerland

The 52 m high Montsalvens dam, located close to the village of Châtel-sur-Montsalvens in the
canton of Fribourg (Switzerland), was built between 1919 and 1921 and is one of the oldest arch
dams in Europe. The water stored in the reservoir is exploited in the powerhouse located
approximately 2 kilometers downstream of the dam to generate 67 GWh/year. The scheme is owned
and operated by Groupe E.
To meet the ecological requirements of the new Federal Act on the Protection of Waters, the
minimum residual flow at the toe of the dam had to be increased from 80 l/s up to 500 l/s.
As the former installation did not allow to modify the discharge in such an important manner and
various alternatives were analyzed. The final solution consisted in the installation of a steel pipe
inside the dam body with a water intake on the upstream face and a mini power plant at the
downstream toe of the dam with an installed capacity of 220 kW.
The current paper presents the main characteristics of the project focusing on the original
solutions. They proposed to avoid emptying the reservoir during the works in order to comply with
environmental requirements.

Keywords: Residual flow, Existing dam, Small hydropower

VII - 4

Bali do e ia e

a a e e o ei lood e i i i a
de Cli a e C a e
A.B. a d a . . oel B.R. . illai
Central Water Commission, ew elhi, ndia
2 ndian nstitute of Technology oorkee, ndia

There are currently about 8 9 completed large dams in ndia. More than three-fourth of these
dams, are at least two decades old. For these dams the original design floods call for revisit.
Examination of revised design flood studies carried out for a set of 9 dams under World ank
funded am ehabilitation and mprovement Project ( P) reveals that the design flood values
have increased substantially with trends indicating that percentage increases in the revised design
flood values are more for lower dams and also for older dams. Paper illustrates that the upward
revision in the design flood estimate of existing dam in no way leads to amplification of the actual
risk associated with that dam, and it only underlines the gap between existing risk level and the
acceptable risk level - besides calling for adaptations needed to face uncertainties of climate
change. The paper shows that management of flood related risks in existing dams is a challenging
task often facing constraints of technical and economical viabilities apart from meeting demands of
mitigation measures called for climate change. The paper also brings out the skew observed in
distribution of revised design floods on account of present-day norms related to computation of
design floods, as contained in the ndian Standard S 1122 1985 (reaffirmed 1995). Paper also
proposes amendments in this Standard in respect of existing large dams with an alternative
recourse of formulating a new Standard for revision of design floods of these existing large dams
incorporating concerns of climate change.

Keywords: P, esign Flood evision, esign Flood isk Mitigation


Bali do e ia e –

S d o a e e o d oele i o e e e a io
ili i lai a i e S i a o Rive

. A ai
Graduate School of Science and Engineering, amaguchi niversity, be, apan

S. i i i
Environmental Safety esearch Center at Graduate School of amaguchi niversity, be, apan

. Sa a i . a a oo
amaguchi niversity be, ept. of Engineering, apan

T. i a
achiyo Engineering Co., td. apan

n apan hydroelectric power is sustainable and a pure domestic energy with low carbon emission.
t is necessary to promote a further enhancement in the future. While it has been difficult to
construct a new dam due to the environmental impacts and fiscal tightening, plain dams have been
recognized as leading plans for flood control in recent years, because basically there is no
submerged houses in dams and they are environmentally friendly. n this study, we recognize plain
dams are utilized not only for flood control but for water resources enhancing effect of
hydroelectric power is one of efficient and significant ways of their roles. This paper identifies the
potential for the power development to examine increased power of the downstream power plant
with assumptions of discharging water in accordance with the conditions. Experimental results
from the Shinano iver are being used as numerical model simulations to provide insights here.

Keywords: plain dam, hydroele tri power, water storage rate, water utili ation al ulation


Bali do e ia e – 6TH , 2014

Adaptive Dam Operation to Maximize Power Generation Without

Jeopardizing Food Security on the Orange River System

B Mwaka & MA Williams

Department of Water Affairs, Pretoria, South Africa

The largest dams in South Africa, Gariep and Vanderkloof, are for multipurpose uses, mainly for
irrigation and peaking hydropower generation. In order to safeguard the users’ shares of water
allocation, a system operation agreement was signed between the Department of Water Affairs
(DWA), the operator, and ESKOM, the National Electricity Supplying entity. As part of the
agreement ESKOM was not allocated any volume of water in the dams, but the right to make use of
water allocated and released from the dams for downstream users.

Besides demands downstream of the dams, some major water transfers like the well known Lesotho
Highland Water Project and the Orange-Fish Scheme are located upstream of the dams. Due to
growing demands through these transfers, ESKOM’s generation capacity was under threat. So as
to maximize hydropower generation while ensuring that irrigation is supplied at the required risk
level, DWA has developed an Annual Operating tool to facilitate a protocol for sustainable and
equitable water allocation on an annual basis.

Every year reservoir Storage Control Curves (SCC) are derived to determine water levels in the
dams above which Eskom can be allocated extra water without jeopardizing the assurance of
supply to the other users. Furthermore a mirror image release rule is also determined so that in
summer irrigation requirements are first supplied from the downstream Vanderkloof in order to
create more storage space in the dam. This allows water releases to be made from Gariep Dam
during winter, which can still be captured in Vanderkloof Dam. This optimization operation
strategy not only increases power generation, but also allows EKOM to generate more power in
winter when it is required most. Appropriate graphical formats will be used to demonstrate the
improved performance of the dams.

Keywords: Dam operation, equitable water allocation, assurance of supply, storage control curve

VII - 1