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that elliptic curves can more generally be defined over any finite

m

field. In particular, the "characteristic two finite fields" 2 are

form

(1) y2 = x3 + ax + b,

3 2

1

For example, let p =23 and consider the elliptic curve E:

listed in Figure 1.

of algebraic formulae.

2

Figure 2: The addition rule.

3

sometimes be confusing. Table 1 shows the correspondence

y2=x3+x+1 over Z 23 .

4

Table 1: Correspondence between Z *p and E (Z p ) notation

5

ECC Diffie-Hellman

z same since K =nAnBG

Example:

2 3

6

Figure 4. ECC Diffie-Hellman

7

ECC Encryption/Decryption

curve. The sender masks the message using random k, but also

8

¾ first encode any message m as a point on the elliptic curve

Pm

¾ B decrypts Cm compute:

Example:

= x 3

− x + 188 ; and G = (0, 376).

A → B: Pm = (562, 201)

9

The Digital Signature Algorithm

*

10

Figure 5-2: DSA Algorithm

11

Since r and s are each integers less than q, DSA signatures are

320 bits in length. The security of the DSA relies on two distinct

π q / 2 steps. Since q ≈ 2 ,

160

rho-method, which takes about

12

The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA)

should make the analogies between the DSA and ECDSA more

13

obtaining an integer in the interval [1, q -1]. The ECDSA

160 bits. If this is the case, then DSA and ECDSA signatures

14

Figure 6: (a) ECDSA key generation; (b) ECDSA signature

generation; (c) ECDSA signature verification.

15

Instead of each entity generating its own elliptic curve, the

entities may elect to use the same curve E and point P of order n.

Security Issues

16

weaknesses have been reported. An algorithm by Pohlig and

obtained is πn/2 /r .

155

for performing elliptic curve operations over the field 2

155

Cryptosystems over 2 ," by G. Agnew, R. Mullin, and S.

17

11, 1993] has a 40-MHz clock rate and can perform roughly

year.

with the Pollard rho-method.

150

18

estimated that if 0.1 percent of the world's computing power

available would be 108 MIPS years in 2004 and 1010 -1011 MIPS

years in 2014.

general number field sieve.

19

A more promising attack (for well-funded attackers) on elliptic

that could be built for about $10 million would compute a single

http://theory.lcs.mit.edu/~rivest/publications.html), M. Blaze, W.

20

M. Wiener reported on the minimum key lengths required for

bits long.

you see that n should be at least 150 bits for short-term security

21

• Exhaustive searches with a symmetric-key cipher and the

speedup.

block).

private key.

22

ECC Security

equivalent.

computational advantages

Effort for Cryptanalysis

23

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