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CHAPTER 2

ATOMIC BONDING
Mazlini Binti Mazlan
Faculty of Applied Sciences
Universiti Teknologi Mara
Cawangan Perak Kampus Tapah
mazlini4290@perak.uitm.edu.my
0164185793
OUTLINE

2.1 Atomic Structure

2.2 Ionic Bonding, Covalent Bonding, Metallic


Bonding, Van Der Waal Bonding, Hydrogen
Bonding and Mixed Bonding

2.3 ionic Force For ion pair


2.1 ATOMIC STRUCUTRE
• Charges:
– Electrons and protons have negative and positive
charges of the same magnitude, 1.6 ×10-19
Coulombs.
– Neutrons are electrically neutral.

• Masses:
– Protons and Neutrons have the same mass, 1.67 ×
10-27 kg.
– Mass of an electron is much smaller, 9.11 × 10-31 kg
and can be neglected in calculation of atomic mass.
• Atomic number (Z): The number of protons in the
nucleus.
• Atomic mass (A): The sum of the masses of
protons and neutrons within the nucleus.
• Isotopes: atoms of some elements which have two
or more different atomic masses.
• Atomic weight: corresponds to the weighted
average of the atomic masses of the atom’s naturally
occurring isotope.
Periodic Table of The Elements

(Ref: Pg 32)
2.2 ATOMIC BONDING

• There are two main types of atomic bonds:


i) Strong primary bonds (Ref: Pg 54)
- Ionic
- Covalent
- Metallic

ii) Weak secondary bonds (Ref: Pg 71)


- Fluctuating Dipoles (Van Der Waal)
- Permanent Dipoles (Hydrogen)
IONIC BONDING

• Can form between electropositive (metallic)


element and electronegative (nonmetallic)
element.

• Transfer electropositive charged into the


electronegative charged ion to produce cation and
anion.

• Force are due to the electrostatic or Columbic for


attraction of oppositely charged ion.
• An example is NaCl formed by Na+ and Cl- .
COVALENT BONDING

• The two atoms are bonded by sharing of their


valence electron ( at least one electron is
contributed by each atom to the bond).
• The bond is directional.
• The number of covalent bond that is possible for
particular atom is determined by the number of
valence electron.
• The covalent bonding can be represented by
electron dots or bond-line which can be single or
double (covalent sharing of two pairs of valence
electrons).
• Examples of covalent bonding.
METALLIC BOND

• Occurred in solid metal through the sharing


of valence electron by delocalized attraction
between the molecule .

• Non directional.

• The valence electron moves freely within the


electron sea and become associated with
several atoms cores.
• Example : Aluminum
VAN DER WAAL BONDING
• A secondary outeratomic bond between adjacent
molecular dipoles, which may be permanent or
induced.
or
• A type of weak secondary bonding result from the
attractive force between electric dipole, which
may be induced or permanent.
• Example : Noble Gas
HYDROGEN BONDING

• The binding energy is relatively weak


• Dipole-dipole Interaction between polar bonds
containing hydrogen atom (found exist between
some molecule that have hydrogen as one of the
constituents)
or
Polar bond containing hydrogen
atom interaction electronegative
atom. Example : H2O
2.3 IONIC FORCE FOR ION PAIR

• Nucleus of one ion attracts electron of another ion.

• The electron clouds of ion repulse each other when


they are sufficiently close.

• These two forces will balance each other when the


equilibrium interionic distance, a0, is reached and a
bond is formed.
• The attraction repulsion force developed during ionic
bonding.

• Note that net force is zero when the bond is formed.


• The Coulumbic Force due to the attraction between
ions is given by,

Where,
Z1 , Z2 = number of electrons removed or added from the
atoms during the ion formation.
e = electron charge = 1.6 x 10-19 C
a = inter-ionic separation distance
o = permittivity of free space = 8.85 x 10-12C2/N.m2
(Ref: Pg 56)

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Example:

Calculate the force of attraction between Na+ and Cl-ions.


Given;
Z1 = +1 for Na+
Z2 = -1 for Cl-
e = 1.60 x 10-19 C
ε0 = 8.85 x 10-12 C2/Nm2
a0 = sum of radii of Na+ and Cl- ions
= 0.095 nm + 0.181 nm
= 2.76 x 10-10 m

Solution:
Questions???