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The Age of Industry: The Industrial Revolution and the Forging of

the Modern World

By Sean Patrick Rogers


Day 1: Two Different Day 2: Causes of the Day 3: From Farm to City Day 4: Life in the City
Worlds Industrial Revolution
Students will be able to Students will be able to
Students will be able to Students will be able to analyze the causes of examine what life was like
evaluate how industrial analyze the various causes urbanization and evaluate in a tenement during
technology has changed the of the Industrial Revolution how it affected society. industrialization.
way humans live. in Great Britain.  Draw Your
 Technology in Our  Where did it All Start? Neighborhood Students will be able to
Lives  Causes of the Industrial  From Farm to City Map construct arguments from
 Two Different Worlds Revolution Jigsaw Activity the perspective of someone
Photo Narrative  Causes Exit Slip  Urbanization Reflection living through the Industrial
 Photo Narrative Revolution.
Discussion + Review  Crowded Corner
 Tenement Museum
Tour and Activity
 Tenements and Today

Day 5: Work in the Day 6: Production and Class Day 7: Take the Power Day 8: Take the Power
Industrial Revolution Back! Part 1 Back!
Students will be able to Part 2
Students will be able to analyze how advances in Students will be able to
evaluate what working production affected social analyze how workers come Students will be able to
conditions were like for classes. together in order to improve analyze how workers come
factory and mine workers working conditions in both together in order to improve
during the Industrial Students will be able to the Industrial Revolution working conditions in both
Revolution. summarize passages from and the modern day. the Industrial Revolution
 Review and Preview primary sources written in  Skit and the modern day.
 Picture Reveal Analysis the Industrial Revolution.  Guided Lecture  Song Analysis
 Working Conditions:  The Efficiency of  Harlan County, USA  Harlan County, USA
Then and Now Industry  Exit Slip  Film Review Activity
 Primary Source Close
 Marxism and the
Modern Day

Day 9: Strike! Part 1 Day 10: Strike! Part 2 Day 11: Strike! Part 3

Students will be able to Students will be able to Students will be able to

create a reasoned argument create a reasoned argument create a reasoned argument
from the perspective of from the perspective of from the perspective of
someone in the past using a someone in the past using a someone in the past using a
variety of mediums. variety of mediums. variety of mediums.
 Welcome to Rogers  Life at Rogers Textile
Textile Manufacturing Manufacturing review Students will be able to
 Strike Planning  Strike Planning evaluate how the Industrial
 Progress Report  Progress Report Revolution has shaped our
 Strike!
 Mind Map
 Information Revolution

This unit will be implemented in the World Understanding history course taken by

sophomores at Coventry High School. Of the 471 students who attend the high school, 90.9%

identify as Caucasian, 3.7% identify as Hispanic, 1.2% identify as Black, 0.6% identify as Asian,

and 3.7% identify with two races (Coventry). Most Caucasian students have ethnic routes in

European countries, predominantly Italy and Ireland. Every student in the school speaks English

as a first language. Although there are no English Language Learners in the school currently,

accommodations and modifications can be made for students on an individual basis depending

on the student's proficiency in English. Individualized accommodations and modifications are

also made for students with disabilities based on their IEP or 504 plan. Special education

teachers and paraprofessionals are in communication with other staff to ensure that the learning

needs of these students are met. The graduation rate at Coventry High School is 95% percent, 8%

above the Connecticut average, and many graduates go off to college. Most students in the

school come from middle-class households. CHS has 20% more students ineligible for

free/reduced lunch than the average school in Connecticut (Coventry).

Coventry High School is a beautiful facility that has a newly constructed addition that

includes an auditorium and a gymnasium. Hallways are decorated with student artwork and

assignments at all times. Although the high school is quite small, it has multiple computer labs

that teachers can reserve so that students can work with technology and create multimedia

projects. Every student and teacher at CHS receives an iPad at the beginning of the year. The

iPad allows students to do web-based research within the classroom as well as have a means to

technology at home. This unit will have students use iPads for researching and writing. Students

also have access to a large library that is shared between the high school and the middle school.
With their IDs, students are allowed to check out books and other research materials. During

students’ study hall, they are able to go down the library and access available resources. A day at

Coventry High School is comprised of six fifty-eight minute classes. The weekly schedule is a

rotating block schedule so each class only meets four times within the course of a week. Due to

the block schedule, this eleven-day unit will span the course of almost three full weeks.

This unit will take place within Gary Baumgartner’s classroom located in the social

studies wing of the school. The classroom is decorated with national flags, maps, and student

work. The teacher's desk and computer resides in the back corner of the classroom. The student

desks are set up in inward facing rows that are conducive to classroom discussion and group

deliberation. Students have assigned seats in this classroom and know to take their seat upon

entering. At the front of the classroom is the whiteboard where the teacher visibly displays the

unit’s questions, objectives, and agenda. Students are familiar with the classroom routines and

know to do the “Do Now” as they enter the classroom without a reminder from the teacher.

Through World Understanding, students are trying to answer the essential question of

“What makes our world modern?” By analyzing social, economic, political, and technological

changes in world history, the class aims to understand what has helped create our contemporary

society. So far in the course, the class has analyzed revolutions in thought such as the

Renaissance, the Protest Reformation, and the Enlightenment. In this unit, students will get the

opportunity to evaluate how revolutions in technology have shaped the modern world. By using

a variety of primary sources, students will be able to analyze what caused the Industrial

Revolution and what affect this turning point in history had on the way people lived their lives.

This unit will continue classroom routines and maintain the safe classroom environment that Mr.

Baumgartner has created throughout the school year.

Course, Unit, and Lesson Questions and Objectives:

Course Question:
 What makes our world modern?

Course Objectives:

 Content Objectives
 Students will be able to analyze the ways in which social, economic, political,
and technological changes have shaped the world around us.

 Skill Objectives:
 Students will be able to effectively use primary sources to examine different
perspectives in world history.
 Students will be able to analyze and take different positions supported by
various types of evidence.

Unit Questions:
 What price do people pay when society progresses?
 Did the Industrial Revolution make life better for people?
 How has our world been shaped by industrialization?

Unit Objectives:

 Content Objectives
 Students will be able to analyze the various causes and effects of the Industrial
 Students will be able to investigate the ways in which life changed for people
living during industrialization.
 Students will be able to evaluate how industrialization has shaped our world

 Skill Objectives
 Students will be able to effectively interpret visual primary sources to analyze
the Industrial Revolution and how it affected the way people lived.
 Students will be able to formulate reasoned arguments from the perspectives of
people in the past.

 Language Objectives
 Students will be able to articulate their analysis of pictures both verbally and in
 Students will be able to read primary sources documents and identify their main
 Students will be able to listen to film and music to analyze how people strike
and form unions.
Lesson Objectives:
 Day 1:
 Students will be able to evaluate how industrial technology has changed the
way people live.
 Day 2:
 Students will be able to analyze the various causes of the Industrial Revolution
in Great Britain.
 Day 3:
 Students will be able to analyze the causes of urbanization and evaluate how it
affected society.
 Day 4:
 Students will be able to evaluate what life was like in a tenement during the
Industrial Revolution.
 Students will be able to construct narratives from the perspective of someone
living through the Industrial Revolution.
 Day 5:
 Students will be able to evaluate what working conditions were like for factory
and mine workers during the Industrial Revolution.
 Day 6:
 Students will be able to analyze how advances in production affected social
 Students will be able to summarize passages from primary source documents
written in the Industrial Revolution.
 Day 7:
 Students will be able to analyze how workers come together to improve
working conditions in both the Industrial Revolution and the modern day.
 Day 8:
 Students will be able to analyze how workers come together to improve
working conditions in both the Industrial Revolution and the modern day.
 Day 9:
 Students will be able to create a reasoned argument from the perspective of
someone in the past using a variety of mediums.
 Day 10:
 Students will be able to create a reasoned argument from the perspective of
someone in the past using a variety of mediums.
 Day 11:
 Students will be able to create a reasoned argument from the perspective of
someone in the past using a variety of mediums.
 Students will be able to evaluate how the Industrial Revolution shaped our
modern world.
Correlations and Connections to Standards:
Unit Objectives Assessments Daily Activities CT Standards NCSS Themes

Students will be -Causes Jigsaw -Causes Jigsaw HIST 9–12.14 Analyze Time, Continuity,
able to analyze worksheet -From Farm to City multiple and complex causes and Change
the various -Causes Exit Slip -Picture Reveal and effects of events in the
causes and -From Farm to City Analysis past. People, Places,
effects of reflection -The Efficiency of and Environments
industrialization. -Review and Preview Industry GEO 9–12.6 Evaluate the
-Picture Reveal -Primary Source Close impact of economic activities Production,
Analysis worksheet Reading and political decisions on Distribution, and
-Primary Source Close -Skit spatial patterns within and Consumption
Reading worksheet -Guided Lecture among urban, suburban, and
-Strike! -Strike! rural regions. Science,
Technology, and
ECO 9–12.3 Explain why Society
advancements in technology
and investments in capital
goods and human capital
increase economic growth
and standards of living.

CIV 9–12.7 Analyze

historical, contemporary, and
emerging means of changing
societies, promoting the
common good, and
protecting rights.

Students will be -Two Different -Two Different Worlds INQ 9–12.15 Use People, Places,
able to Worlds Photo Photo Narrative disciplinary and and Environments
investigate the Narrative -From Farm to City interdisciplinary lenses to
ways in which -From Farm to City -Crowded Corner understand the characteristics Individuals,
life changed for reflection -Tenement Museum and causes of local, regional, Groups, and
people living -Tenement Museum Tour Activity and global problems; Institutions
through Tour Activity -Picture Reveal instances of such problems in
industrialization. -Review and Preview Analysis multiple contexts; and Science,
-Picture Reveal -Skit challenges and opportunities Technology,
Analysis worksheet -Guided Lecture faced by those trying to and Society
-Harlan County, USA -Harlan County, USA address these problems over
worksheet -Song Analysis time and place. Civic Ideals and
-Movie Exit Slip -Strike! Practices
-Song Analysis GEO 9–12.4 Evaluate how
worksheet political and economic
-Strike! decisions throughout time
have influenced cultural and
environmental characteristics
of various places and
CIV 9–12.1 Distinguish the
powers and responsibilities
of local, state, tribal,
national, and international
civic and political
institutions to address social
and political problems.

Students will be -Harlan County, USA -Technology in Our HIST 9–12.2 Analyze Time, Continuity,
able to evaluate worksheet Lives change and continuity in and Change
how -Mind Map activity - Where did it All historical eras.
industrialization -Informal assessment Start?
has shaped our of students - Draw Your INQ 9–12.16 Assess options Global
world today. understanding of Neighborhood for individual and collective Connections
past/present -Tenements and Today action to address local,
connections through -Working Conditions: regional, and global Science,
initiation and closure Then and Now problems by engaging in Technology, and
activity discussions -Marxism and the self-reflection, strategy Society
and class activities. Modern World identification, and complex
-Guided Lecture causal reasoning.
-Harlan County, USA
-Mind Map
-The Information

Students will be -Photo Narrative -Photo Narrative HIST 9–12.12 Integrate Time, Continuity,
able to worksheet -Tenement Museum evidence from multiple and Change
effectively -Tenement Museum Tour relevant historical sources
interpret visual Tour worksheet - Where did it All and interpretations into a
primary sources -Photo Reveal Start? reasoned argument about the
to analyze the Analysis worksheet -Tenements and Today past.
Industrial -Harlan County, USA -Photo Reveal Analysis
Revolution and worksheet -Harlan County, USA
how it affected
the way people

Students will be -Tenement Museum -Tenement Museum INQ 9–12.16 Assess options Individuals,
able to formulate Tour worksheet Tour for individual and collective Groups, and
reasoned -Strike! -Strike! action to address local, Institutions
arguments from regional, and global
the perspectives problems by engaging in Civic Ideals and
of people in the self-reflection, strategy Practices
past. identification, and complex
causal reasoning.

When I was tasked with creating a unit on the Industrial Revolution, I was initially

disappointed. I didn’t know much about the technological advances of the time and I was

hesitant to teach about economics. However, it quickly dawned on me that the Industrial

Revolution transcends a mere discussion of inventions and economic theory. Although caused by

industrial innovations, the Industrial Revolution is an event about people. This turning point in

history depicts how industrial technology fundamentally altered the way people lived and

interacted. I wanted to create a unit that allowed students to analyze the causes and effects of this

event while learning about the human experience during this time of great change. By learning

about how society was changed by technology in the Industrial Revolution, I started looking at

the modern world around me and realizing just how much of the present has been shaped by this

historic event. With this realization, I wanted incorporate past/present connections in the unit that

would let students evaluate how the Industrial Revolution has shaped our lives and the world we

live in today. With these objectives in mind, I used backwards design to craft a unit about the

human experience and its intimate relationship with industrial technology.

In order to capture the truly human experience of life during the Industrial Revolution, I

wanted my performance assessment to involve a simulation where students put themselves in the

position of people affected by industrialization. This performance assessment would culminate

the unit once all the causes and effects of the Industrial Revolution have been analyzed. To have

students both analyze the cause and effects of the Industrial Revolution as well as evaluate what

these changes meant for the people living through it, I created an assessment called “Strike!”

This assessment would allow students to transfer the content from the unit into an assessment

where they would practice their civic ability to go on strike and articulate the grievances of the

working class that were results of industrialization. This immersive simulation allows students to
meet the objectives of the unit while simulating class struggle. Discussion of social class and

inequality are often omitted from social studies textbooks and ignored by teachers (Loewen,

2007). Wanting to put classism in the spotlight, this assessment allows students to evaluate how

advances in industrial technology affected working class individuals.

In order to give students the content needed to successfully meet the objectives in the

performance assessment, I designed a series of activities and formative assessments that would

scaffold their skills and knowledge on the subject. A photo narrative at the beginning of the unit

allows students to understand that this event is a major turning point in human history. After

jigsawing the various causes of this event, students could analyze the effects of industrialization.

A mapping activity on Day 3 allows students to analyze the process of urbanization in an

engaging way. A virtual tour of tenements in New York City allows students to analyze living

conditions in the city and practice writing personal narratives from the perspective of people in

the past. In upcoming activities, students could evaluate how changing means of production

affected the working class. After analyzing how urbanization and industrialization affected living

and working conditions of average people, students could explore the ways in which people

responded to these conditions. By watching Harlan County, USA, students could put a human

face to the struggles of the working class and analyze how workers band together to secure

benefits and security. After learning about the causes of the Industrial Revolution, the effects it

had on society, and the working class’ response to the change, students would have the content

knowledge and skills to create a quality product for the unit’s performance assessment.

Throughout the unit, initiation and closure activities give students the opportunities to

make connections to the present and evaluate how industrialization has shaped the way we live.

A mind map activity at the end of the unit lets students to review activities and organize their

understanding of how the Industrial Revolution has helped make our world modern.
English Language Learner Support:

Although Coventry High School does not have any English Language Learners currently

enrolled, this unit has a system of supports to help develop language competence in the

classroom. This unit has several language objectives that allow all students, not just ELL

students, to develop their reading, writing, listening, and speaking skills. Several

accommodations were made to ensure that ELL students could meet these language objective as

well as the content and skill objectives of the unit.

This unit incorporates a series of activities that involve analyzing visual sources. By

analyzing paintings, photographs, and film, ELL students can easily engage the source material.

The photo narrative activity is done in groups, which allow ELL students to visually analyze

pictures, write their analyses, and listen to the thoughts of others. By working in small groups

and looking at visual mediums, ELL students can practice their language skills while immersing

themselves in the content of the unit. The photo reveal analysis activity also allows ELL students

to write down their thoughts about pictures, share their thoughts with a peer, and listen to the

thoughts of others. Group work is common throughout the unit and gives ELL students plenty of

opportunities to practice English. During the close reading of primary source documents,

students are paired with partners so they can practice reading the material, discussing their

thoughts, listening to the thoughts of others, and writing down their conclusions.

During the film portion of the unit, English subtitles will accompany the movie. By

listening to English and reading the subtitles, ELL students can hone their language skills while

understanding the content of the film. When analyzing a song from the film, the lyrics will be

printed out so students can read the lyrics while listening to the song. By incorporating subtitles,

visual sources, and group work, ELL students will have plenty of opportunities to practice

speaking, listening, reading, and writing throughout the unit.

Historical Understanding:

This unit was designed to help students develop various components of historical

understanding. By learning about the Industrial Revolution, students can understand the

relationship between cause and effect, develop historical empathy, analyze connections between

the past and present, and evaluate turning points in history. With these aspects of historical

understanding in mind, unit objectives, assessments, and activities were created to help students

enhance their ability to think historically.

The first activity of the unit has students create two photo narratives depicting life before

and after industrialization. Through the analysis of these pictures, students can understand that

the Industrial Revolution was a major turning point in world history. Through the innovations

and advances of industrialization, the way that society lived and produced goods was forever

altered. This introductory activity helps illustrate the influence of industrialization and how this

technological revolution is a significant turning point in world history. The unit allows students

to analyze turning points in history during its final activity as well. After learning about the

significant technological turning point that was the Industrial Revolution, the unit ends with

discussing another technological turning point that is happening in front of our very eyes. A

concluding discussion about the Information Revolution will allow students to consider the

modern world and how they are living in the midst of a notable turning point in world history.

By progressing chronologically through the Industrial Revolution, students are able to

analyze the relationship between cause and effect. On the second day of the unit, students learn

about the various causes that will spark the Industrial Revolution. After identifying the causes,

the rest of the unit will cover the far-reaching effects of this event. Students can then analyze

how geography was affected by looking at urbanization and tenement life. Students can also
analyze how economics was affected by learning about capitalism and the changing means of

production. Students can analyze how society was affected and how living and labor conditions

of the working class provoked the organization of strikes and the creation of unions.

Developing historical empathy is a critical part of this unit. In order for students to

understand that the Industrial Revolution was about the people and not just machines, this unit

has some very humanizing moments. Students can develop empathy by virtually exploring

tenements and writing diary entries from the perspectives of the tenement’s residents. The use of

pictures allows students to analyze the incredibly harsh conditions that workers faced in factories

and mines. By looking at the hours, pay, dangerous conditions, and use of child labor, students

can empathize with working class. Empathy for the working class is further developed when

watching the incredibly moving Harlan County, USA. This film allows students to put a human

face to the struggles of the working class and watch real people dedicate blood, sweat, and tears

in the fight to secure benefits for workers.

In most every lesson of this unit, students are tasked with making past-present

connections. Students use the content from the activities to consider their world today and

evaluate how much this event has influenced theirs lives. Students are asked to consider the

technology they use and the neighborhoods they live in to evaluate how this event that happened

centuries ago still impacts their daily lives. By looking at working conditions today and living

conditions in industrializing countries, students not only make connections between the past and

the present but they also consider continuity and change. Tasks such as using Marx’s criticisms

of capitalism to look at America today directly allows students to think about what has changed

and what has stayed the same since the Industrial Revolution. These connections between the

past and the present culminate in a mind map activity on the last day of the unit.
Ongoing Considerations:

With this creation of this unit coming to an end, I find myself thinking how utterly

impossible curriculum design would be without backwards design. When I initially learned about

backwards design, I assumed it was a strategy that should sometimes be consulted when one is

having trouble planning a unit. However, I now understand that this design process is critical to

ensuring that activities and assessments align with objectives and standards. By following

backwards design, I was able to create a unit that measures students’ ability to meet unit

objectives and answer unit questions. Although this design process has allowed me to feel

confident with unit I created, there are plenty of things I would alter if I could do it over again.

While I believe that this unit allows students to develop many aspects of historical

understanding, I regret not including more content regarding multiple perspectives. Perhaps it

was my analysis of Marxist philosophy during the design process that made me simplify

perspectives into the oppressors and the oppressed. In hindsight, there are plenty of interesting

perspectives to explore and compare. Instead, this unit focuses on the perspective of the working

class and their trials in tenements, factories, and strikes. None of the activities explicitly explore

the perspectives of women and minorities throughout the Industrial Revolution even though I am

sure there is engaging material on the subject out there. The viewing of Harlan Country, USA is

the only activity where students are tasked with looking at the perspective of mine workers,

women, unions, and businessmen. The incorporation of multiple perspectives through activities

such as perspective shadows or perspective simulations could have been a powerful teaching tool

that would have engaged students and fleshed out the complexities of the Industrial Revolution.

When I initially sat down to plan this unit, I was extremely overwhelmed by the idea of

teaching a single topic over the course of two or more weeks. I knew little about the Industrial
Revolution and had no idea how I could possibly come up with enough lessons to cover two

weeks. Once I started planning the unit, I found myself wishing I had more and more time. Two

of my days quickly filled up with the viewing of a film. Three days were taken up by working on

a performance assessment. The unit that I had once thought was too big to plan for suddenly

seemed too small. There was no way I could possibly cover everything I wanted to in this small

time period! I had initially wanted to create an entire project where students analyzed the

Information Revolution we are experiencing currently and evaluated the similarities and

differences between our era and the Industrial Revolution. This idea had to be scrapped due to

time limitations and was instead broken up into a series past and present connections through

initiation and closure activities. This design process quickly taught me that two weeks is really

not that much time. Some units simply cannot be adequately covered in two weeks time. I will be

struggling to figure out the balance between breadth and depth as I enter student teaching and

look at the curriculum I will be responsible for covering.

Designing this unit has also shown me just how much time educators have to dedicate to

crafting good units. The process of creating a simple two-week unit has taken several weeks.

Before I could even begin to plan the unit, I had to thoroughly educate myself on the unit’s topic.

In order to create an activity surrounding tenements, I had to virtually explore the Lower East

Side Tenement Museum. To create quality activities revolving around the unit’s film, I had to

watch Harlan County, USA twice. Managing my time proved extremely vital throughout this

rigorous process. The creation of worksheets and PowerPoints ended up taking hours longer than

expected. Dejection, doubt, and lack of creativity ended entire workdays early and created

incredible feelings of anxiety. In the end, using backwards design and giving myself weeks to

work through the design process allowed me to create a quality product I am confident to teach.
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