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REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC

CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

PART 8
ACCREDITATION

8-100 SCOPE (4) establishing and maimaining a Quality Control


Part 8 provides rules for accreditation of Fabricators Program in accordance with Appendix M-6;
of RTP vessels. (51 filing of a Quality Contml Manud in accor-
dance with p a . 8-220(g); and
(61 furrlishing the User or User's agcm with the
8-200 GENERAL appropriate Fabricator's Data Repn:(s).
(c) ASME RTP-I CeniJScore of Aurhoriuttion. The
(a) An accredited Fabricator is one wllo holds a valid holder of a Certificate of Authorization shall not permit
ASME RTP-I Certificate of Authorization. any other party to use the Cenif~cateor RTP Symbol
(b) The responsibilities set forth herein relate only to issued to the holder.
compliance with this Standard and are not to be con- (d) Conrpliance Wth 77th Sfandard. The ASME
strued as involving convactual or legal liabilities. RTP-I Certificate Holder shall fabricate vessels to be
marked RTP in corn~liliancewith this Standard.
(e) ~ubmnrracfini. It is the ASME RTP-1 Certifi-
8-210 ASME RTP-1 Certificate of
cate Holder's responsibility to mure that the subcan-
Authorization Holders
tracted acrivit ies comply with the appropriate
The ASME RTP-1 Ctrtificate of Authorization holder requirements of this Standard per para. 6-300. The
is the Fabricator of an RTP vessel who certifies thar tlte ASME RTP-I Ccnificace Holder sM1 retain overall E-
vessel compIiw with all requirements of this Standard. spnsibility, including certifying and marking vessels.
@ Responsibiiity for Qualip Assurance of Subcotj-
8-220 ASME RTP-1 Certificate of tmcted Acrivitic~~ The ASME RTP-1 Certificate Holder
Authorlza tlon Hofder's shall be mponsibie for evaluation and approval of sup
Responsibillths pliers of subcontractad services. All subconuactad ac-
tivities shall be surveyed and audited with at least the
(4Use of the Cen$care and Symbol. When autho- m e scope and frequency as the ASME RTP-1 Certif-
rization is granted. each applicant agrees to the follow- icate Holder. If the sukontractor is a holder of an
ing: ASME RTP-1 Cenificare, no additional evaluation of
(I] h e Cenificare and the S y h l art at all times the subconmctor is required.
the property of ASME; {g) Filing of Quality Control Manual. The ASME
121 they shall be used according to the rules and RTP-I Certificate Holder shall fde and maintain a copy
regulations of h i s Standard; of the ASME accepted Quality Control Manual with
(3) they shall be promptly returned to ASME upon ASME. If the M i c a t e Holder wishes to change the
demand or when the applicant discontinues the scope of program to a degree requiring changes to the manual,
work covered by his Certificate. the Certificate Holder shall submit the proposed changes
Ib) Eramples of rhe ASME RIP-I Cem$cate Hold- to ASME which shalI accept or reject them in writing.
er's Respomibiliries. Responsibilities include the fol-
lowing:
{fl obtaining an ASME RTP-I Certificate in ac- ACCREDITATION FOR ASME
cordance with para. 8 4 0 ; RTP-1 FABRICATORS
(2) compIiaucc wilh this Standard:
8-310 General
(3) evaluation and approval of mteriat rnanufac-
turcrs and suppliers ofparts and s u b c o ~ c t c dservices When requested by the applicant on forms desig-
in accordance with Appendix Ma, nated by ASME, ASME will arrange for an evalua-
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

tion of the applicant's Quality Control Program and shop 8-430 Verification of Shop Quallflcatlon
q d c a t i o n s . Forms may be obtained by request to An organization requesting accreditation shall have
the Adtation Depanment' Ibe Socie'y of i& &op[s) surveyed by an ASME appmved survey team
Mechanical Engineen, Avenue. New York hr ofpan 7 part 8 are
NY 1001&5490. nut.

8-320 Evaluation of the Quality Control Issuance of ASME RTP-1 Certificate


Program of Authorization

(a) The evaluation consists of the following: (a)The Certificate may IEgranted or withheld by
(1) evaluation of the applicant's QualiCy Control ASME at its discretion.
Manual and capability of implementation; d @) When satisfied ;hat the applicant has complied
(2) evaluation of the applicant's implementation of with the requirements of this Standard. ASME shall is-
the program described in his Quality Contro1 Manual. sue an ASME RTP- 1 Ctnificate of Authorization. The
@) The acceptance by ASME of a Quality Control three-year certifica~tis issued to a Fabricator for a spe-
Program shall not be interpreted to mean endorsement cific l d o n ( s ) as defined in the application and ac-
of technical capabfity to perform design work. q e d by ASME, and it shall describe the scope and
limits of work for which the applicant is accredited.
(c) If ASME RTP-1 authorization i s given and the
8-330 Evaluation of Shop Qualifications proper adminis~raiivefee is paid, the Cenificate of Au-
thorization shall be forwarded to the applicant.
The evaluation shall be in accordance with Pan 7. (d) Alter initial accreditation, ASME shall institute a
continuing audit program of the Certificate Holder's
Quality Control Program.
8-400 ASME RTP-1 CERTIFICATE OF (e) Eadl Certificate shall be signed by duly autho-
AUTHORIZATION FOR VESSEL tixed ASME pesonnel.
FABRICATORS If) Six months prior to the date of expiration of any
such Certificare, the applicant shall apply for a renewal
8-410 General of authorbarion.
A Fabricator shall obtain a valid Certificate of Au- (g) Failure to apply for renewal of the Ceaificate in
thorization in accordance with para. 1-520, in order to time and with appropriate documentation may cause lass
srnmp the vessel. of accreditation until such time as mccredilation pro-
cedures can be undertakenand all requirements for reac-
creditation have been met.
8-420 Application for Certificate of 0 ASME reserves the right to cancel or refuse to
renew accreditation.
Authorization
(al Each applicant shall identify the specific loca-
tion(~)covered and state the scope and limits of any 8-450 Obtatnhg Stamps
activities for which authorization is granted. At its dis- AU stamps for applying the ASME RTP-I Symbol
cretion. ASME may limit or extend the scope of an au- shall be obtained from ASME. This Symbol i s shown
thorization. in Fig. 1-1.
@I The Certificate of Authorization shall include but
not be limited to the following scopes of work: shop
8-460 Requirements Subject to Change
fabrication, shop and field fabrication, shop fabrication
and field modification or repair in accordice with Ap- ASME may make requirements concerning the issu-
pendix M-9.All Cemficatt of Authorization hdders ance and use of Certificates and Symbols as it deems
shall be capable of both shop and field testing per para- appropriate. Such requirements shall become binding on
6-950. thc Certificate Holder upon notification by ASME.
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT ASME RTP-1-1995 EDITION

MANDATORY APPENDIX M-l


MATERIAL SPECIFICATION FOR RTP LAMINATES

the resin manufactu~raccording to ASTM E 84 using


dl mat laminates greater than 0.1 in. thick. verification
Article A of this Appendix is limited to fabication by
of the flame spread rating is not required as a of
contact molding using the hand lay-up andlor sprayvp
laminate qualification. Since flame spread can be deter-
methods. Anicle B of this Appendix describes thc hm-
mined only on flat laminate panels, verification is noi
ination Analysis Method by which the modulus prop-
raquired on fabricated equipment. Prior to use in lami-
erties of filament wound laminates, including contact
nate fabrications, the -in shall be inspected, tested,
molded layers, are obtained. Article C of this Appendix
and found acceptabIe by the inspections and tests spec-
descrik permissible rolerances for laminate thiclrnws
variation. ified in Appendix M-3.
(a)The cataly st/prornoter/acceleratorsystern shall bc
Appendix M-l is based on the requirement that each
as recommended by the resin manufacturer and speci-
Fabricator deveIop design basis data for the hand lay-
up, spray -up, and filament wound laminates produced
fied in the Fabricator's written pmcedures.
(b) The resin shall contain no pigment, dyes, color-
by his shop. The design basis laminates become his shop
ants, or filler, except as follows.
standards. Pmpenies of such laminates are used for de-
( I ) A thixotropic agent which does not interfere
sign of equipment fabricated to this Standard by that
with visual inspection of laminate quality, or wirh the
particular shop. The permitted laminates and qualifica-
required corrosion mistance of the laminate, may be
tion pmedures are described in Articles A and B. The
added for viscosity control.
permissible tolerances for the thickness variation of uer-
mined laminates are described in Article C. NOTE: The addition of a thixanopic agent m y rrduee lhe mistance
of a lamimale to somc corrosive chemical environments. It i s tht rc-
spwmibility of the F a W r lo obtain ~ppmvdfrom h e elector of
MI-1 10 Resin and Reinforcement the resin prior to using a rhixotropic agent in the inner surface (para.
M1A-22 I) or the inltrior layer (pa. M [A-222).
Substitution
(2) Resin pastes used to fill crevices before overlay
The Fabricator must use he same resins and rein- shall not k subject to the limitations of para. MI-
force men^ as identified by the Manufacturer's Specific
210@).
Product Identification (MSPI) as used in the design basis
(3) Pigments, dyes, or colorants may be added lo
laminates. with the exception of the surfacing veil (mat).
the exterior surface when specified by the U8RS.
which may be changed as rrquimi for corrosion resis-
tance. NOTE: The addhion o t pigmcnt. dyes. or colorants may inlcflem
with visual inspection of lmniuaw quaIity.

(4) Flame retardant synergists shall lx used only


M 1-200 MATERIALS when required in the UBRS. If Eire retardant synergists
MI-210 Resin Matrix were usad to obtain the spacifkd ASTM E 84 flame
spread rating, the same type and amount must be used
The m i n shall be that polyester or vinyl ester speci- in the laminate.
fied by the User's Basic Requi~mcntsSpecification.
Only resins with an HDT of at least 180°F per ASTM MOTE: The addition of fire rrtardglu qwFgisu m y interfere with
viswl inspocrion of laminatc quality.
D 648 with a 264 psi loading and a % in. specimen, as
published by the resin manufacturer, shall be used. (5) Common additives, as described in Appendix
When a maximum h e retardancy is specified by the M-3. Arricle G , may be added without requalifying the
UBRS, the flame spread rating shall be determined by standard laminate.
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

TABLE MIA-1 GRADE SYSTEM FOR HAND LAY-UP LAMINATES


USING MINIMUM PROPERTY VALUES
FIrst DtgIt Sremd Dlgit
Grade Ultimate Tensif* Tensile Modulus,
Numbers Strength. psi @
1 s x lo3 I XI@
2 10 x loo 1.1 x 10'
3 11 xloa 1.2 x lo6
4 12 x lo9 1.3 x lo6

M1-220 Fiber Reinforcement chopped roving and woven mving construction as shown
Fiber reinforcements shall be in compliance with the in Table MIA-3.
appendices listed below for each material rype: 0 Qass designates thc resin used and the level of
laminate flame retardancy obtained if required by the
(a)fihrgIass surfacing veil (mat), organic fiber sur-
facing veil (mat), carbon fiber surfacing veil [mar), and UBRS. Class is written as the MSPI for the resin, fol-
fiberglass chopped strand mat - Appendix M-2, Anicle lowed in parentheses by the letters FS and the flame
sprcad. The flame spmd shall be determined according
A;
Ib) fiberglass spray-up roving and filament winding to pam. MI-210.
(c) Grade shall designate the minimum mechanical
mving - Appendix M-2, Article 8;
Ic) fibcrgtss woven mving fabric, fiberglass unidi- property levels of a laminate obtained at 73°F unless
rectional fabric. and fiberglass nonwoven biaxial fabric orhenvise designated. Grade, spelled in capital letters,
- Appendix M-2. Article C; shall be fotlowed by two Arabic numerals to designate
(4 fibeqhs milled fiber - Appendix M-2, Article minimum levels of ultimate tensile strength and tensile
D. modulus, per Table h4 1A- 1. This shall be followed by
the minimum thickness, designated by Arabic numerals,
in decimal form to the nearest 0.01 in., or ALL.
NOTE: The Iwo Arabic grade numbers designate mini- mcchan-
ARTICLE A - REQUIREMENTS FOR ical pmpcny levds f ultimrc tcmile streugh and tensik madulus from
Table MIA-I). Rtitr to p. W I A-MO. Nominal mickntss s M bt
STANDARD CONTACT MOLDED designated by an Arabif number in decimal form 10 rht n c a m 0.01
LAMINATES in.

M1A-1 00 LAMINATE DESCRIPTION


Laminate designation shall consist of the abbreviation M1 A-1 10 Examples of Laminate Classifications
RTP. followed by the type, class, and grade as follows. (a) A laminate consisting of all mat construction
la) Type, in Roman numerals followed by the Man- using MAT 80 reinforcement and RESISTALL 210
ufactureis Specific Product Identification (MSPIJ for the resin, without any required maximum flame spread rate
reinforcement, shdl designate the reinforcement struc- and having an ultimate tensile strength of 9000 psi and
ture comprised of specific plics ofglass fiber in specified a tensile mdulus of 1.30 x lo6 psi, is designated as:
-

sequences. The MSPI forkach type of Rinforckent is


listed in the order each appeam, from the interior surface RTP. TYPE 1 MSO. CUSS RESISTALL 210. GRADE 144 ALL
10the exterior. (b) A laminate consisting of alternating layers of mat.
( I ) T y p I is a standard all-chopped srrand mat or MAT 80, and woven roving, R24. and RESISTALL 2 10
chopped roving construction as shown in Table M 1A-2. =sin, with a maximum required flame spread rating of
Type 11 is a standard chopped strand mat or 25 and having an ultimate tensile strength of 1 3 , m Psi
TABLE MIA-2 STANDARD LAMINATE COMPOSlTtON TYPE I

Thlokneas, Sequence of Plies


In. Draftlng
INotsu~11,~211 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 10 17 18 Symbols

V M M M M M M M M ......
V M M M M M M M M M ,,,
V M M M M M M M M M M
V M M M M M M M M M M
V M M W M M M M M M M

V M M M M M M M M M M
V M M M M M M # M # M
V M M M M M M M M M M
V M M M M M M M M M M

GENERAL NOTES:
(a} Thicknesses above 0.74 In. nomlnal can ba used by adding addltlonal piles of mat.
tb) Actual thleknes~snd elass content of each sequence of pliea shall ba established by each Fabrloator baaed on Hs design basls
laminate.
(el Cormslon barrier lplle8 1, 2, and 3) ahall gel and rrrtotherm kfwe structural plies are added,
(dl Stmctural lay-up may be Intempted at Ctewde long onough to exothwm In accordance with Fabrtcator's proaedure,
{el A welght equivalent layer or layers of chopped strand glasa or mat may be ueed In place of layars of 1.5 oz mat.
NOTES:
(11 Nominal thickness is calculated ss follows:
-
V 3 10 mil ilurfaee mat (veil) 0.010 In.lpty
-
M 0 1 H oxlsq ft mat 0.043 ln,lply
12) This information based on hlstorlclrl data and may not reflect all Laminates made todey, Laminates made today are often
thinner and have a hlghsr glass content than noted In the Table. The Tabk should b used for eetabliuhing mlnlmum g l e pIle8
~
per nomlnnl lamhate thickness. Ply thicknesses should be based on design basis larnlnetes.
Z
V1
5
7
P
4
I
m
rn
m
TABLE M1A-3 STANDARD LAMINATE COMPOSITION fYPE I1
m
Nominal
z
Thickness, Sequence of ma
In.
lNotas(1),12)1 1 a 3 4 1 6 7 8 9 lo 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Draflng Symbols

V,ZM,3(AdR)M,3(1wR)#
V,2M,3(MR)M,3tMRI M,M
V,2#,3I MR)M,3{MR)M,IWRM

GENERAL NOTES:
(a) THcknesses above 0,76 In. nominal can be uaed following pattern established for 0.7B In, thlck laminate,
(bl Actual thlckness and glass content of each sequence of plies shall be estnMlshed by each Fabricator based on his design basis
laminate.
(e) Corrosion barrler (plles 1,2, and 3)shall gel and exotherm before structural plies ore added.
(ti} Structural lay-up may be interrupted long enough to ewolherm botwwn adjacent " M W p t h , If requlnd by fabricatlon pro-
cedure, location of exothrrm plies (plies 10 and 17) may be shifted within the lamlnale b d y . No plles may k
t omltted.
(0) A welght equivalent layer or layors of c h o p m strand glass or mat may be usad In place of layers of 1.5 oz mat,

NOTES:
(1) Nomlnel thlckness Is calculated as follows:
-
V = 10 mll o u r f m mat {vslll 0.02 0 In.lply
-
# = 1 'h ozlsq ft mat 0,043 tn.lply
-
R 3 24 ozlsq yd woven rovkng 0.033 in,lply
(2) This Information Is b s s d on hlatorlcal data end may not reflect all laminates made todey, Laminatoe meda today are often
thinner and have a higher glass content than noted In the Table. The Table should be used lor establishing mlnimum glass plies
per nominal laminate thickness. Ply thleknssse~~houldbe based on doslgn bosis laminates.
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

md a tensile modulus of 1.15 X lo6 psi at a thickness Id) All edges of reinforcemeni material shall be
of 0.30 in.. is designated as: lappd a minimum of I in. hpped edges of adjacent
Iayers shall be staggered.
RTP,TYPE U M80,R24. C U S S RESISFAUIIO (FS 25), GRADE
4.30 Intemption of the fabrication prncess a allow for
an exotherm shall follow instructions noted on the ap-
propriate table for the particularlaminate type. The final
ply of reinforcement before intemption for gel and ex-
M i A-200 LAMINATE REQUIREMENTS otherm shall be 1% d s q ft. The first ply of the ensuing
MIA-210 Lamlnate Construction lamination MI also be 1't5 ozlsq ft. Both the final and
first plia shall be comprised of layers of chopped strand
Laminate construction shall be in accordance with the mat and/or layers of chopped roving.
rabulated lay-up sequence for the specified type. These
lamhares shall be fabricaltd on a male mold. M l A-224 Outer Surface
(a)Type I laminate structure is detailed in Table {a) The outer surface of the finished laminate shall
MIA-2. be a separately applied paraliinated resin coat hat, when
(bl Type I1 laminate structure is detailed in Table cued, passes the acetone mt per ASTM C 582, para.
MIA-3. 9.2.2. This outer surface coat shall either be applied over
the final mat ply of the suucmml layer or over an ad- -
ditional resin-rich layer when r e q u i d by (b) below.
(b) When rhe WBRS indicates the outer surface will
MIA-220 Laminate Composit!on
be subjected to spillage or a comsive environment, a
bminates shall consist of a comsion resistant barrier min-rich layer, in accordance with pan. M 1A-221,
(comprised of an inner surface and interior layer) and a shall be applied over the final mar ply of the structud
stmctural layer. Iayer prior to the application of the paraffinatmi resin
MIA-221 Inner Surface - Corrosion Resistant
coat in (a) above.
(c) The UBRS may include provisions 10 minimize
Barrier. The inner surface exposed to the contents shall
ulwaviolet degradation of the laminate. Methods include
k a resin-rich layer in forced with a surfacing veil pro-
use of ulrraviolet absorbers. screening agents, or resins
viding a thickness of 0.0 1 in. to 0.02 in., in accordance
resistant to ulmviolet degradation, or incorpotation of
with pan. M 1-220.
pigment of sufficient opacity in the pmffinated resin
-
M I A-222 Interior Layer Corrosion Resistant coat. Since pigmentation makes laminate inspection dif-
Barrier. The inncr surface layer, exposed to he con- ficult, the resin-rich layer shalI be applied only after the
tents, shall k followed with an interior layer. This layer laminate has been inspected by the Inspector.
is composed of resin reinforced with noncontinuous (dl Where the Bnal lay-up is exposed to air, full sur-
glass fiber strands (1 -0 in. to 2.0 in. long), applied in a face cure shall be obtained by applying to the final lay-
minimum of two plies totaling a minimum of 3 odsq ft. up a coat of parafinatad resin that, when cured, passes
These plies shall be layers of chopped strnnd mat and/ the acetone test. Other techniques such as sprayed,
or chopped roving. Each ply of mat or pass of chopped wrapped, or overlaid films are also acceptable methods
roving Wl be well rolled to thoroughly wet out *in- to attain surface cure, provided the surface resin under
forrement and remove entrapped air prior to the appli- the film passes the acetone rest.
cation of additional reinforcement. The combined
thickness of the inner surface and interior Iaytr shall not
be less than 0.10 in. M1A-300 REQUIREMENTS FOR PHYSICAL
AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
MIA-223 Structural Layer
(a) Application of Iht smctural Iayer shall not be (a) The Fabricator shall prepare at least three design
started until thc interior layer has been allowed to gel basis laminates for a c h combination of resin (class) and
and exorhem. glass (type), identified by their respective MSPI (see
(bl The firstply of the structural layer of the laminate para. M 1A- 1001, to determine thickness and glass con-
shall be one or more plies of noncontinuous glass fibers tent. Straight line interpolation shall be used to deter-
totaling Itis_ otlsq ft comprised of layen of chopped mine values of thichesses and glass content not tested
strand mat andlor chopped roving. dhetly . In addition, the Fabricator shall choose one d
(c) Continue lay-up in the sequence of plies stated for the following two options to establish his design tensile
the specified laminate type. smngth and design tensile modulus.
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

TABLE MIA-4 MINIMUM VALUES OF LAMINATES


Uominal Uldmate Tensile Ultimate Flexural nenural ~odulus,
fhtckness, Swength. psi Tensib Modulus, psi Smngth, psl psi
In. TYPe [Note (111 [Note (111 [Note (211 [Note ta)l

All I 9.0 x lo3 1.0 x lo8 16.0 x lo9 0.7 x loa


0.22 I1 12.0 x lo3 1.3 x lo6 19.0 x loa 0.8 x 10'
0.28 II 13.5 x 103 1.4 x lo6 20.0 x loa 0.0 x lo6
0.37 and above II 15.0 x 10' 1.5 x 10' 22.0 x lo3 1.0 x lo4

GENERAL NOTE:
The tabulated values remaln unchanged up to 180°F. Above that temperature, measured properlies may decrease.

NOTES
11) ASTM O 638 at 73OF.
(2) ASTM D 790 at 73OF.

( I ) The Fabricator shall specify the minimum val- 73°F. The assignment shall be based on the following
ues in Table M 1 A 4 and use the correspondinggrade as mles.
found in Table MIA-I. This mcthd shdl not be used ( I ] The Fabricator may select any laminate grade
where laminates are fabricated for use above 180°F. listed in Table MIA-1 which is up to. bur not gmaer
(2) The Fabricator shall obtain the certified tensire than, the values established by hi design basis laminate
strength and tensile modulus of his design basis lami- and not less than those values shown in Table MI A 4 .
nates in accordance with para. M 1A-400. Testing to es- (2) For lamhare sequences without certified prop-
tablish the propertics of the design basis laminate may erties, the identification number assigned shall not be
be performed by thc Fabricator or by an independent test greater than the lesser cenified property of the thicker
laboraiory. Results shall be certified by the individual and thinner sequences between which ir falls. For de-
who conducted or supervised the testing. sign purposes, pmpenies at 73°F are acceptable up to
When the corrosion barrier is included in the design 180°F.Where laminates are fabricated for use at design
as a contributor to the structural strength of the lami- temperatures above 180°F, cei-iification of tensile
nate, the design basis Iaminates shall include the inner smgth and tensile modulus per para. M 1A-(a) shall
surface, interior layer. and structuml layer, but not the be supplied at or above the specifred temperature.
outer surface. When the c o r d o n bamcr is excluded (c) Thc thickness and glass content of a production
from the design as a contributor to the structural strength laminate shdl be established by the designer b a e d on
of the Iarninate per p m . 6-930(d)(31Id), the design b- the data obtained from the Fabricator's design basis
sis laminates shall include only the structural layer. De- laminates. Six thickness and glass content per unit area
sign basis laminates shall be at least 12 in. x 12 in. and readings shall be taken on each design basis laminate.
shall incIude the foIloa-ingfor each resin and glass com- They shalt be taken at 1 in. to 2 in. from each comer,
bination: except for two readings taken from the middle of the
(a)Type I - 0.18 in, nominal thickness laminate. The highest thickness and glass content per
Ib) Type I - 0.48 in. nominal thickness unit area reading taken (of the six) must be no more than
Ic) Type I - 0.74 in. nominal thickness 1 15 % of rhe lowest reading taken. The six readings shall
(d) T y p II - 0.22 in. nominal thickness be averaged to give the design basis laminate thicknas
(e) Type Il - 0.49 in. nominal rhickness and glass content for each Iarninate tested. The average
If) Type I1 - 0.76 in. nominal thickness thickness value shall be from 85% to 115% of the nom-
Pmpenies of each type shall tK established on Rat lam- inal thickness listed in Tables MIA-2and MIA-3.
inates prepaid under shop conditions. For Type LI lam-
inates the woven roving is laid-up in square array with NOlE Glass content pcr unit arm m a w wight per unit area and is
_,a pcmnt rduc.
warp rovings parallel layer to layer, and test specimens
are cut parallel to the warp rovings. (d) The laminate compositions and minimum prop-
Ibl Grade identiffration numbers will be assigned by enies for Type I production laminates are given in Ta-
the Fabricator to the design basis laminates per para. bles MIA-2 and MIA-4.
M1A- 100 based on mechanical propenies measured at (el The laminate compositions and minimum prop-
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
COAROSlON RESISTANT EQUIPMENT -
ASME RTP- 1 1995 EDITION

erties for Type Il pmduction laminates are given in Ta- ARTICLE B - REQUIREMENTS FOR
bles MIA-3 and M l A 4 . LAMINATES DEVELOPED USlNG THE
LAMINATION ANALYSIS MET HOD
NOTE: The h m h t t p r a m found in TabIt MIA-4 nrr ronscrv-
ative and hisrorically pmvcn. Thty itprescar compilation of data on M l B-100 LAMINATE DESCRIPTION
t k mmt availabk laminating matcrialr.
(a) Fabricators shall describe their laminates accord-
Part 6 of this Standard, para. 6-930,requires tests to ing ro type, class, and grade. All Article B laminates are
be conducted on a sample of laminate ~emovedfrom designated Type X to diffemntirlte them from the stm-
each vessel, to verify hat mechanical properties of tht dard laminates dcscribd in Article A.
as-constructed laminate meet or exceed those properties (bl Type followed by Roman nurneral X is in turn
as used in the design. followed by the identification of the reinforcements in
Based on the relative dificulty of suictly controlling the sequence they appear in the laminate, from the in-
the laminating process during the manufacture of a corn- renor surface to the exterior.
plcx vessel as c o m to~the sample preparation pm- Reinforcements shall be identified consistently by the
ctss, the test laminate may have higher strength Fabricator in both the Laminate Description and the
pmperties than the production laminate, Fabrica~orsare Manufacturer's Specific P d u c t Identification (MSPII-
urged to establish conservative or historically proven The accompanying MSPI shall identify each reinforce-
mechanical property values for design purposes. ment making up the laminate sequence. For continuous
Should the mechanical propenies of an as-constructed fiber reinforcements, the thickness of each reinforce-
laminate fail to meet orexceed those used in the design, ment layer and the angle from the principal loading axis
the equipment must then bc dedared by the Jnspec~orto (which in the case of a cylinder is the cylinder axis) shall
be nor in compliance wilh this Standard. be Sited. Repeating constructions shall be identified in
brackets followed by a subscript indicating the number
of repeating constructions.
kc) Class designates the resin used and the level of
M IA-400 TEST METHODS laminate flame d a n c y required. Class is written as
(a) Tensile srength and tensile modulus of elasticity the MSPI for the resin. followed in parentheses by the
shall be determined by ASTM D 638. Specimens shall letrem FS and the maximum allowable flame spread. The
be in accordance with Type III, Fig. 1 of ASTM D 638 flame spread shall be determined according to para. M1-
except that actual laminate thickness shaI1 be used. 210.
(b) Glass contcnt, weight perrent. shall be deter- (dl Grade shall designate the tensile modulus, hoop
mined in accordance with ASTM D 2584. and axial, in psi. as determined by the taminat ion Anal-
(c) When required, the residual undistuhed glass fi- ysis Method (Appendix M-5).
ber plies from ASTM D 2584 shall be sepmtcd care-
fully and counted andlor weighed to confirm standard
lay-up sequence.
M1B-200 LAMINATE REQUIREMENTS
(d) Thickness shdl be measured with a ball foot rni-
cmmeter or caliper. When the configuration of the part M I 8-210 Laminate Construction
will nor allow the use of these instruments. a digital
Laminate construction shall be the same as described
magnetic intensity instrument (ASTMD 4 166) or an ul-
in para. M1B-l00(a).
trasonic &ickness gauge found to l x accurare when
measuring vessel cutouts shall be usad.
(e) When required, thermal conductivity shall be
measured in accordance with ASTM C 177. M1B-220 Laminate Composition
fl When required, thermal expansion shdl be mea- Laminatesshall consist of a corrosion resistant barrier
sared in accordance with ASTM D 6%.
(comprised of an inner surface and interior layer) and a
structural layer.
M I 6-221 Inner Surface - Corrosion Resistant
M1A-500 RECORDS Barrier. See para. M 1A-22 1 .
The resulrs of all required tests shall be corded and M l B-222 Interior Layer - Corrosion Resistant
shdl be available for review by the Inspector- Barrier. See para. MIA-222.
. REINFORCED THERMOSET Pusnc
1
ASME RTP-1-1995 EDITION CORROSlOM FIESISTANT EQUIPMENT

M1B-223 Structural Layer forcement per pan. MlB-100. The objgetive is to


(a) The structural Iaycr is k r i b e d in p. M 13- uniquely define each laminate. Also, for each laminare,
100. m o d ~ s u l t of
s m i n g done in paras. MlB400(a) and
(b) Application of the stmctural layer shall not be @) a d make them available for review by h e Inspec-
started until the interior layer has been allowed to gel tor.
and exarherm.
Ic) The first layer of the structural portion of the lam-
inate shall be one or more plies of chopped srrand mat
totaling 1 'h ozlsq ft or equivalent chopped roving satu-
rated with resin. Thii layer shall be well rolled to thor- ARTICLE C - PERMISSIBLE TOLERANCES
oughly wet out reinforcement and remove entra~wdair FOR LAMINATE THICKNESS VARIATION
and shall not be allowed to gel prior to stan df'subse-
MIOIOO lNTRODUCTION
quent layers.
Id) The balance of the suuctural layer shall then be There are two types of laminate thickness tests. The
applied in stricr duplication of the laminate described in first, average spot thickness, is used to measure a small
para. MlB-100. area or a small component [st& Part 6, para. 6-
920(f)Q)J.The second, average thickness of a major
M IB-224Outer Surface. See para. MI A-224.
part, is used to measure a large area. such as a shell or
head, where several average- spot thicknesses can be
taken [see para. 6-920(f)(2)].
M l B-300 REQUiFIEMENTS FOR PHYSICAL
AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
M I C-110 Tolerance for Average Spot
(a) The =sin matrix tensile modulus and specific
Thickness
gravity are m c a s u ~ don a fully cured '/e in. thick neat
=in casting. Tensile modulus properties at or above the The thinnest value (of six) must be equal to or grearer
design temperature shall be used. Specific p i t y val- than 90%of the &sign thickness of the laminate. The
ues at 75'F may be used for all design temperarures. thickest value (of six) rnm be no more than 12042 of
(bl Standardized tensile modulus and specificgravi~y the thinnest value. The average of six thickness valucs
for E glass shall be used for the Lamination Analysis must be no less than 95% nor more than 125% of the
Method (Appendix hi-5). design thicknes of the laminate. See para. MlC-130 for
(c) Laminate propenits are calcuIated using the exceptions.
Lamination AnaIysis Method contained in Appendix
M-5.
MI C-120 Tolerance for Average Thickness of a
Major Part
MIB-400 TEST METHODS The arerage 111ichrrsof a ~~tajor pnri is the average
of four average spot thickness values. The average
(a) Glass content, weight percent, shall be deter-
thickness of a major part shall be not less than 95% nor
mined in accordance with ASTM D 2584.
IbJ Matrix tensile modulus shaIl be determined in ac- more than 120%ofthe design thickness of the laminate.
cordance with ASTM D 638.
Sce para. M I C- 130 for exceptions.
(c) Matrix spscific gravity shall bc determined in ac-
cordance with ASTM D 792.
(d) Thickness of individual plies shall k determined
with a microscope or other insrrument having an accu-
Fabricato~may add additional material to achieve the
minimum thickness spceified. All such additions sllall
racy of 0.001 in.
be in accordance with the repeating sequence of struc-
rural layers as described in para. MIA-100 or para.
M1E500 RECORDS
M IB-100. The repeating construction of reinforced
laminate mny result in an over-thickness, which i s per-
For each laminate in pam. MlB-223,record wind an- missibIc. Refer to para. MI3-100(b) for ~quirements
gles, numbcr of wind cycles. and supplemental =in- and proeedu~s.
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMEMT

MANDATORY APPENDIX M-2


RElNFORCEMENT MATERIALS RECEMNG PROCEDURES

M2-100 INTRODUCTION ricaror shall provide the User or User's agent with a
Ceniticate of ~ o r n ~ l i a n cfmm
e the material manufac-
All inspections and tests specified in Appendix M-2
turer, This Certificate shall assuE that materials were
are to k performed by Fabricuor personnel or an in-
manufactured, inspected, and tested per the mattrid
dependent testing laboratory.
supplier's specifications.

ARTICLE A - FIBERGLASS SURFACING


VElL IMAT), ORGANIC FIBER SURFACING M2A-300 EQUIPMENT AND MEASURING
VElL IMAT), CARBON FIBER VElL IMAT), TOOLS REQUIRED
AND FIBERGLASS CHOPPED STRAND M2A-310 Inspection Table and Ughts
MAT
An inspection table and adequate overhead lighting
(bl M2A-100 INTRODUCTION that are suitable for the inspection and testing of the mat
This Articlc specifim the minimum inspections and a= required. The equipment used must not intduce
tests that shall be pcriormed on the rolb of fiberglass conramination to the mat during inspection and testing.
surfacing veil. organic fiber surfacing veil. and fiber-
glass chopped strand mat that shall be used to fabricate M2A-320 Linear Measuring Tools
equipment to this Standard.
A standard Iinear measuring tool (longer than the
width of the rolls) that measures the mll widths with
M2A-200 ACCEPTANCE INSPECTlON minimum accuracy of f '/p in. is mquired. A 12 in. f %?
in. x 12 in. f '/32 in. template i s required.
(a) Acceptance inspection shall include inspection of
all rolls for proper packaging and identification, and
contamination. This acceprance inspection is to te con- M2A-330 Laboratory Balance
ducted on the unopened roll. Acceptance requirements A Iaboratory balance that measures to 0.1 g is re-
and limits are as defined in pan. M2A4 10. Acceptance quired.
inspection shall include inspection of selected rolls lor
measurement of unit weight per ANSIlASQC 21-4 cri-
teria. Inspection for manufacturing imperfections shall
be conducred during use of mlled goods. Acceptance M2A-400 PROCEDURES AND ACCEPTANCE
requirements and limits are as defined in paras. M2A- LIMITS
420 and M2A430.
M2A-410 Roll Identification and Package
(a) (bl The form shown in Table M2A- 1 of his Anicle,
Inspection
or a similar form that contains the pm~~isions to record
the results of thesc rrquirsd i n s ~ t i o n sand certifies- (a) The mat shall b packaged as shipped from the La)
tions, if applicable, shall be used by the Fabricator and mat manufacturer's factory. If repackaging is required.
shall lx retained in the inspection records. A separate h e Fabricator shall assure that a material Certificate of
form shall be used for each mat manufacturer, mat no- Complimce uaccable to the original mattrial is pm-
menclature, mat treatment, and mat unit weight. vided. The original labels can k modified in regards to
(a) (c) In lieu of performing the above manufacturing in- number and width of rolls only. All orher docurnenla-
spections, measurements, and documentation. the Fab- tion shall remain unchanged. Verify and enter on the
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTlC
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

TABLE M2A-1 VEIL AND MAT REINFORCEMENT LOG SHEET

Fabricator's name Mar manufacturer

Address Mat mmenclature

Mat treatment lif given) [Note (1 11

QC tile no.: - Met weight [Note 1211

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Roll Reinforcement Lot No. Pmekaging Width Weight Pro~ertv Visual
No. Production [Mote (1 11 Inspection of sq ft Inripean Inspection
Date Sample (cob. 5 and 6)
(if given)
BY Date By Date BY Date

Comments an visual and packaging inspection {indicate which roll):

GENERAL NOTE:
This form may be reproduced and used without written permisston from ASME if used for purposes other than repubtication.

NOTES
4 f 1 Lot. batch. product code. or other label identification.
12) Manufacturer'slabel weight.
REINFORCW THERMOSET PLASTIC
CORROSfOPI RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

MANDATORY APPENDIX M-2


REINFORCEMENT MATERIALS RECEIVING PROCEDURES

M2-100 INTRODUCTION vide the User or User's agent with a Cenificate of


Compliance from tlte material manufacturer. This Ccr-
s rens 'pecified in
i n s ~ t i o nand M-2 cificaeshall a s w ~
ha materials w e e -ufactu&,
dependent testing khrarary.
hcations.

ARTICLE A - FIBERGLASS SURFACING


VEIL (MAT), ORGANIC FIBER SURFACING M2A-300 EQUIPMENT AND MEASURING
VElL (MAT). CARBON FIBER VElL [MAT], TOOLS REQUIRED
AND FIBERGLASS CHOPPED STRAND M2A-310 Inspection Table and Lights
MAT
An inspection table and adequate overhead lighting
M2A-100 INTRODUCTION that are suitable for the inspection and testing of the mat
This Anicle specifies the minimum inspections and are required. The equipment used must not introduce
tests that are to be performed on the rolls of fiberglass contamination to the ma1 during inspection and testing.
slrrfacing veil, organic fiber surfacing veil, and fikr-
glass chopped strand mat thar are ro be used to fabricate M2A-320 Linear Measuring Tools
equipment to this Standard.
A standard linear measuring tool (longer than the
width of the rolls) that measures the roll widths with
MZA-200 ACCEPTANCE INSPECTION miaimurn accumcy of 4% in. is required. A 12 in. f 'hz
in- x 12 in. f 'I32 in. template is required.
(a) Acceptance inspection shall include inspection of
alI rolIs for proper packaging and identification. and
contamination. This accepmce inspection is to be con- M2A-330 Laboratory Balance
ducted an the unopcned 1-011. Acceptance requi~ments A lahrataq balance that measures to 0.1 g is re-
and limits are as &fined in para. M2A410. Acceptance quired.
inspection shall include inspection of select4 d l s for
measurement af unit weight per ANSUASQC 21.4 cri-
tcria. Inspection for manufacturing imperfections shall
be conducted during use of rolled goods. Acctpmce MZA-400 PROCEDURES AND ACCEPTANCE
requirements and limits are as defined in paras. M2A- LIMITS
420 and M2A-430.
M2A-410 Roll ldentificatlon and Package
@) The form shown in Table M2A-1 of rhi Article,
Inspection
or a similar form that contains thc provisions to record
the resulrs of these required inspections, shall h used (a] The mat shall be packaged as shipped from the
by the Fabricator and shall be remined in the inspection mat manufacturef s factory. If repackaging is r e q u i d ,
records. A separate form shall be used for each mat the Fabricator shall assure that a marerial Cenificate of
manufacturer, mat nomendamre, mat treatment, and Compliance m d i e to the original material is pro-
mat unit weight. vided. The origid IabeIs can be modified in regards to
(c) In Iieu of performing the above inspections, mea- number and width of rolls only. A11 other documenta-
surrments, and documentation, the Fabricator shall pro- tion shall remain unchanged. Verify and enter on fie
REINFORCE0 THERMOSET PUSTtC
ASME RTP-1-1995 EDITION CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

TABLE M2A-1 VEIL AND MAT REiNFORCEMENT LOG SHEET

Fabricafor's name Mat manufacturer

Address Mat nomenclature

Mat treatment (if given) [Mote (111

QC file n o . : Mat weight [Note 1211

Roll Reinforcement Lot No. Pecksging Wdth Weight Visual


No. Production [Note Ill1 Inspection of sq ft Inspection Inspection
Date Sample (cobs. 5 and 6)
(if given)
By Date By Date BY Dare

Comments on visual and packaging inspection (indicate which roll):

GENERAL NOTE:
This form may be reproduced and usad without written permission from ASME i f used for purposes other than republication.

NOTES:
(1 I Lot, batch, product code, or other labet identification.
(2) Mandacturer'~label weight.
RElNFORCED WERMOSET PLASTIC
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

.inspection record that the mat rolls as identifid by the values of weighed samples for acceptable and unac-
mat manufacmnr have rhe same nomtaclature as h e ceptable rolls on the inspeetion form under column 6.
mat specifiedto produce the laminate by Appendix M- I , Note the rejected mlb wirh the word "rejected" next to
Articles A and B, and examine &e packaging of the mat the recorded weight in column 6-
for damage that renders the mat unusable. Indicate ac-
ceptable rolls by recording the date and name of the per-
son performing the examination on Table M2A-1,
column 4. ARTICLE B - FIBERGLASS SPRAY-UP
&) For paelaged mats that are found ra be acceptable ROVING AND FILAMENT WINDING
for further insption and tests, enter the reinfo~ement
ROVING
production date and lot number on Table M2A-1, col-
umns 2 and 3, M2B-100 INTRODUCTION
This Article specifics the minimum inspections and
M2A-420 Visual Inspection of Mat rests that a= to k performed on fiberglass spray-up rov-
ing and filament winding roving chat are to be used to
la) As the mat i s used during fabrication, it shall be fabricare equipment to this Standard.
visually inspecled for impcrfcctions and contamination.
Date and name of person performing visual inspecrion
sMI be recorded on Tablc M2A- 1, column 8. MZB-200 ACCEPTANCE INSPECTIONS
Ib) The mat shall be uniform in color, texture, and
appearance. lmperiecrions andlor conraminants shall be (a) Acceptance inspections shall include inspection
removed so as not to damage the mat or by making two of the roving balls for proper packaging, identifica~ion.
parallel cuts across the width of the mat and discarding and contamination. This acceptance inspection is to be
the rectangular section of the mat containing the defects. conducted on the unopened roll. Acceptance q u i r t -
Contaminants do not include white or light gray binder ments and limits are as defined in para. M2B410. Ac-
spots. ceptance inspection shall include inspection of selected
rolls for measurement of roving yield per ANWASQC
NOTE Exampks of imperfections are froits.cuts. thin spots. or dc- Z 1.4 criteria. I m r i o n for manufachlring imperfec-
laminations. i-e.. scparaling into h ~ e r sduring unrolling. ExampIcs
of conurninants arc din. oil. g-. and ioreign objccts. tions shall k conducted during use of roving balls. Ac-
ceptance quirements and h i t s are as defined in paras.
(el Rolls having any of the following defects shall MZB420 and M2B430.
not be ustd in laminates made to this Standard: (b) Tht form shown in Table M2B-1 of this Article,
11) wet spots or a similar form that contains the provisions to record
(2) water contamination the results of inspections, shall be used by the Fabrica-
131 bar marks tor and shall be retained in h e inspection records. A
(4) lenglhwise wrinkles exceeding 5 ft in length separate form shall be used for each mving manufac-
rurer, mving nomcnclarure, and roving yield.
M2A-430 Weight per Square Foot of Mat
Ic) In lieu of performing the above inspections, mea-
surements, and dccumentation. the Fabricator shall pro-
From the leading edge of each roll of mat that will be vide the User or User's agent with a Certificate of
tesred as p r para. M2A-200.cut a 1 sq ft ( I 0 sq fi for Compliance from the material manufacturer. This Cer-
surfacing veil) sample using the template sperified in tificate shdl assure that materials were manufachired.
para. M2A-320. If the roll is less than I2 in. wide, use inspected, and tested per the material supplier's speci-
the full width of the roll. but adjust the length of the fications.
sample (use the linear measuring tool specified in para.
M2A-320). Any property measurement shall be con-
ducted by unrolling only the quantiry of material re- M2B-300 EQUIPMENT AND MEASURING
quired to conduct the test. Using the laboratory balance TOOLS
required by pan- M2A-330. weigh the sample of mat
M2B-310 Wrap Reel
to the nearest 0.1 g. Convert the grams to ounces. if
needed, by rnuhipl~inggmms by 0r0352. If the sample A device may be used which provides a minimum of
fmm a roll falls outside the mat manufiicturer's specified a 6 yard sample measumd and cut under sufficient ten-
weight range, the mI1 of mat shall be rejected. Enter the sion to keep h e strand taut. Equipment such ns standard
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
ASME RTP-1-1995 EDITION CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

TABLE M2B-1 ROVING REINFORCEMENT LOG SHEET


--

Fabricator's name Raving manufacturer

Address M n g nomenclature

Roving yield

OC file m-:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Ball Reinforcement Lot No. Packaging Yield mr*I Visual
No. Production [Note (1 11 Inspection Inspaction Inspection
Date Ieolumn 5)
(if given)
By Date By Date By Date

Comments on visual and packaging inspection (indicate which roll):

GENERAL NOTE:
This form may be reproduced and used without wrltten permission from ASME if used for purposes other than republication.

NOTE:
(1) Lot, bat&, product code, w othar label Identification.
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASriC
CORROSION RfSlSfANT EQUIPMENT ASME RTP-1-1995 EDITION

36 in. or 54 in. (1 ymd or 1.5 yard) yam reeI with ad- that the sample will k lalrcn from undisnubed material.
justable uansvefse, four skein capacity is suggested. Remove the sample from the wrap reel. Double the Sam-
ple several times and tie with a single knot. Using the
balance requid by para. M2B-320,weigh the sample
M2B-320 Laboratory Balance
to the nearest 0-1 g. Convert grams to ounces by mul-
A labratory balance that measums to 0.1 g is re- tiplying grams by 0.0352. Two specimens from each
quired. package shall be measured and the average computed.
Record as Weight A.
Calculate the yield, yardsob, using the following for-
M2B-400 PROCEDURES AND ACCEPTANCE mula:
LIMlTS
I6 oznb x leogtb A = 96
M28-410 Roving Identification and Package yield, yardsfib =
wei* A (02) weight A (0x1
Inspection
(a) The roving shall be packaged as shipped fmrn the Enter h e yield of acceptable and unacceptable MIS
manufacturer's factory. The roving shall not be repack- of roving on Table M2B-1, column 5. lf the yield of the
aged in the distribution of thc materid afrer the man- ball of roving is outside the manufacturer's specifica-
ufacntrer has shipped the roving. Verify that the roving tion, thc remaining balls in the shipment are to be in-
balls as identified by the manufacturer have the same speckd per ANSYASQC 21-4 criteria, following the
nomenclature as the mving required by Appendix M-1 p d u m specified in para. M2B430.Balls whose yield
and examine the packaging of the roving for damage is outside the rnanufacrunzr's s-cation shall not be
that renders the mving unusable. Indicate acceptable used for laminates made lo this Standard. Note the re-
roving by recording on Table M2B-1. column 4, the date jected roving balls with the word "rejected" next to the
and name of the person performing the examinarion. yield in column 5. Atso, record the da~cand name of
@) For packaged rovings that are found to be ac- the person performing the yield measumnent in column
ceptable for further inspection and tests, enter the rein- 6.
forcement production date and lot number for each ball
on Table M2B-I. columns 2 and 3.

M2B-420 Visual Inspection of Roving ARTICLE C - FIBERGLASS WOVEN


ROVING FABRIC, FIBERGLASS
(a) The mving ball shall be visually inspected forirn- UNIDIRECTiORIAL FABRIC, AND
perfections and contamination prior to use by the Fab-
FIBERGLASS NONWOVEN BlAXlAL
ricator. Record the date and the inspactor's name on
FABRIC
Table M2B-1,column 7. If any roving ball is rtjec~ed,
record the reason under the comments section in Table
M2B- 1.
This Article specifies the minimum inspections and
0 Roving balls having any of the following defects tests thatare to be performed on the mlls of fiberglass
shaH not be used for laminates made to this Standard:
woven roving fabric, fiberglass u n i d i i i o d fabric, and
(1) any package rhat exhibits foreign manes such
fikrgIass nonwoven biaxial fabric that are to k used to
as din, oil. grease, wasie glass fiber, or beads of glass
fabricate equipment to this Standard.
such thar it would detract from the performance or ap-
pearance of the finished product;
0) balls that have been contaminated by water.
M2C-200 ACCEPTANCE INSPECTIONS
(a) Acceptance inspections shall include inspection
M20-430 Measurement of Roving Yield
of all fabric rolls for proper packaging and identifica-
From one roving ball per shipment, obtain a rnini- tion. and contamination. T h i s acceptance inspecuon is
mum of a 6 yard sample (length A) of roving as required to be conducted on the unopened roll. Acceptance re-
by para. M2B-3 10. Roving sball be pulled fmm the same quiremears and limits are as defined in para. M2C-410.
side ofh e package as used in the Fabricator's process. Acceptance inspection shall include inspection of se-
If the roving is pulled from the o u ~ i d eof the package, lected rolls for measurement of unit weight and verifi-
suficient material shall be removed and discarded so cation of construction of fabric per ANSIIASQC Z 1.4
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
CORROSION RESISTAM EQUIPMENT

criteria. Inspection for manufacturing imperfecEions aged in the distribution of the material after the manu-
shall be conducted during use of rolled goods. Accep- facturer has shipped the fabric. Verify hat the fabric
tance requirements and Iimics are as defined in p a . rolls as identified by the manufacturer have the same
M2C420 through M2C450. nomenclature as the fabric required by Appendix M-I
(b) The form shown in Tabk M2C-1 of this Article, and examine the packaging of the fabric for damage that
or a similar form that contains the provisions to record renders the fabric unusable. Indicate acccptabIc rolls by
the mults of these mquired inspections, shall be used recording the date and name of the peaon performing
by the Fabricator and shatl be retain4 in the inspection the examination on Table M2C-1, column 4.
mods. A separate form shall be used for each fabric @) Forpackaged rolls that are found to be acceptable
manuiactumr, fabric nomenclature, fabric unit weight for fuEtber iaspection and tests, enter the fabric produc-
(ozlsq yard), and fabric construction. tion date and lot number on Table M2C- I , columns 2
(c) In lieu of pforming the a b v e inspections, ma- and 3.
s u m n t s , and documentation, the Fabricator shall pro-
vide the User or User's agent with n Certificate of
Compliance from the material manufacturer. This Cer- M2C420 Visual Inspection of Fabric
tificate shall assure that materials were manufactu~d, la) As fabric is used, it shall be visually inspected
inspected, and tested per the material supplier's speci- for imperfections and contaminations by the Fabricator.
fications. Record date and name of inspector on Table WC-1.
column 9. If a roll is rejected, record the reason under
the comments section in Table M2C-1.
M2C-300 EQUIPMENT AND MEASURING Fabric shall be uniform in color. texture, and ap-
TOOLS REQUIRED pcarance. The foilowing imperfections and/or contam-
inations shall be removed fmm fiberglass woven mving
M2C-310 lnspection Table and tights and fiberglass nonwoven biaxial fabric by making two
An inspection table and adequate overhead lighting parallel cuts across the width of the fabric and d i a r d -
that are suitable for the inspection and testing of the fab- ing the rectangular sections of fabric containing the fol-
ric are required. The equipment usad shall not introduce lowing defects:
contamination to the fabric during inspction and test- (1) dirt spots (%s in. to in. in diameter) in txccss
ing. of one per 10 lineal feet (dirt spots are defined as a11
foreign matter, din, grease spots, etc.);
121 missing ends for more than 2 consecutive feet
M2C-320 Linear Measuring, Marking, and in length;
Cutting Tools (31 firs clumps or loops greaterthan 1 in. in height
frnrn the surface.
(a) A standard linear measuring toot (longer than
(cl FibergIass woven and fiberglass nonwoven biax-
width of mll) dat measures the roll widths with mini-
ial fabric having any of the following defects shall not
mum accuracy of &'/s in. i s requid.
be used for laminates made to this Standard:
(b) A 3 in. f %: in. square template is required.
(1) dirt spots in ex- of % in. in diameter (din
Ic) A fine point felt tip pen md scissors are required.
spots are defined as all fo~ignmatter, din. grease spots,
etc.);
M2C-330 Laboratory Balance G'l more than 11 missing ends. either individual
picks or any combination of individual and multiple (2.
A labormory balance that measures to 0.1 g is re- 3, 4, or 5 ) ends in any consecutive 100 lineal feer;
quired. (3) fuzz clumps or Imps that prevent the proper
lay-dawn of the fabric and which C a M O t be easily re-
moved;
M2C.400 PROCEDURES AND ACCEPTANCE (41 rolls that have been contaminated by water.
LIMITS (dl Fiberglass unidi~ctionalfabric shdI be uniform
in color, texrure, and appearance. The following i m p -
M2C-410 Roll Identification and Package
Inspection
fections andlor contaminations shall k removed fmm
the fabric by making two parallel curs across rhe width
la) The fabric shdl be packaged as shipped from h e of the fabric and discarding the mctangdar sections of
manufactutrr's factory. The fabric shall not be repack- fabric containing the following defects:
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
CORROSION RESLSTANT EOUIPMENT -
ASME RTP- 1 1995 EDITION

TABLE MPC-I FABRIC REINFORCEMENT LOG SHEET


-.

Fabricator's name Fabric mamtfacturer

Address Fabric nomenclature

Fabric weight

QC file no.: - Fabric c o n d o n

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Roll Reinforcement Lot No. Packaging Width Weight Conmction Property Visual
No. Production INote(1)I Inspection Inspaction Inspection
Date [cols. 5.6. and 7 )
(if given)
BY Date By Date By Date

Comments on visual and packaging inspection (indicate which roll):

GENERAL MOTE:
TM9 form may be reproduced and used without written permission from ASME if used for purposes other than republicatian.

NOTE
(11 Lot, batch, product code. or other label identifieation.
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASUC
-
ASME RTP- 1 1B9S EDITION CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

( I ) dirt spots in. to % in. in diameter) in excess NO= Due w the mclhads of ~ k t w S n fabrics,
g there are dif-
of one per 10 l i d feet (dirt spots are defined as all fmnt ways of docribirrg widths of fabrics.
foreign matter, dirt, grease spots. etc.);
(2) missing ends in any dimtian Iess than one per
l i d foot: M2C-440 Weight per Square Yard of Fabric
(3) a m s of the fabric less than 6 in. X 6 in. where Unroll the fabric on the inspection table and lay flat.
wings are disoriented w loo* Icss thmtn 1 in. in height Pull one fill pick from tbe sample or mark a lime across
fmm tbe surface, The number of these area shall not the width of the fabric. Measure fmrn the pulled pick or
exceed two per 5 Iineal yards of fabric. If so, the roll line using a 36 in. rule meering the accuracy requie-
shaII not be used for laminates made to this Standard; ments of para. M2C-320-Pull another fill pick or mark
(4) weft mils exceeding 1 in. or Iess rhm Va in. in offthe 36 in. sample for cuniag. Cut thc 36 in. long
length; sample across the width of the fabric using scissors.
(5) bias exceeding f 10 deg. from 0 deg.1 180 deg. Measure the, width of the fabric according to para. M2C-
in a warp [machine d i t i m ) product or from 90 deg.1 430. Weigh the sample to the nearest 0.1 g. Convert
270 deg. in a weft (All dimrion) praduct. griuns to ounces by multiplying grams by 0.0352. Cal-
{e) Fiberglass unidirectional fabric mlls having any culate h e weight per square yard in ounces per square
of the foIIowing defects shall not be used for Iaminates yard using the following formula:
made to this Standard:
( I ) dirt spots in excess of % in. in diameter (dirt
spots are defined as all foreign matter, dirt. grease spots. weight. oz =r 36 in. sample weight. or
etc.); %yare yard quare yard sample width, in.
121 missing ends in any direction more than one
per lineal foot of fabric; Rolls whose weight per square yard are outside the
(3) areas of the fabric greater than 6 in. x 6 in. manufacturer's spcicication shall nor be used for lami-
where rovings are disoriented or Iooped less than I in. nates ma& to this Smdard. Enter the weight per square
in height from the surface; yard of acceptable and unacceptable mlls on the inspec-
(4) areas of the fabric where mvings are disori- tion report shown in Table M2C-1. Note the rejected
ented or looped greater than 1 in. in height from the rolls with the word "rejected" next to the weight in
surface; column 6.
(51 rolls that have k e n contnminated by water or
other substances.
M2C-450 Construction
M2C-430 Width Measure of Fabric Unroll the fabric on the inspection rablz and lay fiat.
Perform the verification of mnstrllction han area at least
With the linear measuring tool given in para. k12C- 1 yard from the beginning of the mll and one-tenth of
320, measure the width of the fabric at least 1 yard from the width from the edge of the fabric. For example, on
the beginning (leading) edge of the roll and at ~ w o ad- 60 in. material start at least 6 in. from one edge and 1
ditional positions at least 6 in. apart. Follow the man- yard from the beginning of the fabric. Using the tem-
ufacrurer's definilion for the width of the particular plate required by para. M2C-320,measure a 3 in. square
fabric (see note below). Measure to the nearest VB in. and count the number of warp strands (if applicable) to
Average the three measurements and enter the measured the nearest half strand in the secrion. Repeat this three
width of acceptable and unacceptable rolls on the in- times diagons1fy across the fabric. Add the total warp
spection form shown in Table M2C-1. Note the rejected saands counted in the three 3 in. squares and divide by
rolls wirh the word "rcjccted" next to the width in col- nine. This will give picks pet inch in the warp o f the
umn 5. Rolls with variations greater than f 5 in. for fabric- Repeat for the fill (weft) strands if applicable.
1-011 widths of 12% in. or less and f'k in. for roll widths Rolls whose picks per inch in either warp or fill are out-
greater than 12% in. shall not be used in laminates made side the manufacturer's specification shall not be used
to his Standard. for laminates made to this Standard. Enter the picks per
Record the date and name of thc person performing inch in the warp and fill of acceptable and unacceptable
the width, weight. and construction measurement in col- rolls to the neamt 0.1 picks on Table M2C-1, column
umn 8. 7.
RUNFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

ARTICLE D - FIBERGLASS MILLED M2D-400 PROCEDURES AND ACCEPTANCE


FIBERS LIMITS
M2D-100 INTRODUCTION M2D-410 Package Identification and Inspection
This Article specifies the minimum inspections and (a) The milled fiber shall be packaged as shipped
tests that am to ix perfomred on the package of fiber- fmm the manufacturer's factory.The milled 6 h r shall
glass milled fiber that are to bt used to fabricate equip- not be repackaged in the disttibution of the material after
ment to this Standard. the manufactu~rhas shipped the milled fiber. Verify
that the milled fiber as identified by he manufacturer
has the =me nomendatu~as the milled fiber r e q u i d
M2D-200 ACCEPTANCE INSPECTIONS by Appendix M-1 and examine each package of rniIled
fiber for damage that renders it unusable. Indicate ac-
{a) Acceptance inspections shall include inspection
ceptable milled fibers by recording date and namc of the
of the milled fiber for proper packaging and identifica-
person performing the examination on Table M2D-1.
tion, and visual inspection for contaminarion. Accept-
column 4.
ancc requirements and limits are defined in paras. M2D-
(bl For packaged milled fiber that is found to be ac-
410 through M2D420(a).
ceptable for further inspection, enter the reinforcemenr
a) The form shown in Table M2D-1 of this Article. production date and lot number for each package of
or a similar form that contains the pmvisions lo record
milled fiben used on Table M2D-I, columns 2 and 3.
the results of these required inspections, shall be used
by the Fabricator and shall be retained in the inspeaion
records. A separate form shall be used for each milled M2D420 Visual Inspection of Milled Fiber
fiber manufacturer, milled fiber nomenclature, and
{a) As milled fiber is used, it shall be visually in-
milled fiber length. spected for contamination by the Fabricator. Record the
date and the inspector's name on Table M2D-1. column
5.
M2D-300 EQUIPMENT REQUIRED
Packages having contapination of the milled fi-
An inspection table and adequate overhead lighting ber evident in the form of water, oil, g m e , ox clump-
that are suitable for the inspection of the milIed fiber we ing together shall be rejected. -

required. The equipment used must not inrroduce con- (c) Record the results of tht visual inspection of each
tamination to the milled fiber during inspection. package of milled fiber on rhe inspection report.
REINFORCED THERMOSET PeASTlC
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

TABLE M2D-1 MILLED FIBER REINFORCEMENT LOG SHEET

Fabricator's name Fiber manufacturer

Address Fiber nomenclature

Fiber length

QC file no.:

1 2 3 4 5
Package Reinforcement Lot No. Packaging Visual
No. Production INote (111 lnspecdon Inspection
Date
(if given) By Date By Date

Comments on visual and packaging inspection (indicate which package):

GENERAL NOTE:
This form may be reprduced and used without written permission fmm ASMf if used for purposes other than republication.

NOTE:
(1) LOT, batch, ~ r o d u ccode,
t or other label identifieation.
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASf lC
CORROSION RESISTANT E[1UIPMENT

MANDATORY APPENDIX M-3


MATRIX MATERIALS RECEIVfNG PROCEDURES

M3-100 INTRODUCTION { I ) They shall be checked ta assurr they are the


products ordered.
Appendix M-3 with Articles A (Visual Inspection Re- 121 They shall haw proper labeling for the speci-
quirements). B (Specific Graviry),C (Viscosity, Gard- fied product, including the manufacturer's pradua name
ner-Holdt Methd), D (Viscosity, BmMieId Method), and identifying number.
and E (Room Temperature Gel Time) specifies the min- (3) A sample shall be of normal color and clarity
imum requiremenls for the inspecrions and rests that are for the specific resin, free from solid or gelled panicles
to be performed by rbe Fabricator personnel or an in- and dirt as dttcrrnined by visual examination.
dependent resting laboratory on resins and curing agents (4) They shall be within the manufacnrrer's spec-
(curing agents include accelerators, promoters, and per- ification Iimits for specific gravity, viscosity, and m m
oxides as required for specific rains systems). These temperature gel rime as determined by the test melhods
inspections are to be performed on one mndorn sample of Articles B through E.
from each lot or batch of material received fmm a sup- (5) Results of visual examinations and specific tests
plier. If any containers or packages are damaged. then shall be recorded on the Resin Log Sheet, Table M3F-1.
the contents of each damaged container shall be in- (b) Curing agents, before use, shall comply with the
spected. The requirements of this Appendix are to be
following.
accomplished prior to acceptance of resins and curing ( I ) They shall be checked to assure they are the
agents for fabrication of equipment to this Standard.
products o r d e ~ d .
These requirements shall help assure rhat the resins and (2) They shall have proper hbel for the specified
curing agents arc c o m t l y identified; meet the manu-
product, including rhe manufacturer's product name and
facturer's specification;and are suitable for proper fab-
identifying number.
icaiion. curing practice, and design requirements of
(3) They shall have no layering or separation into
equipment fabricated to this Standard.
two or more phases.
CAUTION: byering or separarion presents porcnrial b t d : conwct
M3-200 SAFETY qphur immedia~elyat cmergtnq telrphorpe numbea shown on the
Curing Agea b g Shcct for instnrFlions if layering is obsenred.
See Mated Safety Data Sheets for materials to k
(4) I n the case of liquids, they shall be free of sed-
used.
iment or suspended solids.
(5) They shall have proper curing activity as de-
fined by the Fabricator's process andlor manufacrurer's
ARTICLE A - VISUAL INSPECTION spacification. as determined by the mrn tempamre gel
REQUIREMENTS time test (stc Article El.
M3A-100 INTRODUCTION 161 Results of visual examination and gel time rest-
ing shall Ix recorded on the Curing Agents Log S h e .
This Anicle specifies the steps that shall be followed Table M3F-2.
when inspecting resins and curing agents that are to be
used to fabricate vessels to this Standard.

M3A-300 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA


M3A-200 REQUIREMENTS
Materials failing visual inspection criteria or failing
la) Resins, before use. shall comply
- - with the follow- to meet the manufactureis specificaiions in any pm-
ing. scribed test s M not be used unless:
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
ASME ATPI -1 995 EDITION CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

(a} in codtation with the manufacturer's QC con- M3B-600 REPORT


tact (shown on log sheet), comctive sampling proce-
Record specific graviry on the Resin Log Sheet, TabIe
dures are undemken which result in the material passing
visual examination; and
M3F-1.
fi) test result differences are shown. by retest, to be
caused by p r d u d differences in tesring mther than
by differences in quality of materials. ARTICLE C - VISCOSITY, GARDNER-
HOLDT METHOD

This Article specifies the p~ferredprocedure for de-


ARTfCLE B - SPECIFIC GRAVITY termining the viscosity of nonthixompic resins. The
Gardner-Holdt methd is based on the rate a "bubble "
M3B- 100 1NTRODUCTlON rises throughout the liquid resin under controlled con-
This Article specifiesthe procedure that shall be used dirions. The method determines viscosity in bubble sec-
to determine the spific gravity. This is accompIished onds. Above 2.65 bubble seconds, the readings are
by weighing a standard volume of liquid at a specific appmximately equal ro stokes. This method is not suir-
temperature and converting this weight to specific ,wv- able for thixotmpic resins; the Brookfield rnerhod de-
ity. fined in Article D shall be used for thixotropic resins.
Two variations of the method are the Comparison
Method and rhe Timing Method.
(a) The Comparison Method is required for kint-
matic viscosities below 6 stokes. The rare of bubble rise
is compared with rate of rise in Gardner-Holdt nurner-
The following apparatus i s required: ical standard tubes.
(a) laboratory balance (0,l g sensitivity);
Ib) The Timing Method is suitable for kinematic vis-
@I weight per gallon cup (water capacity 83.3 ml) cosities of 6 stokes and above and interchangeable with
wirh lid (Gardner catalog No. CG 9652 or equivalent); the Comparison Method in this viscosity m g e .
{c) thermometer IASTM No. 17C).

MJC-200 APPARATUS

M3B-300 PROCEDURE (a) Constant temperature bath, 25°C f0.1"C, with


water as the bath medium. The bath shall be equipped
la) Precondition the resin sample and weight per gal- with ASTM No. 23C thermometer for monitoring bath
lon cup for 20 min ai 25°C f0.1"C. Insen thc cup and temperature.
the =sin sample s e p t e I y in a large beaker. P k in a (b) Viscosity tubes, having clear glass and flat boi-
25'C w a r bath. toms. 10.65 m m +0.025 mrn inside diameter, and 114
(b) T m weigh the empty cup and lid to f 0.1 g. mrn f 1 mrn outside length. Plainly legible lines are to
{c) Fill the cup to the brim with bubble-free resin. bc located as follows:
[dl Place the cover on the cup and farce it down to (1) 27 m m f 0.5 mm from the ourside bortom of
sear fully. the tube;
(el 'Nipthe cup clean on the outside. (2) 100 mm f0.5 m m f o m the outside bottom of
tfl Weigh the fiI1ed cup to f 0.1 g. the tube;
(3) 108 m m f0.5 m m from the outside bottom of
the tube.
M3B-400 CALCULATIONS The distance between lines (I) and (2) above shall be
73 mm f0.5 rnrn.
weight of full cup, g - tare weight. g (c) Gsrdner-Holdt references standards, consisting of
weight. Iblgal =
10 a series of standard viscosity rubes filled with transpar-
ent liquids having predetermined kinematic viscosities
weight, Iblgal in ranges of 0.10 stokes to 1000 stokes and bubble sec-
specific gravity =
8.33 onds as shown in Table M3C-1.
REINFORCED THERMOSn PLASTIC
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUTPMEMT
+

TABLE M3C-1 RECOMMENDED NUMERICAL STANDARDS FOR COMPARATOR VISCOSITY


TUBES
Bubbir
Secclndr Gardner-Holdt Gardner-Holdt
[Note (111 Tube Number Stokes Letter Tube Numb~r Stokes Letter
- 0.10' 10 --
- 0.13 - 13 --

- - A3
0.16 - 16 --

- 0.20 - 20 --
0.75 -- 0.22 - - A2
- 0.25 - 25 --

0.81 -- 0.34 -- 0.32-L A1 32 -- 32 -


- - z2
0.40 - 40- 40-
0.90 -- 0.50 --
- 0.50 -- A 50 -- 50 --
- 0-6s -
0.63'- B 03 -- =-- 24
1-00
- 0.80 - 80 -- 80 -
-
loo --
0.92
1.15--

1.30-- 1.15-
- 1.m-- D loo -- 25

- 1.26-- E 125 -- 125 -


f -55-- 1.45-
- 1.60-
-F
-G
180 -- 160-
- 26

1.85,- 1.80-
- 2-00 H 200 -- 2w-
2.20- - 215 -
-I
2.65- - 2-65
- 2.50 -- J 250 - 250-
[Note (211 -K
[Note {2))
-L
3.201- 3.20 -- 3.20 - -- MN 320 -- 320 -
4.00- - 4.00 - 4.00 -- P-0
400-- 400-
- 27
-0
-R
5.00- - 5.00-- 6.00 -S 500 -- 500 -
-T
-- 830 -
-a
8.30- - 6.30- - A30 --
-u 830
8.00-- 8.00-- 8.00
-V 800 -- 800
-- 29
10.0 -- 10.0 -- 10.0 - 1WO-- loo*--
210

GENERAL NOTE:
Table is arranged to show relationship between stokes, bubble seconds. and Gardner-Holdt letten. Stokes are shown in logarith-
mic progression.
NOTES:
( 1I The bubbIe time, in sewnds, of the numerical tubes under 4 see we8 determined by a technique employing a movie camera.
(21 Above 2.65 see. the bubble seconds as meawred by the kinematic method are approximately equivalent for most products.
Below 2.65 sec, this relationship does not hold.
RBNMRCEO THERMOSET PLASTIC
CORROSION RESISTAMT EQUIPMWJT

NOTE:The serits of skdards is s p e d in Iogarithmicdly even in- @red for the bubble to risc in seconds. The t& must
cRmenrr of h u t 26%. log 1.260 - 0.1000.The -merits are bt in the exact vedcal position. S m the timing device
marktd numeridly as shown ia Tabk MX-1.Since above 2.65 he
valrw are qpmximaIcly aqual to sldru. results will be r e p m i in when the tup of the bubble becomes tangtat lo tht 27
stok for mosr mins. mm line mi the tube. Stop the timing &vice when IIR
top of the bubble kames tangent with the 1MI mm line.
(dl Timing device in the form of a timing clock cal-
ibrated in units of 0-1 sec. This gives a 73 mm timed bubble tmvd.
(el Inverting rack, capable of inverting three or more Id) Bubble s e ~ ~ ~ t d equivalem
s to kinematic \Pis-
viscosity tubes 180 deg. to within 1 deg. of venical po- mity in stoktg.
sition while rack and tubes are imm& in the constant
temperature bath.
0 Viscosity tube corks, No. 2 short. M3C-000 CALCULATIONS
Convut bematic viscosity in stokes to viscosity in
M3C-300 PREPARATION OF SAMPLES cendpoise as follows:

All samples aFe transferred ro a viscosity rube to ap- poise


proximately !eve1 with the top of the 108 mm Iine. Im- noka =
spccifw gravity
mediately transfer the tube to the 25'C water bath wirh
cork Ioosely inserted and hoId at this temperature for 10 cemipoisc = stokes x specific p i t y x 100
rnin.

M3C-400 PROCEDURE BY THE M3C-700 REPORT


COMPARISON METHOD Record viscosity in antiwise on the Resin Lag Sheet,
(a) Immediately following the 10 min hold time, level Table M3F- 1.
off the material so that the bottom of the meniscus is
level with the 100 mrn line. Insert the cork so that the
bonom of h e cork is level with the 108 mm line. This
will assure a bubble of suitable and uniform size. ARTICLE D - VISCOSITY, BROOKFIELD
Ibl Insen the rube in the rack with the proper stan- METHOD
dard rubes and immerse with the cork down in the 25°C
constant temperature bath. Allow the rube to stand in M3D-100 INTRODUCTION
the barh a minimum of 20 rnin before reading the vis- The Brookfield method determines the viscosity nnd
cosity (see (c) below]. thixotmpic index of a resin using a Brookfield viscom-
{c) T o mad the viscosity. invert the rack and compare eter. It is applicable for both thixotropic md nonthixo-
the rate of bubble rise of the sample bubble to those of tropic resins. However, because cIose control of resin
the standards. The tubes must remain in the exact ver- temperature and careful maintenance of the Brookfield
ticaI position. viscometer are required lo obrain accurate viscosity val-
(dl The tube number is equivalent to the kinematic ues, h e Gardrier-Holdt method defined in Article C is
viscosity in stokes. preferred for nonthixompic resins.

M3C-600 PROCEDURE BY THE TIME M3D-200 APPARATUS


METHOD (Greater Than 6 Stokes)
The following apparatus is required:
(a) Adjust the size of the bubble as in para. M3C- (a) Brooldield viscomewr model LVF (calibmted via
400(a). manufacrurrr's directions)
0 Insert the t u b in the nck with rhe cork down and (b] 250 mI poiypropylem beakers
immerse in the 25'C constant temperature barh. Allow (c) constant temperature water bath at 25°C 20.1 ' C
the tube to stand in the bath a minimum of 20 min before Id} thermometer (ASTM No. I7C)
reading the viscosity. le) stainless steel spatula
(c) lnven the tube quickly nnd determine the time re- @ timer. reading in 0.1 min
REINFORCED THERMOSFf PLASTlC
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT ASME RTP-I -1995 EDITION

M3D-300 PROCEDURE FOR TEMPERATURE BmokfieId ronstant for the particular spindle number and
ADJUSTMENT rpm used to obtain the d u e .
@) Jfthe two m l t s for a pmicular spindle and speed
(a) Fill M e r with material to k tested.
do not agree wiihin f 50 centipoise, ~epeatthe test.
(b) Immcrse covered beaker in agitated 25°C water (c) Determine thixouopic index as viscosity at 6 rpm
bath and allow to come ro temperature, 2S°C f0.1 "C. divided by viwarily at rpm.
The temperature adjustment may be hastened by spatuIa
agitation of thc sample (avoid air entrapment).
Ic) Check temperature using Saybolt thermometer.
M3D-700 REPORT
Report the fo1lowing on the Resin Log Sheet, Table
M3F-1.
M3D-400 PROCEDURE FOR THIXOTROPIC (a) Brookfield viscometer spindle and speed;
RESINS (b) viscosity in centipoise a[ 2S°C average d two
(a) Agitate the resin with a spatula for 1 rnin at a a t e trials at both Vrnand 60 Vrn-
of 120 rpm withour entrapment of air, replace cover on
beaker, allow to stand ior 5 rnin +0.1 min.
Ib) LRvel Bmkiield viscometer. attach spindIe and
guard as designated by resin manufacwrer. ARTICLE E - ROOM TEMPERATURE GEL
1c) Remove beaker from bath, place open beaker in TIME
position under Brookfield vixom&er, center and im-
merse spindIe to middle of the notch- M3E-100 INTRODUCTION
{d} Set s p d to 6 rpm, aart Bmkfield viscomeier This Anicle specifies h e pmedure that shall be used
and timer. After 1 min, increw s ~ to 60 d rPm. At 2 to determine the mom temperature (25'C) gel time of
min on timer, stop viscorneier and read. Reduce speed resins that have been property mixed with correctly pro-
to 6 rpm and take final readins 1 min after restafling. portioned amounts of accelerator, promoter. and per-
Record the 60 rpm and 6 rpm values. oxide curing agents.
(e) Repeat steps (a) through (d) a h v e for second
reading at each spindle speed.

M3E-200 APPARATUS
The following appamus is required:
M3D-500 PROCEDURE FOR (a) constant temperature water bath at 25°C *O. 1"C
NONTHIXQTROPlC RESINS (5) popoIypropylene graduated beaker. 250 ml
(c) stainless sieel spatulas
(a) Level Brookfield viscometer, attach spindle and
Id) Wratory timer. calibmed in units of 0.1 rnin
guard as designat4 by resin manufacturer.
Ie) laboratory balance (0.I g sensitivity)
(6) Remove beaker from bnth, place open bealccr in
@ graduated syringes, delivery 0.1 d to 3.0 ml
position under Brookfield viscometer, center and im-
f0.01 rnl
merse spindle to middle of the notch. (g) rhemwmeter (ASTM No. 17C)
kc) Run viscosity at 642 rpm for 1 min with a spindle
chosen so that the Bmokfield pointer falls approximately
in h e mid-nnge of the recording dial. Alternatively,
run at rpm and spindle recommended by resin rnanufac- M3E-300 PROCEDURE
tuer. Rceord the value. (a) Place I00 g of resin to be tested into a clean 250
{dl Repeat steps (a) and (b) above for second result. rnl polypropylene beaker. Place charged kaker in the
constant temperatuE bath previously set at 25°C
HI. 1 "C for a minimum of 20 min until the resin in the
beaker is stabilized throughout at 25 "C f0.5 "C.
M3D-600 CALCULATIONS
(b) Add controlled promoters and/or accelcratos in-
(a) Determine viscosiry by multiplying the values dividually, stirring with the metal spatula between each
obtained in paras. M3D-400 and M3D-500 with the addition until they are thoroughly dispersed (1 rnin for
REINFORCED THERMOSET msnc
CORROSION RESISTANT E W IPM€MT

each addition). The quantities and p ~ c i s i o nofamounts ance and use of any of the common additives in the
m to be as specified by the resin supplier. =in.

NOTE IIis rerommmdtd that w d t n tongue m bt Ilsed.


s h c e Ihe). will a b r b curing mmpmnts and may also b h u&-
s i d l e con-mts into the rcsin solution. M3G-200 DEFlNlTlON AND LIMITS
M3G-210 Thixotmpic Agents
(c) After addition of the promoters and accelerators.
dtow the resin to rest in the
control temperature bath, Thixotropic agents are flame-processed silicon diox-
When enough of the entrapped air h r n stirring has left ides which are used to adjust the resin flow character-
the sample LO allow visual e x h a t i o n , check ~e sam- istics. The laminating min shall conrain not more than
ple fbr good dispersion, particularly of cobalt additives. 1.5 p m per I00 pam resin by weight.
Any signs of striations or strings of the cobalt wit1 re-

cataIyst and mix vigorously with a clean m e t i spatula Flame retardant synergists are antimony oxides which
for 1 min. Start the timer simultaneously with the stan are added to halogenated resins 10 enhance their mea-
of mixing. sured flame retardant characteristics when measured per
ASTM E 84. The lamhating resin shaH not contain more
WARNING: Pemxides will matt violently if placed in dim1 conract than 5 parts antimony oxide per 100 parts w i n by
with metallic promoters w q a n i c accclem;ors E x ~ m cam must
h d e n to avoid his. Refer c a ~ h l l yto peroxide manufacturer's in- weight. When pre-dispsed concentmtes are used, the
nntcriom and Appcndix NX1-3 ror safe h i d i n g of these merials. laminating resin shall contain not more &an 5 ac-
tive antimony oxide by weight. No more than I0 parts
(4 Return the polypropylene beaker with the remain- of rht pre-dispersed concentrate per 100 parts resin by
ing resin to the constant temperature bath. Periodically weight is permissible.
probe the re& solution with the spatula until such time
that the resin rums veiy thick and will "map" or break
evenly when the probe is lifted from the resin. When M3G-230 Ultraviolet Light Absorbers
h e snap occurs, stop the timer and record the time lapse Ultravioler light absorbers a~ organic compounds
as "gel time." which by converting photochemical encrgy to thermal
energy effectively srabilire resin binders against the de-
teriorating effects of ultraviolet Ught. Only the outer sur-
M3E-400 REPORT face resin-rich layer may contain the ultraviolet light
absorber.
Record the room tempemre (25'C) gel time on the
Resin Log Sheet, Table M3F- 1.
M3G-240 Pigments
Pigments are compounds which provide coloration
ARTICLE F - RESIN AND CURING andlor opacity. Only the outer surface resin-rich layer
AGENTS LOG SHEETS may contain pigment.

See Tables M3F1 and M3F-2for the Resin and Cur-


ing Agents Log Sheets.
M3G-300 ACCEPTANCE INSPECTION
(a) The package for each of the common additives
shall be inspected at the time of delivery. Accepmce
ARTICLE G - COMMON ADDITIVES requirements are defined in para. M3G-400.
M3G-100 INTRODUCTION
Ib) The form shown in Table M3G-I. or a similar
form that contains the provisions to record the results of
This Article specifies the minimum inspections by the these ~ q u i r e dinspections, shall be used by the Fabri-
Fabricator that must be p e r f o d prior to !he accept- cator and shall be retained in the inspection records,
RElNFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT ASME RTP-I -1995 EDITION

TABLE M3F-I. RESIN LOG SHEET


Manufacturer QC contact
Address
Spindk no. Telephone no.
Emergancy telephone no.

VlscosIty Q 25-C
Get Time Specific
Icp)
@ 2S°C Gravity Visual
Date Lat No. (Minutes, @ 60 rpm @ 6 rpm @ 25OC Examination

-------

Manufacturer's Specification:

GENERAL NOTE:
This form may be reproduced and used without written permission from ASME if wed for purposes other than republication.
TABLE M3F-2 CURING AGENTS LOG SHEW

Manufacturer QC contact
Curing agent Address
Standard resin Telephone no.
Emergency telephone no.

Oate Lot NO. Gel Time @ 25*C (Minutes) Visual Examination

GENERAL NOTE:
This form may be reproduced and used without written permission from ASME ifused for purposes other than republication.
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMEW ASME RTP-1- 1995 EDITION

M3G-400 ACCEPTANCE CRlTERlA M3G-500 INSPECTION IN USE


la) The primary package shall be clearly labetad by (a) At the time of use, additives shall be visually in-
the additive manufacturer to identify the contained prod- spected for contamination. Solid contaminants may be
uct by manufacturer, name, and lot number. removed and discarded. Any ponion of a product which
The primary container shall be fw from damage has been agglomerated by exposure to a liquid contam-
(breakage, tear, or puncture). Them shall be no visible inant must be mmoved and discarded before the remain-
sign that any part of the primary container wall has at der can k added to a resin.
any time been saturated with a liquid such as water. IbJ When contamination is found. the Fabricatormust
(bl For additives found to be acceptable, the Fabri- enter the date. describe the condition. and initial the en-
cator must list the manufacturer's name, product name, try on the original Common Additives Log Sheet {see
product lot number. and purpose of additive on the in- Table M3G- 1 ) .
spection form. In the space next to "As Received." the
inspector will sign his nnme and record the date.
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTtC
ASME RTP-1-1995 EDITION CORROSION RESISTAMT EQUIPMENT

TABLE M3G-1 COMMON ADDlTlVES LOG SHEET

Raw Materials Inspeedoon Insrntot Date


Manufacturer As Received
in Use Quality Probtams
Product Name

Lot Number

Additive Purpose

Manufacrurer As Received 1
In U s e Oirality RobIems
Product Name

Lor Number

Additive Purpose

Manufacturer As Received I
In U s e Quality Problems
Product Name

Lot Number

Additive Purpose

Manufscturer As Received 1
In Use Quality Problems
Product Name

tot Number

Additive Purpose

GENERAL NOTE:
This form may be reproduced and used without written permission from ASME if used for purposes orher than repubIica~ion.
RUNFORCED MERMOSm PLASnC
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

APPENDIX M 4

rnESIGNATED

AS APPENDIX W - 1 3
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

MANDATORY APPENDlX M-4


STRESS ANALYSIS METHODS

ARTICLE A - ANALYSIS OF Fl,(fi) = (cosh f i sin Bx


CYLINDRICAL SHELLS
- sinh @xcos Bx)12
M4A-100 SIGN CONVENT1ON AND
NOMENCLATURE
F12(B.r)= sinh P.r sin f i
The symbols and sign convenlion adopted in this Ar-
ticle for the anaIysis of cylindrical shells are defined as
follows: (21) FIJ(B.r)= ( C O S ~fix sin fi
1 2- IF'). lb-in.
D = ~ t ~ 1 (1 + sinh /Icos
T 13412
E = modulus of elasticity, psi
L = ten& of cylinder, in.: subscript to
denote evaluation of a quantity at (22)
end of cylinder removed from ref-
erence md (23)
M = bngitudinal bending moment per
unit length of circumference, in. -
Iblin. (24)
f i ( f i ) = e-a (COS f i -- sin Bx)
o = subscript to denote evaluation of a
quantity at reference cnd of cylin- (25) f3I&x) = e-& (cos + sin PII]
der, r = 0
p = internal pressure. psi
Q = radial shearing forces per unit (26) h(&)= C-& sin Bx
length of circumference, Iblin.
R = inside radius, in. (27) 31, = BlllflL)
S = stress intensity. psi
r = thickness of cylinder, in. = (sinh 2j3L - sin 2flL)
M? = radial displacement of cylinder
wall, in. /2(sinh2 BL - sid DL)
x = axial distance measured from the
rrferencc end of cylinder. in.

B = rotation of cylinder wall, rad

rp = Poisson's ratio
cf = langential (circumferential) stress (29) BE = B={BL)
component, psi
q = longirudinal (meridional) stress = (sinh 28L + sin 20L)
component. psi
ur = radial stress component, psi /{sinh2 OL - sin2 BL)
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
ASME RTP-1- 1995 EDmON CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT --:
I
130) GI, = GI~(BL)

= - (cosh flL sin @L


- sinh flL cos BL)
/(sinh2 BL - sin2 BL)

GI, = Gl,(@L)

= - 2 sinh BL sin BL
t(sinh2jYL - sin'BL)

= - 2 (cosh BL sin BL x=x X * X x=L

+ sinh BL cw BL) FIG. M4A-1

The sign convention arbiuarily chosen for the analy- M4A-220 Stress Intensities -,.
sis of cylindrical shells in this Anicle is as indicated in fa) The general primary membrane stress intensity
FIE.M4A-1. Positive directions assumed for pertinent developed acmss the thickness of a cylindrical shell due
qwntilies are indicated.
to internal pressure is given by the formula:

M4A-200 PRINCIPAL STRESSES AND


STRESS INTENSITIES DUE T0
INTERNAL PRESSURE
M4A-300 BENDING ANALYSIS FOR
The formulas for principal stresses and stress inten- UNl FORMLY DISTRIBUTED EDGE
sities presented in this paragraph include the loading ef- LOADS
fects of internal pmssure only and exclude the effectsof
a11 structural discontinuities. The formulas in this paragraph describe the behavior
of a cylindrical shell when subjected to the action of
bending moments M, in.-lblin. of circumference. and
radial shearing foxes Q, Iblin. of circumference. uni-
M4A-210 Principal Stresses formly distributed at the edges and acting at the mean
The principal strcsses developed at any p i n t in the radius of the shell. The khavior of the shell due to all
waIl of a cylindrical shell due to internal pressm are other loadings must be evaluated independently and
given by the formulas: combined by superposition.

M4A-310 Displacements, Bending Moments.


and Shearing Forces in f erms of
Condhlons at Reference Edge, x = 0
A
la) The radial displacement w(x), the angular dis- -,- .I
placement or rotation B(.r). the bending moments Aft-r),
and the radial shearing forces Q(x)at any axid location
RHNFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
CORROSION REaSTANT EQUIPMENT ASME RTP-1-1995 EDITION

of the cylinder are given by the following equations in Q ( x ~ 2 f l '=


~ 1QJ2/3'~)ft(&)
terms of rv,, B,, Mopand Q,:
-;z(M~zB~W~B~)

M4A-320 Edge Displacementsand Rotations In


Terms of Edge Loads
{a) The radial displacements w, and VI , and rotations
8, and -8, developed at the edges of a cylindrical shell
sustaining the action of edge loads Q,, M,,QL, and ML
arc given by the following formulas:

Ibl In the case of cylinders of sufficient length, the


equations in (a) above reduce to those given below-
These equations may be used for cylinders characterized @J The influence functions, B's and G's, appearing
by lengths not less than 318. The combined effects of in the formu1as, (a) above, rapidly approach limiting
Ioadings at the two edges may be evaluated by applying values as rhe length L of the cylinder increases. The
the equations to the loadings at each edge. separately, limiting vaiues are:
and superposing h e results.

(1) Thus for cylindrical shells of sufficient length.


the loading conditions prescribed ar one edge do not in-
fluence the displaccrnents at the aher edge.
@) In the case of cylindrical sheIIs characterized
by Iengths not less than 3/19, the influence functions, B's
dG's. a E sufficiently close to the limiting valuts that
the Smiting valuts may lx used in the formulas, (a)
(3) above, without significant e m .
ASME RTP-I -1 995 EDITION

(c) In the case of sufiiently short cylinders, the in- ARTICLE B - ANALYSIS OF SPHERICAL
fluence functions, B's and G's, appearing in the for- SHELLS
mulas, la) b v e , are, to a first approximation, given by
the followiug expressions: M48-100 SCOPE
(4In this Article, fomnlas are given for stresses md
deformations in spherical shells subjected to i n r d or
e x m l pressure.
0 Formulas are also given for bending malysis of
pmial spherical shells under the action of uniformly dis-
tributed edge forces and rnommts.

M48-200 NOMENCLATURE AND SIGN


CONVENTION
The symbols and sign anvention adapted in tbis Ar-
ticle a ~ defined
e a s follows:
(1) p = uniform pressure. internal or ex-
ternal, psi
(2) A3 = rneridional bending moment per
Introducing these expressions for the influence func-
unit Iength of circumference, in.-
tions, B's and G's, into the formulas, (a) above, yields
Iblin.
exp~ssionsidentical: to those obtaincd by thc applica-
H = force per unit length of circumfer-
tion of ring theory. Accordingly, the resultant exprts-
ence, perpendicular to centerline
sions are subject to all of the lintitations inherent in the
of sphere, Ib/in.
ring theory, including the limitations due to the assump-
tion that the entire cross-sectional area of the ring, t x
N = membrane force, lb/in.
L, rotates about its centroid without distortion. Nevcr- Q = radial shearing force per unit of
circumference, I b/in.
theless, in the analysis of very short cylindrical shells
S = stress intensity. psi
chancterized by lengths nor greater than 0.543, the
expressions may be used without intmducing significant R = inside radius. in.
error. r = thickness of spherical shell, in.
E = modulus of elasticity, psi
= Poisson's mtio
D = flexural rigidity, in--lb
M4A-330 Principal Stresses Due to Bending
= ~1~/12-
( 1 r2)
Tk principal stresses developed at the sudaces of a
cylindrical shell at any axial location .r due to unifomly (I2) 0 = [3(1 - v ' ) / ~ ~*]'",
r llin.
distributed edge loads (see Fig. M4A-1) are given by # = meridional angle measured from
(13)
the formulas: centedine of sphere, rad
114) = meridional angle of refcrencc edge
where loading is applied, rad
bL = meridional angL of second edge.
rad
cr = meridionat angle measured from
the refemnce edge, rad
x = length of arc for angle a, mea-
sured from reference edge of htm-
isphere
= Ra,in.

In these formulas where terms are preceded by a double (''I X = BR


sign f ,the upper sign refers to the inside surface of the < 19) w = radial displacement of midsurface,
cylinder and the lower sign refers to the outside surface. in.
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTK
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMEMT ASME RTP-1-1995 EDITION

Spherical segment. for values of do:

(32) F(at a) = &in (+A sin - a)

+6
+@t/
- (b)
(33)
(3)
(35)
yo = tan-' (- k,), rad
or = radial stress component. psi
at = tangential (cirrum ferential) stress
component, psi
Hemisphere for o, = ri2. tad
+------------- ------- (36) at = longitudinal (rneridional) stress
e component. psi
I
The sign convention i s listedbelow and shown in Fig.
M4B- 1 by the positive directions of the pertinent quan-
tities.
( p ) pressure, positive radially outward
(61 lateral displacement, perpendicular
to % of sphere, positive outward
(8) mation, posi~ve when accom-
panied by an increase in the radius
+@ CI or curvature, as caused by a posi-
Frustum. for values of 4 - q:
09 tive moment
0, 11 -A
X
1 r, tad, and - OL1 3 =/A. rad M ) , ( M moment, positive when causing
tension on the inside surface
FIG. M4B-1 H H ) force perpendicular to ,positive
outward
N N membrane force, positive when
causing tension
8 lateral displacement of rnidsur-
=
face, perpendicularto centerline of
spherical shell, in.
M4B-300 PRIMClPAL STRESSES AND
0 = rotation of midsurface, rad STRESS INTENSITIES RESULTING
o = subscript to denote a quantity at FROM INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL
~eferenceedge of sphere PRESSURE
C = subscript to denote meridional di- I n this pmgraph formulas are given for principal
rection stresses and stress intensities resulting from uniformly
t = as a subscript. used to denote cir- distributed internal or cxtemd pmsure in complete or
cumferential direction partial sphtrirical shells. The effects of discontinuities in
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
ASME RTP-1-1995 EDITION CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

aeomtrv and loading are not included and should be NOTE: 'fbt fwmulas in paras. WE-339 and h14B-340 may bt wed
&IIJ&& independen&. The smsses resulting all ifthe applisd e*kl p m e is less lhan ~ hctritid p w r e
wbiFh would EBUX iwabiliv of &t spherical h
11.Tht value of &e
effects must be combined by superpsition. c r i r i d -re must k e\;rlua~edin accordance with rbt ~ t -~ v e n

M4B-310 Principal Stresses R~sultIngFrom


Internal Pressure
The principal stresses at any point in the of a M4B-400 BENDING ANALYSIS FOR
spherical shell are given by the following formulas: UNtFORMLY DISTRIBUTED EDGE
LOADS
(a)The fonnulas in this paragraph describe the be-
(1)
havior of @a1 spherical shells of Ihc types shown in
Fig. M4B- 1, when subjected to the action of meridional
(2) bending moment Mo (in.-lblin. of circumference) and
fmes H, (in.-lbh. of circumference), uniformly dii-
tributed at the reference edge and acting at h e mean
a, = or = 0 (3) radius of the shell. The effects of all other loading must
bt evaluated independently and combined by superpo-
sition.
M4B-320 Stress Intensities Resulting From The fomulas listed in lhipamgraph become less
Internal Pressure accumtc and should be used w i h caution when Rlt is
The average primary srressintensiry in a spheri- less rhan 10 andlor the opening angle limitations shown
cd she11 resulting from i n m d pressure is given by the in Fig. M4B- I are exceeded.
formula:

M4B-410 Displacement, Rotation, Moment,


and Membrane F o ~ ine Terms of
Loading Condltlons at Reference
Edge
M4B-330 Principal Stresses Resulting from
External Pressure The displacement 6. the rotation 0 , the bending mo-
ments M1, dbf,,. and the membrane forces N,. 4 at any
Thc principal stresses at any point in the ibral! of a location of sphere are given in terms of the edge loads
spherical shell resulting from external pressure are given Meand H, by the follo\r.ing fomulas:
by [he following formulas:
F(ar a ) e T h [cos (ha) - KZ sin (ha)] 1
+ Ho[$ sin diL.

x [ e ~ (ha
a + T,,) - fi sin Or. + y,,)lj
M4B-340 Stress Intensities Resulting From
External Pressure
The avenge primary stress intensity in a spherical
4~~
Imb C<ar a)e-'" ms ( Ad
#=M,-
I
shell resulting from external pressure is given by the
formula:
[it
+ H, -A, sin +o CCai a )e-"

x cos (Xu + 7J
1
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT ASME RTP-1-1995 EDITION

K , (14
C(at U ) ~ - ~ [ cos + sin (htu)]
1
+ K[&
A. sin +o qat ale+ @I h the case where the sheH under consideration is
a full hemisphere, the formulas given in (1) and (2)
above reduce to those given below:

R
A, sin & C(ar a)c -"

x [B[cr)cos (k+ rd + 2r' sin ( ~ r +


* y
1
~ l (41 M4B-430 Principal Stresses In Spherical Shells
Resulting From Edge Loads

The principal stresses at the inside and outside sur-


N,= - M
2h
~ cta~ - ~( h l rm (h- P )
[ m ~~ e sin
1 faces of a spherical shell at any location, resulting from
edge loads Meand H,, a= given by the following for-
mulas:
- H. I:,
-A, cot (9,- u) sin @*C(at ~ ) e - ~

In these formulas where term are preceded by a dm-


.
I;
+ H, - A, C(at ale-"
sin 6,,
ble sign f & upper sign rtfers to the inside surface
of the shell and the lower sign refers to the outside sur-
face.

M4B-500 ALTERNATE BENDING ANALYSIS


M4B-420 Displacement and Rotation of OF A HEMISPHERICAL SHELL
Reference Edge in Terms of Loading SUBJECTED T O UNIFORMLY
Conditions at Reference Edge DISTRIBUTED EDGE LOADS

(a) At the reference edge u = 0, and 9 = Q,. The If a less exacting but more expedient analysis of
fornutas for the displacement and rotation (para. M4B- hemispherical shells is required, formulas derived for
410) simplify to those given below: cylindrical shtlIs may be used in a modified form. The
formulas listed in this paragraph describe the behavior
of a hemispherical shell as approximated by a cylindri-
2 h' sin 9, cal shell of the same radius and thickness when sub-
60 = M. Erk, jected to the action of uniformly distributed edge loads
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLAsnc
CORROStON RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

M, and H, at (Y = 0, x = 0, and 4, = 90 deg. = d 2 ARTlCLE C - ANALYSIS OF FLAT


lad. CIRCULAR HEADS
M4C-100 SCOPE
M4B-510 Displacement Rotation, Moment, and (a) In this Article, formulas are given for stresses and
Shear Forces In Terms of Loading displacements in flat circular plates used as heads for
Conditions at Edge pressure vessels.
@) Formulas a E also given for stresses and displact-
ments in these heads due to forces and edge moments
uniformly distributed along the outer edge and uni-
formly distributed over a circle on one face. The radius
of this circle is intended to match the mean mdius of an
adjoining element such as a cylinder. cone, or spherical
H, sin' Q segment.
6(x) = -zgl,,
M,sin 4
I;(&) + 1B'Dfirar> (3)

W)=-
H, sin 4
2820 h(8.r)+ zfi(&) (4) M4C-200 NOMENCLATURE AND SIGN
CONVENTION
The symbols and sign conventions adopted in this Ar-
(5j
~icleam defined as follows:
(1) p = pressure, psi
(2) M = radial bending moment. in.-lblin. of cir-

(3) Q -cumference
radialforce,Ib/in.ofcircumfe~nce
(4) ur = radial stress, psi
~herefi.j5~fr. adh are defined in Article A, Analysis ( 5 ) a, = longitudinal stress. psi
of Cylindrical Shells, and (6) a, = tangential (circumferential) stress, psi
(7) ~c = radial displacement. in.
x = aR = ( r l 2 - b)R (8) B = rotation.rad
(9) R = outside radius of plate, in.
(10) r = radial distance from center of plate, in.
(1 1) x = longitudinal distance from midplane of
M4B-520 Principal Stresses in a Hemispherical
plate, in.
Shell Due to Edge Loads
(12) r = thickness of plate
The principal stresses in a hemispheical shell. due to (13) t, = thickness of connecting shell at the head
edge loads M, and H, at the inside and outside surfaces junction. in.
of a hemispherical shell a any meridional llocation, are (1 4) E = elastic modulus, psi
given by the formulas: (15) l7= Poisson's ratio
(16) F = geometry constant, given in Table M4C-I
Tensile stresses are positive. The positive directions
(I) of the coordinates, radial forces, momenE, and dis-
placements are shown in Fig. M4C-1. The pressure is
(2,
assumed to act on the surface where x = -t12.

(31
M4C-300 PRESSURE AND EDGE LOADS ON
In these formulas where terms are preceded by a dou- CIRCULAR FLAT PLATES
blc sign f. the upper sign refers to the inside surface In the following paragraphs formulas am given for the
of the hemisphere and the lowcr sign refers to the out- principal stresses and deformations of flat plates under
side surface. uisymmetric loading conditions.
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
CQRROSlON RESISTAKT WUlPMENf ASME RTP-1- 1995 EDITION

M4C-3 10 Pressure Loads on Simply Supported


Flat Plates
The principal stresses and deformations for a flat
plate, simply supported at in periphery and loaded in
the mafiner shown in Fig. M4C-2, are given for a radial
location r at any point x in the CCDSS section by the fol-
lowing formulas.
Radial bending stress

Tangential bending stress

Simple Longitudinal stress

Rotation of the midplane


X

r
4

Rotation of he midplane at the ouferedge

FIG. M4C-2

R a d i i displacement

u*=

M4C-320 Edge Loads on Flat Plates


The principal stresses and deformations of a Ilat plate
subjected m uniformly distributed edge loads, as shown
in Fig. M4C-3, are given for radial Iocation r at any
point x in the cross section by the following formulas.
Radial and tangential smsxs

Rotation of the midplme

FIG. M4C-3
REINFORCED W E R M m PtASnC
ASME RTP-1-1995 EDtTION CORROSION RESISTANT MUIIPMM

Radial displacement TABLE M4C-1

W =
(1 - v)(rl + ulfl
Et

M4C-400 FLAT PLATE PRESSURE VESSEL


HEADS
Flu plam used as p-re -1 h d are anached
to a vessel shell in the manner shown by the typid ex-
amples in Fig. M K - 4 ,
Since the sup- codirions ar the edge of b e plate
depend upon Iha flexibility of the adjoining shell, the
s m s distribution in the plate is influend by time shell
thickness and geomcq. The structure fomaed by the
head and the shell may b analyzed according to rhe
principles of discontinuity analysis descn'bed in Article
D.In the following paragraph formulasare given for the
quantities nccessargt to pwbm a discontinuity andpis.

M4C-410 Displacements and Principal Stresses


in a Flat Head
The head i s assumed to be separated from the adjoin-
ing shell element and under the action of the pressure FIG. M4C-4
load. Figure M4C-5 illustrates this condition. The ef-
fects of the adjacent shell are ~prtsentedby thc pms-
sure reaction force. the discontinuity force Q,and the
discon~iwitymoment M. These act at the assumedjunc-
tion point (a). The pressure acts on the left-hand face
over a circular area defined by the inside radius of the Reaction force
adjacent shell. The support point Iics on this same face 4 - 4

at the midradius of the adjacent shell. The formulas in


this paragraph are given in terms of rhe head dimensions
R and r and multiplying factors F, to F,. These factors
reflect the extent of h e pressure area and the location of
the junction p i n t . The numerical values for F, to F4am
given in Table M4C-1. These are functions of thc ratio
of the shcll thickness t, to the head mdius R.

M4C-43 1 Displacements of a Flat Head


la) For a plate simply supporred at n point (a), the FIG. M4C-6
mta~ionaldisplacement 8, and the radial displacement
nb of point (a) due to pressure p acting over the area
defined by the mdius ( R - t,) are given by the following
formulas:

Ibl The rotarional displacements 8 and the radial dis-


placement r of point (a) doe m a onifonnly distributed
102
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTiC
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT ASME RTP-1-1995 EDITION

d i a l force Q and moment M acring at point (a) are


given by the following formulas:

M4C-412 Principal Stresses in a Flat Head.


When the values of the discontimiry force Q and the
I n these expressions
moment M have been determined by a discontinuity
analysis, the principal stresses in a Rat plate can be cal-
culated as folIows:
(a} For n plate simply supported at point (a), the ra-
Table M E - 1 lists these functions for various values
did stress a, for a radial location r less than ( R - t,) at
of rJR. These tabular values have been computed using
any point .r due to pressurep acting over t h e m defined
0.3 for Poisson's ratio.
by the radius (R - t,) is given by the following formula:

M4G-600 STRESS INTENSITIES IN A FLAT


PLATE
(b) For these same conditions. the tangential stress or The p ~ c i p astresses
l due to pressure p. discontinuiry
and the axial stress u, are given by the following for- force Q, discontinuity mown1 M,and other coincident
mulas: loadings should be combinad alg&mically and the stms
differenms detennhed according to the procedures of
Subpart 38. The calculated stress intensity values should
not exceed the allowable values giiren in Subpan 38.

ARTICLE D - DISCONTINUITY STRESSES


M4D-100 GENERAL
(cJ The radial stress or and the tangentid stress 0, for (a) Pressure vessels usually contain regions where
any radial location at any point x in the m s section, abrupt changes in geometry, material, or loading occur.
due to uniformly distributed radial forcc Q and a uni- These regions at known as disconrinuiy areas and the
f o d y disrributed moment M acting at point (a), me strcsses associated w i h~e m are known as disconrinuify
given by the formula: srresses. The discontinuity stresses are required to sar-
isfy the compatibility of deformarions of these regions.
(b) This Article describes a g e n e d procedure for
analyzing the discontinuity stresses. A numerical ex-
ample is included to illusmtc the procedure.
(c) To determine the principal stresses at a disconti-
nuity, it is necessary to evaluate the stresses caused by:
M4C-500 GEOMETRY CONSTANTS ( I ) pressure;
The geometry constants Ft through F, are functions (2) mechanical loads;
of Poisson's ratio and r,lR. Thtse are: (3) thcrmal loads;
(4) discontinuity loads.
The stress intensities are then obtained by superposition
of the stresses according to the rules given in para. 3B-
400.
REINFORCED THERMOSET PlASTlC '<

ASME RTP-1- 1995 EDITION CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

M4D-200 INFORMATION REQUIRED The deformations due m local flexibidities may be


considered in the calculation of these influence coefi-
In order to pdorm a discontinuity analysis. the fol- ciems.
lowing information must be bown: kc) Calculate the edge deformations of each element
(a) the dimensions of the vessel:
caused by loads other than d u d a n t loads.
(b] the materid properties (E, y) of the component Id) Cdcuhe the edge deformations of each element
parts of h e vesseI (symhls as in para. M4B-200); caused by the temperature distributions.
kc) mechanical loads, such as pressure. dead weight. (e) Al a c h juncture of two dements, equate the told
bolt loads, and pipe loads; radial displacemeors and the total rotations of a h ele-
(dl temperature disriibution in the component parts. ment.
Cfl Solve he final: system of simultaneous equations
for the redundant shears aud moments.
M4D-300 METHOD OF ANALYSIS
(a) The analysis of a pressure vessel containing dis-
continuity m a s can be performed in a stnndnrd mnnner M4D-320 Stresses
similar to the analysis of any statidly indeterminate When iht values of the redundant shear forces and
structure. The analysis is initiated by separating the yes- moments have been determined. rhc stresses resulting
sel inro shell elcrnents of simple geometry (such as rings, from the redundant loadings may be computed by con-
- cylinders, ere.) of which the structud behavior is ventional rncIhods- The final stresses for mch element
known. The pressure, mechanical. and thermal loads ;tre determined by combining lhese stresses with the
acting on the structure me applied to the shell elements stresses which would exist in the individual shell ele-
with a system of forces required to maintain h e static ments of Step 1-
equilibrium of each elcrnent. These loads and forces
cause individual element deformations, which in gen-
erai are not equal at the adjoining edges. The deforma-
tions at an eiernenr. edge are defined as:
(0 radial displacement: M4D-400 EXAMPLE ILLUSTRATING THE
42) rotation of meridian tangent- APPLICATiON OF PARAGRAPH
A redundant moment and shear force must generally ex- M4D-310
ist on the edges of the elements in order to have com- Given
patibility of deformations and restore con~inuityin the
StntClUre. A pressure vessel as shown in Figs. M4D-1 and
0 At each juncture discontinuity, two equations can MJD-2.It is constmctcd ~f all-mat RTP subjected lo an
k wtiren which express the equality of the combined internal pressure of 15 psig. The vessel consists of:
deformations due to all thc applied loads and rhe redun- (a) a hemispherical head
dant forces and moments. One equation will express the inside radius R = 30 in.
equality of rotation; the other equation, the equality of thickness r = 0.5 in.
dispIaccment of the adjacent elements. The resulting (b) a cylindrical shell
system of simultaneous equations can be solved to ob- inside radius R = 30 in.
tain the redundant moment and shear force at each junc- thickness r = 0.5 in.
ture. length L = 10 in.
(c) a flat head
outside radius R = 30.5 in.
M4D-310 Procedure for Discontinuity Analysis thickness r = 6 in.
Maliterid propnies assumed:
The following are the basic steps to follow for deter- E = lo6 psi
mining the redundant shear and moment that may exist r7 = 0.3
at a pressure vessd discontinuity.
(a) Separate the vessel into individual shell elements
at locations of discontinuity.
Calculare h e edge deformations of each elemcnt Required
caused by a unit shear force and a unit moment at each TO calculate the discontinuity stresses at the location5
edge. These values are known as influence coefficients. of s t ~ c r u n discontinuity.
l
RHMFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT ASME RTP- 1-1 995 EDfTlON

NOTE: For dis of a hemispherid s M l . the hrcral force H mi


rhe radial force Q are eqwJ.m y . thc 1aru;ll displacunent 6 aad
& radial dispIacemcnt n-arc equal.

Substituting the given dimensions and material prop


erties gives:

Elernen1 B, Cylindrical Shell:


From paras. M4A-320(a) and Ib), the radiaI displace-
ments and rotations at the edges O and L due ro edge
-10-MKI in. = L- loadings a,M,, QL,and MLare given as: '
FIG. M4D-1

JunctureO- .--loin.- Juncture L


0.5 in. Mg M ~ % ML% ML
Elamenr A .

QL '
-- 6 in.
:,\, Element 8 5 0.5 in.
I
.i
d Element C L"
# -9Odg. : 0
(3
Substituting given dimensions and material properties
O; . 1' gives:
k ; t
t. -. I
_I

FIG. M4D-2

Solution
Step 1. Separate the vessel at locations of disconti-
nuity into individual elements.
Step 2. Calculate the influence cactficicnts,
Element A, HetrzisphericnI Head:
From para. M4&420(b), the lated displacement and
mtation at junction 0 due to edge loads Q, and M, are
given as:

'Note that 31B = 9-076 in.. whiih i s less h n tht kn@ L * 10 in.
Then by para. M4A-3W). B,, = 5,: = 1.8, = 2. and G,,= Gnr
=&Po.
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
ASME RTP-1-1985 EDITION CORROSiON RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

Ehnertr C, Flat Head: - Point O


From pam. M4C-411(b), the radial displacement and
mation at j u n c t u ~L due to edge loadings QLand ML
are given as:

Substituting given dimensions and material properties


gives: FIG. M40-3

Point L

Step 3. Calculate the edge deformations due to Ihe


internal pressure.
Element A, Hernispliericul Shell (See Fig. h14D-3):
The lateral displacement of point 0 at the midsurface
of a hemispherical shel! subjected to internal p r e s s u ~
givcn by the expression:
is
--t --,---.

t-r
Substituting the dimensions, pressure. and material
properties gives: FIG. M4P-4

II:,, = 0.009767625 in.

There is no miation resultins from the internal p ~ s -


sure and membrane forces as shown. There i s no rotation resulting from internal p r e s s u ~
and the membrane- forces shown.

Element B. CyIindn*calShell (See Fig. M4D-4):


The radial displacement of the midsurface of a closed Ekmsnt C. Flat Head (See Fig- M4D-5):
end cylindrical she11 subjected to internal pressure is In Article C. the rotatian of a Aat head at point L due
-
given by the expression: to internal pressun? is given by para. M.CC-4 1 I (a):

Substituting the dimensions. pressure. and material Substituting the dimensions, pressure, md material
properties gives: properties gives:

n'mprrraurrl
-
- I I - ~ - ~ , = 0.02314125 in-
- RElNFORCED THERMOSFT PLASTIC
CQRROSIOM RESISTANT EOUIFMEN'T

FIG. M 4 D - 5 Combining like terms and multiplying through by 104


results in the following system of simultaneous qua-
tions which expms compatibility at the junctum:

The didisplacement at juncture L is given by para.


M4C-411(a):

- - - Om
w m w ~ -
f
= -69190082 x in.

Step 4. Calculate the fiee deformations of the edges


of each dement caused by temperature distributions.
In this example all pans of the vessel are at the mt
temperatu~~ and ~IE of the same mattrid; therefore.
temperature deformations need not. be considerd. Step 6. Solve the above equations for Q,, Mo.QL.
Step 5. Equate the to& lateral displacements and and ML.
rotations of adjacent elements at each juncture. The results are:
Juncmr~0
Q, = -5.52733 lblin.

NOTE: A n c p t i v ~
sign irPdicjteP that h e 4direction o f the load-
iagisoppOaitcwthatrhoKninS!cp1.

(-3.9984962Qg + 2.6431369MJ X 10"'


Step 7. Compute the discontinuity stresses at each
= (-3.9984962 Qo - 2.643 1369Ma) x 1o4 (2) juncture due to the redundants Q,. M,, QL,and ML.
REIPlFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
ASME RTP-1-1985 EDITION CORROSION RESISTANT EWIMENT

To illusrrate the procedure, these stresses Will be (b) J~lncrureL. At juncture L. M(x1 = ML and ~vfx)
computed in the cyWricaI shell (eiement B) ar both =w ~ .
iuncrures 0 and L.
From para. M4A-330:

(a) Junctzire 0. At juncture 0,M(x) = M, and ~vcx) surface


= w*.
NOTE: When aompuling a,k) only h e didispksFmtent due 10the 0, 6 6(83.669i86)/(0.5)' = 2008.1 psi
dundsnt shear fwcc~and moments should bt d.Tht Fm du-
planmnfi fi.wn Steps 3 and 4 auld not bt included.

w, = (12.09772SQ, -F 3.99849621V0}x lo-*

= -0.006686812 in. = -330.W psi

= -6686.81 Iblin.

hf" = 0 Outside surface

Inside surface uf = -6(83.6692)/[0.5)' = -2008.1 psi

-28277-I
ut = - 6(0.31'(d3:"~)@~3)'
30.25

= -2941 -02 psi

= -221.1 psi 0, =0

or = 0
NOTE: E - 10b psi.

Outside surface
M The discontinuity stresses in the hemispherical
shell may be computed by using the expressions given
in paras. M4H10 and M48-430.
(d) The discontinuity stresses in the flat head m y be
computed using the e x p ~ i o n given
s in p m . M4C-
412.

Step 8. Compute the totd stresses.


-221.1 psi
The total stresses may be compaed in any element at
any juncture by combining the stresses due to the re-
a, = 0 dundant shear forces a d moments, as complued in Step
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT ASME RTP-1-1995 EDITION

7, with the stresses resulting from ali other loadings. In u, = 937.5 - 22 1.1 = 686.4 psi
this case the stresses in the cylindrical shell, hemispher-
ical shell, and fiat head due to internal pressuE may be
computed by the expressions given in paras. M4A-2 10,
M4B-3 10, and M4C412, respectively. To illustrate the
procedu~,h e total stresses in the cylindrical shell at Outside surface
junctures O and L will be computed. From pressure:
The stresses in the cylindrical shell due to inlernal
pressure may be compured from the expressions given
in para. M4A-210. 01= 453.8 psi

u, = 907.5 psi

The stresses due to the redundant shear forces and


moments were computed as:

(a) Jtirtcrure 0
Inside surface
u, = -221.1 psi

R = 30.25 in. or = 0

p = 15 psig
The total stresses are:

of = 453.8 psi
o, = 453.8 psi

0, = 907.5 psi
or = 907.5 - 221.1 = 686.4 psi

0, = 0
0, =0

The stresses due to the redundant shear forces and (b) Jrr~lcrureL
moments were computed in Step 7 as: Inside surface
The stresses due to the internal pressure are the same
as at juncture 0.
U( =0

0, = 453.8 psi
or = -221.1 psi

q = 907.5 psi
u, = 0

The total stresses are:

The slresses due to the redundant shear forces and


ol = 453.8 + 0 = 453.8 psi moments are:
RHNFORCED THERMOSET Pusnc
-
ASME RTP- 1 I995 EDITION CORROSION RESISTANT EQUlPMEPlT

= 6(83.669)1(0.5)' = 2M)8 psi The stresses due to redundant shear forces and mo-
ments m:

0, = -6(83.669)/(0.5)' = -2008 psi

= 1476 psi

= -3342.6 psi
Tbt total stresses are:

ul = 453.8 + 2M)S = 2462 psi


u, = 907.5 + 1476 = 2383 psi The total stresses am:

C~ = 453.8 - M08 = -1554psi

Outside surface U, = 907.5 - 3342.6 = -2435.1 psi


The stresses due to the internal pressure are the same
as at junc~ure0. 0, =0

a,. = 453.8 psi

Step 9. When evaluating the stresses in accordance


4 = 907.5 psi with para. W-500, the strength &ios at each location
should be computed from the total principl stresses de-
0, =0 termined in Step 8.
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

MANDATORY APPENDIX M-5


CALCULATION OF PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES USING LAMINATION
ANALYSIS METHOD

M5-100 SCOPE M5-200 LAMINATION ANALYSIS METHOD


This Appendix sets fonh the Lamination Analysis The following formulas shall be used to calculare the
Method to be used to calculate the laminate properties physical and mechanical properties of laminates.
needed for design.
The Lamination Analysis Merhod consists of deter-
mining the physical and mechanical properties of each
layer of a laminate and using weighted averaging tech-
niques to determine the physical and mechanical prop-
erties of the total laminate.
Direct calculation of laminatc properties according to
para. M5-400 is required for S u b w 3B design. How-
ever, the extensive calculations required for Subpart 3B
are not necessary for Subpan 3A and they would limit
ia usefulness. Paragraphs M5-200and M5-300present
a shorter method which may be used with Subpan 3A
design d e s instead of the equations in p a . M5-400.
.Y
The equations defining the theory of f a i l u ~for use
Apparent &e modulus = C Egk / r
with Subpan 3B design a r given
~ in para. M5-500,They h-1
give rtlles for calculating the strength ratio R at a pint.
from the stiffness coefficienrs and m l t a n r forces and
moments at. the point.
The elastic properties of oriented and random glass
fikr reinforced layers have been calculated from the
theory of composite micromechanics and are pmxntsd ,v
htte in a graphical form for convenience.
Elastic interactions between extension and shear have
Apgmnt shear moduIus =
k- 1 I
C GhrL t
been included in the gmphical data; however, other
elastic interactions between layers cannot be taken into
account with this simplified appmach. I n practice, this
meam the graphical data is accurate for laminates con-
tainimg both +$ md -8 layers, but the dab is not ae-
curate for a single oriented layer unless the orientation where
angle is tither 0 deg. or 90 deg. Also, the graphical data D = density, lblcu in.
dots not account for elastic inieraction between bending V = fiber volume fraction, decimal fom
and extension or bending and shear. If the laminate does r = total laminate thickness, in.
not comply with these limitations, this simplified design g = thickness of layer k, in.
method shall not be used. K = fiber weight per unit arm, lblsq A
RHNFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

E, = tensilt modulus of layer k, psi tent per square foot K is calculated as follows for each
G, = in-plane shear mdulus of layer k, psi layer of the laminate.
Zk = a m moment of inertia, in?, about the neutral
axis pf a unit width of layer k
i = d i c e from reference plane to the neutral axis
of the laminate (see Fig. M5-161,in.
4 = distance from mference plane to the centmid of
layer k (see fig. M5-16), in.
v, = P o h n ' s ratio of layer k
f = subscript denoting fiber
r = subscript denoting resin
k = subscript denoting layer number
Using Eqs. (1) and (2), calculate the glass volume
The volumc fraction of glass fiber or the thickness for fmction and density of each layer. Results are given id
tach layer of the laminate is calculated using Eq, (1). If Table M5-1.
the laminate exists, the layer thicknesses are measured (bj Laminate Physicai Proprrties
microscopically From the edge of a sample. I f the lam- (1) total rkickness = 0.35 1 in.
inate does nor physically exist, then either the glass con- 12) total glass content = IMI9 lWsq ft
tent or thickness is assumed and the correspondingvalue 13) laminate density = 0.0212 / 0.351 = 0.0604 IW
calculated. All Iaminates designed on the basis of rhis cu in.
initial assumption must be checked after fabrication to (4) laminate weight = 0.0212 x 144 = 3-053 1W
confirm the assumed value. sq ft
The glass fiber volume fraction, orientation. and the (5) glass content by weighr = (1,4019 1 3.05) x
resin modulus at the optrating temperature are then used 100% = 46%
to determine the mechanical pmpnies of rhe layer from (c) Layer MecI~anicalProperties. Using the matrix
the appmpriate graphs (see Figs. M5- 1 through M5- 13). modulus, the glass volume penrent, and the orientation
The physical and mechanical pro@= of the layers of the gIass fiber for each layer, the corrcspodig ten-
are tabulated, and the apprent properties of the lamt- sile modulus. in-plane shear madulus, and Poisson's m-
nate are calculated using the weighted averaging m&- tios aie obtained from the apprbpn'ate graphs (Figs.
ods indicated by Eqs. (5) through (8). These methods M5-1 through M5-13).For layers with oriented glass
are illustra~edin para. M5-300, fiber, the ~ w omodulus values and Poisson's ratio are
obtained for each of the nvo principl directions of the
layer (8 for the axial direction and 90 - 6 far the hoop
dimion).
The distance r b e e n the reference plane and the
centroid of each Iayer is calculated from the layer thick-
M5-300 ANALYSIS EXAMPLE nesses (refer io Fig. M5- 16).
The woven roving layer is maleled as two layers ori-
To illustrate the Lamination Analysis Method. as- ented at 0 deg, and 90 deg. The thickness of these two
sume a laminate construction of VMM 1+1-54], AdRd.I. layers is proportioned with m ~ ctot rhe weave style t51cl
The layer of surfacing veil V is 0.1 1 odsq ft glass fiber for axial and W for hoop). However, the distance z be-
veil, and the mat layers M arc 1.5 ozlsq ft chopped tween the reference plane and the centroid of this layer
strand mat. The filament wound layer [+I-541, consists is taken to the centroid of the total layer to prevent an
of three wind pattern closures with a wind angle of 54 unbalanced calculation of the flexural properties.
deg. relative to the mandrel axis, using 225 yardflb mv- The layer properties are listed in Table M5-2 and the
ing and with a roving spacing of 8 strands per inch of pmducts of these values, as required in Eqs. (5) through
band width. The woven roving layer R consists of 24 (8). are l i d in Table M5-3.Using Eqs. (3) through
ozlsq yard fabric with a 5 X 4 weave style. The glass (8), the laminate properties are calculated; they are listed
6 k r used i s E glass with a density Dl of 0.0943 Ib/cu in Table M5-4.
in., and the resin densiry D, is 0.0468 lblcn in. Thc
tensile modulus of the matrix at the operating tempera-
ture is 400.000 psi. '3 closures; 2 hycdclo~ua;8 x 12 d f I of band width: 225 X
la) Layer Physical Properties. The glass fiber con- 3 ltnb of roving yield.
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
CORROSlON RESISTANT EQUIPMENT ASME RTP-I - 1995 EDITION

M5-400 STIFFNESS COEFFICIENTS FOR ei = normal strain of a layer in the i direction (i =


DESIGN BY SUBPART 3B RULES 1. 2, 61
E! = midplane normal srrain in direction i of the
This paragraph gives the equations required for cal-
laminate
culating the stiffness coeficienis needed to design cylin-
Ki = midplane curvature along thc srructurd axis
drical vessel parts constructed of Type X Iaminates,
0 x 7 OF,
according to Subpart 3 8 design mles. Type X laminates us =normal Iayer smsses in the material coordinate
arc defined in Appendix M-I, Arride B. axis
Oher valid statements of lamination analysis may be
oi = normal stress in the i direction t i = 1 , 2, 5 )
used in place of fhe equations herein, but it is the re-
u6 = shear stress in the i-j coordinate system
sponsibility of the registered engineer to show that they 8 = angle between the .r coordinate axis and the I
can be mathematically derived from the equations
coordinate axis pig. M5-17)
herein.

Lamina Reduced Stiffness


The stress-strain relations in rhe principal material di-
The symbols used in paragnph M5400 are defined rections of an orthotropic lamina are as follows.
below.
Aij = extensional siiffness coefficients defined by Eq.
(26);i, j = 1. 2, 6
B,, = coupling stiffness coefficients defined by Eq.
(27); i , j = 1. 2, 6
Di,= bending stiffness coeficicnts defined by Eq.
(28): i , j = l , 2 , 6
EI = Young's modulus of an onhotropic lamina in
the principal direction of the gmaier modulus
E, = Young's modulus of an onhorropic Iamina in The reduced stiffnesses of a lamina are calculated
rhe principai d i ~ c t i ~ofnthe lesser modulus from [he elastic properties, E,, E,., ,;I and Es. These
E, = shear modulus of an ortholropic lamina in the may be measured values or calculaied by the sernigraph-
principal coordinates icd procedure belo~v.The required input information
M , = moment resultant about I axis (Fig. M5-15) far each layer is the fiber weight per unit area, the ten-
1
% = mornenl resultant about 2 axis (Fig. MS-14) sile modulus of the resin matrix, the type of reinforce-
M, = twisting resultant (Fig. M5- 14) ment, and the fiber density.
N, = force resultant in I direction (Fig. M5-15) A step-by-step procedure for lamina with unidirec-
N2 = force resultanr in 2 direction (Fig. M5-IS) tional roving is as follou,~.
N6 = in-plane shear force resultant (Fig. h.15-15) ( I ) Calculate the volume fraction of fiber Vffrom Eq.
en, (1) in para. M5-200.
a,,, (2) Using the value of V, from step (11, obtain rhe
value of Er from Fig. M5-3,M5-5,M5-7,or M5-9,
Q??.
Q,,= reduced stiffness in h e principal material di- depending on the value of VI. E, is I h e value of the mod-
rection, defined by Eqs. (4) through (7) (on- ulus at an orientation angle of 0 deg. Obtain E,. frorn the
axis directions) same graph as the value of the modulus at an drienration
Q,, = reduced stiffness transformed to the vessel angle of 90 deg.
(1-2) axes (off-axis directions); i , j = 1, 2 , 6 (3) Using h e value of Vf from step (I), obtain the
r, = thickness of the layer (Ag. M5-16) value of E, frorn Fig. M54, M5-6,M5-8,or M5-10,
zk = distance from the reference surface to the cen- depending on the value of Vp EE,is the in-plane shear
ter of h e Phlayer (Fig. M5-16) modulus at an orientation angle of 0 deg.
EI. E , ,
(4) The major Poisson's ratio v, is obtained from Fig.
E, = normal layer strains in the material coordinate M5-13 for an orientation angle of 0 deg.
axis The reduced stiffnesses of each lamina are then given
z~ = principal Poisson's ratio of a lamina (the neg- as follows.
ative of strain in the y direction from stress in
the x direction)
REINFORCED THERMOSFT PLASTIC
ASME RTP-1-1995 EDITION CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

a-= ~>-W(l- GV&

The stress-strain relations for the lamina in the 1-2


wbere v,. = Y, E, / Ex. Lrnina with randamly oriented coordinates ME:
fibers are isotropic in the plane of the laminate, and art
characterized by a single tensile modulus E and Pois-
son's ratio v. To obtain E and v :
111 Calculate V, from Eq. (1) in para. M5-200.
(2) The tensile modulus is obtained using the value
of V,, from step (1 ) and Fig. kl5-I.
(3) Poisson's ratio is given by Y = 0.33.
In an isotropic lamina, Ex = E,. = E and P, = Y,. =
r. Then rhe reduced stifmesses in-anisotropic layer are In an isotropic laminate, the reduced stiffnesses have
computed from: the same value for any value of 8, so that the stress-
smin retation for the 1-2 system has the same form as
Eqs. (11, (21, and (3)-

MS-430 Stiffness CoeWcients for the


Laminate -

The stiffness coeficients A,+ B p and Dq are used to


relare the resultant forces and moments (Figs. M5-14
and M5- 15) to the middle surface strains and curvatures.
The transformed reduced stiffnesses are the reduced
stiffnesses expressed in the 1-2 system. The relationship
between the .r-y and 1-2 axis systems is shown in Fig,
M5-17. The 1-2 systcm is in the plane of the laminate
and is chosen for convenience. A typicat choice would
be to align 1 with the circumferential vessel direction
and 2 with the axid direction. The transformed reduced
stihesses Qy are caiculated from the ~ d u c e d
sriflitesses
and the angle 8. Let m = cos 8 and 11 = sin 8. Then the
equations for the transformed reduced stiffncsses are:

= CQ, + Q, - 4Q,~?n'+ a & m 4 + n') (la)


REINFORCED THERMOSET PtASnC
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

(e) Calmlare the coupling gtiffntss&dents Bu for


the Iaminate from the (&)kt tk, t ,and &. (27).
(f)CalcnIatt rht bending stiffness coefficients Dufor
the laminate from the [Q& tk, a,and Eq. (28).
The &tensional stifie-ss coeficients are calculated
from the transformed reduced stihesses for each layer
M5-500 THE QUADRATIC lNTERACTION
(Qu)k, the thicknesses t,, and the distance a.The 10-
cation of the reference plane in the z direction does not CRlTERION
affect the validity of the equations in this paragmph. In general, a lamina bas five independent uniaxial ul-
However, it must coincide with the plane to which the timate strengths: tensile and compressive strengths in
s f n s resultants and moments are referred for design by the principal direction of g m e r strength, tensile and
Subpan 3B, or it mwt coincide with the neutral axis as compressive strengths in the direction of lesserstrength,
specified in para. M5-200 for design by Subpart 3A. and shear smngth with respect to a pure shear stress in
the principal directions. Type I and Il laminates are
treated as isotropic herein, sa any direction can be con-
s i d e d as a principal direction. In Typc X laminates,
rhe principal direction of greater strength is aligned w i h
the continuous roving and the principal direction of
lesser strength is perpendicular to the roving. Further,
the five smngth values may be unequal.
The quadratic interaction criterion defines the inter-
actions between the five strengths in cases when more
than one component of stress is applied to the lamina.
whe~ and it defines aliowablt stress states in terms of the
strengths.
i = l,2,6
j = l,2,6
The criterion is applied to each lamina separately, and
if one or more lamina fail the criterion, tbe correspond-
N = number of layers
ing load on the vessel is not allowed, The criterion is
The stiffness coefficients are what are required for applied separately to each combination of smsses or
suess analysis. stress and moment resultants calcuIated by the rules of
p m . 33-400. In the following seaions it is assumed
that the laminate stiffnesscoefficients aad sbxs and mo-
ment multants haye shady been calculated for all sec-
M5-440 Procedure for Calculating the tions md load combinations under c o n s i d d o n .
Stiffness Coefncients The rest of para. M5-500gives the definitions and
This section contains a step-by-step algorithm for cal- equations needed to make the wlcul;ttioas req- by
culating the laminate sriflncss coefficients. paras. 3B-400 and 3B-500,
la) Fmrn the known layer thicknesses and laminating
sequence, calculate t, and zk for each layer.
M5-510 Nomenclature
@I For each layer, obtain values for (Ex),, (EJk,
(v,),, and (E,),, and compute the reduced stiffntsses In addition to the n o m e n d m defined in para. M5-
(QA, -
a d (QyylL fmEqs (4) through (7) For
(Q)tl
isowpic plies, use Eqs. (8) through (10).
410. the following symbols are used.
F,, F,,
Ic) T d o r m the reduced stiffness (Qli)t for each F,,,Fx,
layer from the principal material directions to the vessel F, = saeagtb paramerers defined in terms of the five
directions, using Eqs. (1 11 through (16), to obtain the strengths
transformed d u d stiffness for each layer (Q&. In X = ultimate tensile suength of a Iamina in the x
the case of isotropic layers, the transformation is not (strong) direction
required, because Qs. @), (9), and (10) are valid for X, = ultimate compressive strength of a lamina in the
all angles B. x direction
Id) Calculate the extensional stiffness coefficients AU Y = ultimate tensile suength of a lamina in the weak
for the entire laminate from the CQir)k,tk,and Eq. (26). direction
REINFORCED THERMOSET Pwnc
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

Y, = ultimate wmprtssivc strength ofa lamina in h e The strains in each Iayer are then obtained from Eqs.
weak direction 0)m u & 19);
S = ultimate shear strength with respect to shar
st- in the x-y axes (tlk = f + Q + n~fl)K,
Sii = i-j component of the compliance matrix [the
compliance matrix is the inverse of the stiffness
matrix defined by Eqs. (20) through (2511
lv = pameter that equals 1 for the upper surface of
a laminate and -1 for the Iower

(b) M5-520 Calculation of Layer Strains and If Ihe rhickness of any layer is less than one-fifth of
Stresses the total lamiaate thickness, then the strains at the mid-
plane of the layer are sufficientIy accurate and w = 0.
The strains at the reference surface are calculatd Otherwise, the surface strains must bt calculated by xt-
using the force and moment resultants and the inverted -
ting w = 1 for the uppr surface or w = 1 for the
stiffness matrix of the laminate. The invert.4 stiffness lower surface.
matrix is defincd as follows. The layer strains art then transformed to the axis of
each layer by Eqs. (10) thmugh (12).

where i = 1 to 6 and j = 1 to 6 . inclusive.


The strains and curvatures at the reference surface are
then calculated by Eqs. (1) through (6): The corresponding st~essesin each layer a then -1-
culated by Eqs. (13) through (15).

M5-530 Calculation of Strength Ratios (b)


Id1
The strength ratio is the ratio of thc stress capacity of (el
a single layer relative to the stress generated by an ap-
plied loading condition, and is cdculated by using the
suesses from Eqs. (13) through (15) and the fallowing
quadratic interaction equation [Eq. I 16)1.

The smngth ratio R is then given by


REINFORCED THERMOSET Pumc
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

Random Oriented
FSkr Fik

O . m
0.0120
0.0015
0.ODSO
0.0268

Tht strength coefficients are calculared using the layer


strengths as follows. M5-540 Procadure for Calculating the
Strength Ratio
The following computation must be performed for
each sel of superimposed resultants required by para. 3B-
400.
(a) Compute the reference surface strains, cumawes,
and twist using Eqs. (I) through (6). These are in rhe yes-
sel coordinates.
Ibl For h e upper and lower surfaces of each lamina.
I calcuIate the swains in vessel coordinates using Eqs. (7)
F,. = - m u g h (9).
- w, [cl Calculate the stresses in vessel coordinates at the
upger and lower surface of each lamina from the results
of (b) using Eqs. (1 0) through (12).
(d} Transform the stresscs computed in (c) to on-axis
coordinates using Eqs. (13) through (15). Each lamina
may have a different K.
(el Calculate the strength ratio at h e top and bouom
surfaces for each lamina using Eqs. (16) and (17).

The layer smngh may be derermined from appro-


p d e testing of individual layers or they m y be calm-
latad using strain limits as follows.

The strain limits may be determined from appropriate


tesring of individual layers w the following smin limits
may be used.
REINFORCEDTHERMOSET PLASTIC
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

-ER- 100,000~
0 - ER - 2100,000psi
0 -ER-300.000pi
+ -ER-400.OM)pi
x -ER-500,OOOpsi
0-ER-MX1.000psi
-
V - ER 7700.000 psi

X I I
I
I
f
t
f
I
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
1
1
I
I
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Vo!. Percent Glass Fiber

FIG. M5-1 RANDOM GLASS FIBER


118
REINFORCED THERMOSEF msnc
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

- ER - 100,000 psi
0 - ER - 200.000 psl
A - ER - 300,000 psi
+ -ER-m,OM3pai
x - ER - 6 0 0 . 0 0 0 ~
0 - ER - 600.000 psi
V ER - 700,000 psi
-

r I

15 20 26
V d , Petcern Glass Fiber

FIG. ME-1 RANDOM GLASS FIBER


118
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
CORFlOSlOM RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

re) Cakulate the coupling stiffnesscoefficients Bij for


the laminate fmm the (Qv)t, rk, zk. and Eq. (27).
(2s) (1)Catculate rhe bending stiffnm coeficicnts Dii for
the laminate from h e (Q&, tt. 4,and Eq. (28).
The extensional stiffness coefficients are calculated
from the transformed reduced sriffnessa for each layer
(Q& the thicknesses t ~md , the distance zk. The lo-
M5-500 THE QUADRATIC IN1ERACTION
cation of the reference plane in the t direction does not CRITERION
affect the validity of the equations in thii paragraph. Tn general. a lamina has five independent uniaxial ul-
However. it musr coincide with the plane to which the timate strengths: tensile and compressive strengths in
stress resultants and moments are referred for design by the principal direction of grearer strength, tensile and
Subpan 3B, or ir must coincide with the neutral axis as compressive strengths in the direction of lesser smngth*
specified in para. M5-200b r design by Subpart 3A. and shear stren@h \r.ith respect to a pure shear s m in
the principal directions. Type I and Il laminates are
mated as isotropic herein, so any direction can be c m -
sidered as a principal direction. In Type X laminates,
the principal direction of greater strength is aligned with
the continuous roving and the principal direction of
lesser strength is perpendicular to the roving. Further.
rhe five stmgth values may be unequal.
The quadratic intemction criterion defines the inter-
(28) actions belween the five strengths in casts when more
than one component of stress is applied to the lamina,
where and it defines allowable stress states in terms of thc
strengths.
i = 1.2. 6
The criterion is applied ro each lamina separately, and
j = 1,2,6
N = number of layers if w e or more Iamina fail the criterion, the correspond-
ing bad on the t7essel is not allowed. The criterion is
The stiffness coefficients are what -are required for applied separately to each combination of stresses or
stass analysis. stmss and moment resultants calculated by the rules of
pam. 3B400. In the following sections it is assumed
thar the laminare stiffnesscaefficientsand s i n s and mo-
ment resultants have already been cdclated for all sec-
M5-440 Procedure for Calculating the tions and load combinations under consideration.
Stiffness Coefficients The rest of para. M5-500gives the definitions and
This section contains a step-by-step algorithm for cal- equations needed to make the calculations required by
culating the laminate sriffness coefficients. paras. 3B400 and 3B-500.
(a) From the known layer thicknesses and laminaring
sequence, calcuIate t, and ra for each layer.
M5-510 Nomenclature
(b) For each layer, obrain values for (E,.),,
( v , ) ~ . and (EJk, and compute the reduced stiffnesses In addition to the nomenclature &fined in pam. MI
(Q,>,. (&)k, and EQv,-)a f~ Eqs. (4) through (7)- For 4 10. the following ssymbols are used.
isotropic plies, useGs. (8) through (10). F, F,,,
(c) Transform the reduced stiffness (Q& for each Fssm Fxv
layer from the principal material directions to the vessel F, = strength m e t e r s defined in terms of the five
directions. using Eqs. (11) through <]ti), to obtain the strengths
transformed reduced stiffness for each layer (Qij!k. In X ultimate tensile strength of a lamina in the x
=
he case of isotropic layers, the transformation is not (strong) direction
required, because Eqs. (8). 191, and (10) are valid for X, = ultimate compressive strength of a lamina in the
all angles 8. x dimtion
{dl Calculate the extensional stiffness cocficients Aij Y = ultimate tensile strength of a lamina in the weak
for the entire laminate from the (Qii),, it. and Eq. (26). direction
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

Y, = ultimate camp-ive streng1:hof a lamina in the


weak direction
S = ultimate shear strength with respecr to shear
s t ~ s sin the x-j* axes
Sv = i-j component of the compliance matrix [the
compliance matrix is the inverse ofthe stiffness Equations (71,(81, and (9) give strains at the upper sur-
matrix defined by Eqs. (20) through (25) J face of the lamina when w = 1 and the bwer surface
w = parmeter that equals 1 for the upper surface of when w = -1. The corresponding stresses are then cd-
a laminate d -1 for the lower culatad from the swabs and the reduced niffnesses in
the vessel coodinares as follows.

M5-620 Lamina Stresses and Strains


The first step in using the quadratic interaction crite-
rion is u, compute the upper and tower surface strains
in each lamina. The suains are computed from the ref-
erence surface strains and curvatures. which am ob-
tained from rhe forre and moment resulm~sby Eqs. ( I )
through (6).
The final step in cdculating the stresses is to express
h e vessel coordinate lamina stress componems in terns
of the principal material coordinates, in each of the hm-
ha. The socalicd on-axis components of stress are given
by the usual transformation equations as follows.

M5-630 Calculation of Strength Ratio

(4)
The quadratic interaction criterion required by this
Standnrd is as follows.

where

Thc upper and lower surface strains in each layer (A)


are then obtained from Eqs. (7) through (9).
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT -
ASME RTP- 1 1995 EDITION

Then the solution for R is the positive of the two values


given by

For each mess state under considemion, R must be


For Type I1 (or other oriented fiber layer): equal to or greater than the value required by para. 3B-
500.

M5-540 Procedure for Calculating the


Strength Ratio
The following computation must be performed for
each set of superposed stress resultants required by para.
For Type I (or other random fiber layer): 3B-400.
( I ] Compuw the reference surface strains. cum-
tures, and rwist using Eqs. ( I ) through (6). Thtse are in
the vessel coordhws.
121 For rhe upper and lower surface of each lamina,
calculate h e strains in vessel coordinates using Eqs. (7)
through (9).
(3) Calculate the stresses in vessel coordinates at the
Measured values of X. X,, Y, Y., and 5 may be used upper and lower surface of each lamina from the results
instead. The tern in the parentheses in Eq. (16) conrain of step (2) using Eqs. ( 10) through (1 2).
the five strength properties and thc on-axis stress com- (4) Tmnsform the stresses computed in step (3) to
ponents of a lamina. which are known. and Eq. (16) can on-axis coordinates using Ep.(13) through (15). Each
be soIved for R. Let iamina may have a different K.
(5) Calculate the strength mtio at the top and bottom
surFact for each lamina using Eqs. (16) and (1 7).
REINFORCED THERMOSET PLASTIC
ASME RTP-1-1995 EDITION CORROSION RESISTANT EQUIPMENT

Vol. Percent Glass Fiber

FIG. M5-1 RANDOM GLASS FIBER

118
REINFORCED 1)IERMOSET PLASTIC
CORROSION RESISTAMT EQUIPMENT ASME RTP- 1 - 1 905 EDITION

Vol. Percent Glass Fiber

FIG. M5-2 RANDOM GLASS FIBER


I19