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BRGM

PROCESS SIMULATION GROUP

Avenue de Concyr, BP 6009, 45060 Orléans Cedex 2, FRANCE

ABSTRACT

Since 1986, BRGM has been developing a powerful software package, USIM PAC. It

is an easy to use steady-state simulator which makes it possible for the mineral

processing specialist to profit by himself from available experimental data to model

plant operations, and then find an optimal plant configuration to meet his objectives.

Designers of new plants can also work with this simulator to calculate the sizes and

settings required to achieve a given circuit objective.

This software package includes functions to manage experimental data, to calculate

coherent material balances, sizes and settings of units of equipment, physical

properties of the processed material, to simulate plant operations and display results

on tables and graphics. Widely used to design and optimize industrial plants, with

more than one hundred copies in twenty-six countries, this software has been

improved, through successive versions, to make it more accurate and easier to use.

Developed in the Ms-dos environment, the evolution was limited because of

calculation time and memory management capacity. To overcome these difficulties,

the Process Simulation Group has chosen a new environment, Windows 3, which

allows powerful calculation possibilities, associated at a very friendly interface,

making the software really intuitive for the mineral processing engineer.

Since the first version, numerous mathematical models for unit operations have been

included and today most of the physical treatments of mineral processing can be

reproduced by the simulator: crushing, screening, grinding, flotation, gravity and

magnetic separation, solid-liquid separation, etc.

The new USIM PAC 2, contains of course all the functions of the previous version

but also new algorithms such as a material balance calculation one, the Objective

Driven Simulation and the Supervisor of Simulation. Its structure is now open to new

fields of activity such as hydrometallurgy, fine grinding, soil decontamination or

mining waste treatment. New models have already been included for some of these

fields.

The Improvements of the simulator will be presented and some applications of the

new capabilities on complex ores in Portugal, India and France will be briefly

described.

KEYWORDS

Simulation, modelling, design, optimization, mineral industry, complex ores.

First International Symposium on Complex Ores Utilization - Saint Petersburg - May 1994 - page 1/13

Simulation Improvements in Mineral Processing

The first step developments in modelling were conducted in Canada [1], South Africa

[2], the USA [3, 4], Scandinavia [5] or France [6]. This research produced a set of

mathematical models mainly based on the population balance approach

representing the macro phenomena which occur in the unit operations.

Research on modelling of micro phenomena also offers promising possibilities in

flotation [7], cyclone classification [8], ball motion [9] or liberation [10, 11].

Most of the micro phenomena based models are under development and the

operational simulations are mainly conducted using the macro phenomenological

models.

Including these developments and for penetrating the industry some simulation tools

(see Figure 1) appear in the World [12].

STEADY-

üFeedrates STATE PLANT üFlowrates

üFeed size distribution SIMULATOR üSize distribution

üFeed mineral distribution üMineral distribution

üPower draw

PLANT DESIGN

MODELS

üFlowsheet

PLANT CAPITAL COST

üUnits of equipment

Some of these tools have been improved to take advantage of the new software

development techniques and the increasing capability of the computers to develop

not only a software but a comprehensive approach for decision making [13, 14].

The increasing use of simulation in the mineral processing industry is a clear proof of

the interest of this approach; it is also a continuous challenge for the simulation

teams to meet the operational objectives of the final users.

For that, improvements are needed for adding and improving mathematical models

of unit operations. Furthermore, the objectives of feasibility studies, advanced design

or plant optimization have to be expressed in terms of operational needs and the

software tool has to provide all the facilities to reach these targets. This includes a

functional frame with the processing of the raw data either from lab, pilot or plant

sampling, the calculation of the optimal parameters, the design capabilities, the

simulation of the plant operation and even the investment cost estimation.

Simulation tools, such as the USIM PAC software, have proved their industrial

capabilities but new challenges are coming with the needs to obtain a global view of

a flowsheet, to allow the process engineer to express his ideas in terms of technical

objectives or to use the mineral processing techniques to work with new "orebodies"

such as contaminated soils or industrial wastes.

First, the need of a global view of the flowsheet, from run of mine to the end of the

process, links, in the same simulation tool, the comminution, the concentration and

purification circuits.

First International Symposium on Complex Ores Utilization - Saint Petersburg - May 1994 - page 2/13

Simulation Improvements in Mineral Processing

Second, the need for a clear expression of the technical objectives implies

developing new algorithms above the simulation tool itself.

Third, the new materials to be treated with the mineral processing techniques require

to increase the flexibility of the description of the content of streams in the

processing circuit (i.e., several phases or contaminants linked to the minerals) and to

adapt the mathematical models which are being used.

Complex ores treatments include fine grinding to obtain the mineral liberation and

often complex flotation circuit to get several concentrates. These complex circuits

have been one of the targets of the simulation-based approach in the last few years

using the improvements made on the models and the structure of the simulators.

The structure and the improvements made in these fields on the USIM PAC

simulator will be first presented and the main features will then be illustrated with

examples.

IMPROVEMENTS IN MODELLING

It is clearly not realistic to review all the models developed for complex ore

processing but some fields have been especially investigated.

For the interesting impact on mineral liberation, apart of its economic interest, the

Autogenous grinding has been one of the unit operation on which recent work has

been conducted [15, 16].

Continuous work on Conventional Flotation [17] and Column Flotation [18] has also

improved the operational use of these models.

One of the most promising field of research both for comminution and concentration

optimization is the modelling of Mineral Liberation [10, 19] which clearly needs more

investigation.

On the other hand hydrometallurgical processes, such as leaching, bioleaching,

selective precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction or adsorption on resins and activated

carbon [20] have an increasing use for the treatment of complex ores . These

processes have an increasing importance in the modelling activities and the structure

of some process simulators has been extended to deal with these unit operations

[21].

IMPROVEMENTS IN SIMULATION

The improvements of the simulation tools include the user interface, the quality and

the quantity of the models embedded in the shell, the algorithms used or the level of

details in the processed material description.

In the case of complex ore treatment, two fundamental aspects will be described

here:

Erreur! Signet non défini. the needed complexity of the ore description,

Erreur! Signet non défini. the need for new algorithms which concern the

whole flowsheet for process optimization.

Phase description

First International Symposium on Complex Ores Utilization - Saint Petersburg - May 1994 - page 3/13

Simulation Improvements in Mineral Processing

flexible. Depending on his objective(s), a mineral processing engineer will describe

the circulating material of the plant in different ways (see Figure 1):

1. If the project consists of a preliminary grinding plant design, the only necessary

parameters are the ore flowrate, the size distribution and the water flowrate.

2. If the project is a grinding plant optimization, the engineer will be interested in the

grinding selectivity and must describe all the components in the ore.

3. If the project concerns a grinding and flotation plant, the engineer must describe

the same parameters as above but he must also define sub-populations

according to their floating ability.

4. if the project deals with a complete gold ore treatment, (grinding, flotation,

leaching and CIP stages), the ore model must be described as in the previous

case, the liquid phase composition must be detailed, and the carbon phase must

be taken into account in terms of global flowrate and composition.

S classes

fast

floating

slow

floating

flowrate Minerals

Fractions Populations

Size Components

Global Fractions

SOLID

flowrate Sub

Components

Populations

GAS Global

Components Sub

LIQUID

flowrate Populations

Four phase types have been predefined: ore, solid, liquid and gas. The ore type can

have particular properties that the other solids (carbon, resins,...) do not need.

General concepts have been used in USIM PAC 2, and generic terms have been

defined. A criterion of classification represents a description parameter type: criteria

can be Mineralogical composition, particle size, floating ability, etc.

dimension depending on the number of criteria used in it.

First International Symposium on Complex Ores Utilization - Saint Petersburg - May 1994 - page 4/13

Simulation Improvements in Mineral Processing

This complete description of the material circulating in the plant is well adapted to the

treatment of complex ores where the size classes and the grinding selectivity (or

even liberation state if this information is available), the minerals species for flotation

(with, eventually, sub populations for slow and fast floating particles), the

components which have to be eventually concentrated (e.g., gold, cobalt, copper,

etc.), must be taken into account.

Algorithms

To start each optimization project, it is required to know the actual operation of the

plant. Raw data from sampling campaigns must be mathematically treated to take

into account the errors of the measure and to produce a data set consistent with the

mass conservation equations and as close as possible to the raw data. The material

balance algorithm has been designed for that step of the project. A new algorithm

has been developed, using the memory management capabilities of Windows 3,

more accurate than the previous one, this in turn increases the efficiency of the

steady-state simulator.

Two algorithms exist for conducting a model-based design or optimization: the direct

simulation predicts the plant performances (stream description, power consumption,

capital cost...); the reverse simulation back-calculate unit of equipment sizes and

settings to reach predefined operations.

To solve a problem, direct and reverse simulation must be used, in different ways,

depending on the known and unknown variables. The sequence of steps required

many runs of a simulator to achieve a given objective (see Figure 3). A third

algorithm has been designed and integrated in USIM PAC 2, the Objective-Driven

Simulation (ODS) which chains the direct and reverse simulation. This approach

uses fixed data and optimizes the values of flexible data to bring plant operation as

close as possible to an objective.

operation of the existing plant flowsheet optimization

establishment the complete flowsheet

simulation models the plant equipment

Simulation of the

operation of the plant Designing of additional

with new feed properties equipment

First International Symposium on Complex Ores Utilization - Saint Petersburg - May 1994 - page 5/13

Simulation Improvements in Mineral Processing

Then, with a single run, the Objective-Driven Simulator predicts the performances of

the complete flowsheet and calibrates the model parameters, improving the accuracy

of the simulation [22].

The improvement in simulation quality is due to the fact that unit operation models

are calibrated "simultaneously" and not independently, so that model biases

compensate each other instead of propagating. In a single run, the Objective-Driven

simulator has predicted the operation of the complete flowsheet and calculates the

sizes, settings or model parameters for the units of equipment.

The need for a global steady-state simulator, taking into account complete flowsheet

from comminution to purification conducted the USIM PAC team to take interest in

new unit operations. The importance of hydrometallurgical processes is increasing in

the mineral processing industry. Models have already been developed in this field.

The main problem to integrate them in a global simulator was to describe the

composition of the streams along the circuit through a simple model of the circulating

material. In USIM PAC 2, the material description is detailed and flexible enough to

allow the simulation of such operations.

used in others fields, using the same basic concepts than mineral processing (e.g.,

soil decontamination, industrial waste treatment,...) but with a different circulating

material.

APPLICATIONS TO COMPLEX ORES

The applications described hereafter have been conducted by the Process

Simulation Group at BRGM or described by USIM PAC users in published papers

and deal with the treatment of complex ores.

Simulation of the pilot plant operation at EDM for the treatment of the Moinho

ore - Portugal

The Moinho deposit is located at Aljustrel, 200 km south of Lisbon (Portugal), and is

part of the Iberian pyrite belt. Its polymetallic sulfide ore contains copper, lead, silver

and zinc. A modelling study has been carried out on the grinding and flotation circuits

of this ore based on pilot plant data by EDM (Portugal) and BRGM with the financial

support of the European Communities.

Although the USIM PAC software package was used as a shell for simulating the

Moinho process, a specific research project still had to be carried out to elaborate the

specific unit operation models. This research included the following phases:

Erreur! Signet non défini. design of an ore model (i.e., to define a simplified

representation of the ore with a small number of minerals and particle-size

classes, and for the Moinho ore to define how mineral liberation will be taken into

account.),

First International Symposium on Complex Ores Utilization - Saint Petersburg - May 1994 - page 6/13

Simulation Improvements in Mineral Processing

Erreur! Signet non défini. collection of experimental data from the pilot plant

operations,

Erreur! Signet non défini. modelling the flotation circuit,

Erreur! Signet non défini. incorporating the new models into the USIM PAC

simulation software package,

Erreur! Signet non défini. training the process engineers and making the

simulation available to them.

The modelling phases were the most important part of the research project, and

involved numerous interactions between experimental work, mathematical modelling

per se and model evaluation.

A model of autogenous mill has been built [16] with the objective of predicting the

performance of this unit as a function of the feed, taking into account the principal

design and operational parameters (i.e., feed flowrate, geometry of the mill, speed of

rotation).

The model includes several original features, in particular semi dynamic computation

of the load, the separate flow-up of the angular and rounded products and the

linkage of the energy consumed and the kinetics of the autogenous grinding.

The validation tests of this model show that forecasts of operation at a feedrate and

feed particle size distribution that differs considerably from those of the calibration

point correspond in a satisfactory manner to the measured values. However

numerous facets of the model have still not been validated, in particular the

possibility of scaling up, and improvements are still needed to make this model more

general.

During this study [19] it has been shown that successfully modelling the flotation of

such an ore requires to take into account not only the influence of particle size, but

also that of the mineral liberation of the ore.

The flotation model distinguishes the behaviour of the minerals depending whether

they are found in the form of free particles or in the form of locked particles. It is a

two-parameter kinetic model (a maximum recovery and a kinetic constant) defined

for free and locked particles for each mineral and particle class (see Figure 4).

First International Symposium on Complex Ores Utilization - Saint Petersburg - May 1994 - page 7/13

Simulation Improvements in Mineral Processing

Size class (- 23 µm, + 11 µm)

100

80

Recovery (%)

60

40

Free

20

Locked

0

0 1 2 3 4 5

Cell

The simulator provided to the EDM process engineers has all the capabilities of the

standard USIM PAC software package and additionally it includes the specific unit

operation models developed during the research. The simulator is used for process

optimization. It enables process engineers to predict the influence, on plant

performance, of modifications in the equipment setting and/or plant flowsheet.

Portugal [23].

The first step has been carried out to improve the grinding circuit performances of

the copper concentration plant. The objectives were to keep the current output d80

value, to decrease the percentage of less than 5 µm particles and to decrease the

energy consumption.

Using the USIM PAC 2 software, the process department built two simulators of the

circuit including a rod mill, two ball mills in serie in closed circuit with hydrocyclones.

The first simulator was made of performance models (Level zero models in the USIM

PAC models classification) and was used as a data validation tool. This simulator

has permitted to obtain a description of the average plant performance reflecting the

data collected in the last few years. A second simulator made of predictive models

(Level two models) was then developed using the results of the first one as

reference. With this second simulator, various ideas were tested: variations in the

feed rate, the percent filling of balls in the mills, the pulp density, the diameters of the

cyclones vortex finders, and also the configuration of the circuit.

First International Symposium on Complex Ores Utilization - Saint Petersburg - May 1994 - page 8/13

Simulation Improvements in Mineral Processing

The conclusions were that an increase in the pulp density in the mills accompanied

with a decrease in the filling would reduce the energy consumption of 5 % while

keeping the actual performance.

The second step was the optimisation of the regrind circuit. The simulator in this

case was used to calculate off line the set points to be fed to an expert Control

system.

This optimization was conducted by the HZL process engineers. Their conclusions

were that simulation software of comminution and classification operations for

analysis and optimization of the performance of existing operations, design of new

circuits, mass balancing and data adjustment is extensively used in Hindustan Zinc

Ltd (HZL) in India.

This is in operation at Zawar mines (see Figure 5) and resulted in improved

throughput and more uniformly sized products [24].

First International Symposium on Complex Ores Utilization - Saint Petersburg - May 1994 - page 9/13

Simulation Improvements in Mineral Processing

The pilot plant tests regarding the grinding and flotation circuits of the complex

sulphide ore of Chessy - France were conducted at BRGM. The Chessy ore contains

copper, zinc, pyrite and barite [25]. Mathematical models were developed and tested

for rod and ball mills in order to predict:

· the product particle size distribution and the distribution of the minerals in the

particle size fractions (i.e., the selectivity of grinding),

· in part the mineral liberation.

Three fundamental aspects of the methodology that was developed have been

investigated successively:

· modelling of the ore,

· modelling the grinding and its selectivity,

· modelling the mineral liberation.

Three types of distribution were defined to represent the ore: a discrete particle size

distribution, a mineral distribution and a texture distribution [26]. In order to represent

the state of liberation it was necessary to define, in addition to the free particles

(consisting in only one mineral), various types of locked particles, each consisting of

more than one mineral. The distribution of particles between these types constitutes

texture distribution, which is super-imposed on particle-size distribution and replaces

mineral distribution which contains less information.

A mineral liberation parameter l80 was introduced. It is the estimated particle size at

which 80 per cent of the Chalcopyrite is free in the ore entering the grinding circuit. In

this particular case l80 = 50 µm.

In view of the considerable imprecision of the measured proportions it is difficult to

make a positive appreciation of this approach to the mineral liberation.

Nevertheless, considering the simplicity of the liberation model (only one liberation

parameter l80) and the constraint of compatibility with the selectivity of the two mills,

the agreement between measurement and prediction for the grinding circuit product

was shown as reasonable.

CONCLUSION

The model-based approach has been shown as an operational strategy for process

design and optimization. This is particularly clear for the complex ore processes for

which:

Erreur! Signet non défini. the flowsheet is often rather complicated,

Erreur! Signet non défini. the interactions between the different stages of the

process are important (e.g., mineral liberation of the grinding stage and the

flotation recovery),

Erreur! Signet non défini. the material circulating in the plant has to be

described with details and flexibility in order to follow the different processing

circuits.

Erreur! Signet non défini. develop the micro phenomena models which will

open a new dimension for simulation by opening the door to a deeper knowledge

of the processes and of the operating variables which can be optimized for

process improvements,

First International Symposium on Complex Ores Utilization - Saint Petersburg - May 1994 - page 10/13

Simulation Improvements in Mineral Processing

Erreur! Signet non défini. increase the quality and the quantity of the

available models,

Erreur! Signet non défini. develop new algorithms closer to the user's

objectives and taking into account a global view of the process.

approach. After several attempts in the use of knowledge-based systems (i.e., expert

systems) working in connection with process simulators, an increasing field of

research concerns the use of neural nets within a simulation tool. The neural nets

can be evaluated as a technique permitting to extend the capabilities of existing

phenomenological model and to represent ill-defined phenomena.

Finally, analyzing the flexibility of plant operation for a new part of the ore body, new

market specifications of the products or new energetic or environmental constraints

requires the use of a decision support system which may include a process simulator

for technical adaptation of the production.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors wish to thank Somincor S.A. and Hindustan Zinc Limited for publishing

the results of their studies and the Commission of the European Communities for the

partial financial support of the EDM/BRGM research program.

This is BRGM contribution No. 94016; this work was in part financed by a BRGM

research project.

First International Symposium on Complex Ores Utilization - Saint Petersburg - May 1994 - page 11/13

Simulation Improvements in Mineral Processing

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First International Symposium on Complex Ores Utilization - Saint Petersburg - May 1994 - page 12/13

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First International Symposium on Complex Ores Utilization - Saint Petersburg - May 1994 - page 13/13

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