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The SPE Foundation through member donations


and a contribution from Offshore Europe

The Society is grateful to those companies that allow their


professionals to serve as lecturers

Additional support provided by AIME

Society of Petroleum Engineers


Distinguished Lecturer Program
www.spe.org/dl
Does Heavy Oil Recovery Need Steam?

Johan van Dorp

35 years with Shell Group - Retired Oct 2016

Society of Petroleum Engineers


Distinguished Lecturer Program
www.spe.org/dl
2
OUTLINE

• GLOBAL HEAVY OIL & BITUMEN


• THE HEAVY OIL RECOVERY CHALLENGE
• NEW TECHNOLOGIES & DEVELOPMENT
OPTIONS
• MODELLING CHALLENGES

3
WORLD HEAVY OIL – RESOURCE BASE (IN PLACE)

~ 10 trillion bbls STOIIP


Includes technically and economically challenged in-place resources (e.g. low So, thin
beds, low net-to-gross, low permeability, immobile oil).
Worldwide HO production is ±10 mln bbl/day (<0.1% p.a. depletion rate), of which 2
mln bbl/day from thermal (steam based) projects (2%-4% per annum depletion). 4
WORLD HEAVY OIL – THERMAL PRODUCTION (2014)

(in planning
1,750 kbpd)

Total: 2 million Bopd


Note: Excludes production from surface mining in Canada (1,050 kbpd)
Sources:
- Hart Energy
- Oil Sands Review
Note: Heavy Oil = API < 18 (Hart E&P) 5
Heavy Oil Production - It’s All About the Viscosity

100,000 Heavy Oil and


10,000
Bitumen
viscosity varies
1,000 vertically and
100
laterally.
m (cP)

10 Usually limited
data
1
0 50 100 T (deg
150 C) 200 250 300 350

MUST REDUCE HEAT Need an accurate


fluid model to design
VISCOSITY TO DILUTE and optimize
PRODUCE
processes
UPGRADE
Ref. Adams et al., University of Calgary, 2008
Larter & Adams, JCPT Jan 2008 V47 #1 6
THERMAL PROCESS EFFICIENCY-CASE FOR ACTION IN LOW CO2 WORLD

250
Energy Break-Even Thermal EOR is Energy Intensive

CO2 intensity (kg/bo)


200  Heat mostly rock (~90% of mass)
Thermal Input

150 Key Efficiency Factors


100  Reservoir Pressure (determines steam T)
 Resource Richness (14 %wt  20% So.f)
50  Reservoir Thickness
0 CO2 Footprint > 40 kg/bbl oil (avg. US
0 20 40 60 80 100
Reservoir Pressure (bar) refinery intake)
250 250
CO2 intensity (kg/bo)

CO2 intensity (kg/bo)


200 200
Thermal Input
Thermal Input

150 150

100 100 HO Project

50 50

0 0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0 10 20 30
Reservoir Richness So.phi Reservoir Thickness (m) 7
THERMAL PROCESS EFFICIENCY-CASE FOR ACTION IN LOW CO2 WORLD

250
Energy Break-Even Thermal EOR is Energy Intensive

CO2 intensity (kg/bo)


200  Heat mostly rock
Thermal Input

150 Key Efficiency Factors


100  Reservoir Pressure
 Resource Richness
50  Reservoir Thickness
0 CO2 Footprint > 40 kg/bbl oil
0 20 40 60 80 100
Reservoir Pressure (bar)
250 Focus on: 250
CO2 intensity (kg/bo)

CO2 intensity (kg/bo)


200 200
• Recovery Technologies
Thermal Input
Thermal Input

150 150 Improvements


− Incremental
100 − Step Change
100
Improvements
50 50

0 • Process Improvements
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0 10 − 20
Carbon30Capture & Storage,
Reservoir Richness So.phi Reservoir Thickness (m)
− Solar Steam 8
EOR Technology Maturity – Application to Heavy Oil

Commercial Technology
Steam (SF, CSS, SAGD)
Process Miscible
Maturity Steam additives (Foam, Solvents)
Polymer Flooding
Thermal GOGD
In-Situ Combustion / HPAI
In Testing Alkaline Surfactant Polymer
Low Salinity Waterflooding
In-situ Upgrading Process
Contaminated / Acid Gas inj.
Joule Heating / EM Heating
VAPEX / Condensing Pure Solvent
Low Maturity
Novel Solvents
Faint colour = N/A for HO
Cyclic Solvents

Foam Underlined = Lower


Microbial Energy

Time
9
R&D RECOVERY TECHNOLOGIES – HEAVY OIL & BITUMEN
R&D Focus
 Reduce CO2 footprint of Heavy Oil and Bitumen recovery
 Unlock stranded Assets
 Thin reservoirs / Low quality reservoirs
 Fractured Carbonates Mature
Breakthrough Improvements Incremental Improvements
1. Pure solvents (VAPEX & 4. Solvent assisted (like
improvements) ES-SAGD)
2. Electro Magnetic heating  Steam foam
& hybrids (3 types)  Hybrids (e.g. with In-
3. Polymer situ combustion)
 Surfactants  In-Situ upgrading
10
PURE SOLVENTS

Solvent: “A usually liquid substance capable of dissolving or


dispersing one or more other substances”

Dissolve: “To mix with a liquid and become part of the liquid”

Examples of Pure Solvents (Single component):


Propane
Butane
Pentane P
Chloroform
Ether L
Toluene V
Carbon di-sulfide
Di-chloromethane T
Etc.

11
HOW CAN VAPEX BE IMPROVED?

Unsuccessful VAPEX Field  Vapour solvent


Pilots diffusion into viscous
 e.g. Dover HO / bitumen is slow:

Tabs
D
mbit rsolv

 Methane & NCG


(solution gas)
“poisons” the process
12
SOLVENT EXTRACTION USING LIQUID SOLVENT IS FAST
1E-3
 Bitumen diffusion into liquid Total fluid flux
solvent is fast: D  Tabs m solv rbit  1E-4 Bitumen flux

Flux [ kg/ m2.s ]


1E-5
 Convective dispersion refreshes
solvent front 1E-6

1E+6 1E-7 Gravity


Drainage
1E+5 1E-8
Fluxes
Mass Flux [ g/m2.h ]

1E+4 1E-9
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
1E+3 Solvent mass fraction
Sand Packs
1E+2 NEI Sand Pack,2008
Hele Shaw Solvent is a pure
1E+1 Nsolv, prediction
VAPEX paraffinic H.C.
outliers
1E+0
VAPEX, prediction (e.g, C3, C4 or C5)
1E-2 1E-1 1E+0 1E+1 1E+2 1E+3 1E+4 1E+5 1E+6 1E+7
m/k.f [ cP/Darcy ]
13
Ref. Nenniger PETSOC 2008-139
TECHNOLOGY – CONDENSING SOLVENTS

Technology 100
Solvent at 40-60ºC instead of Steam

CO2 (kg/bbl oil)


80 STEAM
Fast extraction at Solvent interface 60
Upgraded product (less asphaltenes) 40

Small inventory (vapour) 20 Condensing


0 Solvent
Business Impact 0 100 200 300
Extraction Temperature (°C)
(comparison with Steam)
5x lower energy & GHG
Faster than SAGD, similar R.F.
50% lower Capex: (no water, no water use)
Applicable to low So, thinner resource (~5 m)
Commercialisation
Pilot & Demonstration by Technology Providers
Ref. N-solv website 14
SOLVENT EXTRACTION – FIELD TRIALS

 Nsolv pilot: Bitumen Extraction  Imperial: Cyclic Solvent Pilot


Solvent Technology

 SAGD Well Configuration  Reservoir Conditions 31 Bar / 19 C


 Operate 30-50 °C above Treservoir  Propane + diluent
 Faster than Steam Extraction  100,000 to 200,000 bbl/well; 5 cycles
 Produce Upgraded Product  Claim to have solution to manage
unstable displacement
Ref. AER website, N-solv website
IPTC 18214 Boone et.al 15
ELECTRIC HEATING

16
FORMATION ELECTRICAL HEATING – 4 PROCESSES

Resistive – IUP process (Shell) Electro-thermal – (ET Energy)


GE GE ~ Hz
~ Hz

Production
Overburden Overburden well

Reservoir Reservoir
HEATING ELEMENT
Current
Electrode Electrode
Heating by Thermal Conduction Deep Heating by Ohmic Heating
of Formation Water
Induction – (Siemens) High Frequency (RF) – (Harris)
GHF ~ kHz GHF ~ MHz

Overburden Overburden

Reservoir Reservoir
CABLE LOOP ANTENNA

Heating by Eddy Currents in Di-Electric Heating of Formation


Formation Water where Formation Water
has Evaporated 17
Process – Formation “Joule” Heating (50-60 Hz)
ET Energy Vertical Well Pilot success (2011)
 Drill electrodes wells (around 25 m spacing)
 Apply e-power and pre-heat to 60-110 C
 1-2 years at 5A/m, Uniform Heating
 Produce oil by thermal expansion (5-10% OIP)
 Produce oil by (Foamy) Solution Gas Drive (15-25% OIP)
 Produce oil by EOR displacement method

Technology Challenges:
• Electrode Design not Mature
• Cooling of Electrode may be required
• Current Uniformity along Electrode

McGee JCPT Jan 2007, V46 #1


18
SPE 117470 McGee,
POLYMER FOR HEAVY OIL

19
Polymer for Heavy Oil EOR
Reduce Waterflood Mobility Ratio by increasing Viscosity of
Displacing Water (HPAM – Hydrolized PolyAcrylaMide)
 Mitigates Heterogeneity, Stabilises Injection Conformance

Polymer applications for typical Heavy Oil (benign conditions):


 Low Temperature T < 70-80 C
 Low Salinity environment <10,000 ppm TDS
 Medium/High Permeability K > 50 mD
 Polymers available with demonstrated stability at low cost and
ease of handling, i.e. HPAM
 Low/Medium Viscosity < 100 cP

CNRL & Cenovus apply polymer at large scale in Pelican Lake /


Brintnell field (next slide). They do not target stable displacement.

Research: increase flooding temperature to ~70C instead of 20C


20
POLYMER FOR HEAVY OIL & BITUMEN (CNRL – BRINTNEL)

Formation: Whabasca
Thickness: 3-6 m
Well Length (I&P): 1500 m+
Live Oil Viscosity: 900 cP
Polymer Viscosity: 25 cP
Breakthrough polymer: 6 cP in 1.5 y

WaterFlood comparison:
Mobility Ratio: 250 10
Microscopic U.R.@ BT: 21%  50%

0.7
Microscopic Recovery

0.6
0.5
BTp
0.4
Polymer 0.3
Conversion 0.2 BTw Np (WaterFlood)
0.1
Np (Polymer)
0
Ref. AER public website
SPE 165234 Delamaide
0 0.5 PV Inj. 1 1.5 21
STEAM + SOLVENTS

22
EXPANDING SOLVENT-SAGD INDUSTRY MOMENTUM
60% Bitumen Uplift (%) Finished, ongoing and planned
SOR Improvement (%)
30% ES-SAGD field tests & LASER CL SAP
Butane
0% Great Divide Algar SAGD+ Germain
Condensate SC-SAGD 4WPs

Firebag - 2days Long Lake SCI


Diluent Pad13 2WPs

GD Algar SAGD+
Cold Lake LASER - Commercial Condensate Peace River G
Condensate ~ 240 wells Steam Drive A
Pad19 diluent R
Christina Lake = CL CL CondenSAP
G
SAP Condensate 5wt%

Firebag Jackfish
Sour naphtha multiple WPs
CL SAP
Senlac SAP Long Lake Butane Surmont E-SAGD
Butane NGL mix; Ops.Upsets
Cold Lake
Cold Lake LASER CL SAP SA-SAGD Diluent Leismer SCIP
Condensate Chamber merged Diluent

Nasr JCPT Jan 2003 V42 #1


Success / Fail / Ongoing 23
Leaute JCPT Sep 2007 V46 #9
Viscosity Model to Accurately Fit Lab Data
Data & model on Bitumen
Peace River Bitumen blended
Data blended with condensate
with Condensate
1,000,000.

0%wt
Viscosity mixing rules 5%wt
2 ( A1  A2 ) 12
100,000.
Amix based
ideal
Amix on
w1wWalther 10%wt
20%wt
mix  w1 w2 ( B1  B2 ) 12
Bmix  B relationship
ideal
10,000. 30%wt
59%wt
100%wt
Viscosty (mPa.s)

AARD = 11%
1,000.
MARD=33%

100.

10.

1.

0.1
20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
Temperature ( C)

SPE-160314 Yarranton et.al. M/AARD=Max/Avg Absolute value Relative Deviation 24


ES-SAGD RECOVERY MECHANISM
First drop of Solvent Solvent condensation and
water evaporation mixing with remaining bitumen
Temperature

HOT MOBILE IMMOBILE


STEAM BITUMEN BITUMEN
FRONT
Bitumen
Flux
Initial reservoir
Temperature
Non-condensable gas
Water condensation
Solvent
Gas + aqueous phase evaporation
STEAM
CHAMBER
SOLVENT
HEAT
INJ. FLOW

PROD. Water wet rock + Remaining oil Reduced remaining


bitumen saturation oil saturation 25
ES-SAGD TIMING OF DILUENT SLUG ADDITION (10%WT)
100% -100%
Modelling Results

Recovery
80% -80%

Bitumen
60% -60% Bitumen-SAGD
40% -40% Bitumen-Late Slug
20% -20% Bitumen-Early Slug
0% 0%
Abandon @ OSR=0.13
-20% 20%
Recovery

-40% 40% Late Slug (wt%)


Diluent
Solvent
Diluent

-60% 60% Early Slug (wt%)


Diluent
-80% 80% Solvent R.F.-Late Slug
-100% 100%
0 5 10 15 20 25 Solvent R.F.-Early Slug
Year

cOSR Net Solvent Efficiency R.F. Diluent U.R. Bitumen


(v/v) (V oil / V solvent retained) (%) (%)
SAGD 0.21 79
Late Slug 0.28 6.6 93 82
Early Slug 0.33 6.1 95 83 26
Reservoir Modelling

27
Reservoir Simulation Challenges
 Use of 9-pt scheme in Dynamic
LGR (local grid refinement)

 Unstructured Grids to reduce


orientation effects
 Convective dispersion as a
mixing mechanism in miscible
displacement
 Very thin solvent interfaces  Include Maxwell’s

 Diffusion dependent on (T, c); Electromagnetic Equations in


diffusive flux between phases Thermal Reservoir Simulator
SPE 141711 Batenburg et.al. 28
CONCLUSIONS
 Breakthrough technologies and incremental improvements to steam
injection result in significant environmental footprint (CO2) reductions
 Steam Recovery Processes are here to stay, but with 30%-50% efficiency
improvements (adding solvents or foam to the steam)
 Promising technologies aim at lower reservoir operating temperatures to 40-100
°C (polymer flooding; pure solvent extraction; electric heating)

 Some of these technologies are mature and can be selected


 Pure Solvent Extraction and Electrical heating are being demonstrated.

 Modelling the solvent processes and electric heating processes require


significant enhancements to modelling technology

 Vast Heavy Oil resources worldwide (10,000 billion Bbls), but


underdeveloped
 Developments are economically challenged without innovative solutions
29
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QUESTIONS ?
Abbreviations Recovery Processes
CNRL = Canadian natural resources Ltd. CSS = cyclic steam stimulation
CWE = cold water equivalent ES-SAGD= expanding solvent SAGD
EM = electromagnetic heating GOGD = gas-oil gravity drainage
EOR = enhanced oil recovery HPAI = high pressure air injection
GHG = green house gas IUP = in-situ upgrading process
H.C. = hydrocarbon LASER = liquid addition to steam to
HO = heavy oil enhance recovery
HPAM = Hydrolized Poly AcrylaMide SA-SAGD= solvent aided SAGD
NCG = non condensable gas SAGD = steam assisted gravity
NGL = natural gas liquids drainage
OSR = oil – steam ratio (v/v) SAP = solvent aided process
RF = radio frequency SC-SAGD= solvent cyclic SAGD
SOR = steam – oil ratio SCIP = solvent co-injection pilot
TDS = total dissolved solids SF = steam flooding
U.R. = ultimate recovery VAPEX = vapour assisted petroleum
WP = well pair (in SAGD) extraction

An e-list with ±100 literature references with local SPE section 31


ABSTRACT & BIO
Abstract: Heavy Oil recovery traditionally starts with depletion drive and (natural)
waterdrive with very low recoveries as a result. As EOR technique, steam injection has
been matured since the 1950s using CSS (cyclic steam stimulation), steam drive or steam
flooding, and SAGD (steam assisted gravity drainage). The high energy cost of heating up
the oil bearing formation to steam temperature and the associated high CO2 footprint
make steam based technology less attractive today and many companies in the industry
have been actively trying to find alternatives or improvements. As a result there are now
many more energy efficient recovery technologies that can unlock heavy oil resources
compared with only a decade ago. This presentation will discuss breakthrough
alternatives to steam based recovery as well as incremental improvement options to
steam injection techniques. The key message is the importance to consider these
techniques because steam injection is costly and has a high CO2 footprint.

Bio: Johan van Dorp holds an MSc in Experimental Physics from Utrecht University and
joined Shell in 1981. He has served on several international assignments, mainly in
petroleum and reservoir engineering roles. He recently led the extra heavy-oil research
team at the Shell Technology Centre in Calgary, focusing on improved in-situ heavy-oil
recovery technologies. Van Dorp also was Shell Group Principal Technical Expert in
Thermal EOR and has been involved with most thermal projects in Shell throughout the
world, including in California, Oman, the Netherlands, and Canada. He retired from Shell
after more than 35 years in Oct 2016. Van Dorp (co-)authored 13 SPE papers on diverse
subjects.

32
LITERATURE LIST (1)
I. Condensing Solvents
• Dunn, S.G., Nenniger, E.H., Rajan, V.S.V., “A Study of Bitumen Recovery by Gravity Drainage Using Low
• Temperature Soluble Gas Injection”, The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 67, 978-991, Dec 1989.
• Butler, R. M., & Mokrys, I. J. (1991, January 1). A New Process (VAPEX) For Recovering Heavy Oils Using Hot Water And
Hydrocarbon Vapour. Petroleum Society of Canada. doi:10.2118/91-01-09
• Butler, R. M., Mokrys, I. J., & Das, S. K. (1995, January 1). The Solvent Requirements for Vapex Recovery. Society of
Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/30293-MS
• Das, S. K. (1998, September 1). Vapex: An Efficient Process for the Recovery of Heavy Oil and Bitumen. Society of
Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/50941-PA
• Nenniger, J. E., & Dunn, S. G. (2008, January 1). How Fast is Solvent Based Gravity Drainage? Petroleum Society of
Canada. doi:10.2118/2008-139
• Nenniger, J. E., & Gunnewiek, L. (2009, January 1). Dew Point vs Bubble Point: A Misunderstood Constraint on Gravity
Drainage Processes. Petroleum Society of Canada. doi:10.2118/2009-065
• Alkindi, A. S., Muggeridge, A. H., & Al-Wahaibi, Y. M. (2010, January 1). Experimental Investigation into the Influence of
Convective Dispersion and Model Height on Oil Drainage Rates during VAPEX. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
doi:10.2118/129169-MS
• Alkindi, A. S., Al-Wahaibi, Y. M., & Muggeridge, A. (2008, January 1). An Experimental Investigation into the Influence of
Diffusion and Dispersion on Heavy Oil Recovery by VAPEX. International Petroleum Technology Conference.
doi:10.2523/IPTC-12710-MS
• Alkindi, A., Al-Wahaibi, Y., & Muggeridge, A. (2011, June 1). Experimental and Numerical Investigations Into Oil-Drainage
Rates During Vapor Extraction of Heavy Oils. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/141053-PA
• Frauenfeld, T., Jossy, C., Jossy, E., Wasylyk, B., & Meza Diaz, B. (2012, January 1). Experimental Evaluation of
Dispersion and Diffusion in UTF Bitumen/n-Butane System. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/157904-MS
• Ghesmat, K., “In-Situ Solvent-Assisted Gravity Drainage of Bitumen: Nonlinear Numerical Analysis, SPE journal Feb
2014, 109-121 (SPE 165579)

33
LITERATURE LIST (2)
I. Electrical Heating
Joule Heating
• Vermeulen, F.E., Chute, F.S., “Electromagnetic Techniques in the In-Situ Recovery of Heavy Oils”, Journal of Microwave
Power, 18(1), 1983.
• Chute, F.S., Vermeulen, F.E., “Present and Potential Applications of Electromagnetic Heating in the In-Situ Recovery of Oil”,
AOSTRA Journal of Research, 4 (1988), 19-33.
• Glandt, C. A., & Chia-Fu, H. (1992, January 1). Electric Preheating in Low-Injectivity Tar Sand Deposits. Society of
Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/24165-MS
• McGee, B. C. W., Vermeulen, F. E., & Yu, L. (1999, March 1). Field Test of Electrical Heating With Horizontal And Vertical
Wells. Petroleum Society of Canada. doi:10.2118/99-03-04
• Sahni, A., Kumar, M., & Knapp, R. B. (2000, January 1). Electromagnetic Heating Methods for Heavy Oil Reservoirs.
Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/62550-MS
• Vermeulen, F., & McGee, B. (2000, August 1). In-Situ Electromagnetic Heating for Hydrocarbon Recovery and
Environmental Remediation. Petroleum Society of Canada. doi:10.2118/00-08-DAS
• McGee, B.C.W., Vermeulen, F.E., ”Power Losses in Steel Pipe Delivering Very Large Currents”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON
POWER DELIVERY, 17(1), p25-32, 2002
• McGee, B. C. W., & Vermeulen, F. E. (2007, January 1). The Mechanisms of Electrical Heating For the Recovery of
Bitumen From Oil Sands. Petroleum Society of Canada. doi:10.2118/07-01-03
• McGee, B. C. W., McDonald, C. W., & Little, L. (2008, January 1). Electro-Thermal Dynamic Stripping Process- Integrating
Environmentalism with Bitumen Production. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/117470-MS
• McGee, B. C. W., & Donaldson, R. D. (2009, January 1). Heat Transfer Fundamentals for Electro-thermal Heating of Oil
Reservoirs. Petroleum Society of Canada. doi:10.2118/2009-204
• Arora, D. et.al., “Systems and Methods for Treating a Subsurface Formation with Electrical Conductors”, Patent CA 3 739
039
• Lashgari, H., Delshad, M., Sepehrnoori, K., & De Rouffignac, E. P. (2014, June 10). Development of Electrical Joule’’s
Heating Simulation for Heavy Oil Reservoirs. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/170173-MS

34
LITERATURE LIST (3)
I. Electrical Heating
Induction heating
• Koolman, M., Huber, N., Diehl, D., & Wacker, B. (2008, January 1). Electromagnetic Heating Method to Improve Steam
Assisted Gravity Drainage. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/117481-MS
• Wacker, B., Karmeileopardus, D., Trautmann, B., Helget, A., & Torlak, M. (2011, January 1). Electromagnetic Heating for In-
Situ Production of Heavy Oil and Bitumen Reservoirs. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/148932-MS

RF Heating
• Bermudez, J. M., Acosta, W., Andarcia, L., Suarez, A. F., Vaca, P., Pasalic, D., & Okoniewski, M. (2014, September 24).
Assisted Extra Heavy Oil Sampling by Electromagnetic Heating. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/171073-MS
• Ghannadi, S., Irani, M., & Chalaturnyk, R. J. (2014, June 10). Induction and Radio Frequency Heating Strategies for Steam-
Assisted Gravity Drainage Start-Up Phase. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/170037-MS
• Despande, S.R., Wright, B.N., Watt, A., 2015. “Techniques for Installing Effective Solvent Extraction Incorporating
Electromagnetic Heating (“ESEIEH”) Completions”, WHOC15-317, Edmonton, Alberta.
• Wise, S., & Patterson, C. (2016, June 7). Reducing Supply Cost With EseiehTM Pronounced Easy. Society of Petroleum
Engineers. doi:10.2118/180729-MS
• http://www.acceleware.com/

35
LITERATURE LIST (4)
I. III. Enhanced Waterflood
Polymer
• Beliveau, D. (2009, October 1). Waterflooding Viscous Oil Reservoirs. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/113132-
PA
• Delamaide, E., Zaitoun, A., Renard, G., Tabary, R.,” Pelican Lake Polymer Flood - First Successful Application in a High
Viscosity Reservoir”, EAGE 17th European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, St.Petersburg, Russia, April 2013, B33.
• Delamaide, E., Zaitoun, A., Renard, G., & Tabary, R. (2013, July 2). Pelican Lake Field: First Successful Application of
Polymer Flooding in a Heavy Oil Reservoir. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/165234-MS
• Delamaide, E., Bazin, B., Rousseau, D., & Degre, G. (2014, March 31). Chemical EOR for Heavy Oil: The Canadian
Experience. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/169715-MS
• RODRIGUEZ MANRIQUE, F., Rousseau, D., Bekri, S., Djabourov, M., & Bejarano, C. A. (2014, December 8). Polymer
Flooding for Extra-Heavy Oil: New Insights on the Key Polymer Transport Properties in Porous Media. Society of Petroleum
Engineers. doi:10.2118/172850-MS
• http://www.snf-group.com/about-us

Chemical
• Fortenberry, R. P., Kim, D. H., Nizamidin, N., Adkins, S., Pinnawala Arachchilage, G. W. P., Koh, H. S., … Pope, G. A.
(2013, September 30). Use of Co-Solvents to Improve Alkaline-Polymer Flooding. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
doi:10.2118/166478-MS
• Taghavifar, M., Fortenberry, R. P., De Rouffignac, E., Sepehrnoori, K., & Pope, G. A. (2014, June 10). Hybrid Thermal-
Chemical Processes (HTCP) for Heavy-Oil and Oil-Sand Recovery. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/170161-
MS
• Vermolen, E. C. M., Pingo Almada, M., Wassing, B. M., Ligthelm, D. J., & Masalmeh, S. K. (2014, January 19). Low-Salinity
Polymer Flooding: Improving Polymer Flooding Technical Feasibility and Economics by Using Low-Salinity Make-up Brine.
International Petroleum Technology Conference. doi:10.2523/IPTC-17342-MS
• Aminzadeh, B., Hoang, V., Inouye, A., Izgec, O., Walker, D., Chung, D., … Dwarakanath, V. (2016, April 11). Improving
Recovery of a Viscous Oil Using Optimized Emulsion Viscosity. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/179698-MS

36
LITERATURE LIST (5)
IIV. Steam-Solvent
Viscosity
• Larter, S. R., Adams, J., Gates, I. D., Bennett, B., & Huang, H. (2006, January 1). The Origin, Prediction and Impact of Oil
Viscosity Heterogeneity on the Production Characteristics of Tar Sand and Heavy Oil Reservoirs. Petroleum Society of
Canada. doi:10.2118/2006-134 or /08-01-52
• Gates, I. D., Adams, J., & Larter, S. (2007, January 1). The Impact of Oil Viscosity Heterogeneity on the Production
Characteristics of Tar Sand and Heavy Oil Reservoirs. Part II: Intelligent, Geotailored Recovery Processes in
Compositionally Graded Reservoirs. Petroleum Society of Canada. doi:10.2118/2007-023 or /08-09-40
• Larter, S. R., Gates, I. D., & Adams, J. J. (2008, January 1). From Steam Towards Sustainability! Possible Transition
Technologies For the Heavy Oil And Bitumen Industry. Petroleum Society of Canada. doi:10.2118/2008-133
• Huang, H., Bennett, B., Oldenburg, T., Adams, J., & Larter, S. (2006, January 1). Geological Controls on the Origin of
Heavy Oil and Tar Sands and Their Impacts on In Situ Recovery. Petroleum Society of Canada. doi:10.2118/2006-045 or
/08-04-37
• Yarranton, H., van Dorp, J., Verlaan, M., & Lastovka, V. (2013, May 1). Wanted Dead or Live: Crude-Cocktail Viscosity--A
Pseudocomponent Method to Predict the Viscosity of Dead Oils, Live Oils, and Mixtures. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
doi:10.2118/160314-PA

General
• Ziritt, J. L., and Burger, J., "Combined Steam and Solvent Injection", 2nd International Conference on the Future of Heavy
Crude and Tar Sands, UNITAR ( Feb. 7 17, 1982) Caracas, Venezuela, 760-772.
• Bracho, L. G., & Oquendo, O. A. (1991, January 1). Steam-Solvent Injection, Well LSJ-4057, Tia Juana Field, Western
Venezuela. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/21530-MS

ES-SAGD
• Nasr, T. N., Beaulieu, G., Golbeck, H., & Heck, G. (2003, January 1). Novel Expanding Solvent-SAGD Process “ES-SAGD.”
Petroleum Society of Canada. doi:10.2118/03-01-TN
• Khaledi, R. R., Beckman, M. S., Pustanyk, K., Mohan, A., Wattenbarger, C. C., Dickson, J. L., & Boone, T. T. (2012,
January 1). Physical Modeling of Solvent-Assisted SAGD. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/150676-MS
• Dittaro, L. M., Dickson, J. L., & Boone, T. J. (2013, June 11). Integrating the Key Learnings from Laboratory, Simulation, and
Field Tests to Assess the Potential for Solvent Assisted - Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
doi:10.2118/165485-MS
• Khaledi, R., Boone, T. J., Motahhari, H. R., & Subramanian, G. (2015, June 9). Optimized Solvent for Solvent Assisted-
Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SA-SAGD) Recovery Process. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/174429-MS 37
LITERATURE LIST (6)
IIV. Steam-Solvent (cont.)

LASER
• Leaute, R. P. (2002, January 1). Liquid Addition to Steam for Enhancing Recovery (LASER) of Bitumen with CSS: Evolution
of Technology from Research Concept to a Field Pilot at Cold Lake. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/79011-MS
• Leaute, R. P., & Carey, B. S. (2005, January 1). Liquid Addition to Steam for Enhancing Recovery (LASER) of Bitumen With
CSS: Results From the First Pilot Cycle. Petroleum Society of Canada. doi:10.2118/2005-161
• Leaute, R. P., & Carey, B. S. (2007, September 1). Liquid Addition to Steam for Enhancing Recovery (LASER) of Bitumen
with CSS: Results from the First Pilot Cycle. Petroleum Society of Canada. doi:10.2118/07-09-01

Steam Drive
• Lastovka, V., Hooijkaas, T., van Dorp, J.J., Verlaan, M., “Experimental Investigation of Solvent Addition to Vertical Steam
Drive (VSD) as an Improved Method for Thermal Recovery of Extra-heavy Oil/Bitumen”, EAGE 18th European Symposium
on Improved Oil Recovery, Dresden, Germany, April 2015, B15.
• Castellanos-Diaz, O., Verlaan, M. L., & Hedden, R. (2016, March 21). Solvent Enhanced Steam Drive: Results from the
First Field Pilot in Canada. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/179815-MS
• Hedden, R., Verlaan, M., & Lastovka, V. (2014, April 12). Solvent Enhanced Steam Drive. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
doi:10.2118/169070-MS
• Verlaan, M. L., Hedden, R., Castellanos Díaz, O., Lastovka, V., & Giraldo Sierra, C. A. (2015, October 11). Solvent
Enhanced Steam Drive: Experiences from the First Field Pilot in Canada. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
doi:10.2118/175414-MS

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LITERATURE LIST (7)
V. Steam-Foam
• Keijzer, P. P. M., Muijs, H. M., Janssen-van, R. R., Teeuw, D., Pino, H., Avila, J., & Rondon, L. (1986, January 1).
Application of Steam Foam in the Tia Juana Field, Venezuela: Laboratory Tests and Field Results. Society of Petroleum
Engineers. doi:10.2118/14905-MS
• Falls, A. H., Lawson, J. B., & Hirasaki, G. J. (1988, January 1). The Role of Noncondensable Gas in Steam Foams. Society
of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/15053-PA
• Muijs, H. M., Keijzer, P. P. M., & Wiersma, R. J. (1988, January 1). Surfactants for Mobility Control in High-Temperature
Steam-Foam Applications. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/17361-MS
• Patzek, T. W., & Koinis, M. T. (1990, April 1). Kern River Steam-Foam Pilots. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
doi:10.2118/17380-PA
• Patzek, T. W., & Myhill, N. A. (1989, January 1). Simulation of the Bishop Steam Foam Pilot. Society of Petroleum
Engineers. doi:10.2118/18786-MS
• Hirasaki, G. J. (1989, May 1). The Steam-Foam Process. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/19505-PA
• Hirasaki, G. J. (1989, January 1). Supplement to SPE 19505, The Steam-Foam Process--Review of Steam-Foam Process
Mechanisms. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
• Kovscek, A. R., Patzek, T. W., & Radke, C. J. (1993, January 1). Simulation of Foam Transport in Porous Media. Society of
Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/26402-MS
• Patzek, T. W. (1996, May 1). Field Applications of Steam Foam for Mobility Improvement and Profile Control. Society of
Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/29612-PA
• Lau, H. C. (2012, August 1). Alkaline Steam Foam: Concepts and Experimental Results. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
doi:10.2118/144968-PA
• Bagheri, S. R., & Clark, H. P. (2015, October 11). Steam-Foam Technology as an Option to Improve Steam Drive Efficiency.
Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/175278-MS

39
LITERATURE LIST (8)
VI. Fractured Carbonates
• Van Wunnik, J. N. M., & Wit, K. (1992, February 1). Improvement of Gravity Drainage by Steam Injection Into a Fractured
Reservoir: An Analytical Evaluation. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/20251-PA
• Shahin, G. T., Moosa, R., Al-Kharusi, B. S., & Chilek, G. (2006, January 1). The Physics of Steam Injection in Fractured
Carbonate Reservoirs: Engineering Development Options That Minimize Risk. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
doi:10.2118/102186-MS
• Boerrigter, P.M., van Dorp, J.J., “Advances in Understanding Thermally Assisted GOGD”, EAGE 15th European
Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Paris, France, April 2009, A15.
• Edmunds, N., Barrett, K., Solanki, S., Cimolai, M., & Wong, A. (2009, September 1). Prospects for Commercial Bitumen
Recovery from the Grosmont Carbonate, Alberta. Petroleum Society of Canada. doi:10.2118/09-09-26
• Hosseininejad Mohebati, M., Yang, D., & MacDonald, J. (2014, July 1). Thermal Recovery of Bitumen From the Grosmont
Carbonate Formation - Part 1: The Saleski Pilot. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/171560-PA
• Yang, D., Hosseininejad Mohebati, M., Brand, S., & Bennett, C. (2014, July 1). Thermal Recovery of Bitumen From the
Grosmont Carbonate Formation—Part 2: Pilot Interpretation and Development Strategy. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
doi:10.2118/171561-PA
• Niz-Velasquez, E., Bagheri, S. R., van Dorp, J. J., Verlaan, M. L., & Jennings, J. W. (2014, July 1). Modelling
Development of a Thermal Gas/Oil Gravity-Drainage Process in an Extraheavy-Oil Fractured Reservoir. Society of
Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/169031-PA
• Roberts, B., & Hamida, T. (2014, July 1). Recovery of Bitumen From a Carbonate Reservoir by Thermal-Assisted Gravity
Drainage (TAGD). Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/171562-PA
• Yang, D., Hosseininejad, M., Stewart, D., & Brand, S. (2015, June 9). Type Curves for Cyclic Steam Operations in the
Grosmont Saleski Pilot and Their Implications for Recovery Mechanisms. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
doi:10.2118/174448-MS

40
LITERATURE LIST (9)
VII. Modelling
• Van Heel, A. P., Boerrigter, P. M., & van Dorp, J. J. (2008, August 1). Thermal and Hydraulic Matrix-Fracture Interaction in
Dual-Permeability Simulation. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/102471-PA
• Liu, K., Subramanian, G., Dratler, D. I., Lebel, J.-P., & Yerian, J. A. (2009, June 1). A General Unstructured-Grid, Equation-
of-State-Based, Fully Implicit Thermal Simulator for Complex Reservoir Processes. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
doi:10.2118/106073-PA
• Wong, A. H. W., & Edmunds, N. R. (2010, January 1). Numerical Simulation of the Solvent Drainage Process. Society of
Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/137721-MS
• Van Batenburg, D. W., Bosch, M., Boerrigter, P. M., De Zwart, A. H., & Vink, J. C. (2011, January 1). Application of
Dynamic Gridding Techniques to IOR/EOR-Processes. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/141711-MS
• Bogdanov, I., Torres, J., & Corre, B. (2012, January 1). Numerical Simulation of Electromagnetic Driven Heavy Oil
Recovery. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/154140-MS
• Cuthiell, D., & Edmunds, N. (2013, May 1). Thoughts on Simulating the VAPEX Process. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
doi:10.2118/158499-PA
• Ghesmat, K. (2014, February 1). In-Situ, Solvent-Assisted Gravity Drainage of Bitumen: Nonlinear Numerical Analysis.
Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/165579-PA
• Pasalic, D., Vaca., P., Okoniewski, M., “Modelling EM Assisted Oil Recovery”, International Conference on
Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications (ICEAA), Aug 2014.

VIII. Solar Steam


• Van Heel, A. P., Van Wunnik, J. N. M., Bentouati, S., & Terres, R. (2010, January 1). The Impact Of Daily And Seasonal
Cycles In Solar-Generated Steam On Oil Recovery. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/129225-MS
• Palmer, D., & O’Donnell, J. (2014, March 31). Construction, Operations and Performance of the First Enclosed Trough
Solar Steam Generation Pilot for EOR Applications. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/169745-MS
• Chaar, M., Venetos, M., Dargin, J., & Palmer, D. (2015, December 1). Economics Of Steam Generation For Thermal
Enhanced Oil Recovery. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/172004-PA
• Testa, D., L. Carnelli, L., Corso, G., Lazzari, C., De Simoni, M., Sassi, G., Tegami, A., “Concentrating Solar Power Applied
to EOR: High Temperature Fluid Circulation for Enhancing the Recovery of Heavy Oil”, 12th Offshore Mediterranean
Conference and Exhibition in Ravenna, Italy, March 25-27, 2015.

41
LITERATURE LIST (10)
IX. Miscellaneous
• Belgrave, J. D. M., Nzekwu, B. I., & Chhina, H. S. (2007, January 1). SAGD Optimization With Air Injection. Society of
Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/106901-MS
• Freeman, L.W., Nzekwu, B.I., Belgrave, J.D.M., “A Breath of Fresh Air – EnCana’s Gas Displacement Solution to the Gas
Over Bitumen Issue”, World Heavy Oil Congress Edmonton, March 2008, WHOC08-497
• Boone, T.J., Sampath, K., Courtnage, D.E., “Assessment of GHG emissions associated with in-situ heavy oil recovery
processes”, World Heavy Oil Congress, Aberdeen, Schotland, 2012, WHOC12-412
• Boone, T. T., Wattenbarger, C. C., Clingman, S., & Dickson, J. L. (2011, January 1). An Integrated Technology
Development Plan for Solvent-based Recovery of Heavy Oil. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/150706-MS
• Smith, R. J., Meier, S. W., Adair, N. L., Kushnick, A. P., Leonardi, S. A., Herbolzheimer, E., … Wang, J. (2013, June 11).
Slurrified Heavy Oil Reservoir Extraction (SHORE): A non-thermal, recovery method. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
doi:10.2118/165498-MS
• Boone, T. J., Dickson, J. L., Lu, P., & Elliott, J. (2014, December 10). Development of Solvent and Steam-Solvent Heavy
Oil Recovery Processes Through an Integrated Program of Simulation, Laboratory Testing and Field Trials. International
Petroleum Technology Conference. doi:10.2523/IPTC-18214-MS
• Judzis, A., & Poddar, A. (2012, September 1). R&D Grand Challenges - Reviewing the Five R&D Grand Challenges Plus
One. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/0912-0069-JPT
• Karanikas, J. M. (2012, May 1). Unconventional Resources: Cracking the Hydrocarbon Molecules In Situ. Society of
Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/0512-0068-JPT
• Judzis, A., Felder, R., Curry, D., Seiller, B., Pope, G. A., Burnett, D., … Poddar, A. (2011, January 1). R&D Grand
Challenges - JPT Article Series. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi:10.2118/163061-MS

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