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Product Code

Instruction manual

1 Description 6 Commissioning 11 Components used
2 Specifications 7 Software 12 components‟ manuals
3 Installation requirements 8 Troubleshooting 13 Warranty
4 Packing slip 9 Theory
5 Installation 10 Experiments
Apex Innovations

The setup consists of single cylinder, four stroke, VCR (Variable Compression Ratio)
Diesel engine connected to eddy current type dynamometer for loading. The
compression ratio can be changed without stopping the engine and without altering
the combustion chamber geometry by specially designed tilting cylinder block
arrangement. Setup is provided with necessary instruments for combustion pressure
and crank-angle measurements. These signals are interfaced to computer through
engine indicator for PPV diagrams. Provision is also made for interfacing airflow,
fuel flow, temperatures and load measurement. The set up has stand-alone panel
box consisting of air box, two fuel tanks for duel fuel test, manometer, fuel
measuring unit, transmitters for air and fuel flow measurements, process indicator
and engine indicator. Rotameters are provided for cooling water and calorimeter
water flow measurement.
The setup enables study of VCR engine performance for brake power, indicated
power, frictional power, BMEP, IMEP, brake thermal efficiency, indicated thermal
efficiency, Mechanical efficiency, volumetric efficiency, specific fuel consumption, A/F
ratio and heat balance. Labview based Engine Performance Analysis software
package “EnginesoftLV” is provided for on line performance evaluation.
A computerized Diesel injection pressure measurement is optionally provided.

Schematic arrangement

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Product VCR Engine test setup 1 cylinder, 4 stroke, Diesel
Product code 234
Engine Make Kirloskar, Type 1 cylinder, 4 stroke Diesel, water
cooled, power 3.5 kW at 1500 rpm, stroke 110 mm,
bore 87.5 mm. 661 cc, CR 17.5, Modified to VCR engine
CR range 12 to 18
Dynamometer Type eddy current, water cooled, with loading unit
Propeller shaft With universal joints
Air box M S fabricated with orifice meter and manometer
Fuel tank Capacity 15 lit with glass fuel metering column
Calorimeter Type Pipe in pipe
Piezo sensor Range 5000 PSI, with low noise cable
Crank angle sensor Resolution 1 Deg, Speed 5500 RPM with TDC pulse.
Data acquisition device NI USB-6210, 16-bit, 250kS/s.
Piezo powering unit Make-Cuadra, Model AX-409.
Digital milivoltmeter Range 0-200mV, panel mounted
Temperature sensor Type RTD, PT100 and Thermocouple, Type K
Temperature Type two wire, Input RTD PT100, Range 0–100 Deg C,
transmitter Output 4–20 mA and Type two wire, Input
Thermocouple, Range 0–1200 Deg C, Output 4–20 mA
Load indicator Digital, Range 0-50 Kg, Supply 230VAC
Load sensor Load cell, type strain gauge, range 0-50 Kg
Fuel flow transmitter DP transmitter, Range 0-500 mm WC
Air flow transmitter Pressure transmitter, Range (-) 250 mm WC
Software “EnginesoftLV” Engine performance analysis software
Rotameter Engine cooling 40-400 LPH; Calorimeter 25-250 LPH
Pump Type Monoblock
Overall dimensions W 2000 x D 2500 x H 1500 mm
Optional Computerized Diesel injection pressure measurement

Shipping details
Gross volume 2.46m3, Gross weight 808kg, Net weight 528kg

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Installation requirements
Electric supply
Provide 230 +/- 10 VAC, 50 Hz, single phase electric supply with proper earthing.
(Neutral – Earth voltage less than 5 VAC)
 5A, three pin socket with switch (2 Nos.)

Water supply
Continuous, clean and soft water supply @ 1000 LPH, at 10 m. head. Provide valve
with 1” BSP hose terminal connection

IBM compatible with standard configuration. Typical configuration as follows:
CPU: Pentium 300 GHz, RAM: Min. 512 MB, CD ROM drive, USB Port.
OS: Windows XP + SP2.
Monitor: Screen resolution 1280x1024.

L3300 mm x W3200 mm x H1700 mm (Refer foundation drawings)

Provide suitable drain extension arrangement (Drain pipe 65 NB/2.5” size)

Provide suitable exhaust extension arrangement (Exhaust pipe 32 NB/1.25” size)

Refer foundation drawings Foundation234(1) and Foundation234(2)

Fuel, oil
Diesel@10 lit.
Lubrication Oil @ 3.5 lit. (20W40)

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Packing slip
Total no. of boxes: 9, Volume: 2.02 m3, Gross weight: 744 kg. Net wt. 639 kg
Box Engine set up assembly Gross weight: 444kg
No.1/9 Size W1600xD670xH1120 mm; Volume:1.20m Net weight: 444kg
1 Engine test setup assembly Engine + 1 No.
Box Engine panel box Gross weight: 75kg
No.2/9 Size W990xD475xH500 mm; Volume:0.24m3 Net weight: 52kg
1 Engine panel box assembly 1 No.
Transmitter panel, Fuel pipe, Fuel DP
transmitter, Air transmitter, NI USB 6210, power
supply and wiring, Manometer with PU tube.
Box Engine panel box structure Gross weight: 46kg
No.3/9 Size W800xD475xH500 mm; Volume:0.19m Net weight: 25kg
1 Structure assembly consisting of 1 No.
Rotameters with piping (2)
Dynamometer loading unit clamp (1)
Box Calorimeter Gross weight: 28kg
No.4/9 Size W725xD250xH325 mm; Volume: 0.06m Net weight: 15kg
1 Calorimeter 1 No.
2 Calorimeter support structure with pad 1 No.
Box Exhaust pipe Gross weight: 16kg
No.5/9 Size W900xD200xH200 mm; Volume: 0.04m Net weight: 10kg
1 Exhaust pipe 1 No.
Box Pump Gross weight: 14kg
No.6/9 Size W300xD225xH300 mm; Volume:0.02m Net weight: 7kg
1 Pump 1 No.
Box Battery Gross weight: 25kg
No.7/9 Size W150xD225xH250 mm; Volume:0.01m Net weight: 17kg
1 Battery 1 No.
Box Engine piping Gross weight: 58Kg
No.8/9 Size W1250xD450xH350mm; Volume: 0.20m3 Net weight: 41kg
1 Piping set (14 pieces) 1 No.
Engine water inlet and outlet, Dynamometer
water inlet and outlet, Calorimeter water inlet

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and outlet, Air hose pipe, Pump suction

connection with strainer, Pump outlet, Engine
water inlet and outlet hose, Water supply hose
pipe, Drain pipe (3 components)
2 Fuel Glass tube 2Nos (one spare) 1 No.
3 Funnel for fuel fill 1 No.
4 Wiring PVC channel set (4 pieces) 1 No.
5 Starting kick/Handle 1 No.
6 Exhaust extension pipe with socket 1 No.
7 Pump bracket 1 No.
8 Air box connection 1 No.
9 Calorimeter exhaust outlet flange 1 No.
Box Engine wiring Gross weight: 38kg
No.9/9 Size W500xD400xH300 mm; Volume:0.06m Net weight: 18kg
1 Piezo powering unit 1 No.
2 Load indicator 1 No.
3 Digital voltmeter 1 No.
4 Dynamometer loading unit 1 No.
5 Pressure gauge 1 No.
6 Wiring set 1 No.
7 Load cell with nut bolt 1 No.
8 Crank angle sensor 1 No.
9 Temperature sensors (5) 1 No.
10 Piezo sensor 1/2Nos.
11 Low noise cable 1/2Nos.
12 Data acquisition device and driver CD 1 No.
13 Apex Enginesoft DVD CD 1 No.
14 Set of loose nut bolts 1 No.
15 Tool kit 1 No.
16 Dash board box for Engine starter with charger 1 No.
17 Fuel caps(2), Teflon tape(2) & Gasket shellac(1) 1 No.
18 Set of instruction manuals consisting of: 1 No.
Instruction manual CD (Apex)
DP transmitter
Dynamometer (AG10/TM15)
Sheet Kirloskar engine maint.
Sheet Calibration for Piezo sensor and load cell

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 Unpack the box(es) received and ensure that all material is received as per packing
slip. In case of short supply or breakage contact Apex Innovations / your supplier
for further actions.
 Remove the packings, paper boxes, wrappers from the components.
 Refer the various photographs below and note locations of different components.
 Install Engine setup assembly on the foundation and tighten the foundation bolts.
Note that Crank angle sensor, and Load cell are fitted on the dynamometer and
Piezo sensor is fitted on the engine. The dynamometer body is clamped with its
base by locking flat which is to be removed. There are jack bolts below the
dynamometer which are raised upwards to restrict the swiveling motion. These
bolts to be lowered to allow free motion of the body of the dynamometer.

 Keep Engine panel box structure near Engine setup assembly. Two rotameters are
fitted in the panel box structure. Inside the rotameters plastic rods are inserted to
arrest the movement of respective floats. These rods are to be removed. Note the
C type clamp provided for clamping the dynamometer loading unit.
 Collect the Calorimeter and Calorimeter structure from Calorimeter box. Remove
calorimeter from the structure, reverse the structure and put it near engine. Fit
calorimeter over the structure.

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 Collect the Engine Panel Box. It is fitted with Fuel pipe (Glass), Manometer, Fuel
DP transmitter, Air transmitter, Orifice for air metering, Transmitter panel(fitted
with Power supply and five Temperature transmitters ), NI-6210 USB interface
with cable for computer.
 Check all terminal connections, component mounting and wiring screws
 Fit the Engine panel box assembly on the Panel box structure with four bolts.

 Collect Piezo powering unit (Ax409), Dynamometer loading unit (AX155), Load
indicator (PIC152), Digital voltmeter (SMP35) from “Engine wiring” box.

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 Remove the covers of Piezo powering unit and Dynamometer loading unit and
confirm that all components inside are at proper location and tightly fitted. Remove
any packing material inside dynamometer loading unit. Confirm smooth working of
loading knob on its front. The cover of the dynamometer loading unit is to be fitted
after inserting the unit in the Engine panel support structure
 Fit the Piezo powering unit (AX409) and put its clamps. Connect Electric supply
cables and a 9 pin connector at Output
 Fit load indicator (PIC152) and put its clamps. Connect 8 wires at respective
 Fit Voltmeter (Meco) and put its clamps. Connect 4 wires at the back terminals.
 Fit Dynamometer loading unit in the Engine panel structure after removing C
clamp. Fit its cover and then fit the C clamp.

 Remove the Exhaust pipe packed in wooden box placed inside “Engine piping” box
and connect it between calorimeter exhaust inlet and engine exhaust outlet.
 Connect Exhaust extension pipe at the outlet of calorimeter. Insert additional pipe
in between and take the exhaust out of the room. At the end put Exhaust muffler.
 Remove Pump packed in wooden box placed inside “Engine piping”. Fit Pump
bracket to the Engine panel structure and fit pump on it.
 Collect the piping pieces form “Engine piping box”. Clean the pipes internally to
remove any dust and particles. Complete the piping as follows:
o Assemble the PVC drain pipes (3 components) as per the marking done. Put
it between Engine panel and Engine set up assembly.

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o Connect Engine water inlet from engine cooling rotameter to water inlet on
engine body. Separate Engine water inlet hose pipe with clamps is provided
for connecting the engine side end of the pipe.
o Connect Engine water outlet. Connect Engine water outlet hose between the
outlet pipe and engine body. The Outlet pipe is to bolted on the base frame
and the water outlet drains in drain pipe.
o Fit Pump outlet at the delivery side of the pump. Connect Rotameter inlet
hose pipes to the pump outlet.
o Connect Dynamometer water inlet from Pump inlet to dynamometer.
o Connect Dynamometer water outlet from dynamometer to drain pipe.
o Connect Calorimeter inlet from rotameter to calorimeter.
o Connect Calorimeter water outlet to drain.
o Fit Strainer and hose nipple at the pump inlet and connect Water supply
hose pipe. Connect this hose pipe to site water supply.
o Fit Air box connection to air box and connect Air hose pipe from air box to
o The fuel pipe is put on engine and its one end is connected to fuel filter.
Connect the other end in the engine panel at the brass hose tee in the fuel
line. The fuel line is to be routed through the wiring channels.

 Fit Pressure gauge on dynamometer inlet pipe.

 Fit wiring PVC channel set.
 Collect the wiring set from Sensors bag and fit 5 temp sensors at respective
places. (i) RTD T1/T3 at the inlet water at pump outlet. (ii) RTD T2 at the Engine
outlet water on the engine head. (iii) RTD T4 at the calorimeter water outlet. (iv)

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Thermocouple T5 at the Exhaust inlet of calorimeter and (v) Thermocouple T6 at

the exhaust outlet of calorimeter. Route the wiring from PVC wiring channels.

 Collect Electric supply cable packed in packing (named as Sensors) and connect L
N E terminals to the transmitter panel at supply 230V. Connect its 3 pin (F)
connector to Dynamometer loading unit at Supply. Connect male 3 pin connector
to Elelctric supply available at the site. Route the cable through wiring channel.
 Connect cable from Crank angle sensor, 4 pin round (F), to CA of Piezo powering
 Connect cable from Load cell, 4 pin round (F), to Load on transmitter panel.
 Remove black cap on piezo sensor and connect piezo cable to the sensor. Connect
other end of the piezo cable to Piezo powering unit at PZ1.
 Connect dynamometer supply cable, 3 pin(M), to Output VDC of dynamometer
loading unit.
 Take out USB cable from NIUSB 6210 from Engine Panel and connect to Computer.
The cable is short in length. A spare cable of extra length is also supplied.

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 Remove top cover on the rocker box of the engine. Fill lubrication oil (SAE20W40
or equivalent) in the rocker box. About 3.5 lit oil is needed. To reach most of the
oil to oil sump, it is necessary to wait for about 5 minutes, after filling the oil.
Check the oil level by the dip stick provided in the crank case.
 Two fuel tanks are provided on the top portion of the engine panel. You may fill
two different fuels, for testing the fuels. Fill Diesel in one of the fuel tanks or both
tanks. Use Fuel funnel for filling. Put fuel caps on the fuel tanks.
 Open the Fuel cock at the outlet of the fuel tank in which Diesel is filled. Note the
Fuel in the glass fuel pipe. Remove complete air from the fuel pipe between Engine
panel and Engine setup.
 Air removal from fuel DP: Remove air bubbles from the fuel line connecting to
Fuel DP transmitter. For removing the air loosen the Air vent on the fuel DP
transmitter and allow some fuel to come out from it and then tighten it gently.

 Fill water in the manometer up to “0” mark level.

 Ensure that Jack bolts under dynamometer are lowered for free movement of the
dynamometer body.
 Switch on electric supply of the panel box and ensure that Piezo powering unit,
load indicator and voltmeter are ON.
 TDC adjustment:
o Keep the Decompression lever on the rocker box in vertical position
and rotate the flywheel slowly in clockwise direction (Viewed from
dynamometer end) till the CA mark on the flywheel matches with the
reference pointer provided on the engine body. This rotation
movement should be unidirectional.

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o Check if the TDC light on the Piezo powering unit is lit. If not adjust the
crank angle sensor as follows:
o Loosen the four screws on the flange provided for clamping the
crankangle sensor on the mounting bracket.
o Ensure that crank angle sensor body is free to rotate about its axis.
Rotate the sensor body slowly till the TDC light on the piezo powering
unit glows. Ensure that the flywheel is adjusted for CA mark as
explained above.
o Clamp the four screws on the flange.

 By using multipoint selector switch on the engine panel confirm that all voltage
values are properly displayed. Convert the voltage values in to respective
temperature reading using parameter chart pasted on the panel. The values
displayed should show around ambient temperatures.
 Confirm the load value on the load indicator is zero. Rotate the dynamometer body
so that the nylon bush is pressing the load cell. Ensure that the load vlues on the
load indicator are changing.
 Compression Ratio adjustment:
o Slightly loosen 6 Allen bolts provided for clamping the tilting block.
o Loosen the lock nut on the adjuster and rotate the adjuster so that the
compression ratio is set to “maximum”. Refer the marking on the CR
o Lock the adjuster by the lock nut.
o Tighten all the 6 Allen bolts gently.
o You may measure and note the centre distance between two pivot pins
of the CR indicator. After changing the compression ratio the
difference () can be used to know new CR.

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 Switch on the pump after providing electric supply to it and ensure water
circulation through engine, calorimeter and dynamometer.
 Keep the Load knob on the dynamometer loading unit at minimum position.
 Engine starting:
o Ensure that all foundation bolts, propeller shaft bolts and Allen bolts of
tilting block (of VCR arrangement) are properly tightened.
o Keep the Decompression lever (Decomp lever) in vertical position.
Ensure that Engine stop lever is free and can be pulled towards engine
cranking side for stopping the engine.
o For first start after installation, loosen the fuel inlet pipe to the injector
o Crank the engine slowly till fuel starts dribbling out from the loosened
nut. Then tighten the nut.
o Rotate the handle 5-6 rotations manually in clockwise direction (viewed
from engine side) by right hand. When the flywheel has gathered
sufficient momentum make the decompression lever horizontal by left
hand while cranking the engine and keep on cranking for additional 2-3
o The handle will release automatically and come out, however do not
leave handle.
o Repeat above steps if it does not start at first instance. Engine starting
needs some practice. If engine does not start you may check valve
setting as explained below.
o To Stop the engine pull Engine stop lever.

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 Keep water circulation on, Set @ 300 lph and 100 lph flow rates for engine cooling
and calorimeter respectively.
 Start the engine and allow it to run for 5 minutes in idling condition. Confirm that
engine speed is displayed on Piezo powering unit.
 Rotate the knob on dynamometer loading unit and gradually load the engine.
Ensure that the load on the load indicator gradually increases.
 Load the engine up to 12 kg allow it to run for 5 minutes.
 Ensure that voltages displayed for all 5 temperature sensors are logically correct.
 Stop the engine after releasing the load.
 Switch off the pump
 For software installation on the computer proceed to Software section
Engine Valve setting:
This peocedure to be followed only if engine does not start or pressure crankangle
diagram shows some pressure values at the start of suction.)
 Open the cover on the rocker box. Rotate the flywheel slowly and observe the
rocker movement. The cranking side rocker is for inlet air and flywheel side rocker
is for exhaust air. The “Engine fuel pump side end” of each rocker is pushed up by
the valve rods below. Due to this the front end (injector side end) goes down to
open the respective valves (Inlet/exhaust). For alternate rotation of flywheel at
TDC position, both rockers move simultaneously.
 Adjust the TDC mark marked as T on the flywheel with the pointer. (Note there
are two marks one marked as CA and other as T. CA marking is to be used for
crankangle sensor adjustment for PO diagram). Ensure that when we bring the

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flywheel near these markings both rockers should move i.e. piston is at the start of
new cycle.
 Refer the valve timing diagram on the engine panel. The Inlet valve should open
4.5 degree before TDC and exhaust valve should close 4.5 deg after TDC. Make a
marking of @ 16 mm (4.5 degree) on both sides of TDC mark.
 Rotate the flywheel in anticlockwise direction for 60 degrees and slowly rotate in
clockwise direction up to the first mark before TDC (Here the inlet valve should
open. Exhaust valve is already in open position i.e. rocker is in operated position).
Adjust the Tappet clearance by using ring spanner no. 18 such that the clearance if
any is removed and rocker just starts opening the inlet valve.
 Further rotate the flywheel in clockwise direction to next marking of 4.5 degrees
after TDC. At this position the exhaust valve should fully close. Adjust the tappet
clearance so that there is no clearance in exhaust rocker. (Note: The decomp lever
should be in horizontal position)
 Ensure that inlet valve opens at 4.5 degree BTDC and exhaust valve closes 4.5
degree ATDC.
Programming of load indicator (PIC152N)
If the load indicator shows error in load indication or if the program is disturbed
inadvertently it may need reprogramming/recalibration. Follow following steps.
Refer Load indicator documents in components‟ manual and understand the
programming steps and key operations.
 Wiring:
o The output voltage 24 VDC is available at terminal 17-ve (Black wire)
and 18 +ve (Red wire) is converted to 5 VDC and is connected load cell
o From load cell white wire is connected to terminal no. 4 as +ve input
mV and green wire at terminal no. 5 as -ve input mV.
 Calibration: If recalibration is needed fit the load cell on flat platform from bottom
side. On top surface of the load cell fix a flat sheet for placing the which will hold
the weights up to 50 kg. (Capacity of load cell)
 Programming of Level 0
(To enter or exit program mode press both arrow key together for 3 seconds)
1 Up Arrow :- Upward movement
2 Down Arrow :- Downward movement
3 Squre + Up arrow :- Increase value.
4 Squre + Down Arrow :- Decrease value.
Press both arrow keys together for 3 seconds. Indicator display shows "ID" and "0".
Press Square + Up/ Down key so that the indicator will display "LUL, 0 "
Press Up key select "INP"

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Press Square + Up key together select "AU".

Press Up key and set as follows
A] RESL (Resolution)----------------------------------- 0.1
B] FtC (Filter time constant)--------------------------1
C] dSCL (Display value scalling point Low-------0.0
D] ISCL (Input value scalling point Low)-----------1.10 (mV input from load cell when
the load is 0 kg.)
E] dSCH ( Display value scalling point high)-----50.0 (max range of load indicator)
F] ISCH ( Input value scalling point High)------------32.00 to 38.00 ( mV input from
load cell when the load is 50 kg.)
G] RSCL (Reverse scalling)----------------------------- NO
H] SPHL (Set point high Limit) ------------------------ 50
I ] SPLL (Set point Low Limit ---------------------------0.0
J] LOCY (Lck code) ---------------------------------------0
K] rst (Reset) -------------------------------------------------No
 Programming of Level 3
Press both arrow keys together for 3 seconds. Indicator displays “ID" and "0".
Press Square + Up/ Down key so that the indicator displays "LUL, 3 "
Press Up key and set as follows
L] MANL (Manual) ------------------------------ Off
M] A - LO (Lower Limit) ------------------------0
N] A - HI ( Upper Limit)------------------------- 50 (max.capacity off load cell)

 Use clean and filtered water; any suspended particle may clog the piping.
 Circulate dynamometer and engine cooling water for some time after shutting
down the engine.
 Piezo Sensor Handling:
o While engine is running ensure cooling water circulation for combustion
pressure sensor / engine jacket.
o Diaphragm of the sensor is delicate part. Avoid scratches or hammering.
o A long sleeve is provided inside the hole drilled for piezo sensor. This sleeve
is protecting the surface of the diaphragm. While removing the sensor, this
sleeve may come out with the sensor and fall down or loose during handling.
o Status of the sensor is indicated on the Piezo powering unit. Damages to the
electronic parts of the sensor or loose connection are indicated as "open" or
"Short" status on Piezo powering unit.

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Computer requirement
CPU: Pentium 300 GHz, RAM: Min. 512 MB, CD ROM drive, USB Port.
OS: Windows XP + SP2.
Monitor: Screen resolution 1280x1024.

Refer separate instruction manual supplied with software CD

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Note: 1 For component specific problems refer components‟ manual
2 For wiring problems refer drawing “Wiring234”.
Problems Possible causes / remedies
Engine does not start  Insufficient fuel
 Air trapped in fuel line: Remove fuel. To remove air
trapped in the fuel pipe connected to injector loosen
the nut near the injector and crank the engine.
 Clogged injector: Remove injector and check the fuel
injection spray while engine is manually cranked.
 Improper valve setting: The valve setting procedure
is described below.
Dynamometer does  Faulty/ loose wiring from dynamometer loading unit
not load the engine to dynamometer
 No DC voltage at the outlet of dynamometer loading
unit. Check DLU for loose connection
 No free movement of dynamometer body due to
raised jack bolts below dynamometer body
 Water inlet outlet hoses connecting dynamometer
body below the dynamometer may be very hard.
Faulty air flow  Air hose leakage at connections between air box and
Faulty fuel flow  Air trap in pressure signal line to fuel transmitter
 Improper closing of fuel cock.
Software does not  Faulty or wrong USB port
work  Virus in computer
 Loose connections, improper earthing
Faulty indicated  TDC setting disturbed. Readjust TDC setting(refer
power commissioning).
 Check configuration data
Faulty pressure crank  Improper earthing
angle diagram  Adjust Plot reference for cylinder pressure in setup
constants such that suction stroke pressure just
matches the zero line.
 If peak pressure is just after TDC, TDC setting
disturbed, readjust
 If peak pressure shifts randomly with respect to

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TDC, coupling of crank angle sensor may be loose

Faulty speed  Broken coupling of crank angle sensor
Incorrect  Check the connection between thermocouple, RTD,
temperature transmitters, Digital voltmeter. Note that yellow
indication cable of thermocouple is positive and red is
 Open or damaged temperature sensor

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Engine Cylinder diameter (bore) (D): The nominal inner diameter of the
working cylinder.
Piston area (A): The area of a circle of diameter equal to engine

cylinder diameter (bore). A   / 4  D


Engine Stroke length (L): The nominal distance through which a working
piston moves between two successive reversals of its direction of motion.
Dead center: The position of the working piston and the moving parts, which
are mechanically connected to it at the moment when the direction of the piston
motion is reversed (at either end point of the stroke).
Bottom dead center (BDC): Dead center when the piston is nearest to
the crankshaft. Sometimes it is also called outer dead center (ODC).
Top dead center (TDC): Dead center when the position is farthest from the
crankshaft. Sometimes it is also called inner dead center (IDC).
Swept volume (VS): The nominal volume generated by the working piston
when travelling from one dead center to next one, calculated as the product of
piston area and stroke. The capacity described by engine manufacturers in cc

is the swept volume of the engine. Vs  A  L   / 4  D L


Clearance volume (VC): The nominal volume of the space on the combustion side
of the piston at top dead center.

Cylinder volume: The sum of swept volume and clearance volume. V  Vs  Vc

Compression ratio (CR): The numerical value of the cylinder volume divided

by the numerical value of clearance volume. CR  V / Vc

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Cylinder head
Suction valve Exhaust valve
Intake or suction manifold Exhaust manifold

Top dead center T.D.C. Clearance volume.Vc

Piston Cylinder volume’V’

Stroke volume.Vs
Gudgeon or wrist pin
Bottom dead center B.D.C.


Connecting rod

Crankcase Crank pin

Crankshaft Crank

Important positions and volumes in reciprocating engine

Four stroke cycle engine

In four-stroke cycle engine, the cycle of operation is completed in four strokes of the
piston or two revolutions of the crankshaft. Each stroke consists of 180 0 of crankshaft
rotation and hence a cycle consists of 7200 of crankshaft rotation. The series of
operation of an ideal four-stroke engine are as follows:
1. Suction or Induction stroke: The inlet valve is open, and the piston travels
down the cylinder, drawing in a charge of air. In the case of a spark ignition
engine the fuel is usually pre-mixed with the air.
2. Compression stroke: Both valves are closed, and the piston travels up the
cylinder. As the piston approaches top dead centre (TDC), ignition occurs. In the
case of compression ignition engines, the fuel is injected towards the end of
compression stroke.
3. Expansion or Power or Working stroke: Combustion propagates throughout
the charge, raising the pressure and temperature, and forcing the piston down. At
the end of the power stroke the exhaust valve opens, and the irreversible
expansion of the exhaust gases is termed „blow-down‟.
4. Exhaust stroke: The exhaust valve remains open, and as the piston travels up
the cylinder the remaining gases are expelled. At the end of the exhaust stroke,

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when the exhaust valve closes some exhaust gas residuals will be left; these will
dilute the next charge.

Two stroke cycle engine

In two stroke engines the cycle is completed in two strokes of piston i.e. one
revolution of the crankshaft as against two revolutions of four stroke cycle engine.
The two-stroke cycle eliminates the separate induction and exhaust strokes.
1. Compression stroke: The piston travels up the cylinder, so compressing the
trapped charge. If the fuel is not pre-mixed, the fuel is injected towards the end
of the compression stroke; ignition should again occur before TDC.
Simultaneously under side of the piston is drawing in a charge through a spring-
loaded non-return inlet valve.
2. Power stroke: The burning mixture raises the temperature and pressure in the
cylinder, and forces the piston down. The downward motion of the piston also
compresses the charge in the crankcase. As the piston approaches the end of its
stroke the exhaust port is uncovered and blowdown occurs. When the piston is at
BDC the transfer port is also uncovered, and the compressed charge in the
crankcase expands into the cylinder. Some of the remaining exhaust gases are
displaced by the fresh charge; because of the flow mechanism this is called „loop
scavenging'. As the piston travels up the cylinder, the piston closes the first
transfer port, and then the exhaust port is closed.

Performance of I.C.Engines
Indicated thermal efficiency (ηt): Indicated thermal efficiency is the ratio of
energy in the indicated power to the fuel energy.

t  IndicatedP ower / FuelEnergy

IndicatedP ower ( KW )  3600
 t (%)   100
FuelFlow ( Kg / Hr)  CalorificV alue( KJ / Kg )

Brake thermal efficiency (ηbth): A measure of overall efficiency of the engine

is given by the brake thermal efficiency. Brake thermal efficiency is the ratio of
energy in the brake power to the fuel energy.

bth  BrakePower / FuelEnergy

BrakePower ( KW )  3600
 bth (%)   100
FuelFlow ( Kg / Hr)  CalorificV alue( KJ / Kg )

Mechanical efficiency (ηm): Mechanical efficiency is the ratio of brake horse power
(delivered power) to the indicated horsepower (power provided to the piston).

 m  BrakePower / IndicatedP ower

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and Frictional power = Indicated power – Brake power

Following figure gives diagrammatic representation of various efficiencies,

Energy lost in exhaust, coolant, and radiation

Energy lost in friction, pumping etc.

in fuel
(A) BP

Indicated thermal efficiency = B/A

Brake thermal efficiency = C/A
Mechanical efficiency = C/B
Volumetric efficiency (ηv): The engine output is limited by the maximum
amount of air that can be taken in during the suction stroke, because only a
certain amount of fuel can be burned effectively with a given quantity of air.
Volumetric efficiency is an indication of the „breathing‟ ability of the engine and
is defined as the ratio of the air actually induced at ambient conditions to the
swept volume of the engine. In practice the engine does not induce a complete
cylinder full of air on each stroke, and it is convenient to define volumetric
efficiency as:

Mass of air consumed

ηv (%) = --------------------------------------------------------------------------
mass of flow of air to fill swept volume at atmospheric conditions

AirFlow ( Kg / Hr)
 v (%)   100
 / 4  D L(m )  N ( RPM ) / n  NoofCyl  AirDen( Kg / m 3 )  60
2 3

Where n= 1 for 2 stroke engine and n= 2 for 4 stroke engine.

Air flow:
For air consumption measurement air box with orifice is used.

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AitFlow ( Kg / Hr)  Cd   / 4  D 2  2 g  hwater  Wden / Aden  Aden  3600

Where Cd = Coefficient of discharge of orifice
D = Orifice diameter in m
g = Acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) = 9.81 m/s2
h = Differential head across orifice (m of water)
Wden = Water density (kg/m3) =@1000 kg/m3
Wair = Air density at working condition (kg/m3) = p/RT
p= Atmospheric pressure in kgf/m2 (1 Standard atm. = 1.0332X104 kgf/m2)
R= Gas constant = 29.27 kgf.m/kg0k
T= Atmospheric temperature in 0k
Specific fuel consumption (SFC): Brake specific fuel consumption and indicated
specific fuel consumption, abbreviated BSFC and ISFC, are the fuel consumptions
on the basis of Brake power and Indicated power respectively.
Fuel-air (F/A) or air-fuel (A/F) ratio: The relative proportions of the fuel and air
in the engine are very important from standpoint of combustion and efficiency of
the engine. This is expressed either as the ratio of the mass of the fuel to that of
the air or vice versa.
Calorific value or Heating value or Heat of combustion: It is the energy
released per unit quantity of the fuel, when the combustible is burned and the
products of combustion are cooled back to the initial temperature of combustible
mixture. The heating value so obtained is called the higher or gross calorific value
of the fuel. The lower or net calorific value is the heat released when water in the
products of combustion is not condensed and remains in the vapour form.
Power and Mechanical efficiency: Power is defined as rate of doing work and
equal to the product of force and linear velocity or the product of torque and
angular velocity. Thus, the measurement of power involves the measurement of
force (or torque) as well as speed.
The power developed by an engine at the output shaft is called brake power and
is given by
Power = NT/60,000 in kW
where T= torque in Nm = WR
W = 9.81 * Net mass applied in kg. R= Radius in m
N is speed in RPM

Mean effective pressure and torque: Mean effective pressure is defined as a

hypothetical pressure, which is thought to be acting on the piston throughout the
power stroke.

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Power in kW = (Pm LAN/n 100)/60 in bar

where Pm = mean effective pressure
L = length of the stroke in m
A = area of the piston in m2
N = Rotational speed of engine RPM
n= number of revolutions required to complete one engine cycle
n= 1 (for two stroke engine)
n= 2 (for four stroke engine)
Thus we can see that for a given engine the power output can be measured in
terms of mean effective pressure. If the mean effective pressure is based on
brake power it is called brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) and if based on
indicated power it is called indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP).
BrakePower ( KW )  60
BMEP (bar ) 
L  A  ( N / n)  NoOfCyl  100

IndicatedP ower ( KW )  60
IMEP (bar ) 
L  A  ( N / n)  NoOfCyl  100
Similarly, the friction means effective pressure (FMEP) can be defined as

Basic measurements
The basic measurements, which usually should be undertaken to evaluate the
performance of an engine on almost all tests, are the following:
1 Measurement of speed
Following different speed measuring devices are used for speed measurement.
1 Photoelectric/Inductive proximity pickup with speed indicator
2 Rotary encoder
2 Measurement of fuel consumption
I) Volumetric method: The fuel consumed by an engine is measured by
determining the volume flow of the fuel in a given time interval and multiplying it by
the specific gravity of fuel. Generally a glass burette having graduations in ml is used
for volume flow measurement. Time taken by the engine to consume this volume is
measured by stopwatch.
II) Gravimetric method: In this method the time to consume a given weight of the
fuel is measured. Differential pressure transmitters working on hydrostatic head
principles can used for fuel consumption measurement.
3 Measurement of air consumption
Air box method: In IC engines, as the air flow is pulsating, for satisfactory
measurement of air consumption an air box of suitable volume is fitted with orifice.

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The air box is used for damping out the pulsations. The differential pressure across
the orifice is measured by manometer and pressure transmitter.
4 Measurement of brake power
Measurement of BP involves determination of the torque and angular speed of the
engine output shaft. This torque-measuring device is called a dynamometer.
The dynamometers used are of following types:
I) Rope brake dynamometer: It consists of a number of turns of rope wound
around the rotating drum attached to the output shaft. One side of the rope is
connected to a spring balance and the other to a loading device. The power is
absorbed in friction between the rope and the drum. The drum therefore requires
Brake power = ∏DN (W-S)/60,000 in kW
where D is the brake drum diameter, W is the weight and S is the spring scale
II) Hydraulic dynamometer: Hydraulic dynamometer works on the principal of
dissipating the power in fluid friction. It consists of an inner rotating member or
impeller coupled to output shaft of the engine. This impeller rotates in a casing, due
to the centrifugal force developed, tends to revolve with impeller, but is resisted by
torque arm supporting the balance weight. The frictional forces between the impeller
and the fluid are measured by the spring-balance fitted on the casing. Heat
developed due to dissipation of power is carried away by a continuous supply of the
working fluid usually water. The output (power absorbed) can be controlled by
varying the quantity of water circulating in the vortex of the rotor and stator
elements. This is achieved by a moving sluice gate in the dynamometer casing.
III) Eddy current dynamometer: It consists of a stator on which are fitted a
number of electromagnets and a rotor disc and coupled to the output shaft of the
engine. When rotor rotates eddy currents are produced in the stator due to magnetic
flux set up by the passage of field current in the electromagnets. These eddy
currents oppose the rotor motion, thus loading the engine. These eddy currents are
dissipated in producing heat so that this type of dynamometer needs cooling
arrangement. A moment arm measures the torque. Regulating the current in
electromagnets controls the load.
Note: While using with variable speed engines sometimes in certain speed zone the
dynamometer operating line are nearly parallel with engine operating lines which
result in poor stability.

5 Measurement of indicated power

There are two methods of finding the IHP of an engine.

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I) Indicator diagram: A dynamic pressure sensor (piezo sensor) is fitted in the

cylinder head to sense combustion pressure. A rotary encoder is fitted on the engine
shaft for crank angle signal. Both signals are simultaneously scanned by an engine
indicator (electronic unit) and communicated to computer. The software in the
computer draws pressure crank-angle and pressure volume plots and computes
indicated power of the engine.
Conversion of pressure crank-angle plot to pressure volume plot:

The figure shows crank-slider mechanism. The piston pin position is given by
x  r cos   l cos 

From figure r sin   l sin  and recalling cos   1  sin 


x  r  cos   l r 1  r l  sin 2  

The binomial theorem can be used to expand the square root term:

 
x  r cos   l / r 1  1 (r / l ) 2 sin 2   1 8 (r / l ) 4 sin 4   ...
 ….1

The powers of sin  can be expressed as equivalent multiple angles:

sin 2   1 / 2  1 / 2 cos 2

sin 4   3 / 8  1 / 2 cos 2  1 / 8 cos 4 …….2

Substituting the results from equation 2 in to equation 1 gives

  
x  r cos   l / r 1  1 (r / l ) 2 1 / 2  1 / 2 cos 2   1 8 (r / l ) 4 3 / 8  1 / 2 cos 2  1 / 8 cos 4   ...
The geometry of the engine is such that r / l  is invariably less than 0.1, in which

case it is acceptable to neglect the r / l 4 terms, as inspection of above equation

shows that these terms will be at least an order of magnitude smaller than r / l 2
The approximate position of piston pin end is thus:

  
x  r cos   l / r 1  1 (r / l ) 2 1 / 2  1 / 2 cos 2 

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Where r =crankshaft throw and l = connecting rod length.

Calculate x using above equation; then (l  r  x) shall give distance traversed by
piston from its top most position at any angle 
II) Morse test: It is applicable to multi-cylinder engines. The engine is run at
desired speed and output is noted. Then combustion in one of the cylinders is
stopped by short circuiting spark plug or by cutting off the fuel supply. Under this
condition other cylinders “motor” this cylinder. The output is measured after
adjusting load on the engine to keep speed constant at original value. The difference
in output is measure of the indicated power of cut-out cylinder. Thus for each
cylinder indicated power is obtained to find out total indicated power.

VCR Engines
The standard available engines (with fixed compression ratio) can be modified by
providing additional variable combustion space. There are different arrangements by
which this can be achieved. Tilting cylinder block method is one of the arrangements
where the compression ratio can be changed without change is combustion
geometry. With this method the compression ratio can be changed within designed
range without stopping the engine.

 Brake power (kw):
BP 
60 x1000
2N (WxR )

0.785 xRPMx (Wx9.81) xArmlength

 Brake mean effective pressure (bar):
BPx 60
 / 4 xD xLx( N / n) xNoOfCylx100

n = 2 for 4 stroke
n = 1 for 2 stroke

 Indicated power (kw) :From PV diagram

X scale (volume) 1cm = ..m3

Y scale (pressure) 1cm =

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Area of PV diagram = ..cm2

workdone / cycle / cyl ( Nm)  AreaofPVdi agram  Xscalefact or  Yscalefact or 100000

workdone / cycle / cyl  ( N / n)  NoOfCyl
IP 
60  1000

 Indicated mean effective pressure (bar):

IPx 60
 / 4 xD xLx( N / n) xNoOfCylx100

 Frictional power (kw):

FP  IP  BP
 Brake specific fuel consumption (Kg/kwh):
FuelflowIn kg / hr
 Brake Thermal Efficiency (%):
BP  3600  100
BThEff 
FuelFlowIn Kg / hr  CalVal
IThEff  MechEff BHP
BThEff  OR
100 FuelHP
 Indicated Thermal Efficiency (%):
IP  3600  100
IThEff 
FuelFlowIn Kg / hr  CalVal
BThEff  100
IThEff 
 Mechanical Efficiency (%):
BP  100
MechEff 
 Air flow (Kg/hr):

AirFlow  Cd   / 4  d 2 2 gh  (Wden / Aden )  3600  Aden

 Volumetric Efficiency (%):
AirFlow  100
VolEff 
Theoretica lAirFlow
AirFlow  100

 / 4  D  Stroke  ( N / n)  60  NoOfCyl  Aden

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 Air fuel ratio:

A/ F 
 Heat Balance (KJ/h):
a) HeatSuppli edbyFuel  FuelFlow  CalVal

b) HeatEquivalentToUsefulWork  BP  3600

HeatEquivalentToUsefulWork  100
HeatEquivalentToUsefulWorkIn% 
HeatSuppli edByFuel
C) HeatInJacketCoolingW ater  F 3  C PW  (T 2  T1)
HeatInJack etCoolingW ater  100
HeatInJack etCoolingW aterIn% 
HeatSuppli edByFuel
d) Heat in Exhaust (Calculate CPex value):

F 4  C PW  (T 4  T 3)
C P ex  ..KJ / Kg 0 k
( F1  F 2)  (T 5  T 6)
Cpex Specific heat of exhaust gas kJ/kg0K

Cpw Specific heat of water kJ/kg0K

F1 Fuel consumption kg/hr

F2 Air consumption kg/hr
F4 Calorimeter water flow kg/hr
T3 Calorimeter water inlet temperature K
T4 Calorimeter water outlet temperature K
T5 Exhaust gas to calorimeter inlet temp. K
T6 Exhaust gas from calorimeter outlet temp. K

HeatInExha ust( KJ / h)  ( F1  F 2)  C P ex  (T 5  Tamb)

HeatInExha ust  100
HeatInExha ust % 
HeatSuppli edByFuel
e) Heat to radiation and unaccounted (%)
 HeatSuppli edByFuel (100%)  {( HeatEquivalentToUsefulWork (%) 
HeatInJack etCoolingW ater (%)  HeatToExha ust (%)}

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1 Study of VCR engine performance (Computerized mode)

To study the performance of 1 cylinder, 4 stroke, Diesel engine connected to eddy
current dynamometer in computerized mode.
Adjustment of the compression ratio
 Slightly loosen the 6 nos. vertical Allen (socket headed) bolts provided on
both sides of the tilting cylinder block.
 Loosen the lock nut of the Adjuster and rotate the Adjuster by using spanner
for tilting the cylinder block.
 Adjust the desired compression ratio by referring the scale provided on the CR
indicator (near the Adjuster)
 Tighten the lock nut of the Adjuster.
 Gently tighten the vertical Allen bolts (6 nos.).

 Ensure that all the nut bolts of engine, dynamometer, propller shaft, base
frame are properly tightened.
 Ensure that sufficient lubrication oil is present in the engine sump tank. This
can be checked by marking on the level stick
 Ensure sufficient fuel in fuel tank. Remove air in fuel line, if any.
 Switch on electric supply and ensure that PPU (Piezo powering unit), DLU
(Dynamometer loading unit), Load indicator and Voltmeter are switched on.
 Start Computer and open "EngineSoftLV" (Double click "EngineSoftLV" icon on
the desktop) Select "Engine Model" open "Configure" in View. Check
configuration values & system constants with the values displayed on engine
setup panel. "Apply" the changes, if any. Click on "PO- PV Graphs" tab.
 Start water pump. Adjust the flow rate of "Rotameter (Engine)" to 250-350
LPH and "Rotameter (Calorimeter)" to 75-100 LPH by manipulating respective
globe valves provided at the rotameter inlet. Ensure that water is flowing
through dynamometer at a pressure of @ 0.5 to 1 Kg/cm2.
 Keep the DLU knob at minimum position.
 Change the Fuel cock position from "Measuring" to "Tank"
 Start the engine by hand cranking and allow it to run at idling condition for 4-
5 minutes.
 Click on "Scan Start" on the monitor

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 Ensure that Speed, Temperatures and Manometer reading are correctly

displayed on the PC. These readings should tally with those displayed on the
engine panel.
 Increase the load on the engine by rotating knob on the DLU and confirm the
load reading on the indicator and computer are same.
 Adjust DLU knob and to set 0.5 kg load on Load Indicator. Wait for 3 mins.,
ensure that load is constant during this period. Change the Fuel cock position
from "Tank" to "Measuring". Click "Log on" on. The fuel metering is ON for
next 60 seconds. During first 30 seconds enter engine water flow, calorimeter
jacket cooling water flow in LPH (and compression ratio for VCR engine). Click
OK after recording fuel reading. Enter the file name under which the records
to be stored. The first reading data is now saved. Change the Fuel cock
position from "Measuring" to "Tank".
 Adjust DLU knob and to set 3 kg load on Load Indicator. Wait for 3 mins.,
ensure that load is constant during this period. Change the Fuel cock position
from "Tank" to "Measuring". Click "Log on" on. The fuel metering is ON for
next 60 seconds. During first 30 seconds enter engine water flow, calorimeter
jacket cooling water flow in LPH (and compression ratio for VCR engine). Click
OK after recording fuel reading. The second reading data is now saved.
Change the Fuel cock position from "Measuring" to "Tank".
 Repeat above step for various loads e.g. 6, 9,12,15,18 kg. (For VCR engine do
not exceed 12 Kg load.)
 After finishing all the readings remove the load on the engine by DLU, Click
"Scan Stop" on PC.
 Stop the engine by pressing engine stop lever. Allow the water to circulate for
about 5 minutes for engine cooling and then Stop the pump.
 Click "File Open" on PC, Select the File under which the readings are stored
and click "OK". On all the screens the first reading (of 0.5kg) is shown. To
view next readings click "Next Data".
 The results are displayed on all the three screens. For printing the results click
"Print" and select appropriate option.
 Click "File Close" after printing & checking. Click "Exit" and then Shut Down
the computer.

EnginesoftLV Configuration data

Setup constants (Default values)
1 Pulses per revolution: 360
2 No. of cycles: 10
3 Fuel pipe diameter (mm):12.40

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4 Fuel measuring interval (sec):60

5 Fuel display bias: As reqd.
6 Orifice diameter (mm): 20
7 Dynamometer arm length (mm):185
8 Speed scanning interval (ms): 2000
9 Plot reference for cylinder pressure: as reqd
10 Plot reference for Diesel pressure: as reqd
Theoretical constants
1 Use default values: Yes
2 Fuel density (kg/m^3): 830
3 Calorific value of fuel (KJ/Kg): 42000
4 Orifice coef of discharge: 0.60
5 Sp heat of exhaust gas (Kj/Kj.K): 1.00
6 Max. sp. heat. Of Exhaust Gas (KJ/Kg.k): 1.25
7 Min sp. heat of exhaust gas (KJ/Kg.k): 1.00
8 Sp heat of water (KJ/Kg.K): 4.186
9 Air density Kg/m^3): As displayed
10 Ambient temperature (Deg C): Ambient temperature.
Graph X axis
Load (Kg) 0 to 20 kg
Plot details
Diesel plot : Yes or No

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2 Study of VCR engine performance (Manual mode)

To study the performance of 1 cylinder, 4 stroke, Diesel engine connected to eddy
current dynamometer in manual mode
Adjustment of the compression ratio
 Refer Expt no. 1 and adjust VCR for desired compression ratio.

 Ensure cooling water circulation for eddy current dynamometer and piezo
sensor, engine and calorimeter.
 Start the set up and run the engine at no load for 4-5 minutes.
 Gradually increase the load on the engine by rotating dynamometer loading
 Wait for steady state (for @ 3 minutes) and collect the reading as per
Observations provided in “Cal234” worksheet in “Engine.xls”.
 Gradually decrease the load.
 Fill up the observations in “Cal234” worksheet to get the results and
performance plots.

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3 Study of Pressure volume plot and indicated power

To draw pressure–crank angle plot, pressure volume plot and calculate indicated
power of the engine.

 Run the engine set up at any load and store the observation in a data file or
use previously stored data file in “EnginesoftLV” for indicated power
 Export the data file in ms excel worksheet. The pressure crank angle and
volume data is available in excel.
 Refer “IP_cal” worksheet in “Engine.xls”. The sample worksheet shows
pressure crank angle plot, pressure volume plot and indicated power
calculation. The worksheet is for single cylinder four stroke engine with 180
observations per revolution.
 Copy the pressure readings from exported data file in to the IP
_cal worksheet at the respective crank angle.
 Observe the Pressure crank angle diagram, pressure volume diagram and
indicated power value. (The calculations are explained in theory part).

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4 Maximum power test at different compression ratio

To study the maximum power generated by VCR engine at various compression
Adjustment of the compression ratio
 Adjust the compression ratio as explained in experiment no.1

Performance test
 Ensure cooling water circulation for eddy current dynamometer and engine
and calorimeter.
 Start the set up and run the engine at no load for 4-5 minutes.
 Gradually increase the load on the engine by rotating knob on dynamometer
loading unit till the engine is fully loaded. (As load is increased further the
speed drops significantly.)
 Note the reading as per Observations provided in “Cal234” worksheet in
 Gradually decrease the load.
 Change the compression ratio for next observation and repeat above steps.
 Fill up the observations in “Cal234” worksheet to get the results and
performance plots.

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5 BSFC and brake thermal efficiency test at different CR

To study the BSFC and brake thermal efficiency of VCR engine at various
compression ratios.
Adjustment of the compression ratio
 Adjust the compression ratio as explained in experiment no.1

Performance test
 Ensure cooling water circulation for eddy current dynamometer and engine
and calorimeter.
 Start the set up and run the engine at no load for 4-5 minutes.
 Gradually increase the load on the engine by rotating knob on dynamometer
loading unit to @80% of load (Refer experiment 3 for full load observed at
the set compression ratio).
 Note the reading as per Observations provided in “Cal234” worksheet in
 Gradually decrease the load.
 Change the compression ratio for next observation and repeat above steps.
Fill up the observations in “Cal234” worksheet to get the results and performance

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6 Study of valve timing diagram

To study valve timing diagram

Valve Timing Diagram

Engine Kirloskar (TV1) 1Cylinder, 4Stroke, Diesel

1 TDC 5


1 Inlet valve opens before TDC : 4.5

2 Inlet valve closes after BDC : 35.5 0

3 Fuel injection starts before TDC : 23 0
4 Exhaust valve opens before BDC : 35.5 0
5 Exhaust valve closes after TDC : 4.5

2 4


 Switch off the electric supply of the panel box
 Open the cover on the engine head to see the rocker arms.
 Lift up the decompression lever.
 Note the TDC mark provided on the flywheel. (Also refer the valve timing
 Slowly rotate the flywheel in clockwise direction looking from dynamometer side.
Identify inlet valve and exhaust valve rocker arms
 Observe the movement of rocker arms and understand the valve opening and
To observe fuel injection it is necessary to remove fuel injector.

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Components used
Components Details
Engine Make Kirloskar, Type 1 cylinder, 4 stroke Diesel,
water cooled, Model TV1, stroke 110 mm, bore 87.5
mm. 661 cc, CR 17.5, Modified to VCR engine CR
range 12 to 18
Dynamometer Make Saj test plant Pvt. Ltd., Model AG10, Type
Eddy current
Dynamometer Loading Make Apex, Model AX-155. Type constant speed,
unit Supply 230V AC.
Propeller shaft Make Hindustan Hardy Spicer, Model 1260, Type A
Manometer Make Apex, Model MX-104, Range 100-0-100 mm,
Type U tube, Conn. 1/4`` BSP hose back side,
Mounting panel
Fuel measuring unit Make Apex, Glass, Model:FF0.012
Piezo sensor Make PCB Piezotronics, Model HSM111A22, Range
5000 psi, Diaphragm stainless steel type & hermetic
White coaxial teflon Make PCB piezotronics, Model 002C20, Length 20 ft,
cable Connections one end BNC plug and other end 10-32
Crank angle sensor Make Kubler-Germany Model 8.3700.1321.0360 Dia:
37mm Shaft Size: Size 6mmxLength 12.5mm,
Supply Voltage 5-30V DC, Output Push Pull
(AA,BB,OO), PPR: 360, Outlet cable type axial with
flange 37 mm to 58 mm
Data acquisition device NI USB-6210 Bus Powered M Series,
Piezo powering unit Make-Cuadra, Model AX-409.
Temperature sensor Make Radix Type K, Ungrounded, Sheath
Dia.6mmX110mmL, SS316, Connection 1/4"BSP (M)
adjustable compression fitting
Temperature sensor Make Radix, Type Pt100, Sheath Dia.6mmX110mmL,
SS316, Connection 1/4"BSP(M) adjustable
compression fitting
Temperature transmitter Make Wika, model T19.10.3K0-4NK-Z, Input
Thermocouple (type K), output 4-20mA, supply

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24VDC, Calibration: 0-1200deg.C.

Temperature transmitter Make Wika, Model T19.10.1PO-1 Input RTD(Pt100),
output 4-20mA, supply 24VDC, Calibration: 0-100C
Load sensor Make Sensotronics Sanmar Ltd., Model 60001,Type
S beam, Universal, Capacity 0-50 kg
Load indicator Make Selectron, model PIC 152–B2, 85 to 270VAC,
retransmission output 4-20 mA
Power supply Make Meanwell, model S-15-24, O/P 24 V, 0.7 A
Digital voltmeter Make Meco, 3.1/2 digit LED display, range 0-20
VDC, supply 230VAC, model SMP35
Fuel flow transmitter Make Yokogawa, Model EJA110-EMS-5A-92NN,
Calibration range 0-500 mm H2O, Output linear
Air flow transmitter Range (-) 250 mm WC
Rotameter Make Eureka Model PG 5, Range 25-250 lph,
Connection ¾” BSP vertical, screwed, Packing
Rotameter Make Eureka Model PG 6, Range 40-400 lph,
Connection ¾” BSP vertical, screwed, Packing
Pump Make Kirloskar, Model Mini 18SM, HP 0.5, Size 1” x
1”, Single ph 230 V AC

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Components‟ manuals

Rotameter (PG series)

Rotameter works on the principle of variable area. Float is
free to move up & down in a tapered measuring glass tube.
Upward flow causes the float to take up a position in which
the buoyancy forces and the weight are balanced. The
vertical position of the float as indicated by scale is a
measurement of the instantaneous flow rate.

Technical specifications
Model PG-1 to 21
Make Eureka
Flow Rate Max. 100 to 40000 Lph
Packing/Gaskets Neoprene
Measuring tube Borosilicate glass
Float 316SS
Cover Glass
Accuracy +/-2% full flow
Range ability 10:1
Scale length 175-200mm.
Max. Temp. 2000C
Connection Flanged and Threaded, Vertical

Principle of operation
The rotameter valves must be opened slowly and carefully to adjust the desired flow
rate. A sudden jumping of the float, which may cause damage to the measuring tube,
must be avoided.


The upper edge of the float as shown in fig. 1 indicates the rate of flow. For
alignment a line marked R.P. is provided on the scale which should coincide with the
red line provided on measuring tube at the bottom.

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When the measuring tube and float become dirty it is necessary to remove the tube
and clean it with a soft brush, trichloroethylene or compressed air.

Dismantling of the measuring tube

 Shut off the flow.
 Remove the front and rear covers.
 Unscrew the gland adjusting screws, and push the gland upwards incase of bottom
gland and downwards incase of top gland. Then remove the glass by turning it to
and fro. Care should be taken, not to drop down the glands. Float or float
retainers. The indicating edge of the float should not be damaged.

Fitting of the measuring tube

Normally the old gland packing is replaced by new ones while fitting back the
measuring tube.
 Put the glands first in their position and then put the packing on the tube.
 Insert the tube in its place.
 Push the glands downwards and upwards respectively and fix them with the gland
adjusting screws.
 Tighten the gland adjusting screws evenly till the gap between the gland and the
bottom plate is approximately 1mm. In case, after putting the loflometer into
operation, still there is leakage, then tighten the gland adjusting screw till the
leakage stops.
 Fix the scale, considering the remark given in the test report.

 Fix the front and rear covers.

Problem Check
Leakage on glands Replace gland packing
Showing high/low flow rate than Consult manufacturers
Showing correct reading initially but Replace float
starts showing high reading after Incase of gases, check also leakage
few days
Showing correct reading initially but Clean the rotameter by suitable solvent or
starts showing high reading after soft brush
some months.
Fluctuation of float Maintain operating pressure as mentioned
in test report.
Frequent breakage of glass tube Use loflometer to accommodate correct
flow rate.

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Maintain operating pressure below

pressure rating of the tube.
Check piping layout.

Manufacturer’s address
Eureka Industrial Equipments Pvt. Ltd.
17/20, Royal Chambers,
Paud Road, Pune – 411 038.

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Pump (Self priming)

The centrifugal pumps designed for pumping water and many similar applications.
The pump & the motor are designed for continuous operations.

Technical specifications
Model MINI-18SM
Make Kirloskar
Supply 230 VAC, Single phase
Total Head Max. 6-18 meter
Discharge 1650-720 Lph
Connection 20 x 20mm
Water seal Mechanical
Pump Unit CI.
Power Rating 0.18Kw/0.25hp
Type of Motor Capacitor starts and run
Insulation „B‟ class
Rating Continuous
Impeller H.T. Brass
Delivery casing Cast Iron
Motor Body Cast Iron
Shaft Carbon steel

The pump is of self priming model. It is only essential to fill about 300ml. of water
into the casing once during installation and shut the filler cap tightly. After switching
the pump on, during the first operation it will have to remove the air in the suction
pipe and will take min. 2 minutes before the water begins to flow. During consecutive
operations you will get water immediately on switching the pump.

Problem Check
Motor does not rotate Check power supply.
Remove fan cover and check free rotation of fan
along with shaft.(By hand)
Check supply voltage.
Replace condenser.
Capacity decreases after The inlet of suction pipe should be at least 2” below
the pump is running the water level.
satisfactorily. Clean the pipe.
Reduce the total head.

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Check the pipe for leakage and correct it.

Change to the recommended size.
Pump over loaded. (Takes Select suitable monoblock pump.
more amps or fuse goes off) Reduce the total head.
Leaking mechanical seal. Lap the running faces or change seal.
Pump gets jammed Remove fan cover and rotate fan by hand.
Pump should run for a few minutes at least once in
two days.
Pump does not lift water Fill water till it flows continuously in air cock.
Check pipe for leakages. Use Teflon tape for joints.
Clean pipes and reduce the bends.
Change or re-fit the seal.
Tighten the air cock head: if damaged replace it.

Manufacturer’s address
Kirloskar Brothers Ltd.,
Ujjain Road, Opp. Railway Station,
Dewas – 455 001.

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Technical specifications
Model TV1
Make Kirloskar Oil Engines
Type Four stroke, Water
cooled, Diesel
No. of cylinder One
Bore 87.5 mm
Stroke 110 mm
Combustion principle Compression ignition
Cubic capacity 0.661 liters
Compression ratio 3 port 17.5:1
Peak pressure 77.5 kg/cm2
Direction of rotation Clockwise (Looking
from flywheel end side)
Max. speed 2000 rpm
Min. idle speed 750 rpm
Min. operating speed 1200 rpm
Fuel timing for std. engine 230 BTDC
Valve timing
Inlet opens BTDC 4.50
Inlet closes ABDC 35.50
Exhaust opens BBDC 35.50
Exhaust closes ATDC 4.50
Valve clearance Inlet 0.18 mm
Valve clearance Exhaust 0.20 mm
Bumping clearance 0.046” – 0.052”
Lubricating system Forced feed system
Power rating
1. Continuous 7/1500 hp/rpm
2. Intermittent 7.7/1500 hp/rpm
Brake mean effective
Pressure at 1500 rpm 6.35 kg/cm2
Lubricating oil pump Gear type
Lub. oil pump delivery 6.50 lit/min.
Sump capacity 2.70 liter
Lub. Oil consumption 1.5% normally exceed of fuel
Connecting rod length 234 mm

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Overall dimensions 617 L x 504 W x 877 H

Weight 160 kgs

Manufacturer’s address
Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd. Dealer:
Laxmanrao Kirloskar Road, Ashwini Enterprise
Khadki, Pune – 411 003. Kolhapur.

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Crank angle sensor

Technical specifications
Make Kubler
Model 8.3700.1321.0360
Supply voltage 5-30VDC
Output Push pull (AA,BB,OO)
PPR 360
Outlet Cable type axial
Encoder Diameter Dia. 37,
Shaft size Dia.6mm x length12mm
Weight 120 gm

Manufacturer’s address
Kuebler – Germany Indian supplier:
Rajdeep Automation Pvt. Ltd.
Survey No. 143, 3rd floor,
Sinhgad Road, Vadgaon Dhayari,
Pune – 411 041.

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Piezo sensor
These miniature sensor series are intended for general purpose pressure
measurements. Models HSM111A22 and M108A02 are designed for applications
where acceleration compensation is not required.
This versatile transducer series is designed for dynamic measurement of
compression, combustion, explosion, pulsation, cavitations, blast, pneumatic,
hydraulic, fluidic and other such pressures.

Technical specifications
Sensor name Dynamic pr. transducer With built in amplifier
Make PCB Piezotronics, INC.
Model M111A22
Range, FS (5V output) 5000 psi
Useful range (10V output) 10000 psi
Maximum pressure 15000 psi
Resolution 0.1 psi
Sensitivity 1 mV/psi
Resonant frequency 400 kHz
Rise time 2 s
Discharge time constant 500 s
Low frequency response (-5%) 0.001 Hz
Linearity (Best straight line) 2%
Output polarity Positive
Output impedance 100 ohms
Output bias 8-14 volt
Acceleration sensitivity 0.002 psi/g
Temperature coefficient 0.03 %/0F
Temperature range -100 to +275 0F
Flash temperature 3000 0F
Vibration / Shock 2000 / 20000 g peak
Ground isolation No (2)
Excitation (Constant current) 2 to 20 mA
Voltage to current regulator +18 to 28 VDC
Sensing geometry Compression
Sensing element Quartz
Housing material 17.4 SS
Diaphragm Invar
Sealing Welded hermetic

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Electric connector 10-32 coaxial jack

Mounting thread M7 x 0.75 pitches
Weight (with clamp nut) 6 gm
Cable model 002C20 white coaxial cable

Principle of operation
Dynamic pressure transducer: It is necessary only to supply the sensor with a 2
to 20 mA constant current at +20 to +30 VDC through a current – regulating
diode or equivalent circuit. Most of the signal conditioners manufactured by PCB
have adjustable current features allowing a choice of input currents from 2 to 20
mA. In general, for lowest noise (best resolution), choose the lower current
ranges. When driving long cables (to several thousand feet), use the higher
current, up to 20 mA maximum.

Problem Check
No signal  Remove sensor and clean by dampened cloth
Sensor damaged or ceases to  Return the equipment to company for repair

1. Piezoelectric sensors are dynamic devices, but static calibration techniques
can be employed if discharge time constants are sufficiently long. Generally,
static calibration methods are not employed when testing sensors with a
discharge time constant that is less than several hundred seconds.
2. Direct couple the sensor to the DVM readout using a T-connector from the
“Xducer” jack or use the model 484B in the calibrate mode.
3. Apply pressure with a dead weight tester and take reading quickly. Release
pressure after each calibration point.
4. For shorter TC series, rapid step functions of pressure are generated by a
pneumatic pressure pulse calibrator or dead weight tester and readout is by
recorder or storage oscilloscope.

Manufacturer’s address
PCB Piezotronics, Inc. Indian supplier:
3425 Walden Avenue, Structural solutions (India) Pvt. Ltd.
Depew, New York 14043-2495.

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Eddy Current Dynamometer

The AG Series eddy current dynamometers
designed for the testing of engines up to
400kW (536bhp) and may be used with
various control systems. The dynamometer
is bi-directional. The shaft mounted finger
type rotor runs in a dry gap. A closed
circuit type cooling system permits for a
Dynamometer load measurement is from a
strain gauge load cell and speed
measurement is from a shaft mounted
three hundred sixty PPR rotary encoder.

Technical specifications (AG10)

Model AG10
Make Saj Test Plant Pvt. Ltd.
End flanges both side Cardon shaft model 1260 type A
Water inlet 1.6bar
Minimum kPa 160
Pressure lbf/in2 23
Air gap mm 0.77/0.63
Torque Nm 11.5
Hot coil voltage max. 60
Continuous current amps 5.0
Cold resistance ohms 9.8
Speed max. 10000rpm
Load 3.5kg
Bolt size M12 x 1.75
Weight 130kg

Principle of operation
1. The dynamometer unit comprises basically a rotor mounted on a shaft running in
bearings which rotates within a casing supported in ball bearing trunnions which form
part of the bed plate of the machine.
2. Secured in the casing are two field coils connected in series. When these coils are
supplied with a direct current (DC) a magnetic field is created in the casing across
the air gap at either side of the rotor. When the rotor turns in this magnetic field,
eddy currents are induced creating a breaking effect between the rotor and casing.

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The rotational torque exerted on the casing is measured by a strain gauge load cell
incorporated in the restraining linkage between the casing and dynamometer bed
3. To prevent overheating of the dynamometer a water supply pressurized to
minimum indicated in specification is connected to a flanged inlet on the bed plate.
Water passes from the inlet to the casing via a flexible connection; permitting
movement of the casing. Water passes through loss (Grooved) plates in the casing
positioned either side of the rotor and absorbs the heat generated.
4. Heated water discharges from the casing through a flexible connection to an outlet
flange on the bed plate.

Problem Check
Calibration of dynamometer not coming  Remove the obstruction for the free
in accuracy limit movement of casing
 Calibrate the weights from
authorized source.
 Maintain constant water flow
 Clean & lubricate properly with
 Bearings clean & refit properly
 Load cell link tighten properly
 Clean & refit trunnion bearings
Vibrations to dynamometer  Dynamometer foundation bolts
tighten properly
 Arrest engine vibrations
Abnormal noise  Cardon shaft cover secure properly
 Align guard properly
 Replace rotor if warped
 Replace main bearing
Loss plate temperature high  Check correct water flow
 De-scale with suitable solution
 Clear off water passages
Bearing temperature high  Grease with proper brand
 Remove excess grease & avoid over
 Use specified grease and do not mix
two types of grease
 Clear the drain

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 Replace the bearings

 Replace shaft & coupling
Dynamometer not rotating  Replace bearings
 Replace rotor / loss plates after
Water leakages at various locations  Replace casing „o‟ rings
 Loss plates bolts tighten properly
 Replace loss plate „o‟ rings
 Casing plugs tighten properly
 Replace pipe „o‟ rings

1. New dynamometers are run in before delivery to ensure that all components
run smoothly and grease is evently distributed within the shaft bearings.
2. The dynamometer has been calibrated the power developed by the engine on
test may be calculated using the following formula:
Torque( Nm) xSpeed ( Radians / sec .)
Power (kW) = inS .I .units
Torque(lbfft ) xSpeed ( Radians / sec .)
Power (hp) = in.imperialun its
3. The dynamometer will be calibrated in either Imperial or S.I. units or MKS as
Power =
Where N = Shaft speed in rev/min
W = Torque (Indicated on torque indicator)
K = Constant dependant on units of power and torque

Manufacturer’s address
Saj Test Plant Pvt. Ltd.
72-76, Mundhwa, Pune Cantonment,
Pune – 411 036.

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Load indicator

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Manufacturer’s address
Selectron process controls Pvt. Ltd. Delear:
E-121/120/113, Ansa Industrial Estate,
Saki Vihar Road, Andheri,
Mumbai – 400 072.

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Load cell
Load cell are suitable use for static & dynamic
weighing, bin/hopper weighing, force measurement,
scales and electro-mechanical conversion kit.
Constructed body of special high alloy steel.

Technical specifications
Make Sensortronics
Model 60001
Type „S‟ Beam,Universal
Capacity 0 – 50Kg
Mounting thread M10 x 1.25mm
Full scale output (mV/V) 3.00
Tolerance on output (FSO) +/-0.25%
Zero balance (FSO) +/-0.1mV/V
Non-linearity (FSO) <+/-0.025%
Hysteresis (FSO) <+/-0.020%
Non-repeatability <+/-0.010%
Creep (FSO) in 30 min <+/-0.020%
Operating temperature range -200C to +700C
Rated excitation 10V AC/DC
Maximum excitation 15V AC/DC
Bridge resistance 350 Ohms (Nominal)
Insulation resistance >1000 Meg ohm @ 50VDC
Span / C (of load) +/-0.001%
Zero / 0C (of FSO) +/-0.002%
Combined error (FSO) <+/-0.025%
Safe overload (FSO) 150%
Ultimate overload (FSO) 300%
Protection class IP 67
Overall dimensions 51 L x 20 W x 76 H mm
Weight 380 gm

Manufacturer’s address
Sensortronics Sanmar Ltd.
38/2A, Old Mahabalipuram Road,
Perungudi, Chennai – 600 096.

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Air flow transmitter

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Manufacturer’s address
WIKA Instruments Ltd. Wika Instruments India Pvt. Ltd.
Garmany. Plot No. 40, GatNo. 94+100, high Cliff Ind.
Web: Estate, Village Kesnand,
Pune 412207

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Differential Pressure Transmitter

The model EJA110A pressure transmitter measures the flow rates and the pressure of
the liquids, gases, and steam, and also liquid levels.

Technical specifications
Model EJA110A-DMS5A-92NN
Make Yokogawa
Output signal 4 – 20mA DC with digital communication (Linear)
Measurement span 1 to 100kPa (100 to 10000mmH2O)
Calibration range 0 – 200, 0 – 500 mmH2O
Wetted parts material Body – SCS14A, Capsule – SUS316L
Process connections without process connector (1/4BSP body connection)
Bolts and nuts material SCM 435
Installation Horizontal impulse piping left side high pressure
Electrical connection 1/2NPT female
Cover „O‟ rings Buna-N
Supply 10 to 24VDC
Process temperature limit -40 to 120 0C
Housing Weather proof
Weight 3.9Kg
Manufacturer’s address
Yokogawa Electrical Corporation Indian supplier:
2-9-32, Nakacho, Yokogawa India Ltd.
Musashino-shi, 40/4 Lavelle Road,
Tokyo, 180-8750, Japan. Bangalore – 560 001.

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This product is warranted for a period of 12 months from the date of supply against
manufacturing defects. You shall inform us in writing any defect in the system
noticed during the warranty period. On receipt of your written notice, Apex at its
option either repairs or replaces the product if proved to be defective as stated
above. You shall not return any part of the system to us before receiving our
confirmation to this effect.
The foregoing warranty shall not apply to defects resulting from:
Buyer/ User shall not have subjected the system to unauthorized alterations/
additions/ modifications.
Unauthorized use of external software/ interfacing.
Unauthorized maintenance by third party not authorized by Apex.
Improper site utilities and/or maintenance.
We do not take any responsibility for accidental injuries caused while working with
the set up.

Apex Innovations Pvt. Ltd.

E9/1, MIDC, Kupwad, Sangli-416436 (Maharashtra) India
Telefax:0233-2644098, 2644398
Email: Web:

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