Anda di halaman 1dari 20

ASTM C136 / C136M - 14

Standard Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates

Significance and Use

5.1 This test method is used primarily to determine the grading of materials proposed for use as
aggregates or being used as aggregates. The results are used to determine compliance of the
particle size distribution with applicable specification requirements and to provide necessary data for
control of the production of various aggregate products and mixtures containing aggregates. The data
may also be useful in developing relationships concerning porosity and packing.

5.2 Accurate determination of material finer than the 75-μm (No. 200) sieve cannot be achieved by
use of this test method alone. Test Method C117 for material finer than 75-μm sieve by washing
should be employed.

5.3 Refer to methods of sampling and testing in Specification C637 for heavyweight aggregates.

1. Scope

1.1 This test method covers the determination of the particle size distribution of fine and coarse
aggregates by sieving.

1.2 Some specifications for aggregates which reference this test method contain grading
requirements including both coarse and fine fractions. Instructions are included for sieve analysis of
such aggregates.

1.3 Units—The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as
standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system
shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-
conformance with the standard.

NOTE 1: Sieve size is identified by its standard designation in Specification E11. The alternative
designation given in parentheses is for information only and does not represent a different standard
sieve size. Specification E11 cites the following with respect to SI units versus inch-pound units as
standard. “The values stated in SI units shall be considered standard for the dimensions of the sieve
cloth openings and the wire diameters used in the sieve cloth. The values stated in inch-pound units
shall be considered standard with regard to the sieve frames, pans,” and covers.

1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its
use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health
practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
ASTM D7263 - 09

Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Density (Unit Weight) of Soil Specimens

Significance and Use

Dry density, as defined as “density of soil or rock” in Terminology D 653 and “bulk density” by soil
scientists, can be used to convert the water fraction of soil from a mass basis to a volume basis and
vise-versa. When particle density, that is, specific gravity (Test Methods D 854) is also known, dry
density can be used to calculate porosity and void ratio (see Appendix X1). Dry density
measurements are also useful for determining degree of soil compaction. Since moisture content is
variable, moist soil density provides little useful information except to estimate the weight of soil per
unit volume, for example, pounds per cubic yard, at the time of sampling. Since soil volume shrinks
with drying of swelling soils, bulk density will vary with moisture content. Hence, the water content of
the soil should be determined at the time of sampling.

Densities (unit weights) of remolded/reconstituted specimens are commonly used to evaluate the
degree of compaction of earthen fills, embankments, etc. Dry density values are usually used in
conjunction with compaction curve values (Test Methods D 698 and D 1557).

Density (unit weight) is one of the key components in determining the mass composition/phase
relations of soil, see Appendix X1.

Note 1—The quality of the result produced by this standard is dependent on the competence of the
personnel performing it and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the
criteria of Practice D 3740 are generally considered capable of competent and objective
testing/sampling/inspection/etc. Users of this standard are cautioned that compliance with Practice D
3740 does not in itself assure reliable results. Reliable results depend on several factors; Practice D
3740 provides a means of evaluating some of these factors.

1. Scope

1.1 These test methods describe two ways of determining the total/moist and dry densities (unit
weights) of intact, disturbed, remolded, and reconstituted (compacted) soil specimens. Density (unit
weight) as used in this standard means the same as “bulk density” of soil as defined by the Soil
Science Society of America. Intact specimens may be obtained from thin-walled sampling tubes,
block samples, or clods. Specimens that are remolded by dynamic or static compaction procedures
may also be measured by these methods. These methods apply to soils that will retain their shape
during the measurement process and may also apply to other materials such as soil-cement, soil-
lime, soil-bentonite or solidified soil-bentonite-cement slurries. It is common for the density (unit
weight) of specimens after removal from sampling tubes and compaction molds to be less than the
value based on tube or mold volumes, or of in-situ conditions. This is due to the specimen swelling
after removal of lateral pressures.
1.1.1 Method A covers the procedure for measuring the volume of wax coated specimens by
determining the quantity of water displaced.

1.1.1.1 This method only applies to specimens in which the wax will not penetrate the outer surface of
the specimen.

1.1.2 Method B covers the procedure by means of the direct measurement of the dimensions and
mass of a specimen, usually one of cylindrical shape. Intact and reconstituted/remolded specimens
may be tested by this method in conjunction with strength, permeability (air/water) and compressibility
determinations.

1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values stated in inch-pound
units are approximate.

1.3 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and
rounding established in Practice D 6026.

1.3.1 The method used to specify how data are collected, calculated, or recorded in this standard is
not directly related to the accuracy with which the data can be applied in design or other uses, or
both. How one applies the results obtained using this standard is beyond its scope.

1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its
use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health
practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
ASTM D5084 - 16a

Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials
Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter

Significance and Use

4.1 These test methods apply to one-dimensional, laminar flow of water within porous materials such
as soil and rock.

4.2 The hydraulic conductivity of porous materials generally decreases with an increasing amount of
air in the pores of the material. These test methods apply to water-saturated porous materials
containing virtually no air.

4.3 These test methods apply to permeation of porous materials with water. Permeation with other
liquids, such as chemical wastes, can be accomplished using procedures similar to those described
in these test methods. However, these test methods are only intended to be used when water is the
permeant liquid. See Section 6.

4.4 Darcy's law is assumed to be valid and the hydraulic conductivity is essentially unaffected by
hydraulic gradient.

4.5 These test methods provide a means for determining hydraulic conductivity at a controlled level of
effective stress. Hydraulic conductivity varies with varying void ratio, which changes when the
effective stress changes. If the void ratio is changed, the hydraulic conductivity of the test specimen
will likely change, see Appendix X2. To determine the relationship between hydraulic conductivity and
void ratio, the hydraulic conductivity test would have to be repeated at different effective stresses.

4.6 The correlation between results obtained using these test methods and the hydraulic
conductivities of in-place field materials has not been fully investigated. Experience has sometimes
shown that hydraulic conductivities measured on small test specimens are not necessarily the same
as larger-scale values. Therefore, the results should be applied to field situations with caution and by
qualified personnel.

4.7 In most cases, when testing high swell potential materials and using a constant-volume hydraulic
system, the effective confining stress should be about 1.5 times the swell pressure of the test
specimen or a stress which prevents swelling. If the confining stress is less than the swell pressure,
anomalous flow conditions my occur; for example, mercury column(s) move in the wrong direction.

NOTE 1: The quality of the result produced by this standard is dependent of the competence of the
personnel performing it and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the
criteria of Practice D3740 are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing,
sampling, inspection, etc.. Users of this standard are cautioned that compliance with
Practice D3740 does not in itself assure reliable results. Reliable results depend on many factors;
Practice D3740 provides a means of evaluating some of those factors.
1. Scope

1.1 These test methods cover laboratory measurement of the hydraulic conductivity (also referred to
as coefficient of permeability) of water-saturated porous materials with a flexible wall permeameter at
temperatures between about 15 and 30°C (59 and 86°F). Temperatures outside this range may be
used; however, the user would have to determine the specific gravity of mercury and RT (see 10.3) at
those temperatures using data from Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. There are six alternate
methods or hydraulic systems that may be used to measure the hydraulic conductivity. These
hydraulic systems are as follows:

1.1.1 Method A—Constant Head

1.1.2 Method B—Falling Head, constant tailwater elevation

1.1.3 Method C—Falling Head, rising tailwater elevation

1.1.4 Method D—Constant Rate of Flow

1.1.5 Method E—Constant Volume–Constant Head (by mercury)

1.1.6 Method F—Constant Volume–Falling Head (by mercury), rising tailwater elevation

1.2 These test methods use water as the permeant liquid; see 4.3 and Section 6 on Reagents for
water requirements.

1.3 These test methods may be utilized on all specimen types (intact, reconstituted, remolded,
compacted, etc.) that have a hydraulic conductivity less than about 1 × 10 −6 m/s (1 × 10−4 cm/s),
providing the head loss requirements of 5.2.3 are met. For the constant-volume methods, the
hydraulic conductivity typically has to be less than about 1 × 10−7 m/s.

1.3.1 If the hydraulic conductivity is greater than about 1 × 10−6 m/s, but not more than about
1 × 10−5 m/s; then the size of the hydraulic tubing needs to be increased along with the porosity of the
porous end pieces. Other strategies, such as using higher viscosity fluid or properly decreasing the
cross-sectional area of the test specimen, or both, may also be possible. The key criterion is that the
requirements covered in Section 5 have to be met.

1.3.2 If the hydraulic conductivity is less than about 1 × 10−11 m/s, then standard hydraulic systems
and temperature environments will typically not suffice. Strategies that may be possible when dealing
with such impervious materials may include the following: (a) controlling the temperature more
precisely, (b) adoption of unsteady state measurements by using high-accuracy equipment along with
the rigorous analyses for determining the hydraulic parameters (this approach reduces testing
duration according to Zhang et al. (1)2), and (c) shortening the length or enlarging the cross-sectional
area, or both, of the test specimen (with consideration to specimen grain size (2)). Other approaches,
such as use of higher hydraulic gradients, lower viscosity fluid, elimination of any possible chemical
gradients and bacterial growth, and strict verification of leakage, may also be considered.

1.4 The hydraulic conductivity of materials with hydraulic conductivities greater than 1 × 10 −5 m/s may
be determined by Test Method D2434.

1.5 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guide for significant digits and rounding
established in Practice D6026.

1.5.1 The procedures used to specify how data are collected, recorded, and calculated in this
standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant
digits that should generally be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation,
purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user's
objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be
commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider
significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering design.

1.6 This standard also contains a Hazards section (Section 7).

1.7 The time to perform this test depends on such items as the Method (A, B, C, D, E, or F) used, the
initial degree of saturation of the test specimen and the hydraulic conductivity of the test specimen.
The constant volume Methods (E and F) and Method D require the shortest period-of-time. Typically
a test can be performed using Methods D, E, or F within two to three days. Methods A, B, and C take
a longer period-of-time, from a few days to a few weeks depending on the hydraulic conductivity.
Typically, about one week is required for hydraulic conductivities on the order of 1 × 10 –9 m/s. The
testing time is ultimately controlled by meeting the equilibrium criteria for each Method (see 9.5).

1.8 Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units
given in parentheses are mathematical conversions, which are provided for information purposes only
and are not considered standard, unless specifically stated as standard, such as 0.5 mm or 0.01 in.

1.9 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its
use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health
practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
ASTM D4318 - 17

Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils

Significance and Use

5.1 These test methods are used as an integral part of several engineering classification systems to
characterize the fine-grained fractions of soils (see Practices D2487 and D3282) and to specify the
fine-grained fraction of construction materials (see Specification D1241). The liquid limit, plastic limit,
and plasticity index of soils are also used extensively, either individually or together, with other soil
properties to correlate with engineering behavior such as compressibility, hydraulic conductivity
(permeability), compactibility, shrink-swell, and shear strength. (See Section 6, Interferences.)

5.2 The liquid and plastic limits of a soil and its water content can be used to express its relative
consistency or liquidity index. In addition, the plasticity index and the percentage finer than 2-μm
particle size can be used to determine its activity number.

5.3 These methods are sometimes used to evaluate the weathering characteristics of clay-shale
materials. When subjected to repeated wetting and drying cycles, the liquid limits of these materials
tend to increase. The amount of increase is considered to be a measure of a shale's susceptibility to
weathering.

5.4 The liquid limit of a soil containing substantial amounts of organic matter decreases dramatically
when the soil is oven-dried before testing. Comparison of the liquid limit of a sample before and after
oven-drying can therefore be used as a qualitative measure of organic matter content of a soil (see
Practice D2487).

NOTE 1: The quality of the result produced by this standard is dependent on the competence of the
personnel performing it and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the
criteria of Practice D3740, generally, are considered capable of competent and objective
testing/sampling/inspection/etc. Users of this standard are cautioned that compliance with
Practice D3740 does not in itself assure reliable results. Reliable results depend on many factors;
Practice D3740 provides a means of evaluating some of those factors.

1. Scope

1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the liquid limit, plastic limit, and the plasticity index
of soils as defined in Section 3 on Terminology.

1.2 Two procedures for preparing test specimens are provided as follows: Specimen Preparation
Procedure 1 (Wet Preparation), as described in 11.1 and Specimen Preparation Procedure 2 (Dry
Preparation), as described in 11.2. The specimen preparation procedure to be used shall be specified
by the requesting authority. If no specimen preparation procedure is specified, use the wet
preparation procedure. (See Section 6, Interferences.)
1.3 Two methods for determining the liquid limit are provided as follows: Liquid Limit Method A
(Multipoint Method), as described in Sections 12 and 13, and Liquid Limit Method B (One-Point
Method), as described in Sections 14 and 15. The method to be used shall be specified by the
requesting authority. If no method is specified, use Method A. (See Section 6, Interferences.)

1.4 The plastic limit test, Method for Plastic Limit, is performed on material prepared for the liquid limit
test. When determining the plastic limit, two procedures for rolling portions of the test specimen are
provided as follows: Plastic Limit Rolling Procedure 1 (Hand Rolling), and Plastic Limit Rolling
Procedure 2 (Using the Rolling Device).

1.5 The liquid limit and plastic limit of soils (along with the shrinkage limit) are often collectively
referred to as the Atterberg limits. These limits distinguished the boundaries of the several
consistency states of plastic soils.

1.6 The plasticity index, Method for Plasticity Index, is calculated using results from liquid limit and
plastic limit testing.

1.7 The methods described herein are performed only on that portion of a soil that passes the 425-μm
(No. 40) sieve. Therefore, the relative contribution of this portion of the soil to the properties of the
sample as a whole must be considered when using these methods to evaluate the properties of a
soil.

1.8 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are
mathematical conversions to inch-pound units, which are provided for information only and are not
considered standard. Reporting of test results in units other than SI shall not be regarded as
nonconformance with this standard.

1.8.1 The converted inch-pound units use the gravitational system of units. In this system, the pound
(lbf) represents a unit of force (weight), while the unit for mass is slugs. The converted slug unit is not
given, unless dynamic (F = ma) calculations are involved.

1.8.2 It is common practice in the engineering/construction profession to concurrently use pounds to


represent both a unit of mass (lbm) and of force (lbf). This implicitly combines two separate systems
of units; that is, the absolute system and the gravitational system. It is scientifically undesirable to
combine the use of two separate sets of inch-pound units within a single standard. As stated, this
standard includes the gravitational system of inch-pound units and does not use/present the slug unit
for mass. However, the use of balances or scales recording pounds of mass (lbm) or recording
density in lbm/ft3 shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this standard.

1.8.3 The “alternative” sieve size designations listed in Specification E11 for the 425-µm and 2.00-mm
sieves are given in parentheses following the “standard” designations, that is, 425-µm (No. 40) and
2.00-mm (No. 10).
1.8.4 The standard units for the resilience tester covered in Annex A1 are inch-pound, not SI. The SI
values given in Fig. A1.1 are for information only.

1.9 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and
rounding established in Practice D6026.

1.9.1 For purposes of comparing a measured or calculated value(s) with specified limits, the
measured or calculated value(s) shall be rounded to the nearest decimal or significant digits in the
specified limits.

1.9.2 The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded or calculated, in this standard
are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that
generally should be retained. The procedures do not consider material variation, purpose for
obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user’s objectives; and it is
common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with
these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in
analysis methods for engineering design.

1.10 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its
use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health
practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.11 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized
principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of
International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization
Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
ASTM D1556 / D1556M - 15e1

Standard Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by Sand-Cone Method

Significance and Use

5.1 This test method is used to determine the density and water content of compacted soils placed
during the construction of earth embankments, road fill, and structural backfill. It often is used as a
basis of acceptance for soils compacted to a specified density or percentage of a maximum density
determined by a test method, such as Test Methods D698 or D1557.

5.1.1 Test Methods D698 and D1557 require that mass measurements of laboratory compacted test
specimens be determined to the nearest 1 g, so that computed water contents and densities can be
reported to three and four significant digits, respectively. This standard is a field procedure requiring
mass measurements to the nearest 0.01 lbm [5 g]. As such, water content calculations should only be
reported to nearest 1 % and density to three significant digits.

5.2 This test method can be used to determine the in-place density of natural soil deposits,
aggregates, soil mixtures, or other similar material.

5.3 The use of this test method is generally limited to soil in an unsaturated condition. This test
method is not recommended for soils that are soft or friable (crumble easily) or in moisture conditions
such that water seeps into the hand excavated hole. The precision of the test may be affected for
soils that deform easily or that may undergo a volume change in the excavated hole from vibration, or
from standing or walking near the hole during the test (see Note 1).

NOTE 1: When testing in soft conditions or in soils near saturation, volume changes may occur in the
excavated hole as a result of surface loading, personnel performing the test, and the like. This can
sometimes be avoided by the use of a platform that is supported some distance from the hole. As it is
not always possible to detect when a volume change has taken place, test results should always be
compared to the theoretical saturation density, or the zero air voids line on the dry density versus
water content plot. Any in-place density test on compacted soils that calculates to be more than 95 %
saturation is suspect and an error has probably occurred, or the volume of the hole has changed
during testing.

NOTE 2: The quality of the test result producted by this test method is dependent on the competence
of the personnel performing it, and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that
meet the criteria of Practice D3740 are generally considered capable of competent and objective
testing/sampling/inspection, and the like. Users of this test method are cautioned that compliance with
Practice D3740 does not in itself ensure reliable results. Reliable results depend on many factors;
Practice D3740 provides a means of evaluating some of those factors.

1. Scope
1.1 This test method may be used to determine the in-place density and unit weight of soils using a
sand cone apparatus.

1.2 This test method is applicable for soils without appreciable amounts of rock or coarse materials in
excess of 11/2 in. [38 mm] in diameter.

1.3 This test method may also be used for the determination of the in-place density and unit weight of
intact or in situ soils, provided the natural void or pore openings in the soil are small enough to
prevent the sand used in the test from entering the voids. The soil or other material being tested
should have sufficient cohesion or particle attraction to maintain stable sides on a small hole or
excavation, and be firm enough to withstand the minor pressures exerted in digging the hole and
placing the apparatus over it, without deforming or sloughing.

1.4 This test method is not suitable for organic, saturated, or highly plastic soils that would deform or
compress during the excavation of the test hole. This test method may not be suitable for soils
consisting of unbound granular materials that will not maintain stable sides in the test hole, soils
containing appreciable amounts of coarse material larger than 1 1/2 in. [38 mm], and granular soils
having high void ratios.

1.5 When materials to be tested contain appreciable amounts of particles larger than 1 1/2 in. [38 mm],
or when test hole volumes larger than 0.1 ft3 [2830 cm3] are required, Test
Method D4914 or D5030/D5030M is applicable.

1.6 Units—The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units [presented in brackets] are to be
regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents;
therefore each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two
systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.

1.6.1 The gravitational system of inch-pound units is used when dealing with inch-pound units. In this
system, the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight).

1.6.2 It is common practice in the engineering profession to concurrently use units representing both
mass and force unless dynamic calculations (F = Ma) are involved. This implicitly combines two
separate systems within a single standard. These test methods have been written using inch-pound
units (gravitational system); however, conversions are given in the SI system. The use of balances or
scales recording pounds of mass (lbm), or the recording of density in lbm/ft3 should not be regarded
as nonconformance with this standard.

1.6.3 The sieve designations are identified using the “standard” system in accordance with
Specification E11, such as 25 mm and 75 μm, followed by the “alternative” system of 1 in. and No.
200, respectively.

1.7 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and
rounding established in Practice D6026.
1.7.1 For purposes of comparing, a measured or calculated value(s) with specified limits, the
measured or calculated value(s) shall be rounded to the nearest decimal or significant digits in the
specified limits.

1.7.2 The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded or calculated in this standard
are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that
generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for
obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user’s objectives; and it is
common practice to increase or reduce significant digits or reported data to be commensurate with
these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in
analytical methods for engineering design.

1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its
use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health
practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
ASTM D698 - 12e2

Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12
400 ft-lbf/ft3(600 kN-m/m3))

Significance and Use

5.1 Soil placed as engineering fill (embankments, foundation pads, road bases) is compacted to a
dense state to obtain satisfactory engineering properties such as, shear strength, compressibility, or
permeability. In addition, foundation soils are often compacted to improve their engineering
properties. Laboratory compaction tests provide the basis for determining the percent compaction and
molding water content needed to achieve the required engineering properties, and for controlling
construction to assure that the required compaction and water contents are achieved.

5.2 During design of an engineered fill, shear, consolidation, permeability, or other tests require
preparation of test specimens by compacting at some molding water content to some unit weight. It is
common practice to first determine the optimum water content (wopt) and maximum dry unit weight
(γd,max) by means of a compaction test. Test specimens are compacted at a selected molding water
content (w), either wet or dry of optimum (wopt) or at optimum (wopt), and at a selected dry unit weight
related to a percentage of maximum dry unit weight (γd,max). The selection of molding water content
(w), either wet or dry of optimum (wopt) or at optimum (wopt) and the dry unit weight (γd,max) may be
based on past experience, or a range of values may be investigated to determine the necessary
percent of compaction.

5.3 Experience indicates that the methods outlined in 5.2 or the construction control aspects
discussed in 5.1are extremely difficult to implement or yield erroneous results when dealing with
certain soils. 5.3.1 – 5.3.3describe typical problem soils, the problems encountered when dealing with
such soils and possible solutions for these problems.

5.3.1 Oversize Fraction—Soils containing more than 30 % oversize fraction (material retained on
the 3/4-in. (19-mm) sieve) are a problem. For such soils, there is no ASTM test method to control their
compaction and very few laboratories are equipped to determine the laboratory maximum unit weight
(density) of such soils (USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
Vicksburg, MS). Although Test Methods D4914 and D5030 determine the “field” dry unit weight of
such soils, they are difficult and expensive to perform.

5.3.1.1 One method to design and control the compaction of such soils is to use a test fill to
determine the required degree of compaction and the method to obtain that compaction, followed by
use of a method specification to control the compaction. Components of a method specification
typically contain the type and size of compaction equipment to be used, the lift thickness, acceptable
range in molding water content, and the number of passes.
NOTE 3: Success in executing the compaction control of an earthwork project, especially when a
method specification is used, is highly dependent upon the quality and experience of the contractor
and inspector.

5.3.1.2 Another method is to apply the use of density correction factors developed by the USDI
Bureau of Reclamation (2, 3) and U.S. Corps of Engineers (4). These correction factors may be
applied for soils containing up to about 50 to 70 % oversize fraction. Each agency uses a different
term for these density correction factors. The USDI Bureau of Reclamation uses D ratio (or D–
VALUE), while the U.S. Corps of Engineers uses Density Interference Coefficient (Ic).

5.3.1.3 The use of the replacement technique (Test Method D698–78, Method D), in which the
oversize fraction is replaced with a finer fraction, is inappropriate to determine the maximum dry unit
weight, γd,max, of soils containing oversize fractions (4).

5.3.2 Degradation—Soils containing particles that degrade during compaction are a problem,
especially when more degradation occurs during laboratory compaction than field compaction, as is
typical. Degradation typically occurs during the compaction of a granular-residual soil or aggregate.
When degradation occurs, the maximum dry-unit weight increases (1, p. 73) so that the laboratory
maximum value is not representative of field conditions. Often, in these cases, the maximum dry unit
weight is impossible to achieve in the field.

5.3.2.1 Again, for soils subject to degradation, the use of test fills and method specifications may
help. Use of replacement techniques is not correct.

5.3.3 Gap Graded—Gap-graded soils (soils containing many large particles with limited small
particles) are a problem because the compacted soil will have larger voids than usual. To handle
these large voids, standard test methods (laboratory or field) typically have to be modified using
engineering judgement.

NOTE 4: The quality of the result produced by this standard is dependent on the competence of the
personnel performing it, and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet
the criteria of Practice D3740 are generally considered capable of competent and objective
testing/sampling/inspection, and the like. Users of this standard are cautioned that compliance with
Practice D3740 does not in itself assure reliable results. Reliable results depend on many factors;
Practice D3740 provides a means of evaluating some of those factors.

1. Scope

1.1 These test methods cover laboratory compaction methods used to determine the relationship
between molding water content and dry unit weight of soils (compaction curve) compacted in a 4 or 6-
in. (101.6 or 152.4-mm) diameter mold with a 5.50-lbf (24.5-N) rammer dropped from a height of 12.0
in. (305 mm) producing a compactive effort of 12 400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3).
NOTE 1: The equipment and procedures are similar as those proposed by R. R. Proctor (Engineering
News Record—September 7, 1933) with this one major exception: his rammer blows were applied as
“12 inch firm strokes” instead of free fall, producing variable compactive effort depending on the
operator, but probably in the range 15 000 to 25 000 ft-lbf/ft3 (700 to 1200 kN-m/m3). The standard
effort test (see 3.1.4) is sometimes referred to as the Proctor Test.

1.1.1 Soils and soil-aggregate mixtures are to be regarded as natural occurring fine- or coarse-
grained soils, or composites or mixtures of natural soils, or mixtures of natural and processed soils or
aggregates such as gravel or crushed rock. Hereafter referred to as either soil or material.

1.2 These test methods apply only to soils (materials) that have 30 % or less by mass of particles
retained on the 3/4-in. (19.0-mm) sieve and have not been previously compacted in the laboratory;
that is, do not reuse compacted soil.

1.2.1 For relationships between unit weights and molding water contents of soils with 30 % or less by
mass of material retained on the 3/4-in. (19.0-mm) sieve to unit weights and molding water contents of
the fraction passing 3/4-in. (19.0-mm) sieve, see Practice D4718.

1.3 Three alternative methods are provided. The method used shall be as indicated in the
specification for the material being tested. If no method is specified, the choice should be based on
the material gradation.

1.3.1 Method A:

1.3.1.1 Mold—4-in. (101.6-mm) diameter.

1.3.1.2 Material—Passing No. 4 (4.75-mm) sieve.

1.3.1.3 Layers—Three.

1.3.1.4 Blows per Layer—25.

1.3.1.5 Usage—May be used if 25 % or less (see 1.4) by mass of the material is retained on the No. 4
(4.75-mm) sieve.

1.3.1.6 Other Usage—If this gradation requirement cannot be met, then Method C may be used.

1.3.2 Method B:

1.3.2.1 Mold—4-in. (101.6-mm) diameter.

1.3.2.2 Material—Passing 3/8-in. (9.5-mm) sieve.

1.3.2.3 Layers—Three.

1.3.2.4 Blows per Layer—25.


1.3.2.5 Usage—May be used if 25 % or less (see 1.4) by mass of the material is retained on the 3/8-in.
(9.5-mm) sieve.

1.3.2.6 Other Usage—If this gradation requirement cannot be met, then Method C may be used.

1.3.3 Method C:

1.3.3.1 Mold—6-in. (152.4-mm) diameter.

1.3.3.2 Material—Passing 3/4-in. (19.0-mm) sieve.

1.3.3.3 Layers—Three.

1.3.3.4 Blows per Layer—56.

1.3.3.5 Usage—May be used if 30 % or less (see 1.4) by mass of the material is retained on the 3/4-in.
(19.0-mm) sieve.

1.3.4 The 6-in. (152.4-mm) diameter mold shall not be used with Method A or B.

NOTE 2: Results have been found to vary slightly when a material is tested at the same compactive
effort in different size molds, with the smaller mold size typically yielding larger values of density/unit
weight (1, pp. 21+).2

1.4 If the test specimen contains more than 5 % by mass of oversize fraction (coarse fraction) and the
material will not be included in the test, corrections must be made to the unit mass and molding water
content of the specimen or to the appropriate field-in-place density test specimen using
Practice D4718.

1.5 This test method will generally produce a well-defined maximum dry unit weight for non-free
draining soils. If this test method is used for free-draining soils the maximum unit weight may not be
well defined, and can be less than obtained using Test Methods D4253.

1.6 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and
rounding established in Practice D6026, unless superseded by this standard.

1.6.1 For purposes of comparing measured or calculated value(s) with specified limits, the measured
or calculated value(s) shall be rounded to the nearest decimal or significant digits in the specified
limits.

1.6.2 The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded or calculated, in this standard
are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that
generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for
obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user’s objectives; and it is
common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with
these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in
analytical methods for engineering design.

1.7 The values in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values stated in SI units
are provided for information only, except for units of mass. The units for mass are given in SI units
only, g or kg.

1.7.1 It is common practice in the engineering profession to concurrently use pounds to represent
both a unit of mass (lbm) and a force (lbf). This implicitly combines two separate systems of units;
that is, the absolute system and the gravitational system. It is scientifically undesirable to combine the
use of two separate sets of inch-pound units within a single standard. This standard has been written
using the gravitational system of units when dealing with the inch-pound system. In this system, the
pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight). However, the use of balances or scales recording
pounds of mass (lbm) or the recording of density in lbm/ft3shall not be regarded as a nonconformance
with this standard.

1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its
use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health
practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
ASTM D1883 - 16

Standard Test Method for California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of Laboratory-Compacted Soils

Significance and Use

5.1 This test method is used to evaluate the potential strength of subgrade, subbase, and base
course materials, including recycled materials for use in the design of road and airfield pavements.
The CBR value obtained in this test forms an integral part of several flexible pavement design
methods.

5.2 For applications where the effect of compaction water content on CBR is small, such as
cohesionless, coarse-grained materials, or where an allowance is made for the effect of differing
compaction water contents in the design procedure, the CBR may be determined at the optimum
water content of a specified compaction effort. The specified dry unit weight is normally the minimum
percent compaction allowed by the using client’s field compaction specification.

5.3 For applications where the effect of compaction water content on CBR is unknown or where it is
desired to account for its effect, the CBR is determined for a range of water contents, usually the
range of water content permitted for field compaction by using the client’s protocol or specification for
field compaction.

5.4 The criteria for test specimen preparation of self-cementing (and other) materials which gain
strength with time must be based on a geotechnical engineering evaluation. As directed by the client,
self-cementing materials shall be properly cured until bearing ratios representing long term service
conditions can be measured.

NOTE 1: The quality of the results produced by this standard is dependent on the competence of the
personnel performing it, and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet
the criteria of Practice D3740 are generally considered capable of competent and objective
testing/sampling/inspection/etc. Users of this standard are cautioned that compliance with
Practice D3740 does not in itself ensure reliable results. Reliable results depend on many factors;
Practice D3740 provides a means of evaluating some of those factors.

1. Scope

1.1 This test method covers the determination of the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of pavement
subgrade, subbase, and base course materials from laboratory compacted specimens. The test
method is primarily intended for, but not limited to, evaluating the strength of materials having
maximum particle size less than 3/4 in. (19 mm).

1.2 When materials having a maximum particle size greater than 3/4 in. (19 mm) are to be tested, this
test method provides for modifying the gradation of the material so that the material used for testing
all passes the 3/4-in. (19-mm) sieve while the total gravel fraction (material passing the 3-in. (75-mm)
sieve and retained on the No. 4 (4.75-mm) sieve) remains the same. While traditionally this method of
specimen preparation has been used to avoid the error inherent in testing materials containing large
particles in the CBR test apparatus, the modified material may have significantly different strength
properties than the original material. However, a large experience database has been developed
using this test method for materials for which the gradation has been modified, and satisfactory
design methods are in use based on the results of tests using this procedure.

1.3 Past practice has shown that CBR results for those materials having substantial percentages of
particles retained on the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve are more variable than for finer materials.
Consequently, more trials may be required for these materials to establish a reliable CBR.

1.4 This test method provides for the determination of the CBR of a material at optimum water
content or a range of water content from a specified compaction test and a specified dry unit weight.
The dry unit weight is usually given as a percentage of maximum dry unit weight determined by Test
Methods D698 or D1557.

1.5 The client requesting the test may specify the water content or range of water contents and the
dry unit weight for which the CBR is desired.

1.6 Unless specified otherwise by the requesting client, or unless it has been shown to have no effect
on test results for the material being tested, all specimens shall be soaked prior to penetration.

1.7 For the determination of CBR of field in-place materials, see Test Method D4429.

1.8 Units—The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The SI units given
in parentheses are mathematical conversions, which are provided for information purposes only and
are not considered standard. Reporting of test results in units other than inch-pound units shall not be
regarded as nonconformance with this test method.

1.8.1 The gravitational system of inch-pound units is used when dealing with inch-pound units. In this
system, the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight), while the unit for mass is slugs. The slug
unit is not given, unless dynamic (F = ma) calculations are involved.

1.8.2 The slug unit of mass is almost never used in commercial practice; that is, density, balances,
etc. Therefore, the standard unit for mass in this standard is either kilogram (kg) or gram (g), or both.
Also, the equivalent inch-pound unit (slug) is not given/presented in parentheses.

1.8.3 It is common practice in the engineering/construction profession, in the United States, to


concurrently use pounds to represent both a unit of mass (lbm) and of force (lbf). This implicitly
combines two separate systems of units; that is, the absolute system and the gravitational system. It
is scientifically undesirable to combine the use of two separate sets of inchpound units within a single
standard. As stated, this standard includes the gravitational system of inch-pound units and does not
use/present the slug unit for mass. However, the use of balances or scales recording pounds of mass
(lbm) or recording density in lbm/ft3 shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this standard.
1.8.4 The terms density and unit weight are often used interchangeably. Density is mass per unit
volume whereas unit weight is force per unit volume. In this standard, density is given only in SI units.
After the density has been determined, the unit weight is calculated in SI or inch-pound units, or both.

1.9 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and
rounding established in Practice D6026.

1.9.1 The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded or calculated in this standard
are regarded as the industry standard. In addition they are representative of the significant digits that
generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for
obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user’s objectives, and it is
common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with
these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in
analytical methods for engineering design.

1.10 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its
use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health
practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.