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The Tudors were a family who ruled over England from 1485 until 1603.

They
brought peace to England after many years of war. There had been a war - The War of the
Roses for 30 years in England. The Lancasters had a red rose as a symbol, and the Yorks
had a white.
At the end of the war, Henry Tudor, a Lancastrian, married the niece of the leader
of the Yorks. So, they put the white rose and the red rose together as a symbol of unity,
and so the Tudor rose was born.

Their names were:

 Henry VII
 Henry VIII
 Edward VI
 Mary I
 Elizabeth I

Some interesting facts about them:

The Tudors were very smelly - they didn't believe in bathing.

The Tudor Royalty ate a great deal. In one month (November 1531) Henry and his friends ate:
24 cows, 100 sheep, 51 deer, 91 pigs, 700 cocks and hens, 444 pigeons, 168 swans and over
4000 larks.

Mary Tudor, Mary I, or Bloody Mary as she was known to the 17th Century Protestants,
was the eldest child of Henry VIII., the only surviving child of his first marriage, to
Katherine of Aragon.
As a firm Catholic Queen in a religiously divided country she had 283 heretics burned at
the stake.

Henry VIII., the father of 3 Tudor (Edward VI., Mary I. and Elisabeth I.) rulers, was
famous of having 6 wives whom he either divorced or executed (Divorced, beheaded,
died, Divorced, beheaded, survived).
When his first divorce was denied by the Pope, he turned against him and by the Act of
Supremacy he declared himself the head of the English Church (Anglican Church). So,
from then on he could marry any woman he wanted to with the help of his own
archbishop, Thomas Cramer.
Besides being a cruel ruler, he was also a man of art and literature: he wrote poems and
composed songs himself.

Elisabeth I: "I may not be a lion, but I am a lion's cub,


and I have a lion's heart" (The Lion Queen)
The defeat of the Spanish Armada is one of the most famous events in English
history. It was arguably Queen Elizabeth's finest hour. The reign of Queen
Elizabeth I. is often referred to as The Golden Age of English history. Elizabeth
was an immensely popular Queen.

Characteristics of the Age

The Elizabethan Women:

1. Girls could be educated by a tutor, but schools were reserved for boys. Girls
were not allowed to go to university.
2. Women, regardless of social position, were not allowed to vote.
3. Women could not enter the professions of law, medicine and politics.
4. Women were also allowed to write works of literature.
5. A woman couldn’t act on the stage. Women did not appear on the stage in
England until the seventeenth century. The roles of women in Shakespeare's
plays were often played by young boys.
6. Women could not be heirs to their father's titles. All titles would pass from
father to son or brother to brother, depending on the circumstances. The only
exception was, of course, the crown. The crown could pass to a daughter, and
that daughter would be invested with all the power and Majesty of any king.
7. A man had the legal right to chastise his wife as he was seen as the head of
the marriage.

The Elizabethan Europe:

In the sixteenth century, the western world centred on Europe. America


had only recently been discovered and was a land for adventurers and explorers
to conquer and discover and bring back to Europe all kinds of wonders such as
potatoes and tobacco. The most important person in Europe was arguably the
Pope who resided then, as now, in the Vatican at Rome. Catholicism was still the
dominant European religion and the Pope, as its head, had enormous power in
Catholic countries. Even in non-Catholic countries such as England, the Pope
had a great influence amongst those still adhering to the Catholic faith.

What did they eat? What kinds of food were at fashion?

Poor people: bread, fish, cheese and ale.


Rich people: lamb, beef, mutton, pork, bacon, veal, rabbit, hare, and foul such as
peacock, swan, goose, blackbirds and pigeon, freshwater and sea fish.

Important people of the Age:

+ Sir Francis Drake

He was Queen Elisabeth I.’s marine admiral, who was sent by the Queen to stop
the flow of gold and silver to Spain. He accomplished his mission, was awarded
by the Queen, but during his voyages on the sea, he soon became one of the
best known and most mysterious and feared pirates of all times.

+ William Shakespeare