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Arequipa

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This article is about the city of Arequipa. For other uses, see Arequipa (disambiguation).

Arequipa

Region capital

Arequipa City
From top: Cathedral; Main square; Misti volcano; Santa Catalina Monastery;
Yanahuara overlook; partial view of the city.

Flag

Coat of arms

Nickname(s): La Ciudad Blanca (The White City)

Arequipa

Location in Peru

Coordinates: 16°23′S 71°32′WCoordinates: 16°23′S 71°32′W

Country Peru
Region Arequipa
Province Arequipa

Established 15 August 1540


Founded by Garcí Manuel de Carbajal

Government
• Mayor Alfredo Zegarra Tejada

Area
• Region capital 69 km2 (27 sq mi)
• Metro 2,923.53 km2(1,128.78 sq mi)

Elevation 2,335 m (7,661 ft)

Population
• Estimate (2015)[1] 869,351
• Metro 920,047

Demonym(s) Arequipeño

Time zone PET (UTC-5)


• Summer (DST) PET (UTC−5)

Postal code 04000


Area code(s) 54

Website www.muniarequipa.gob.pe

Arequipa (Spanish pronunciation: [aɾeˈkipa]) is the capital and largest city of the Arequipa
Region and the seat of the Constitutional Court of Peru. It is Peru's second most populous
city with 861,145 inhabitants, as well as its second most populous metropolitan area as of
2016, according to the National Institute of Statistics and Informatics (INEI) [2]
Arequipa is the second most industrialized[3] and commercialized city in Peru.[4] Its industrial
activity includes manufactured goods and camelid wool products for export. The city has
close trade ties with Chile, Bolivia and Brazil.
The city was founded on 15 August 1540, by Garcí Manuel de Carbajal as "Villa Hermosa
de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción". During the Colonial period, Arequipa became highly
important for its economic prosperity[4] and for its loyalty to the Spanish Crown.[5]
After Peru gained its independence from Spain in 1821, Arequipa acquired greater political
significance,[6] and was declared the capital city of Peru from 1835 to 1883.[7][8]
The historic center of Arequipa spans an area of 332 hectares[9] and is a UNESCO World
Heritage Site.[10] Its historic heritage, natural scenery and cultural sites make the city a
major tourist destination. Its religious, colonial, and republican architectural styles blend
European and native characteristics[11] into a unique style called "Escuela Arequipeña".[12]

Contents
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 1Etymology
 2History
o 2.1City symbols
 3Geography
o 3.1Location
o 3.2Climate
o 3.3Solar radiation
o 3.4Cityscape
o 3.5Administrative division
 4Demographics
 5Economy
 6Education
o 6.1Primary and secondary education
o 6.2Higher education
 7Culture
o 7.1Regionalism
o 7.2Language
o 7.3Literature
o 7.4Art and photography
o 7.5Museums
o 7.6Research, academic & cultural institutions
o 7.7Sport
o 7.8Music
o 7.9Cuisine
 8Government
o 8.1City administration
o 8.2Constitutional Court
 9Sights and attractions
o 9.1The Old Town
 9.1.1Religious monuments
 9.1.2Civil-public monuments
 9.1.3Military monuments
 9.1.4Civil-domestic monuments
o 9.2Suburbs
 10Parks and recreation
 11Infrastructure
o 11.1Healthcare
o 11.2Transport
 12International relations
o 12.1Twin towns – sister cities
 13See also
 14References
 15Bibliography
 16External links

Etymology[edit]
A local tradition states that Inca Mayta Capac received a petition from his subjects to reach
the valley of the River Chili. They asked him for permission to stay in the region as they
were impressed by the beauty of the landscape and the mild climate. The Inca
answered "Ari qhipay" (Quechua: "Yes, stay").[13] However, another similar tale states that
when the first Europeans arrived to the valley, they pointed at the ground and asked for the
name of the land. the local chief, not understanding the question, assumed they were
asking for a permission to sit down and gave a positive answer, which sounded like
"Arequipa".[14]
Chroniclers Blas Valera and Inca Garcilaso de la Vega suggested that the name of the city
came from an ancient Aymara phrase, "ari qquepan", supposedly meaning "trumpet
sound", in reference to the sound produced from blowing into an empty conch-like
seashell.[15]
Another possible origin of the city's name comes from the Aymara language phrase
"qhipaya ari" or "Ari qipa" (from 'ari': acute, sharp or pointed; and 'qhipaya': behind), which
translates to "behind the peak," referring to the nearby volcano, Misti.[16]

History[edit]
The early inhabitants of the Arequipa City area were nomadic people who relied on
activities such as hunting, fishing and gathering for survival. Later, pre-Inca
cultures domesticatedllamas and became sedentary with the development
of agriculture.[17] During this time, major irrigation channels were built within the valley of the
Chili river, which allowed the development of agriculture by means of terraces built on both
sides of the valley. The Yarabaya and Chimbe tribes settled in the city's current location,
and together with the Cabana and Collagua tribes they developed an agrarian economy in
the valley.[17]
When the Inca Mayta Capac arrived in the valley of the Chili river, he didn't build cities;
instead, he gave orders to his mitimae (settlers from lands within the Inca empire) to settle
in the valley to gain control of the existing population, perform intelligence tasks and
strengthen border enclaves as a way to control the unconquered villages.[18] A Hispanic
version of the events, detailed by chronicler Garcilaso de la Vega, which has been
described as historically inaccurate,[19] suggests that around 1170 Huayna Capac stopped
with his army in the valley of the Chili River, which he called Ari qepay – an expression
meaning "let's stay here". Lands were then distributed among three thousand families who
founded the towns of Yanahuara, Cayma, Tiabaya, Socabaya, Characato and others,
towns that still exist nowadays.[20]
The Spanish foundation of Arequipa was performed on 15 August 1540 by Garci Manuel de
Carbajal in the valley of the Chili river as "Villa de la Asunción de Nuestra Señora del Valle
Hermoso de Arequipa" in an area occupied by some Native American villages.[21] At the
time of its foundation, Arequipa had already a city council, because the foundation of the
town occurred in part as a relocation of Villa Hermosa de Camana, a coastal city. The
name was partially conserved as Villa Hermosa de Arequipa.[7] Charles V of Germany and I
of Spain gave the town a status of 'city' by Royal Decree on 22 September 1541.[22] The
relocation efforts were led by Garci Manuel de Carbajal, who was selected as the political
authority for the foundation of the new town.[23] Among the first public works carried out in
the city are the Main Church, the City Hall, the bridge on the Chili River and the monastery
of Nuestra Señora de Gracia.[24]