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HIDRAULICA

ENERGY DISIPATORS

INTEGRANTES:

- SU CHAQUI, ALEXANDER RAFAEL

ENERGY DISIPATORS

HYDRAULIC

INDICE

ENERGY DISIPATORS ....................................................................................................................................................... 1

1. Type VI Impact Basin ................................................................................................................................................ 2

a. DESIGN FOR TYPE VI IMPACT BASIN ................................................................................................................ 8

b. OTHER TYPES OF STILLING BASINS ................................................................................................................ 8

1.1. BAFFLE OUTLETS ......................................................................................................................................... 11

1.2. DROPS OF OUTLET WITH PLATE FOR SHOCK ......................................................................................... 16

1.3. BAFFLE BLOCKS........................................................................................................................................... 17

1.4. STANDARD PLATE BAFFLE BASIN ............................................................................................................. 18

2. HYDRAULIC JUMP .................................................................................................................................................. 21

3. Characteristics of hydraulic jump .......................................................................................................................... 21

3.1. Energy loss..................................................................................................................................................... 21

3.2. Efficiency ........................................................................................................................................................ 22

3.3. Height of jump ................................................................................................................................................ 23

3.4. Length of jump ............................................................................................................................................... 23

4. TYPES OF HYDRAULIC JUMP ................................................................................................................................ 24

5. STILLING BASINS .................................................................................................................................................... 26

6. EXPANSION AND DEPRESSION FOR STILLING BASINS (seccion8.1) ............................................................... 26

6.1. GENERAL DESIGN PROCEDURE................................................................................................................. 30

6.2. USBR TYPE I STILLING BASIN ..................................................................................................................... 32

6.3. USBR TYPE II STILLING BASIN .................................................................................................................... 34

6.4. USBR TYPE III STILLING BASIN ................................................................................................................... 36

6.5. USBR TYPE IV STILLING BASIN .................................................................................................................. 38

6.6. SAF STILLING BASIN .................................................................................................................................... 40

6.7. SKY-JUMP ...................................................................................................................................................... 43

6.8. Sky – jump submerged smooth.................................................................................................................... 44

Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................................... 45

1

ENERGY DISIPATORS

HYDRAULIC

ENERGY DISIPATORS

1. Type VI Impact Basin

The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) Type VI impact basin was developed at the USBR Laboratory (ASCE, 1957).

The dissipater is contained in a relatively small box-like structure that requires no tail water for successful performance.

Although the emphasis in this manual is on its use at culvert outlets, the structure may also be used in open channels.

The shape of the basin has evolved from extensive tests, but these were limited in range by the practical size of field

structures required. With the many combinations of discharge, velocity, and depth possible for the incoming flow, it

became apparent that some device was needed which would be equally effective over the entire range. The vertical

hanging baffle, shown in Figure 1.1., proved to be this device. Energy dissipation is initiated by flow striking the vertical

hanging baffle and being deflected upstream by the horizontal portion of the baffle and by the floor, creating horizontal

eddies.

Notches in the baffle are provided to aid in cleaning the basin after prolonged periods of low or no flow. If the basin is full

of sediment, the notches provide concentrated jets of water for cleaning. The basin is designed to carry the full discharge

over the top of the baffle if the space beneath the baffle becomes completely clogged. Although this performance is not

good, it is acceptable for short periods of time.

2

ENERGY DISIPATORS

HYDRAULIC

3

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HYDRAULIC

The design information is presented as a dimensionless curve in Figure 1.4. This curve incorporates the original

information contained in ASCE (1957) and the results of additional experimentation performed by the Department of

Public Works, City of Los Angeles. The curve shows the relationship of the Froude number to the ratio of the energy

entering the dissipater to the width of dissipater required. The Los Angeles tests indicate that limited extrapolation of this

curve is permissible.

Once the basin width, WB, has been determined, many of the other dimensions shown in Figure 1.1. Follow according to

Table 1.1. To use Table 1.1, round the value of WB to the nearest entry in the table to determine the other dimensions.

Interpolation is not necessary. In calculating the energy and the Froude number, the equivalent depth of flow, ye =

(A/2)1/2, entering the dissipater from a pipe or irregular-shaped conduit must be computed. In other words, the cross

section flow area in the pipe is converted into an equivalent rectangular cross section in which the width is twice the depth

of flow. The conduit preceding the dissipater can be open, closed, or of any cross section. The effectiveness of the basin

is best illustrated by comparing the energy losses within the structure to those in a natural hydraulic jump, Figure 1.5. The

energy loss was computed based on depth and velocity measurements made in the approach pipe and also in the

downstream channel with no tailwater. Compared with the natural hydraulic jump, the USBR Type VI impact basin shows

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ENERGY DISIPATORS

HYDRAULIC

Although tailwater is not necessary for successful operation, a moderate depth of tailwater will improve the performance.

For best performance set the basin so that maximum tailwater does not exceed h3 + (h2/2) which is half of the baffle.

The basin floor should be constructed horizontally and will operate effectively with entrance conduits on slopes up to 15 º

(27%). For entrance conduits with slopes greater than 15o, a horizontal conduit section of at least four conduit widths long

should be provided immediately upstream of the dissipator. Experience has shown that, even for conduits with slopes less

than 15 degrees, it is more efficient when the horizontal section of pipe recommended for steeper slopes is used. In every

case, the proper position of the entrance invert, as shown in Figure 1.1., should be maintained.

If a horizontal section of pipe is provided before the dissipator, the conduit should be analyzed to determine if a hydraulic

jump would form in the conduit. When a hydraulic jump is expected and the pipe outlet is flowing full, a vent about one-

sixth the pipe diameter should be installed at a convenient location upstream from the jump.

To provide structural support to the hanging baffle, a short support should be placed under the center of the baffle wall.

This support will also provide an additional energy dissipating barrier to the flow.

Table 1.1. USBR Type VI Impact Basin Dimensions (m) (AASHTO, 2005)

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HYDRAULIC

6

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HYDRAULIC

Figure 1.5. Energy Loss of USBR Type VI Impact Basin versus Hydraulic Jump

7

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For erosion reduction and better basin operation, use the alternative end sill and 45 º windgall design as shown in Figure

1.1. The sill should be set as low as possible to prevent degradation downstream. For best performance, the downstream

channel should be at the same elevation as the top of the sill. A slot should be placed in the end sill to provide for

drainage during periods of low flow. Although the basin is depressed, the slot allows water to drain into the surrounding

soil. For protection against undermining, a cutoff wall should be added at the end of the basin. Its depth will depend on

the type of soil present. Riprap should be placed downstream of the basin for a length of at least four conduit widths.

The Los Angeles experiments simulated discharges up to 11.3 m3/s (400 ft3/s) and entrance velocities as high as 15.2

m/s (50 ft/s). Therefore, use of the basin is limited to installations within these parameters. Velocities up to 15.2 m/s (50

ft/s) can be used without subjecting the structure to damage from cavitation forces. Some structures already constructed

have exceeded these thresholds suggesting there may be some design flexibility. For larger installations where discharge

is separable, two or more structures may be placed side by side. The USBR Type VI is not recommended where debris or

ice buildup may cause substantial clogging.

A. Determine the maximum discharge, Q, and velocity, Vo and check against design limits. Compute the flow

area at the end of the approach pipe, A. Compute equivalent depth, ye = (A/2)1/2.

B. Compute the Froude number, Fr, and the energy at the end of the pipe, Ho.

C. Determine Ho/WB from Figure 1.4. Calculate the required width of basin, WB. WB = Ho / (Ho/ WB)

D. Obtain the remaining dimensions of the USBR Type VI impact basin from Table 1.1. using WB obtained from

step 3.

E. Determine exit velocity, VB = V2, by trial and error using an energy balance between the culvert exit and the

basin exit. Determine if this velocity is acceptable and whether or not riprap protection is needed downstream

(see Chapter 10.) HB = Q/ (WBVB) + V2B / (2g) = Ho(1– HL/Ho) This equation is a cubic equation yielding 3

solutions, two positive and one negative. The negative solution is discarded. The two positive roots yield a

subcritical and supercritical solution. Where low or no tailwater exists, the supercritical solution is taken. Where

sufficient tailwater exists, the subcritical solution is taken.

Although the stilling basin based purely on a simple hydraulic jump works well and relatively efficiently, in certain

conditions other types of basins may produce savings in construction costs. Standard basins were developed with baffles,

chute blocks and special end sills by the USBR (Bradley and Peterka, 1957; Peterka, 1963; US Bureau of Reclamation,

1987). An example of a basin with chute and baffle blocks – USBR Type III – which can be used for velocities V=18.2ms

and q=18.6m2/s is shown in Figure 1.6. As this basin is shorter than others, the temptation is to use it outside these

limits; however, the danger of cavitation damage in these cases is substantial and great care must be exercised in the

design and positioning of the blocks. Basco (1969) and Nothaft (2003) carried out a detailed investigation of the trend in

design of baffled basins and of drag forces, pressure fluctuations, and optimum geometry; the whole area of baffled

basins is also reviewed by Locher and Hsu (1984).

The plain and slotted roller bucket dissipators developed mainly in the USA (Peterka, 1963) (Fig. 1.7.) require

substantially higher tailwater

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HYDRAULIC

Figure 1.6. Stilling basin with chute blocks and baffles, USBR Type III (after

US Bureau of Reclamation, 1987)

Figure 1.7. Plain and slotted roller buckets (US Bureau of Reclamation)

Levels than conventional hydraulic jump basins and, in the case of gated spillways, symmetrical gates operation (to

prevent side rollers which could bring sediment into the bucket which, in turn, could damage the dissipator).

The stilling basin with a surface regime hydraulic jump uses a submerged small shallow flip bucket (Figure 1.7. (b)); the

theory and its application:

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HYDRAULIC

Figure 1.8. Spatial hydraulic jump basins: (a) change in width; (b) change in depth; (c) flow from lateral channels

(after Locher and Hsu, 1984) to low dams was developed particularly in the USSR (e.g. Skladnev, 1956) and is

reviewed by Novak and Cˇ ábelka (1981). This type of basin is really only one example of spatial hydraulic jump basins.

Others involve a sudden change in width (Fig. 1.8. (a)) or a jump combined with side inflows form chutes (Fig. 1.8. (c)).

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ENERGY DISIPATORS

HYDRAULIC

In one dissipative pool water it flows from the steep short length at a higher speed than the critical speed. The abrupt

change in slope, where the gently sloping floor dissipating pool meets the short stretch of steep slope forces the water to

a hydraulic jump and the energy is dissipated in the resulting turbulence. Dissipating pool is sized to contain the jump. For

a dissipative pool to operate properly, the Froude number should be between 4.5 and 15, where the water enters the

dissipating pool. If the Froude number is less than about 4.5 would not happen a stable hydraulic jump. If the Froude

number is greater than 10, a dissipative pool would not be the best alternative to dissipate energy. Dissipative pools

require a depth downstream to ensure that the jump occurs where turbulence can be contained.

They are sometimes used pools with divergent walls, which require special attention. For flows up to 2.8 m3 / s the

equation:

𝟏

𝒃 = 𝟏𝟖. 𝟕𝟖 𝒙 𝑸𝟐 𝒙 𝑸 + 𝟏𝟎. 𝟏𝟏

Where:

b = width of the pool (m)

Q = Flow (m3 / s)

Can be used to determine the width of a pool for the initial calculations for structures where the vertical drop is less than

4.5 m. The dimension of the energy level after the hydraulic jump should be balanced with the level of the energy level of

the channel downstream of the structure.

The water depth after hydraulic jump can be calculated from the formula:

𝑑1 𝑑1 2 𝑑1 2

𝐷2 = − + ((2𝑣1 2 𝑥 ) + ( ))0.5

𝑑2 𝑔 4

d1 = Tight before the jump (m),

v1 = speed before the jump (m / s)

d2 = taut after the jump

g = acceleration of gravity (9.81 m / s2)

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13

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Figure 1.1.1. Energy Loss In Hydraulic Jump, Relationship Between Energy Loss , And Critical Tirante Water Depths

Shoulder ( Upstream And Downstream ) Projections Hydraulic Channels For Rectangular Flush With Horizontal

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Figure 1.1.2.: Curve to Calculate the Free Edge of the Pool Dissipating

The minimum length of pool (Lp in Figure 1.1.2.) for structures used in channel d2 is typically 4 times. Drains for

structures where flow is intermittent, short duration, the minimum length may be about 3 times d2. The free edge

recommended for dissipating pools can be determined from Figure 1.1.2. The free edge is measured on the maximum

energy level after the hydraulic jump.

When dissipating pool intermittently discharged or discharged into a natural channel or other uncontrolled control it should

be built into the outlet of the pool to provide the necessary water down strap. The critical depth in the control section

should be used to determine the energy level later.

When the pond discharged to a controlled channel, the rod in the channel should be calculated with a value n of the

channel, reduced by 20 % and this strap used to determine the energy level later. If a pool is used with diverging walls,

the deflection angle of the side walls must not exceed the permitted angle in the walls of the sloping section.

You can use weep holes with gravel filter to relieve the hydrostatic pressure on the floor and walls of the pool and

dissipating output transition. Blocks are provided in the inclined section and the floor to break the jet flow and to stabilize

the hydraulic jump.

If an output transition is not provided, it will require a solid terminal threshold Figure 1.1.3. The upstream face of the

threshold should have a slope 2: 1 and face after should be vertical. The elevation of the top of the threshold should be

positioned to provide the depth downstream in the hydraulic jump.

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HYDRAULIC

The Bureau of Reclamation has developed for small jumps, a type of crash barriers where it collides with the water nappe

and has obtained good energy dissipation for a wide variation in the depth of the water sheet down to the point which can

be considered independent of the jump.

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HYDRAULIC

Minimum length of trough = Ld + 2.55 Yc

With side contractions

Q = CLH2/3

C = Seguin Table

Where:

B = width drop

Q = Flow in landfill or fall flow

P = the minimum value of P, will be the difference in energy upstream of the ridge and the ridge where Yc

h = Charging occurs on ridge.

B is calculated first, since “Q" is the flow rate in the channel and therefore is already known . The width and spacing of the

obstacles will be approximately 0.4 Yc.

ºBaffle blocks (also referred to as baffle piers and floor blocks) are placed in intermediate positions across the basin floor

(figure 1.3.1.) to stabilize the jump formation, dissipate energy by impact action, and increase turbulence to assist in

energy dissipation. Baffle blocks may be subjected to cavitation damage during certain flow velocities and pressures.

To minimize damage from cavitation, the designer should consider the cavitation index as discussed section Streamlining

baffle blocks has been found to be somewhat counterproductive.

The less turbulence created by the baffle blocks, the less effective they are in dissipating energy and the longer the basin

requirement becomes. Increasing the submergence of the baffle blocks by raising tailwater depths reduces tendencies

towards cavitation, but the baffles affect a smaller proportion of the flow and lose much of their effectiveness.

The distance between the chute blocks and baffle blocks, as well as the baffle blocks and end sill, is important for

improved efficiency. Placing the baffle blocks too far upstream leaves them susceptible to cavitation and can cause

waves downstream.

Placing the baffle blocks too far downstream makes them ineffective for reducing jump lengths and can cause local

bottom velocity disturbances. Baffle blocks should not be located against the side walls in order to prevent a high boil that

might overtop the side wall. The baffle blocks are located downstream from the openings in the chute blocks to break up

the jets issuing from between the chute blocks and passing along the stilling basin floor. Baffle blocks shorten the length

of the hydraulic jump by causing the bottom jet beneath the surface roller to be deflected upward. The baffle blocks also

serve to hold the hydraulic jump in equilibrium within the basin.

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Figure 1.3.1. Baffle Blocks In A Hydraulic Jump Stilling Basin (Flow Is From Left To Right).

Design development for standard baffle basins is limited, although they have been successfully used in West Virginia for

different conduit applications. Figure 1.4.1. Shows an example of a standard baffle basin. Most of the dimensions of the

basin are functions of the conduit diameter.

Material has the potential to collect downstream of the center baffle. Observed conditions after operation at some of the

West Virginia facilities indicate a potential “dead zone” in this area where flows may not adequately reach and a zone of

debris could accumulate (Baston, 2000; Eli, 2002). A failure of this type of dissipater occurs when enough debris and/or

sediment builds up around the baffles and the downstream area such that the conduit is unable to flow at full capacity. For

an outlet works conduit, the likelihood of this situation is less because the upstream end of the conduit does not typically

let appreciable quantities of debris or sediment enter. If such plugging did occur, the capacity of the outlet works would

likely be reduced or eliminated, depending on the severity (Baston, 2000).

Due to the configuration of the basin, vertical spray from impact of the flows against the center baffle could be an issue,

particularly in cold weather when ice buildup could quickly become problematic. In this case, a hood could be installed

over the basin to prevent overspray.

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Figure 1.4.1.—a standard baffle basin, The West Virginia Department of Highways (WVDOH) Report No. 142 (2002)

and Baston (2000) provide design guidance for the standard baffle dissipator.

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Energy dissipation at dams and weirs is closely associated with spillwaydesign, particularly with the chosen specific

discharge q, the difference between the upstream and downstream water levels (H*) and the downstream conditions.

Chapter 4 dealt mainly with the actual spillway inlet works and certain standard types of conduits conveying the flow from

the spillway inlet, i.e. chutes, tunnels, etc. In this chapter the main concern is the concept of energy dissipation during the

whole passage of the flow from the reservoir to the tailwater and, in particular, the stilling basin (energy dissipator) design.

The magnitude of energy that must be dissipated at high dams with large spillway discharges is enormous. For example,

the maximum Energy to be dissipated at the Tarbela dam service and auxiliary spillways could be 40 000MW, which is

about 20 times the planned generating capacity at the site (Locher and Hsu, 1984).

In the design of energy dissipation, environmental factors have to be considered; some of the most important ones are

the effect of disolved gases supersaturation on fish in deep plunge pools, and of spray from flip bucket jets which can

result in landslides and freezing fog.

The passage of water from a reservoir into the downstream reach involves a whole number of hydraulic phenomena such

as the transition into supercritical flow, supercritical non-aerated and aerated flow on the spillway, possibly flow through a

free-falling jet, entry into the stilling basin with a transition from supercritical to subcritical flow, and echoes of

macroturbulence after the transition into the stream beyond the basin or plunge pool. It is, therefore, best to consider the

energy dissipation process in five separate stages, some of which may be combined or absent (Novak and Cˇ ábelka,

1981) (Fig. A):

2. in a free-falling jet;

3. at impact into the downstream pool;

4. in the stilling basin;

5. at the outflow into the river.

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2. HYDRAULIC JUMP

(Libro Hydraulic Engineering Circular 14 – “Energy Dissipators”) pag. 64

The hydraulic jump is a natural phenomenon that occurs when supercritical flow is forced to change to

subcritical flow by an obstruction to the flow. This abrupt change in flow condition is accompanied by

considerable turbulence and loss of energy. The hydraulic jump can be illustrated by use of a specific energy

diagram as shown in Figure 2.1. The flow enters the jump at supercritical velocity, V1, and depth, y1, that has a

specific energy of E = y1 + V1 2/(2g). The kinetic energy term, V2/(2g), is predominant. As the depth of flow

increases through the jump, the specific energy decreases. Flow leaves the jump area at subcritical velocity

with the potential energy, y, predominant.

(Libro OCHC 3) PAG. 19-21

3.1. Energy loss

We continue considering that the energy-head loss, ∆𝐸𝐿 , is due to the violent turbulent mixing and dissipation that

occur within the jump itself. Thus, the energy equation reads as follows:

𝑉12 𝑉22

ℎ1 + = ℎ1 + + ∆𝐸𝐿

2𝑔 2𝑔

∆𝐸𝐿

The dimensionless energy-head loss, can be obtained as:

ℎ1

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ENERGY DISIPATORS

HYDRAULIC

∆𝐸𝐿 ℎ2 𝐹𝑟12 ℎ1 2

=1− + [1 − ( ) ]

ℎ1 ℎ1 2 ℎ2

ℎ2

where, for given value of Fr1, the value of is used from equation:

ℎ1

ℎ2 1

= (√1 + 8𝐹𝑟22 − 1)……….. (3.1)

ℎ1 2

It should be understood that, with applying Eq. (3.1), the momentum principle is used in this solution, because

the hydraulic jump involves a high amount of internal energy losses which cannot be evaluated in the energy

equation.

This joint use of the specific-energy head curve and the momentum-transfer curve helps to determine

graphically the energy loss involved in the hydraulic jump for a given approaching flow. For the given

approaching depth h1, points P1 and P1’ are located on the momentum-transfer curve and the specific energy

curve, respectively (Fig. 3.1.).

and momentum-transfer curves

The point P1’ gives the initial energy content E1. Draw the vertical line, passing through the point P1 and

intercepting the upper limb of the momentum-transfer curve at point P2, which gives the sequent depth h2.

Then, draw a horizontal line passing through the point P2 and intercepting the specific-energy head curve at

point P2’, which gives the energy content E2 after the jump. The energy-head loss in the jump is then equal to

E1 - E2, represented by ∆𝐸𝐿 . After some elaboration it can be derived:

(ℎ2 − ℎ1 )3

∆𝐸𝐿 = 𝐸1 − 𝐸2 =

4ℎ1 ℎ2

∆𝐸

The ratio 𝐿 is known as the relative energy – head loss.

𝐸1

3.2. Efficiency

The ratio of the specific energy after the jump to that before the jump is defined as the efficiency of the jump. It can

be shown that the efficiency is (Ven Te Chow, 1973):

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3

𝐸2 (8𝐹𝑟12 + 1) ⁄2 − 4𝐹𝑟12 + 1

=

𝐸1 8𝐹𝑟12 (2 + 𝐹𝑟12 )

This equation indicates that the efficiency of a hydraulic jump is a dimensionless function, depending only on the

𝐸

Froude number of the approaching flow. The relative specific-energy-head loss is equal to 1 − 2 ; this also is a

𝐸1

dimensionless function of Fr1.

The difference between the depths after and before the jump is the height of the jump, or hj = h2 -- h1. Expressing

each term as a ratio with respect to the initial specific energy, yields

ℎ𝑗 ℎ2 ℎ1

= −

𝐸1 𝐸1 𝐸1

ℎ𝑗 ℎ1 ℎ2

Where is the relative height, is the relative initial depth, and is the relative sequent depth. All these ratios

𝐸1 𝐸1 𝐸1

can be shown to be a dimensionless function of Fr1. For example (Ven Te Chow, 1973):

ℎ𝑗 √1 + 8𝐹𝑟12 − 3

=

𝐸1 𝐹𝑟12 + 2

The length of the hydraulic jump may be defined as the distance measured from the front face of the jump to a point

on the surface immediately downstream of the roller as indicated in Fig.3.2.:

The length of the jump cannot be determined easily by theory, but it has been investigated experimentally by many

hydraulicians. The experimental data on the length of the jump can be plotted conveniently with the Froude number

𝐿𝑗 𝐿𝑗 𝐿𝑗 𝐿𝑗

Fr1 against the dimensionless ratio (ℎ2 −ℎ1 )

, , or . The plot of Fr1 vs is probably the best, for the resulting

ℎ1 ℎ2 ℎ1

𝐿𝑗

curve can be best defined by the data. For practical purposes, however, the plot of Fr1 vs is desirable, because

ℎ2

the resulting curve then shows regularity or a fairly flat portion for the range of well-established jumps.

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ENERGY DISIPATORS

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𝐿𝑗 = 2.5(1.9ℎ2 − ℎ1 )

𝐿𝑗 = 4ℎ1 √1 + 2𝐹𝑟1

If 3 < Fr < 400 in a rectangular channel, we may use Ivadian.s formula (1955):

𝐿𝑗 = ×

𝐹𝑟1 4ℎ1 ℎ2

𝐵−𝑏

𝐿𝑗 = 5ℎ2 (1 + 4√ )

𝐵

where B and b are the free water-surface widths of the wetted cross-sections before and after the jump,

respectively.

(Libro Hydraulic Engineering Circular 14 – “Energy Dissipators”pag. 64 – 65)

When the upstream Froude number, Fr, is 1.0, the flow is at critical and a jump cannot form. For Froude numbers

greater than 1.0, but less than 1.7, the upstream flow is only slightly below critical depth and the change from

supercritical to subcritical flow will result in only a slight disturbance of the water surface. On the high end of this

range, Fr approaching 1.7, the downstream depth will be about twice the incoming depth and the exit velocity about

half the upstream velocity. The Bureau of Reclamation (USBR, 1987) has related the jump form and flow

characteristics to the Froude number for Froude numbers greater than 1.7, as shown in Figure 4.1. When the

upstream Froude number is between 1.7 and 2.5, a roller begins to appear, becoming more intense as the Froude

number increases. This is the prejump range with very low energy loss. The water surface is quite smooth, the

velocity throughout the cross section uniform, and the energy loss in the range of 20 percent.

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ENERGY DISIPATORS

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An oscillating form of jump occurs for Froude numbers between 2.5 and 4.5. The incoming jet alternately flows near

the bottom and then along the surface. This results in objectionable surface waves that can cause erosion problems

downstream from the jump.

A well balanced and stable jump occurs where the incoming flow Froude number is greater than 4.5. Fluid turbulence

is mostly confined to the jump, and for Froude numbers up to 9.0 the downstream water surface is comparatively

smooth. Jump energy loss of 45 to 70 percent can be expected.

With Froude numbers greater than 9.0, a highly efficient jump results but the rough water surface may cause

downstream erosion problems.

The hydraulic jump commonly occurs with natural flow conditions and with proper design can be an effective means

of dissipating energy at hydraulic structures. Expressions for computing the before and after jump depth ratio

(conjugate depths) and the length of jump are needed to design energy dissipators that induce a hydraulic jump.

These expressions are related to culvert outlet Froude number, which for many culverts falls within the range 1.5 to

4.5.

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5. STILLING BASINS

(libro hec14) pagina 124 - 151

Stilling basins are external energy dissipators placed at the outlet of a culvert, chute, or rundown. These basins are

characterized by some combination of chute blocks, baffle blocks, and sills designed to trigger a hydraulic jump in

combination with a required tailwater condition. With the required tailwater, velocity leaving a properly designed stilling

basin is equal to the velocity in the receiving channel.

Depending on the specific design, they operate over a range of approach flow Froude numbers from 1.7 to 17 as

summarized in Table 5.1. This chapter includes the following stilling basins: USBR Type III, USBR Type IV, and SAF.

The United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) basins were developed based on model studies and evaluation of

existing basins (USBR, 1987). The St. Anthony Falls (SAF) stilling basin is based on model studies conducted by the

Soil Conservation Service at the St. Anthony Falls Hydraulic Laboratory of the University of Minnesota (Blaisdell,

1959).

Stilling Basin Froude Number Number

USBR Type III 4.5 17

USBR Type IV 2.5 4.5

SAF 1.7 17

The selection of a stilling basin depends on several considerations including hydraulic limitations, constructibility,

basin size, and cost. The design examples in this chapter all use the identical site conditions to provide a comparison

between the size of basins and a free hydraulic jump basin for one case. Table 5.2 summarizes the results of these

examples with the incoming Froude number, the required tailwater at the exit of the basin along with basin length and

depth. For this example, the SAF stilling basin results in the shortest and shallowest basin. Details of the design

procedures and this design example are found in the following sections.

Basin Length, m (ft) Basin Depth, m (ft)

Basin Type Number (ft)

Free jump 7.6 3.1 (10.1) 33.7 (109.2) 4.8 (15.5)

USBR Type III 6.9 3.0 (9.6) 20.6 (67.3) 3.8 (12.5)

USBR Type IV 8.0 3.5 (11.2) 38.1 (121.8) 5.5 (17.4)

SAF 6.1 2.4 (7.9) 12.4 (39.7) 2.7 (8.6)

1Based on a 3 m by 1.8 m (10 ft by 6 ft) box culvert at a design discharge of 11.8 m3/s (417 ft3/s). All basins

have a constant width equal to the culvert width. USBR Type IV approach Froude number is outside of the

recommended range, but was included for comparison.3Required tailwater influences basin depth. Velocity

leaving each of these basins is the same and depends on the tailwater channel.

The higher the Froude number at the entrance to a basin, the more efficient the hydraulic jump and the shorter the

resulting basin. To increase the Froude number as the water flows from the culvert to the basin, an expansion and

depression is used as is shown in Figure 6.1. The expansion and depression converts depth, or potential energy, into

kinetic energy by allowing the flow to expand, drop, or both. The result is that the depth decreases and the velocity

26

ENERGY DISIPATORS

HYDRAULIC

The Froude number used to determine jump efficiency and to evaluate the suitability of alternative stilling basins as

described in Table 5.1 is defined in Equation 6.1.

𝑉1

𝐹𝑟1 = …………. (6.1)

√𝑔𝑦1

Where,

To solve for the velocity and depth entering the basin, the energy balance is written from the culvert outlet to the

basin. Substituting Q/(y1WB) for V1 and solving for Q results in:

1⁄

𝑄 = 𝑦1 𝑊𝐵 [2𝑔(𝑍0 − 𝑍1 + 𝑦0 − 𝑦1 ) + 𝑉02 ] 2 ………… (6.2)

27

ENERGY DISIPATORS

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Where,

Equation 6.2 has three unknowns y1, WB, and z1. The depth y1 can be determined by trial and error if WB and z1 are

assumed. WB should be limited to the width that a jet would flare naturally in the slope distance L.

2𝐿𝑇 √𝑆𝑇2 +1

𝑊𝐵 ≤ 𝑊0 + ………. (6.3)

3𝐹𝑟0

Where,

Since the flow is supercritical, the trial y1 value should start near zero and increase until the design Q is reached. This

depth, y1, is used to find the sequent (conjugate) depth, y2, using the hydraulic jump equation:

𝐶𝑦1

𝑦2 = (√1 + 8𝐹𝑟12 − 1)……….. (6.4)

2

Where,

For a free hydraulic jump, C = 1.0. Later sections on the individual stilling basin types provide guidance on the value

of C for those basins. For the jump to occur, the value of y2 + z2 must be equal to or less than TW + z3 as shown in

Figure 6.1. If z2 + y2 is greater than z3 +TW, the basin must be lowered and the trial and error process repeated until

sufficient tailwater exists to force the jump.

In order to perform this check, z3 and the basin lengths must be determined. The length of the transition is calculated

from:

28

ENERGY DISIPATORS

HYDRAULIC

𝑍0 −𝑍1

𝐿𝑇 = ……… (6.5)

𝑆𝑇

Where,

LT = length of the transition from the culvert outlet to the bottom of the basin, m (ft)

ST = slope of the transition entering the basin, m/m (ft/ft)

The length of the basin, LB, depends on the type of basin, the entrance flow depth, y1, and the entrance Froude

number, Fr1. Figure 6.2 describes these relationships for the free hydraulic jump as well as several USBR stilling

basins.

The length of the basin from the floor to the sill is calculated from:

𝐿𝑇 (𝑆𝑇 −𝑆0 )−𝐿𝐵 𝑆0

𝐿𝑆 = ………….. (6.6)

𝑆𝑆 −𝑆0

Where,

LS = length of the basin from the bottom of the basin to the basin exit (sill), m (ft)

The elevation at the entrance to the tailwater channel is then calculated from:

𝑍3 = 𝐿𝑆 𝑆𝑆 − 𝑍1 …………. (6.7)

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ENERGY DISIPATORS

HYDRAULIC

Where,

Figure 6.1 also illustrates a radius of curvature between the culvert outlet and the transition to the stilling basin. If the

transition slope is 0.5V:1H or steeper, use a circular curve at the transition with a radius defined by Equation 6.8

(Meshgin and Moore, 1970). It is also advisable to use the same curved transition going from the transition slope to

the stilling basin floor.

𝑦

𝑟= 1.5 …………….. (6.8)

𝑒 𝐹𝑟2 −1

Where,

Fr = Froude number

For the curvature between the culvert outlet and the transition, the Froude number and depth are taken at the culvert

outlet. For the curvature between the transition and the stilling basin floor, the Froude number and depth are taken as

Fr1 and y1.

The design procedure for all of these stilling basins may be summarized in the following steps. Basin specific

variations to these steps are discussed in the following sections on each basin.

Step 1. Determine the velocity and depth at the culvert outlet. For the culvert outlet, calculate culvert brink depth, yo,

velocity, Vo, and Fro. For subcritical flow, use Figure 6.3 or Figure 3.4. For supercritical flow, use normal depth in the

culvert for yo. (See HDS 5 (Normann, et al., 2001) for additional information on culvert brink depths.).

30

ENERGY DISIPATORS

HYDRAULIC

Figure 6.3. Dimensionless Rating Curves for the Outlets of Rectangular Culverts on Horizontal and Mild Slopes

(Simons, 1970)

Step 2. Determine the velocity and TW depth in the receiving channel downstream of the basin. Normal depth may

be determined using Table B.1 (Uniform Flow in Trapezoidal Channels by Manning’s Formula/pag.272/ book hec14)

or other appropriate technique.

Step 3. Estimate the conjugate depth for the culvert outlet conditions using Equation 6.4 to determine if a basin is

needed. Substitute yo and Fro for y1 and Fr1, respectively. The value of C is dependent, in part, on the type of

stilling basin to be designed. However, in this step the occurrence of a free hydraulic jump without a basin is

considered so a value of 1.0 is used. Compare y2 and TW. If y2 < TW, there is sufficient tailwater and a jump will

form without a basin. The remaining steps are unnecessary.

Step 4. If step 3 indicates a basin is needed (y2 > TW), make a trial estimate of the basin bottom elevation, z1, a

basin width, WB, and slopes ST and SS. A slope of 0.5 (0.5V:1H) or 0.33 (0.33V:1H) is satisfactory for both ST and

Ss. Confirm that WB is within acceptable limits using Equation 6.3. Determine the velocity and depth conditions

entering the basin and calculate the Froude number. Select candidate basins based on this Froude number.

Step 5. Calculate the conjugate depth for the hydraulic conditions entering the basin using Equation 6.4 and

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ENERGY DISIPATORS

HYDRAULIC

determine the basin length and exit elevation. Basin length and exit elevation are computed using Equations 6.5,

6.6, and 6.7 as well as Figure 6.2. Verify that sufficient tailwater exists to force the hydraulic jump. If the tailwater is

insufficient go back to step 4. If excess tailwater exists, the designer may either go on to step 6 or return to step 4

and try a shallower (and smaller) basin.

Step 6. Determine the needed radius of curvature for the slope changes entering the basin using Equation 6.8.

Step 7. Size the basin elements for basin types other than a free hydraulic jump basin. The details for this process

differ for each basin and are included in the individual basin sections.

For Froude numbers less than 1.7, no special stillin basin is required. Channel lenght must extend beyond the point

where the depth starts to change to not less than 4 y2. These basins do not require bafle or dissipation devices.

These basins are referred to as type-I basins (U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, 1987). For Froude numbers between 1.7

and 2.5 the type – I basin also applies.

(a)

32

ENERGY DISIPATORS

HYDRAULIC

(b)

(c)

33

ENERGY DISIPATORS

HYDRAULIC

(d)

Type-I stilling basin. (a) Length of jump; (b) Ratio of TW depth to y1; (c) length of jump; (d) Loss of 34nergy in

jump (from U.S. Bureau of Reclamtion (1987)).

Basins that have been used with high dam and earth dam spillways and large canal structures are type-II basins.

These basins contain chute blocks at the upstream end and a dentated sill near the downstream end. Baffle piers

are not needed because of the relatively high velocity entering the jump the basins are for froude numbers above 4.5

or velocities above 50 ft/s. Relationships illustrating stilling basins proportional to mínimum tailwater depths and

lengths of jump, as a function of froude number.

34

ENERGY DISIPATORS

HYDRAULIC

(a)

(b) (c)

Stilling basin characteristics for froude numbers above 4.5. (a) Type-II basin dimensions; (b) MInimum tailwater

depths, (c) Length of jump (from U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (1987)).

35

ENERGY DISIPATORS

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The USBR Type III stilling basin (USBR, 1987) employs chute blocks, baffle blocks, and an end sill as shown in

Figure 6.4. The basin action is very stable with a steep jump front and less wave action downstream than with the

free hydraulic jump. The position, height, and spacing of the baffle blocks as recommended below should be

adhered to carefully. If the baffle blocks are too far upstream, wave action in the basin will result; if too far

downstream, a longer basin will be required; if too high, waves can be produced; and, if too low, jump sweep out or

rough water may result. The baffle blocks may be shaped as shown in Figure 6.4 or cubes; both are effective. The

corners should not be rounded as this reduces energy dissipation.

4. Tailwater elevation equal to or greater than full conjugate depth elevation. This provides a 15 to 18 percent

factor of safety.

5. The basin sidewalls should be vertical rather than trapezoidal to insure proper performance of the hydraulic

jump.

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ENERGY DISIPATORS

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The general design procedure outlined in Section 8.1 applies to the USBR Type III stilling basin. Steps 1 through 4

and step 6 are applied without modification. For step 5, two adaptations to the general design procedure are made:

1. For computing conjugate depth, C=1.0. (This value is also applicable for the free hydraulic jump.) At a

minimum, C=0.85 could be used, but C=1.0 is recommended.

2. For obtaining the length of the basin, LB, use Figure 5.2 based on the Froude number calculated in step 4.

For step 7, sizing the basin elements (chute blocks, baffle blocks, and an end sill), the following guidance is

recommended. The height of the chute blocks, h1, is set equal to y1. If y1 is less than 0.2 m (0.66 ft), then h1 = 0.2 m

(0.66 ft).

The number of chute blocks is determined by Equation 6.9 rounded to the nearest integer.

𝑊𝐵

𝑁𝑐 = ……….. (6.9)

2𝑦1

Where,

𝑊𝐵

𝑊1 = 𝑊2 = …………. (6.10)

2𝑁𝑐

Where,

Equations 6.9 and 6.10 will provide Nc blocks and Nc-1 spaces between those blocks. The remaining basin width is

divided equally for spaces between the outside blocks and the basin sidewalls. With these equations, the height,

width, and spacing of chute blocks should approximately equal the depth of flow entering the basin, y1. The block

width and spacing may be reduced as long as W1 continues to equal W2.

The height, width, and spacing of the baffle blocks are shown on Figure 6.4. The height of the baffles is computed

from the following equation:

Where,

The top thickness of the baffle blocks should be set at 0.2h3 with the back slope of the block on a 1:1 slope. The

number of baffle blocks is as follows:

𝑊𝐵

𝑁𝐵 = ………. (6.12)

1.5ℎ3

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ENERGY DISIPATORS

HYDRAULIC

Where,

𝑊𝐵

𝑊3 = 𝑊4 = ……… (6.13)

2𝑁𝐵

Where,

W4 = baffle spacing, m (ft)

As with the chute blocks, Equations 6.12 and 6.13 will provide NB baffles and NB-1 spaces between those baffles.

The remaining basin width is divided equally for spaces between the outside baffles and the basin sidewalls. The

width and spacing of the baffles may be reduced for narrow structures provided both are reduced by the same

amount. The distance from the downstream face of the chute blocks to the upstream face of the baffle block should

be 0.8y2.

The height of the final basin element, the end sill, is given as:

Where,

h4 = height of the end sill, m (ft)

The fore slope of the end sill should be set at 0.5:1 (V:H).

If these recommendations are followed, a short, compact basin with good dissipation action will result. If they cannot

be followed closely, a model study is recommended.

The USBR Type IV stilling basin (USBR, 1987) is intended for use in the Froude number range of 2.5 to 4.5. In this

low Froude number range, the jump is not fully developed and downstream wave action may be a problem as

discussed in Chapter 4. For the intermittent flow encountered at most highway culverts, wave action is not judged to

be a severe limitation. The basin, illustrated in Figure 6.5, employs chute blocks and an end sill.

1. The basin sidewalls should be vertical rather than trapezoidal to insure proper performance of the hydraulic

jump.

2. Tailwater elevation should be equal to or greater than 110 percent of the full conjugate depth elevation. The

hydraulic jump is very sensitive to tailwater depth at the low Froude numbers for which the basin is applicable.

The additional tailwater improves jump performance and reduces wave action.

The general design procedure outlined in Section 8.1 applies to the USBR Type IV basin. Steps 1 through 4 and

step 6 are applied without modification. For step 5, two adaptations to the general design procedure are made:

2. For obtaining the length of the basin, LB, use Figure 6.2 (dashed portion of the free jump curve) based on

38

ENERGY DISIPATORS

HYDRAULIC

For step 7, sizing the basin elements (chute blocks and an end sill), the following guidance is recommended. The

height of the chute blocks, h1, is set equal to 2y1. The top surface of the chute blocks should be sloped

downstream at a 5 degree angle. The number of chute blocks is determined by Equation 6.15a and rounded to the

nearest integer.

𝑊𝐵

𝑁𝑐 = ………….. (6.15a)

2.625𝑦1

Where,

𝑊𝐵

𝑊1 = …….. (6.15b)

3.5𝑁𝑐

Where,

39

ENERGY DISIPATORS

HYDRAULIC

With Equation 6.15b, the block width, W1, should be less than or equal to the depth of the incoming flow, y1.

Equations 6.15a, 6.15b, and 6.15c will provide Nc blocks and Nc-1 spaces between those blocks. The remaining

basin width is divided equally for spaces between the outside blocks and the basin sidewalls.

ℎ4 = 𝑦1 (0.0536𝐹𝑟1 + 1.04) ……….. (6.16)

Where,

The fore slope of the end sill should be set at 0.5:1 (V:H).

The Saint Anthony Falls (SAF) stilling basin, shown in Figure 6.6, provides chute blocks, baffle blocks, and an end

sill that allows the basin to be shorter than a free hydraulic jump basin. It is recommended for use at small structures

such as spillways, outlet works, and canals where the Froude number at the dissipator entrance is between 1.7 and

17. The reduction in basin length achieved through the use of appurtenances is about 80 percent of the free

hydraulic jump length.

The SAF stilling basin provides an economical method of dissipating energy and preventing stream bed erosion.

40

ENERGY DISIPATORS

HYDRAULIC

The general design procedure outlined in Section 8.1 applies to the SAF stilling basin. Steps 1 through 3 and step 6

are applied without modification. As part of step 4, the designer selects a basin width, WB. For box culverts, WB

must equal the culvert width, Wo. For circular culverts, the basin width is taken as the larger of the culvert diameter

and the value calculated according to the following equation:

𝑄

𝑊𝐵 = 1.7𝐷0 ( ) ……….. (6.17)

𝑔0.5 𝐷02.5

Where,

The basin can be flared to fit an existing channel as indicated on Figure 6.6. The sidewall flare dimension z should

not be greater than 0.5, i.e., 0.5:1, 0.33:1, or flatter.

For step 5, two adaptations to the general design procedure are made. First, for computing conjugate depth, C is a

function of Froude number as given by the following set of equations. Depending on the Froude number, C ranges

from 0.64 to 1.08 implying that the SAF basin may operate with less tailwater than the USBR basins, though

tailwater is still required.

𝐹𝑟12

𝐶 = 1.1 − when 1.7 < Fr1 < 5.5 ……. (6.18a)

120

𝐹𝑟12

𝐶 = 1.0 − when 11 < Fr1 < 17 ……. (6.18c)

800

The second adaptation is the determination of the basin length, LB, using Equation 6.19.

4.5y2

𝐿𝐵 = ………… (6.19)

𝐶𝐹𝑟10.76

For step 7, sizing the basin elements (chute blocks, baffle blocks, and an end sill), the following guidance is

recommended. The height of the chute blocks, h1, is set equal to y1.

The number of chute blocks is determined by Equation 6.20 rounded to the nearest integer.

𝑊𝐵

𝑁𝑐 = ……………….. (6.20)

1.5𝑦1

Where,

𝑊𝐵

𝑊1 = 𝑊2 = ……… (6.21)

2𝑁𝑐

Where,

41

ENERGY DISIPATORS

HYDRAULIC

Equations 6.20 and 6.21 will provide Nc blocks and Nc spaces between those blocks. A half block is placed at the

basin wall so there is no space at the wall.

The height, width, and spacing of the baffle blocks are shown on Figure 6.6. The height of the baffles, h3, is set

equal to the entering flow depth, y1.

The width and spacing of the baffle blocks must account for any basin flare. If the basin is flared as shown in Figure

6.6, the width of the basin at the baffle row is computed according to the following:

2𝑧𝐿𝐵

𝑊𝐵2 = 𝑊𝐵 + ( ) …………. (6.22)

3

Where,

The top thickness of the baffle blocks should be set at 0.2h3 with the back slope of the block on a 1:1 slope. The

number of baffles blocks is as follows:

𝑊𝐵2

𝑁𝐵 = ……………. (6.23)

1.5𝑦1

Where,

𝑊𝐵2

𝑊3 = 𝑊4 = ……….. (6.24)

2𝑁𝐵

Where,

Equations 6.23 and 6.24 will provide NB baffles and NB-1 spaces between those baffles. The remaining basin width

is divided equally for spaces between the outside baffles and the basin sidewalls. No baffle block should be placed

closer to the sidewall than 3y1/8. Verify that the percentage of WB2 obstructed by baffles is between 40 and 55

percent. The distance from the downstream face of the chute blocks to the upstream face of the baffle block should

be LB/3.

The height of the final basin element, the end sill, is given as:

0.07𝑦2

ℎ4 = ……………. (6.25)

𝐶

42

ENERGY DISIPATORS

HYDRAULIC

Where,

The fore slope of the end sill should be set at 0.5:1 (V:H). If the basin is flared the length of sill (width of the basin at

the sill) is:

Where,

Wingwalls should be equal in height and length to the stilling basin sidewalls. The top of the wingwall should have a

1H:1V slope. Flaring wingwalls are preferred to perpendicular or parallel wingwalls. The best overall conditions are

obtained if the triangular wingwalls are located at an angle of 45° to the outlet centerline.

The stilling basin sidewalls may be parallel (rectangular stilling basin) or diverge as an extension of the transition

sidewalls (flared stilling basin). The height of the sidewall above the floor of the basin is given by:

1

ℎ5 ≥ 𝑦2 (1 + )………… (6.27)

3𝐶

Where,

A cut-off wall should be used at the end of the stilling basin to prevent undermining. The depth of the cut-off wall

must be greater than the maximum depth of anticipated erosion at the end of the stilling basin.

6.7. SKY-JUMP

It is used for large downloads, mainly in landfills. This is done directly on the river. Some trampolines are used to

blow the flow to a point downstream reducing erosion in the channel and the foot of the dam. The path of the jet

depends on the discharge of their energy at the end and the angle at which exits the trampoline. Its operation is the

formation of two swirls one on the surface of the trampoline and the other submerged downstream; Power

dissipation is made through these. There are two models, submerged and striatum, both with equal hydraulic

performance and with the same characteristics, which differ only in the way out of the water.

43

ENERGY DISIPATORS

HYDRAULIC

The hydraulic operation of this type of heatsink is manifested by the formation of the hydraulic ski surface. The use

of submerged sinks skiing can be detrimental due to wear produced in the concrete, caused by returning the material

along the edge of the baffle due to swirl in the background.

44

ENERGY DISIPATORS

HYDRAULIC

Bibliography

HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES – FOURTH EDITION 2007 –P.NOVAK, AI.B.MOFFAT, C.NALLURI AND R.

NARAYANAN (PAG. 244).

HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING CIRCULAR 14 – “ENERGY DISSIPATORS” – PUBLICATION 2006 (PAG.64 -

65).

HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING CIRCULAR 14 – “ENERGY DISSIPATORS” - PUBLICATION 2006 (PAG.124 -

148).

OPEN CHANNEL HYDRAULICS FOR ENGINEERS – CHAPTER 3 HYDRAULIC JUMP (PAG 19-21).

TECHNICAL MANUAL: OUTLET WORKS ENERGY DISSIPATORS, 2010 FEMA (PAGE. 23-80)

Engineering Circular No. 14, Third Edition, 2006 (PAGE. 6-1 A 9-35)

NARAYANAN, 2007 (PAGE. 245-257)

CDOT DRAINAGE DESIGN MANUAL, ENERGY DISSIPATER, 2009, (CHAPTER 11, PAGE 11-1).

HIDRAULICOS MULTISECTORIALES Y DE AFIANZAMIENTO HIDRICO, DISEÑO DEL A.N.A, 2010 (PAGE

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