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Dosen: Erza Rismantojo

PENGANTAR MEKANIKA TANAH


SI - 2222

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Jadwal Perkuliahan
 Kamis atau Jumat ?
 Ujian Tengah Semester 9 – 13 Maret 2015
 Akhir Perkuliahan Jumat 30 April 2015
 Ujian Akhir Semester 4 – 20 Mei 2015

Asisten:
 Christian Tirtawardhana
 Auberta Philanta

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REFERENSI

 Das, B.M., 1995, “Principles of Geotechnical


Engineering”, PWS Engineering, Boston, USA

 Holtz, R. D. and Kovacs, W. D., 1981, “An


Introduction to Geotechnical Enginering” Prentice-
Hall

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MATERI KULIAH (sebelum UTS)

Minggu ke 1 – 7:

 Proses pembentukan tanah


 Pengenalan Geologi Teknik
 Weight-volume relationships, plasticity, soil structure
 Klasifikasi tanah menurut AASHTO dan USCS
(ASTM)
 Pemadatan tanah dan CBR (California Bearing Ratio)
 Permeability dan Seepage

Minggu ke 8 (10 – 14 Maret 2014): UTS

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MATERI KULIAH (setelah UTS)

Minggu ke 9 – 15:

 Permeability dan Seepage


 Tegangan dalam tanah
 Compressibility dan Consolidation

Minggu ke 16 (5 – 20 Mei 2014): UAS

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SISTEM PENILAIAN

Tugas: 20%
Ujian Tengah Semester: 40%
Ujian Akhir Semester: 40%

Tugas dikumpulkan 1 minggu setelah diberikan.


Tugas yang terlambat tidak akan dinilai.
Tidak ada Tugas/Ujian tambahan untuk
perbaikan nilai.

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PENDAHULUAN

 Mekanika Tanah adalah cabang dari ilmu


mekanika yang berurusan dengan gaya-gaya yang
bekerja pada masa tanah.

 Rekayasa Geoteknik adalah salah satu spesialisasi


rekayasa yang menggunakan prinsip-prinsip
Mekanika Tanah.

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Low viscosity, low shear strength

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Kerak Bumi

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Kerak Bumi

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Pergerakan Kerak Bumi berdasarkan data Satelit GPS
(NASA) tanggal 17 April 2008

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Jenis-jenis Pergerakan di
Perbatasan antar Kerak Bumi

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Mineral
A mineral is a naturally occurring solid chemical
substance that is formed through geological
processes and that has a characteristic chemical
composition, a highly ordered atomic
structure, and specific physical properties. By
comparison, a rock is an aggregate of minerals
and does not have a specific chemical
composition.

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Mineral Class
 Silicate Class : terdiri dari silicon dan oxygen.
 Umumnya rocks ≥ 95% silicates
 Contoh: feldspars, quartz, olivines, pyroxenes, amphiboles, garnets,
and micas
 Carbonate Class: mengandung anion (CO3)2− .
 Contoh: calcite (CaCO3), dolomite CaMg(CO3)2
 Sulfate Class (sulfate anion SO42- , contoh: gypsum)
 Halide Class (halide anions: F-, Cl-, Br-, I-. Contoh: NaCl, salts)
 Oxide Class (contoh: hematite (iron oxide))
 Sulfide Class (contoh: pyrite (iron sulfide, FeS2))
 Phosphate Class (PO43-)
 Element Class (contoh: silver, gold, copper)
 Organic Class

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BATUAN (ROCKS)

DEFINISI BATUAN (ROCK) menurut Rekayasa Sipil


(Teknik Sipil):
 Material yang keras (hard) dan tahan lama (durable)
 Material yang tidak dapat digali kecuali dengan menggunakan bahan
peledak (blasting)

JENIS BATUAN BERDASARKAN ASAL USUL


PEMBENTUKANNYA:
 Batuan Beku (Igneous Rocks)
 Batuan Sedimen (Sedimentary Rocks)
 Batuan Metamorf (Metamorphic Rocks)

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SIKLUS PEMBENTUKAN BATUAN

Sediment
Compaction, cementation,
crystallization Transportation,
Transportation,
Erosion,
Erosion,
Weathering
weathering
Sedimentary
Rock
Igneous
Rock

Metamorphism

Metamorf Magma
Rock
melting

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SIKLUS PEMBENTUKAN BATUAN

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 BATUAN BEKU (Igneous Rocks):
Batuan yang berasal dari magma cair, lahar yang
membeku karena penurunan suhu.
 Intrusive igneous rocks: diorite, gabbro, granite and
pegmatite that solidify below Earth's surface;
 Extrusive igneous rocks such as andesite, basalt,
obsidian, pumice, rhyolite and scoria that solidify on
or above Earth's surface.

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CONTOH BATUAN BEKU
 Coarse-grained: Granite, Syenite, Gabbro,
Diorite

Granite is a coarse-grained, light colored, intrusive


igneous rock that contains mainly quartz and feldspar
minerals.
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CONTOH BATUAN BEKU
 Fine-grained: Rhyolite, Trachyte, Basalt,
Andesite

Andesite is a fine-grained, extrusive igneous rock composed


mainly of plagioclase with other minerals such as hornblende,
pyroxene and biotite. 22
CONTOH BATUAN BEKU
 Obsidian (high-silica glass)

Obsidian is a dark-colored volcanic glass that forms from


the very rapid cooling of molten rock material. It cools so
rapidly that crystals do not form. 23
CONTOH BATUAN BEKU

Pumice is a light-colored vesicular igneous rock. It forms


through very rapid solidification of a melt. The vesicular
texture is a result of gas trapped in the melt at the time of
solidification.
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CONTOH BATUAN BEKU

Welded Tuff is a rock that is composed of materials that were ejected from
a volcano, fell to Earth, and then lithified into a rock. It is usually composed
mainly of volcanic ash and sometimes contains larger size particles such as
cinders (pyroclastic material similar to pumice).
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Masalah-masalah yang berhubungan dengan
penggunaan batuan beku
 Beberapa jenis batuan beku dengan tekstur
butiran halus (fine-grained) dan mengandung
silika dapat bereaksi dengan kandungan
alkali semen  hasil reaksi alkali silika
menyebabkan pertambahan volume
sehingga merusak beton
 Contoh: Andesite, Rhyolite, Volcanic Breccia,
Obsidian, Pumice

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Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR)
Ca(OH)2 + H4SiO4 → Ca2+ + H2SiO42− + 2 H2O → CaH2SiO4 · 2 H2O

Characteristic crack pattern associated with the alkali–silica reaction


affecting a concrete step barrier on an US motorway (photograph
courtesy of the Federal Highway Administration, US Department of
Transportation).[1][2]
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Permasalahan
Masalah-masalah Penggunaan
yang berhubungan dengan
penggunaan batuan beku
Batuan Beku
 Batuan beku berbutir kasar (coarse-grained)
biasanya tidak baik untuk bahan konstruksi
jalan, batu pelindung tanggul, karena tidak
tahan terhadap abrasi

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BATUAN SEDIMEN
(SEDIMENTARY ROCKS)
Sedimentary rocks are formed by the accumulation of
sediments.
Types of sedimentary rocks:
1) detrital sedimentary rocks such as breccia,
conglomerate, sandstone and shale, that are formed from
solid particles derived from physical and chemical
weathering of rock, transported, deposited, compacted,
and cemented into rocks
2) chemical sedimentary rocks such as rock salt and
some limestones, that form when dissolved materials
precipitate from solution; and,
3) organic sedimentary rocks such as coal and some
limestones which form from the accumulation of plant or
animal debris. 29
BATUAN SEDIMEN
(SEDIMENTARY ROCKS)
 95% bagian terluar kerak bumi (16 km) adalah
batuan beku dan batuan metamorf (5%
adalah batuan sedimen)
 75% batuan yang tersingkap di permukaan
bumi adalah batuan sedimen
 99% dari batuan sedimen adalah: shale
(46%), sandstone (32%), dan limestone (22%)

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Detrital Sedimentary Rocks

Sedimen Ukuran Batuan Sedimen


Gravel >2mm Conglomerate (partikel bulat)
Breccia (partikel angular)
Sand 2 – 1/16 mm Sandstone
Silt 1/16 – 1/256 mm Siltstone (shale)

Clay < 1/256 mm Claystone (shale)

Silt and clay Shale

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Contoh Batuan Sedimen

Breccia is a clastic sedimentary rock that is composed of large (over


two millimeter diameter) angular fragments. The spaces between the
large fragments can be filled with a matrix of smaller particles or a
mineral cement which binds the rock together.
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Contoh Batuan Sedimen

Conglomerate is a clastic sedimentary rock that contains large


(greater then two millimeters in diameter) rounded particles. The
space between the pebbles is generally filled with smaller particles
and/or a chemical cement that binds the rock together.
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ContohBatuan
Contoh Batuan Sedimen
Sedimen

Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock made up mainly of sand-size


(1/16 to 2 millimeter diameter) weathering debris. Environments where
large amounts of sand can accumulate include beaches, deserts, flood
plains and deltas.
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ContohBatuan
Contoh Batuan Sedimen
Sedimen

Shale is a clastic sedimentary rock that is made up of clay-size (less then


1/256 millimeter in diameter) weathering debris. It typically breaks into thin
flat pieces.
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ContohBatuan
Contoh Batuan Sedimen
Sedimen

Coal is an organic sedimentary rock that forms mainly from plant debris. The
plant debris usually accumulates in a swamp environment. Coal is combustible
and is often mined for use as a fuel.
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CHEMICAL SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
 Carbonates:
 Limestone (Mineral calcite: CaCO3)
 Dolomite [Mineral dolomite: CaMg(CO3)2]
 Evaporites:
 Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O)
 Rock Salt (NaCl)
 Fossil Rocks:
 Fossiliferous Limestone (Calcite fosil berukuran
pasir atau lebih besar)

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Limestone is a rock that is composed primarily of calcium carbonate. It can form
organically from the accumulation of shell, coral, algal and fecal debris. It can also
form chemically from the precipitation of calcium carbonate from lake or ocean
water. Limestone is used in many ways. Some of the most common are:
production of cement, crushed stone and acid neutralization.
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Rock Salt is a chemical sedimentary rock that forms from the evaporation of
ocean or saline lake waters. It is also known by the mineral name "halite". It
is rarely found at Earth's surface, except in areas of very arid climate. It is
often mined for use in the chemical industry or for use as a winter highway
treatment. Some halite is processed for use as a seasoning for food.
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Detroit Salt Mine

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PENGGUNAAN BATUAN SEDIMEN
 Reaksi alkali-carbonate pada beton Portland
cement (High alkali cement > 0.6% Na2O)
menyebabkan kerusakan pada beton

CaMg(CO3)2 + 2 NaOH —> CaCO3 + Na2CO3 + Mg(OH)2

 Limestone dan Dolomite adalah material


yang baik untuk konstruksi
 Siltstone, shale, quartz sandstone biasanya
tidak baik sebagai material konstruksi
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Batuan Metamorf
Metamorphic rocks have been modified by heat, pressure
and chemical process usually while buried deep below
Earth's surface. Exposure to these extreme conditions has
altered the mineralogy, texture and chemical composition of
the rocks.

There are two basic types of metamorphic rocks:


1) foliated metamorphic rocks such as gneiss, phyllite,
schist and slate which have a layered or banded
appearance that is produced by exposure to heat and
directed pressure; and,
2) non-foliated metamorphic rocks such as marble and
quartzite which do not have a layered or banded
appearance.
(http://geology.com/rocks/metamorphic-rocks.shtml) 43
Batuan Metamorf
 Terbentuk akibat berubahnya komposisi
kimiawi dan tekstur dari batuan, perubahan
ini disebabkan oleh panas dan tekanan
 Selama proses batuan asal tidak mencair
 Terjadi kristalisasi mineral and perubahan
struktur komposisi mineral yang membentuk
mineral baru

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Gneiss is foliated metamorphic rock that has a banded appearance and is made
up of granular mineral grains. It typically contains abundant quartz or feldspar
minerals. 45
Quartzite is a non-foliated metamorphic rock that is produced by the
metamorphism of sandstone. It is composed primarily of quartz.

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Slate is a foliated metamorphic rock that is formed through the metamorphism
of shale. It is a low grade metamorphic rock that splits into thin pieces.

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JENIS BATUAN METAMORF

 Shale  Slate (fine grained, slaty cleavage)


 Phyllite: memiliki komposisi yang hampir
sama dengan Slate dengan lebih banyak
kandungan mineral muscovite (phyllosilicate
mineral of aluminium and potassium)
 Schist (metamorf lanjutan dari Slate)
 Gneiss (berasal dari coarse-grained igneous
rock granite & gabbro)
 Marble (marmer)

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MASALAH-MASALAH DENGAN
BATUAN METAMORF
 Foliated metamorphic rocks menghasilkan
butiran yang pipih dan lonjong sewaktu
dipecah  mudah pecah pada waktu
konstruksi pemadatan hot mixed asphalt
 Coarse-grained gneiss  mudah terabrasi
 Marble  cavities (lubang akibat terlarutkan
oleh aliran air)  masalah kebocoran
bendungan, pondasi bangunan

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PROSES PELAPUKAN

 Proses Pelapukan secara Mekanis (mechanical


weathering)
 Kembang susut batuan akibat perubahan suhu panas dingin
 Tekanan yang diakibatkan membekunya air di dalam
rongga/retakan di batuan

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PROSES PELAPUKAN
 Kehilangan tekanan di permukaan

 Batuan yang semula berukuran besar pecah menjadi


butiran kecil. Tidak terjadi perubahan komposisi kimia

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PROSES PELAPUKAN

 Proses Pelapukan secara Kimiawi (chemical


weathering)
 Reaksi kimia mengubah mineral yang terkandung dalam
batuan asal menjadi mineral baru
 H2O + CO2  H2CO3 (Carbonic Acid)
 2K(AlSi3O8) + 2H+ + H2O  2K++ 4SiO2 + Al2Si2O5(OH)4
Orthoclase Silica Kaolinite (clay mineral)
(salah satu mineral di dalam batuan beku
seperti granite)

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Transportasi Hasil Pelapukan Batuan

 Hasil pelapukan di tempat batuan asal


disebut Tanah Residual
 Glacial soils (glaciers)
 Alluvial soils (transportasi oleh air)
 Lacustrine soils (pengendapan di danau)
 Marine soils (pengendapan di laut)
 Aeolian soils (transportasi oleh angin)
 Colluvial soils (transportasi oleh gravitasi)

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Transportasi Hasil Pelapukan Batuan

 Residual Soil

a) top soil and colluvium

b) mature residual soil

c) young residual soil

d) weathered rock.

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Transportasi Hasil Pelapukan Batuan

 Alluvial soils (transportasi oleh air)


ALLUVIAL soil is formed when a soil carrying stream gradually loses its
carrying capacity with decreasing velocity. In slowing down,
a river does not have sufficient power to keep the large particles of soil
suspended; these particles settle to the riverbed. Further decrease in velocity
causes smaller particles to settle. As the river becomes slow and sluggish
(as in the lowlands where its gradient becomes small), it holds only the
extremely fine particles in suspension. These particles are deposited, finally,
at the mouth of the river, where they form DELTAS of fine-grained soil

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Transportasi Hasil Pelapukan Batuan

 Lacustrine soils (pengendapan di danau)

Freshwater lake deposits are called LACUSTRINE soils.


They are fine grained soils resulting from material
brought into freshwater lakes by streams or rivers.

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Transportasi Hasil Pelapukan Batuan

 Aeolian soils (transportasi oleh angin)

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Transportasi Hasil Pelapukan Batuan

 Colluvial soils (transportasi oleh gravitasi)

COLLUVIAL soil consists of mixed deposits of


rock fragments and soil materials accumulated at
the bases of steep slopes through the influence
of gravity.

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Colluvial soils (transportasi oleh gravitasi) 59
Clay Mineral
Clay Mineral  Aluminum silicates
Terdiri dari 2 unit dasar:
 Silica Tetrahedron
 Alumina Octahedron

Silica Tetrahedron Silica sheet


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Clay Mineral

Alumina octahedron Octahedral sheet (Gibbsite sheet)

Disebut Brucite sheet jika atom


Aluminum diganti Magnesium

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Clay Mineral

Silica-gibbsite sheet
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Clay Mineral

 Kaolinite
 Illite
 Montmorillonite
 Chlorite
 Halloysite
 Vermiculite
 Attapulgite

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Clay Mineral

 Kaolinite
 Gabungan lembaran “silica-gibbsite sheet”
 Tebal lembaran = 7.2 Angstrom
(1 Angstrom = 10-10 m)
 Berbentuk “platelets” berdimensi lebar atau
panjang 1000 – 20000 Angstrom, tebal 100 – 1000
Angstrom
 Specific surface = 15 m2/g

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Kaolinite

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Kaolinite

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Kaolinite

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CLAY MINERAL

 ILLITE
 Gibbsite sheet + 2 Silica sheet (di atas dan bawah)
 Lembaran illite diikat oleh ion potassium (K)
 Ion K menetralkan muatan negatif yang
disebabkan oleh penggantian atom silicon dengan
aluminum di “tetrahedral sheet”
 Dimensi lateral 1000 – 5000 Angstrom, tebal 50 –
500 Angstrom
 Specific surface = 80 m2/g

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ILLITE

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CLAY MINERAL

 Montmorillonite
 Struktur hampir sama dengan Illite
 Atom aluminum di dalam octahedral sheet diganti
oleh magnesium dan iron (besi)
 Tidak ada ion potassium diantara lembaran
 Dapat menarik banyak molekul air ke dalam
ruangan yang di antara lembaran
 Dimensi lateral = 1000 – 5000 Angstrom
 Tebal = 10 – 50 Angstrom

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Montmorillonite

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Montmorillonite

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Clay Mineral

 Permukaannya memiliki muatan negatif


karena:
 Isomorphous substitution
 Al  Si (tetrahedral sheet)
 Mg  Al (octahedral sheet)
 Ketidaksempurnaan pada ujung-ujung/sisi-sisi
lembaran clay yang putus

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Clay Mineral

 Muatan negatif pada permukaan clay


dinetralkan oleh kation (ion positif) yang ada
disekitarnya
 Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+

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Diffuse Double Layer

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Diffuse Double Layer

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