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FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING NO.

OF PAGES: 1/3
DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL & EDITION: LAB 1a
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING NO. OF CHECKING:
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
EFECTIVE DATE : 8/1/2007
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
TOPIC : IDENTIFICATION OF MINERALS (LAB 1a) AMENDMENT DATE: 10/2/2012

1.0 OBJECTIVE
To familiar with the physical properties of minerals in laboratory by hand.

2.0 LEARNING OUTCOMES


a) Students should able to identify various specimens of mineral by physical testing.
b) Students should able to identify minerals content in rock formation.

3.0 THEORY
Each mineral possesses certain physical properties or characteristics by which it may be recognized or
identified. Some are subjected to certain simple tests. Physical properties are useful in mineral identification.
A mineral can be defined as a natural inorganic substance having a particular chemical composition or range of
composition, and a regular atomic structure to which its crystalline from is related. To study rocks, it is necessary
to know the common minerals that formed the rock.

4.0 EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS


a) Minerals from Reference Set
b) Hardness Pens Set
c) Information & Hints
d) Eye dropper bottle with dilute HCI (appx. 10% solution)
e) Mineral Identification Chart

5.0 PROCEDURE
Students should learn to familiarize and observe the samples according by doing few physical tests and tabulate
the results from the observation in the Table 1.1 attached for:

a) Name of mineral
b) Colour
c) Luster
d) Hardness
e) Reaction with acid
f) Others/usage

Prepared by : Lecturer

Name : Aziman Madun

Signature :

Date : 10 February 2012


FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING NO. OF PAGES: 2/3
DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL & EDITION: LAB 1a
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING NO. OF CHECKING:
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
EFECTIVE DATE : 8/1/2007
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
TOPIC : IDENTIFICATION OF MINERALS (LAB 1a) AMENDMENT DATE: 10/2/2012

6.0 RESULT AND ANALYSIS

(a) MINERALS NAMES


Refer to the samples prepared (Mineral from reference set).

(b) COLOUR
The colour of the mineral is that seen by eye. Colour may be influenced by impurities in the sample, the light in
the room or strong reflective surfaces. Therefore, colour is a general rather than specific indicator.

(c) STREAK
Streak is the colour of a mineral in its powdered form. We can observe streak when we scraped a mineral
along a roughened surface such as unglazed pottery (porcelain slab – streak plate), that mark left behind can
be a characteristic feature of the mineral. The streak is not necessarily the same as the colour of the mineral.

(d) LUSTRE
Luster is reflected from the surface of a mineral, the amount of light is a function of the state of the surface.
Luster is described in terms of the degree of brightness.

Metallic Like polished metal


Submetallic Less brilliant
Dull e.g. chalk
Viterous Like broken glass

(e) HARDNESS
The resistance of a mineral to abrasion (scratching) is termed hardness. This property is determined by
rubbing the mineral to be identified against another mineral of known hardness. One will stretch the other
(unless they have the same hardness). Geologists used a standard hardness scale, called the Mohs scale
developed by German Mineralogist Friedrich Mohs (1773 – 1839) which assigns relative hardnesses to
several common and a few rare and precious minerals as given below.

Relative hardness Minerals Mineralogy


10 Diamond Carbon
9 Corundum Alumina
8 Topaz Aluminium silicate
7 Quartz Silica
6 Feldspar Alkali silica
5 Apatite Calcium phosphate
4 Fluorite Calcium fluoride
3 Calcite Calcium carbonate
2 Gypsum Hydrated calcium sulphate
1 Talc Hydrated magnesium silicate

(f) REACTION WITH ACID

When dilute hydrochloric acid (typically 10%) is capped on to some minerals a reaction takes place. On calcite
(CaCO3) bubbles of carbon dioxide are produced, in some iron sulphide ores, hydrogen sulphide is produced.
FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING NO. OF PAGES: 3/3
DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL & EDITION: LAB 1a
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING NO. OF CHECKING:
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
EFECTIVE DATE : 8/1/2007
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
TOPIC : IDENTIFICATION OF MINERALS (LAB 1a) AMENDMENT DATE: 10/2/2012

7.0 QUESTION AND DISCUSSION


(Each answer shall not more than 100 words)
1. Discuss the problem encountered while identify the minerals using field test technique (simple test).

2. Briefly describe how to identify minerals using laboratory technique (aided by equipments).

8.0 CONCLUSION
Conclude your results of the mineral samples in the Table 1.1 by rate its significance in construction industry, etc.
TABLE 1.1 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MINERALS IDENTIFICATION

NAME COLOUR STREAK LUSTER HARDNESS REACTION WITH ACID SKETCH


5
Iron ore Dusky yellowish brown Colour Dull
(limonite), 14 (moderate yellow) (chalk)

Viterous 3
Quartz, 3 Very light grey Colourless (broken glass)

Colour Dull 3
Gypsum, 20 White (white) (chalk)

Colour Sub-metalic 5
Copper Ore, 11 Dark greenish yellow (dark greenish yellow) (less brilliant)

Colour Metalic 8
Hornblende, Medium gray (medium gray) (polished metal)

Colour Sub-metalic
Iron ore, 13 Medium dark gray (medium dark gray) (less brilliant) 4
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DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL & EDITION: LAB 1b
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING NO. OF CHECKING:
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
EFECTIVE DATE : 8/1/2007
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
TOPIC : IDENTIFICATION OF IGNEOUS ROCK (LAB 1b) AMENDMENT DATE: 8/1/2007

1.0 OBJECTIVE
To recognize, identified and observed distinguishing features of igneous rock specimen in the laboratory.

2.0 LEARNING OUTCOMES


a) Students should able to recognize types of igneous rock formation in Malaysia and Worldwide.
b) Students should able to evaluate the physical properties of igneous rocks for civil engineering application.
c) Students should able to understand igneous rock forming on the earth.

3.0 THEORY
(a) Criteria for distinguishing igneous rock
In describing any rock, one should proceed from the general to the particular, nothing firstly its colour, behaviour on
weathering and any other striking features and then deciding whether it is igneous or other types of rock. The outstanding
characteristics of the igneous rocks is given below, but must be emphasized that one characteristic by itself proof positive
that the rock belongs to a certain class.

Rock Type Characteristic


Interlocking grains, massive structures
Texture such as glassy, prophyritic, phaneritic, aphantic
Igneous
High feldspar or ferromagnesian content
Absent of stratification or fossils

(b) Description

Physical characteristics Colour


Massive – rock is uniform in appearance showing no banding or other structural features
Structure Pegmatite – the rock is very coarse grained
Vesicular – the rock contains many cavities
Crystallinty or degree of crystallization
Holocrystalline – wholly crystalline
Hemicrystalline – partly crystals and partly glass
Holohyaline – wholly glass
Texture
Granularity, the size of crystals
Fine-grained when particles are 1 mm or less in diameter
Medium grained when particles are 1 – 5 mm or more in diameter
Coarse grained when the particles are 5 mm or more in diameter

Prepared by : Head of Engineering Geology and Geophysics Laboratory / Lecturer

Name : Mohd Hazreek Bin Zainal Abidin

Signature :

Date : 8 January 2007


FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING NO. OF PAGES: 2/2
DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL & EDITION: LAB 1b
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING NO. OF CHECKING:
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
EFECTIVE DATE : 8/1/2007
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
TOPIC : IDENTIFICATION OF IGNEOUS ROCK (LAB 1b) AMENDMENT DATE: 8/1/2007

4.0 EQUIMENT AND MATERIALS


a) Igneous rock from reference set
b) Igneous classification chart

5.0 PROCEDURE
Students should learn to familiarize and observe the samples by referring the igneous classification charts and tabulate the
results observation in the Tables 1.2.1 attached.

6.0 RESULT AND ANALYSIS


a) Rock name
b) Texture
c) Colour
d) Mineral composition
e) Chemical composition
f) Origin
g) Sketch / Others

7.0 QUESTION AND DISCUSSION


(Each answer shall not more than 100 words)
(1) Briefly explain two (2) types of igneous rock
(2) Explain the igneous rock classification according to the texture and chemical and mineral composition.

8.0 CONCLUSION
Conclude your observation of the igneous rock in the given Table 1.2.1 by rate its significance in construction industry, etc.
TABLE 1.2.1 IDENTIFICATION OF IGNEOUS ROCK

MINERAL CHEMICAL
ROCK NAME TEXTURE COLOUR ORIGIN SKETCH
COMPOSITION COMPOSITION

-Muscovite
light -Biotite acid Intrusive
Biotite, 23 medium to ˂ 25 % dark -Orthoclase >65%
coarse minerals -Hornblende
-Muscovite
-Biotite
Obsidian, 21 aphanitic light -Plagioclase acid
porphyritic ˂ 25 % dark -Orthoclase >65% Extrusive
minerals -Quartz

-Muscovite
light -Biotite acid
aphanitic ˂ 25 % dark -Plagioclase >65% Extrusive
Rhyolite, 22 porphyritic minerals -Orthoclase
-Quartz

medium to dark minerals -Magnetic and


Gabbro, 26 coarse precominant ilmenite basic
-Olivine 45%-55% Intrusive
-Augite

-Magnetic and basic


aphanitic dark minerals ilmenite 45%-55% Extrusive
Basalt, 25 porphyritic precominant -Olivine
-Augite
IGNEOUS CLASSIFICATION CHART
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ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL & EDITION: LAB 1c
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING NO. OF CHECKING:
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
EFECTIVE DATE : 8/1/2007
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
TOPIC : IDENTIFICATION OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK AMENDMENT
8/1/2007
(LAB 1c) DATE:

1.0 OBJECTIVE
To recognize, identified and observed distinguishing features of sedimentary rock specimen in the laboratory.

2.0 LEARNING OUTCOMES


a) Students should able to recognize types of sedimentary rock formation in Malaysia and Worldwide.
b) Students should able to evaluate the physical properties of sedimentary rocks for civil engineering application.
c) Students should able to understand sedimentary rock forming on the earth.

3.0 THEORY

(a) Criteria for distinguishing sedimentary rock

In describing any rock, one should proceed from the general to the particular, nothing firstly its colour, behaviour on
weathering and any other striking features and then deciding whether it is sedimentary or other types of rock. The
outstanding characteristics of the sedimentary rocks is given below, but must be emphasized that one characteristic by
itself proof positive that the rock belongs to a certain class.

Rock Type Characteristic


Stratification and sorting of grains into layers according to their size.
Fragmental texture.
Grains often rounded.
Sedimentary Structures such as bedding, ripple marks and mud cracks.
Presence of fossils.
Presence of minerals of chemical or organic origin, such as halite, gypsum, chert carbonates.
Absence of easily weathered minerals such as biotite and augite.

(b) Description

Physical characteristics Colour


Structure Massive, bedded or cross bedded
Note whether grain is uniform or uneven.
Grain and constituents To be uneven, there must be marked contras between larger and smaller grains. If
the rock is uniform, it is usually fine in grain and does not show definite fragments,
but may contain fossils.

Prepared by : Lecturer

Name : Aziman Madun

Signature :

Date : 8 January 2007


FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL
NO. OF PAGES: 2/2
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL & EDITION: LAB 1c
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING NO. OF CHECKING:
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
EFECTIVE DATE : 8/1/2007
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
TOPIC : IDENTIFICATION OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK AMENDMENT
8/1/2007
(LAB 1c) DATE:

4.0 EQUIMENT AND MATERIALS


a) Sedimentary rock from reference set
b) Sedimentary classification chart

5.0 PROCEDURE
Students should learn to familiarize and observe the samples by referring the sedimentary classification charts and
tabulate the results from the observation in the Table 1.2.2 attached.

6.0 RESULT AND ANALYSIS


a) Rock name
b) Texture
c) Mode of origin
d) Composition of clastic rock
e) Composition of crystalline rock
f) Sketch / others

7.0 QUESTION AND DISCUSSION


(Each answer shall not more than 100 words)
(1) List the characteristics that distinguish sedimentary rocks from igneous and metamorphic rocks.
(2) Explain all the genesis of sedimentary rocks.

8.0 CONCLUSION
Conclude your observation of the sedimentary rock in the given Table 1.2.2 by rate its significance in construction
industry, etc.
TABLE 1.2.2 IDENTIFICATION OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK

COMPOSITION
ROCK NAME TEXTURE MODE OF ORIGIN CLASSIFICATION SKETCH
OF ROCK
Grains- shell
Matrix- clayley, silty,
Mechanical or sandy, calcareous,
Shell limestone, Coarse (> 2mm) Biolastic carbonaceous Clastic Rocks
33 Cement- calcareous

Mechanical or Grains- quartz and


Argillaceous Medium-grained Biolastic feldspar
sandstone, 31 (1/16-2mm) Matrix- claylay, silty, Clastic Rocks
sandy ferruginous
Cement- Not
common

Hydrogenic, Silicous
Medium biochemical or Clastic Rocks
Chert, 27 (1/16-2mm) chemically altered

Grains- quartz and


Conglomerate, Coarse-grained Mechanical or feldspar
29 (> 2mm) Biolastic Matrix- claylay, silty, Clastic Rocks
sandy ferruginous
Cement- Not
common

Hydrogenic, Calcareous
Dolomitic Medium biochemical or
limestone, 34 (1/16-2mm) chemically altered Crystalline Rocks
SEDIMENTARY CLASSIFICATION CHART
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DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL & EDITION: LAB 1d
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING NO. OF CHECKING:
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
EFECTIVE DATE : 8/1/2007
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
TOPIC : IDENTIFICATION OF METAMORPHIC ROCK
AMENDMENT DATE: 8/1/2007
(LAB 1d)

1.0 OBJECTIVE
To recognize, identified and observed distinguishing features of metamorphic rock specimen in the laboratory.

2.0 LEARNING OUTCOMES


a) Students should able to recognize types of metamorphic rock formation in Malaysia and Worldwide.
b) Students should able to evaluate the physical properties of metamorphic rocks for civil engineering application.
c) Students should able to understand metamorphic rock forming on the earth.

3.0 THEORY

(a) Criteria for distinguishing sedimentary rock

In describing any rock, one should proceed from the general to the particular, nothing firstly its colour, behaviour on
weathering and any other striking features and then deciding whether it is metamorphic or other types of rock. The
outstanding characteristics of the metamorphic rocks is given below, but must be emphasized that one characteristic by
itself proof positive that the rock belongs to a certain class.

Rock Type Characteristic


Parallel orientation of mineral crystals.
Interlocking crystal.
Metamorphic
Secondary cleavage independent bedding.
Foliation, schistosity and slaty texture.

(b) Description

Physical characteristics Colour


Decide whether the rock is best described as uniform fine grained, medium fine
grained or coarse grained.
Structure and Grain The coarser grained granular rocks results from high-grade metamorphism in which
great pressure from many directions, not from one direction only, has been the
dominant factor.

Prepared by : Lecturer

Name : Aziman Madun

Signature :

Date : 8 January 2007


FACULTY : CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING NO. OF PAGES: 1/2
DEPARTMENT : GEOTECHNICAL & EDITION: LAB 1d
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING NO. OF CHECKING:
LABORATORY : ENGINEERING GEOLOGY &
EFECTIVE DATE : 8/1/2007
GEOPHYSIC LABORATORY
TOPIC : IDENTIFICATION OF METAMORPHIC ROCK
AMENDMENT DATE: 8/1/2007
(LAB 1d)

4.0 EQUIMENT AND MATERIALS


a) Metamorphic rock from reference set
b) Metamorphic classification chart

5.0 PROCEDURE
Students should learn to familiarize and observe the samples by referring the metamorphic classification charts and
tabulate the results from the observation in the Table 1.2.3 attached.

6.0 RESULT AND ANALYSIS


(a) Rock name
(b) Structure
(c) Grain
(d) Mineral composition
(e) Parent Rock
(f) Metamorphism type
(e) Sketch / Others

7.0 QUESTION AND DISCUSSION


(Each answer shall not more than 100 words)
(1) Define a foliation.
(2) Distinguish between slaty cleavage, phyllitic, schistosity and gneissic texture.

8.0 CONCLUSION
Conclude your observation of the metamorphic rock in the given Table 1.2.3 by rate its significance in construction
industry, etc.
TABLE 1.2.4 IDENTIFICATION OF METAMORPHIC ROCK

MINERAL METAMORPHISM
ROCK NAME STRUCTURE GRAIN PARENT ROCK SKETCH
COMPOSITION TYPE
METAMORPHIC CLASSIFICATION CHART
Lab Report Assessment
Rubric

CLO 1 (Technical expertise): 10%


Criteria (KI) 1 2 3 4 5 Weightage Total
Introduction 0.25
Result and analysis 0.5
Question and Discussion 0.5
Relevant calculation /
information 0.5
Conclusion 0.25
Total Total = 10%

CLO 2 (Communication skill): 2.5%


Criteria (KI) 1 2 3 4 5 Weightage Total
Material and organization 0.17
Short and ease to understand 0.17
Attractive presentation 0.16
Total Total = 2.5%