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# DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

Joon-Hyuk Chang

## Digital Signal Processing Lab.

Hanyang Univ.

1
Textbooks and Prerequisites
Books
 Discrete-Time Signal Processing, Oppenheim, Schafer, and
Buck., Prentice Hall, 1999.
 Signals and Systems, . S. Haykin and B. V. Veen, Wiely, 2003.

Prerequisites
 Signals and Systems

DSP 2
About DSP
Applications
entertainment, communication
space exploration, medicine, etc.

Coverage Contents
theory, application, representation, transformation,
technologies manipulation

DSP 3
Historical Perspective of DSP

(FFT)

## Signal processing with analog Microelectronics

system & digital computer in VLSI technology

Numerical methods
IC technology
Calculus DSP chips

## 1600’s 1700’s 1950’s 1965 1980’s Future

DSP 4
Outline
Chapter 1. Introduction to DSP
Chapter 2. Discrete Time Signals and Systems
Chapter 3. Z-Transform
Chapter 4. Sampling of Continuous-Time Signals
Chapter 5. Transform Analysis of LTI System
Chapter 6. Structures for Discrete-Time Systems
Chapter 7. Filter Design Techniques
Chapter 8. Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)
Chapter 9. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)
Chapter 10. DFT Analysis of Signals

DSP 5
1. Introduction
What are digital/analog signals?
What is the objective of signal processing?
What are analog/digital signal processing models?
Why consider digital signal processing?
What about digital frequency?

DSP 6
1.1.1 Analog Signals
Historically (before computers and digital processors),
EEs, were mainly concerned with continuous-time or
continuous-space signals.
Types of “Continuous” Signals
 We assume real-valued signals unless otherwise stated.
 Continuous-time signals: defined at every instant of time over
a continuous domain, such as an interval; or a union of
intervals.
 Continuous-amplitude signals: taking any value from a
continuous region, an uncountable number of possible values.
 Analog signals - Both continuous-time & continuous-amplitude.

DSP 7
1.1.2 Digital Signals
After the invention of computers and digital processors,
EEs are interested in discrete-time or discrete-space
signals .
Types of “Discrete” Signals
 We assume real-valued signals unless otherwise stated.
 Discrete-time signals: taking values only at a countable or
finite set of points on the real line, and these time instants are
equally-spaced.  sampling
 Discrete-amplitude signals: taking values only from a discrete
range- a countable or finite set of real values.  quantization
 Digital signals - Both discrete & discrete-amplitude.

DSP 8
discrete range Digital (sampled and quantized) Signal Plotted
x(n)

DT-DA Example:
• Annual crop yields in billions of
bushels
• Yearly enrollment of OSU
• Dow Jones Average
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
discrete domain (n)

DT-CA Example:
continuous range

## • Daily noon temperature

• Daily consumed gas
x(n)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
discrete domain (n)

DSP 9
1.2 Objectives of DSP
Modify the measured signal in order to
 Suppress some component of it, e.g., noise reduction
 Enhance some component of it, e.g., medical imaging
 Extract or isolate information, e.g., code or decode a signal,
feature extraction, and edge detection, etc.

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Lena Noisy image Denoised image

## Contrast enhanced Edge detection Distorted image

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1.3.1 A/D Signal Processing Models
Linear or
nonlinear
x(t) y(t)
Continuous
Continuous Continuous
input Systems output

Time-varying or
time-invariant

Linear or
nonlinear
x[n] y[n]
Discrete
Discrete Discrete
input System s output

Tim e-varying or
tim e-invariant
DSP 12
1.3.2 Two Digital System Models
All-discrete Model

x[n]
Computer y[n] Digital
Discrete- Q output signal
time input algorithm
Quantizer

Sampled-signal Model
y(t)
x(t) x[n] y[n]
Computer Continuous
continuous A/D D/A output
input algorithm
signal
Sample/quantize

DSP 13
1.4.1 Why Digital Signal Processing?
Versatile: it is easy to program or re-program.
High Accuracy: We can specify an accurate word-
length and with an accurate algorithm.
Cost: Digital systems are smaller, cheaper, and use
less power owing to VLSI technology.
Speed: Limited by the system clock-rate, and faster
speed processors are still highly desirable commodity.

DSP 14
1.4.2 Analog/Digital Signals
Analog signal processing systems are limited only
 the velocity of electrons (electrical systems or circuits)
 the velocity of photons (optical systems)
and are so effectively instantaneous.
Interpretations of Digital Signals
 They may be samples taken from a continuous signal (A/D).
(Sampling Theory)
 Digital signals may be regarded as sequences of numbers,
allowing the use of many powerful mathematical tools.

DSP 15
1.5.1 Concepts of Digital Frequency
Linear continuous system theory is involved with
filtering or modification of the spectrum, e.g. low-pass,
or high-pass filtering.
Spectrum of discrete-time signals
 Discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT)
 Continuous, periodic, for any
 Discrete Fourier Series (DFS)
 Discrete, periodic
 Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)
 One period of DFS
 Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)
 Fast implementation of DFT

DSP 16
1.5.2 Digital Frequency Examples
Digital frequency of a signal x(n) is related to the
frequency of an analog signal x(t) that can be
reconstructed from x(n).

DSP 17