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# MATH2010 ASSIGNMENT 1, SEMESTER 1, 2018

## Hand in the questions by 4:00 pm on Thursday, 15 March, 2018.

Q1) Consider the ODE
(1) y 00 (t) − 6y 0 (t) − 3y(t) = 0,
2
where y 0 (t), y 00 (t) denote dy d y
dt and dt2 respectively.
(a) Find the roots of the characteristic equation corresponding to (1) and
use these to write the general solution y(t) to the ODE (1). (2 marks)
(b) Couple the ODE (1) so that it is expressed in the form
(2) Y0 = AY + b,
   
y y
where Y = = , A is a 2 × 2 matrix, and b is a vector.
z y0
(2 marks)
(c) Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of A and use these to plot the
phase portrait for the system (2). (2 marks)
(d) Does the system (2) obey the superposition principle? Explain.
(2 marks)
Q2) Consider the ODE
(3) − 4y 00 (t) + 3y 0 (t) + 5ty(t) = cos(t).
(a) Show that this ODE (3) is linear but inhomogeneous. (2 marks)
(b) Couple the ODE so that it is expressed in the form
(4) Y0 = AY + b,
   
y y
where Y = = , A is a 2 × 2 matrix, and b is a vector.
z y0
(2 marks)
Q3) Let
     
1 −2 0 y
A= , b= , Y=
3 −4 5 z
and let
(5) Y0 = AY + b.
(a) Find a change of variables
p = y − a,
q = z−b

## Date: S2, 2017.

Key words and phrases. .
1
2 .

## for some real a, b to be determined so that (5) gives the homogeneous

linear system
 
p
(6) X0 = BX, X= ,
q
where B is a 2 × 2 matrix. (2 marks)
(b) Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrix B. (2 marks)
(c) Find and classify the critical points of (6) and plot several trajectories
in phase space by hand. (3 marks)
(d) Plot the same phase portrait using your own favourite maths software.
For example, in Wolfram alpha or Mathematica:
StreamPlot[{y + z Sin[y], y - z}, {y, -3, 3}, {z, -3, 3}]
will plot a phase portrait for the non-linear system
y0 = y + z sin(y),
0
z = y−z
in the range from −3 to 3. (2 marks)
(e) Explain how the solution to (6) is related to the solution of (5).
(2 marks)
Q4) Consider the homogeneous polynomial
(7) f (x, y) = 3x3 + 3x2 y + 4xy 2 + 2y 3 .
(a) If y = y(t) = dx dt and x = x(t), show that the differential equation
f (x, y) = 0 is homogeneous but non-linear. (2 marks)