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Materials and Structures, 1995, 28, 431-433


I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e on T h e r m a l C r a c k i n g in C o n c r e t e at
Early Ages
Technical University of Munich, 1 0 - 1 2 O c t o b e r 1994


1. INTRODUCTION paid tribute to this practice oriented

work. ~Tz.2 .
200 concrete experts and scientists During hardening, the temperature of
from 25 different countries, including concrete structures can increase con-
30 participants from East Asia alone, siderably due to the heat of hydration
attended the RILEM international of the cement. This results in expansion.
(~ ~ time
conference on Thermal Cracking in Contraction then occurs during the L)
Concrete at Early Ages in Munich, following cooling phase. If the strain in -(3-
10-12 October 1994, in order to the concrete is restrained externally
exchange new knowledge on thermal (static undefined bedding) or if there
stresses and to inform themselves is considerable dead weight (e.g., in the ~ time
about the ways of avoiding thermal case of slabs), restraint stresses occur.
cracking in concrete at early ages. Not only is the thermal strain of the
56 papers [1-1 on this complex concrete restrained during hydration,
topic were presented in short lectures. but also the non-thermal strain, which
The discussion was conducted in is due to chemical shrinkage or
8 technical sessions, each session swelling.
being introduced by a general report The development of the stress in Fig. 1 Centric restraint stresses in
concrete at early ages does not depend young concrete.
The theme of the symposium was not only on the temperature variation
the development but the avoidance of during hydration. The development of
cracks in concrete. Professor R. the mechanical properties of the due to the residual relaxation and
Springenschmid, as host and chairman concrete, particularly Young's modulus the Young's modulus, which is now
of RILEM Committee 119-TCE, pointed and relaxation, plays a decisive part too. sufficiently high. Tensile stresses arise.
out that cracks reduce the durability of During the first hours after mixing the On further cooling, the tensile strength
structures and can affect the function concrete heats up, but compressive of the concrete is reached and it
of special structures such as tanks. To stresses do not occur yet because the cracks.
solve this problem a state of the art concrete can still be completely The main subjects of the sym-
report has been compiled and technical deformed plastically (Fig. 1 ). Only after posium were the determination of
recommendations [2] have been the first zero-stress temperature Tzl is the heat of hydration, the prediction
worked out. exceeded do compressive stresses of temperature development, the
The Vice-president of the Technical arise. However, these stresses relax measurement of thermal stresses
University Of Munich, Professor E. considerably. Therefore the maximum in the laboratory and in situ, the
Jessen, the Chairman of the German value of compressive stress is reached determination and modelling of mech-
Concrete Association, Dr. H. Luber, and before the maximum temperature. As anical properties, the influence of
the Vice-president of the Association the concrete gradually cools down, the constituents and composition of con-
of Bavarian Building Industry, G. Moll, compressive stresses decrease rapidly crete on cracking sensitivity, the
0025-5432/95 9 RILEM
432 RILEM Bulletin

computational assessment of stresses Blotting paper ( ~ Cable

, Anchor / ~- Wire mesh I1,,/ .
and cracking, practical measures for the Concrete//4~ Blotting paper ~ " 1 ~ 7 Flange
Load cell
avoidance of cracking, and case
J / . _, . - ._, ' , .
-,..o~'F'~lr ;r - - - ~ ~ I r'- I I

Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of the stressmeter.
2.1 Determination of the heat
o f hydration
(Chairman Dr. P. Acker, specified degree of restraint. Further- 2.6 Influence of constituents and
France; Genera/Reporter Dr. more, a method using ultrasound was composition of concrete on
P. Morabito, Italy) presented, with which the development cracking s e n s i t i v i t y
After a brief review of the literature, Dr.
of Young's modulus at early ages can (Chairman Dr. H. Sommer,
Morabito gave in his general report a
be determined. Austria; Genera/Reporter Dr. R
detailed description of the adiabatic
BreitenbOcher, Germany)
and semiadiabatic methods for the Dr. Breitenb~cher described in his
determination of the heat of hydration 2.4 M e a s u r e m e n t o f thermal general report the influence of the
of concrete. He also reported on the stresses in situ constituents and composition of con-
results of a round robin test in which (Chairman Professor J. C. crete on the cracking sensitivity of
12 research or testing laboratories took Wa/raven, The Netherlands," concrete, and commented on concrete
part. The details for carrying out or General Reporter Professor T. technological measures which lead to
evaluating the tests as well as for Tanabe, Japan) a reduction in the cracking sensitivity
the construction of the testing devices The measurement of stresses in young of the concrete. Among these measures
are summarized in [2]. Current research concrete is essential for the verification are the observance of a low fresh
deals with modelling the development and the calibration of the methods concrete temperature, the use of a
of the heat of hydration and the of calculation, as Professor Tanabe favourable cement whose cracking
mechanical properties of young con- emphasized. Methods like strain gauges tendency, can be determined in a
crete which depend on the heat of or vibrating wires are not suitable. A standard test in the cracking frame ]-2],
hydration. new measuring instrument has been the use of crushed aggregates with a
developed in Japan, the stressmeter, low coefficient of thermal expansion,
which allows the continuous measure- the partial replacement of the cement
2.2 Prediction of temperature with fly ash, and the use of air-
development during hydration ment of stresses in concrete at very
early ages (Fig. 2). Three papers entraining agents. Several papers dealt
(Chairman Professor E. Se/levold, with the higher cracking risk deter-
Norway; Genera/Reporter Dr. K. reported on the application of the
stressmeter and on the measurements mined for high strength concretes. This
van Breugel, The Netherlands) was attributed in particular to self-
carried out with it. The results lead to
Calculation of temperature develop- refinement of existing models and desiccation which occurs at early ages.
ment in concrete structures during calculation methods. Hints on the In this case, the cracking sensitivity can
hardening is important when designing installation and the use of the be reduced by the use of fly ash instead
structures with regard to the risk of stressmeter and on the evaluation of the of silica fume.
cracking. Dr. van Breugel gave a survey results are described in a technical
of current calculation methods and of recommendation r2].
the models which form the basis of
these methods. It is remarkable how 2.7 Computational assessment of
refined the methods are. The chemical 2.5 Determination and thermal stresses and
and physical properties of the cement
modelling of mechanical cracking risk
and the influence of moisture transport properties of concrete at (Chairmen Dr. G. Cadoret,
are often taken into account. early ages France, and Professor M. Wicke,
(Chairman Dr. Y. Nojiri, Japan; Austria; General Reporter
General Reporter Professor F. S. Professor M. Emborg, Sweden)
2.3 Measurement of thermal Rost~sy, Germany)
The trend of engineers towards
stresses in the laboratory
Professor Rost~sy pointed out in his computational methods was shown by
(Chairman Professor H. - W.
general report the multitude of models the number of papers dealing with the
Reinhardt, Germany; General
for the description of the mechanical numerical determination of stresses
Reporter Dr. M. Mango/d,
properties of young concrete, and and of the cracking risk. Professor
underlined the different bases of these Emborg referred to the connection
Dr. Mangold gave a detailed survey of models: formulae derived from testing between the heat of hydration and the
methods for measuring thermal stresses results or calculation methods which mechanical properties of the young
in young concrete in the laboratory. are based on physical or thermo- concrete. The different methods were
These methods include the rigid dynamic considerations. A focal point listed which are used to describe
cracking frame and the temperature of the models presented was the these relationships mathematically. He
stress testing machine with which description of creep and relaxation at proposed drawing up a list of the
stresses can be measured for a early ages. existing programs for the computation