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CHANNEL DIVERSITY IN HETEROGENEOUS

NETWORK

1

B.Manjula, 2Dr.V.Venkata Rao, 3Dr.P.Chandrasekhar Reddy

1Associate Professor, Dept. of ECE, MRCE, Telangana, India.

2Professor and HOD, Dept. of ECE, NEC, Narasaraopeta, AP, India

3Professor-Coordination, Dept. of ECE, JNTUH, Hyderabad, TS, India

In the propagation model of a wireless network, heterogeneous network, the prime issues observed are

variant format of estimation logic are been proposed the processing overhead due to multiple network

in past. With the evolution of new network models interfacing. The HetNet has the provision of

and variant channel condition, the conventional providing higher network connectivity, however,

estimators are limited under the utilization of the HetNet are limited with the device capability.

evolving new models. To achieve a better estimation Towards improving the performance of HetNet

in heterogeneous network under Multi input multi operation, various past developments were observed.

output (MIMO) for channel diversity condition, in For optimal resource allocation, For the optimization

this work, a new estimator logic based on a open in heterogeneous network, various approaches of

bound estimator using min-max approach. The resource allocation has been observed. In [1] a multi

proposed approach is validated for different channel attribute resource management using spectrum

condition, and the observation reveals the suitability availability and interference model is suggested. In

of the proposed approach under diverse condition. [2] a fairness improvement using spectral

interference and its coordination to mitigate it is

Index Term: channel estimation, propagation model, proposed. The approach defines a new approach of

MIMO, open bound estimation logic. interference controlling be interference alignment

wrt. optimal rate allocation in communication

1. Introduction process. A linear programming model (LP) was

outlined in [3] where a new approach of resource

With the increase in offered service level and allocation based on traffic density and capacity of the

upcoming new architecture, new network models and network is presented. The proposed approach defines

devices are emerging. The next generation services a weighted distribution approach for wireless

communication, where, a weight is allocated to the

demands a very high service quality, and the

network for the optimal registration. Based on the

available resources will be getting constraint to cope user performance model in [4] a cost optimization

with the demanded services. To achieve a higher approach is suggested, where a rely oriented network

service quality with optimal resource utilization, new for data exchange is proposed. In [5] the network

architectures are evolving. In these architectural topology was observed in the allocation of resources

enhancement, Heterogeneous network is observed to and an enhancing logic based on the adaptive

be a very optimal network structure upcoming. The interference and coordination model is suggested for

inter cellular interference in optimal resource

emerging area of communication has resulted in the

allocation. In [6,7] a packet-scheduling scheme based

evolution of new architecture in communication, on dynamic scheduling is proposed. The approach

where multiple sub networks are coming together to utilizes the resource allocation in a multimedia

come up with a new communication network for service, where the traffic are scheduled over a

high range coverage. Among different formats of heterogeneous network based on handover approach.

these evolution, heterogeneous network (HeNet) is A cell range expansion (CRE) approach is defined in

been evolved as a promising approach of this [8,9] for the optimization of wireless communication.

A weight based spectrum allocation in concern to

network. The evolution has lead to the development

energy efficiency is developed. A spectrum

of new standard in wireless communication for next efficiency and energy efficiency model for a optimal

generation wireless communication. resource allocation in defined in [10,11], where the

spectrum over energy allocation is defined using a

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH EXPLORER ISSN NO: 2347-6060

optimal equilibrium approach with multi objective channel, giving the im pact o f noise ef fect, the

approach. The approach of spectral efficiency using received signal at the rece iver is observed as,

inter and intra radio access technology is outlined in ()= ∑ ( − ) (1)

[12]. The approach obtains a efficiency in resource The trans mitt ed signal xp is gener ated at a

allocation based on the maximization of spectrum baud-rate 1 through a time dispersive channel

allocation wrt. energy efficiency in offered quality of T

service. Towards provision of quality of service in response h t . Here the channel offers a signal delay

[13] a new resource allocation approach based on of δ, giving a time shift of NT time shift to the

interference model is presented. In the provisioning original signal time period. The received signal r(t) is

of QoS in [14] a new approach of traffic management observed to be an integrated model of multiple

is suggested. The approach utilizes the end-to-end channel effected signal for paths 1..k.

operation as a framework in defining the QoS. The It is required to estimate the channel effect, the

objective of resource management for provisioning of proposed weighted 2 way LMS logic minimized the

QoS for multiple self operating system was defined. error objective. However, the convergence

A route optimization for the objective of QoS performance under the randomized channel condition

provision in heterogeneous network was outlined is required. Assuming perfect synchroniza andtioncarrier-

[15,16]. The algorithm defines a proactive coding residual elim ination, baud-rate sampling

scheme, where the approach suggest te QoS coding produces the discrete-timeoutp ut

for utility optimization. The objective of provision = + =∑ ℎ + (2)

QoS in a multihop scenario for homogeneous and Where,

heterogeneous network condition is suggested. = ( ) (3)

These interferences are to b e esti mated and

2. Feedback estimator logic equalized to improve the retrieved quality of a

receiver unit. The estimation process at time domain

The channel imperfection in wireless medium lead to /frequency domain or time-frequency domain are

diversity in signal estimation. In the estimation suggested for the analysis of received signal r(t) to

process, the estimator are designed to estimate the regenerate x(t). However, these approaches are

data based on estimates or prior channel information. accurate when the channel is dual of the estimator

However with the increase in demand for greater and degrades in quality when the channel is

services and faster data transmission, these estimators dynamically changing. The estimation, of the

are getting limited with processing speed. The degraded channel is carried out using recursive

concern of such estimator is the convergence period. estimation.

The convergence issue for an estimator unit is a A recursive filter is defined as a measure of forward

primal requirement in wireless communication. It is and backward error measurement, where the

required to have a faster convergence to give fast

approach compute the feedback as a measuring

processing efficiency in wireless communication

system. To improve the processing accuracy and element and process on the computation of error

overhead minimization, the conventional 2 way LMS covariance for the input and the feedback signal. The

logic is improved. A selective logic is defined to approach has the ability to update the error weight

obtain proper signal selection under multipath value based on the feedback operation. The basic

coding. Under channel diverse condition, the bit design model of a feedback estimator is defined by a

sparsing control the channel impact observed. In state updation process where a feedback error

addition the convergence performance for the

estimator is also required to give the system output response is made in the responsibility of feedback

faster. The uncertainty in channel conditions has error. the state estimator operates as a measurement

degraded the estimation performance of conventional and updation process in predict and correct logic in

channel estimator logic and needs an updating. The feedback estimation. The estimator tries to estimate

feedback estimators are developed to achieve the the signal, from the received signal stabilizing the

estimation performance under variant channel state of estimates by a li near es timate equation

condition. In the approach, of wireless

defined by,

communication, data are communicated over

wireless medium from a source to sink. The

= + + (4)

communicating channel offers various noise effects

to the transmitting data resulting in signal

with a measurement z that is,

degradation. In the propagation mode for a

communication system, signal xp is transmitted over a

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH EXPLORER ISSN NO: 2347-6060

estimation error criterion. Here, the proposed open

the estimation feedback error is derived from the bound filter The proposed approach optimizes the

estimated signal, where z is taken as the estimated open loop estimation error criterion. Here, the

channel reference derived from the received signal. proposed open bound used in the estimation of

The measurement of the state stability is governed by signal data, the rec urs ive filt er es timate the state x

the detection of the channel impulse H and noise based on a lin ear sy st e m defined b y,

parameter vk from the estimate. The impulse response

matrix H is defined as a m n Matrix is used in the = + + (6)

= + (7)

estimation of output state zk. The recursive filters

operates on the averaging of estimation error using Here, A,B,C are the constant parameters of the linear

recursive filters, where the variance is based is system, t is the time parameter, x is the state estimate,

computed using channel variance diversity condition. I is the reference input signal, y is the measuring

The objective of the estimation improvement in such output, and w, n are the noise parameters

condition is constraint with the following limitations, . Th e estimate in this case is observed to

be uncertai n, and estim ation of yt is predicted. Using

1. it is processed under a reference model, the Recurs ive loop the esti mated is c omputed fo r the

where the filter is processed under the signa l s as to filter the noise out gi ven as ,

assumption of knowing the channel noise

variation. =( + )+ ( ) (8)

2. As the filter is a recursive filter, the

feedback error is used to minimize the Where,

average estimate error, and it is limited ist he Recursive g ain.

under worst-case analysis, where the The filter works we ll und er the condition if average

channel has high degradation or high time process noise equals t o zero and, the average

variant operation. measurement noise is zero. However in a real

This assumptions, leads to open loop issues in time communica tion scenario under channel

estimation and noise suppression, and leads to diversity this condition is not achievable, as the time

system instability. Under diverse channel series observation of the channel is non linear. To

condition, where signal travels through multiple overcome this issue, the open bound filter performs a

paths as defined by H matrix of m x n size, min-max estimation, whe re the vec tor norm of the

where ‘m’ is number of information bit passed original signal is com pute d, de fined given by,

from each transmitting antenna with ‘n’

simultaneous channel. This m x n channel || = √ (11)

diversity result in imperfect channel condition, Which is also defined as,

which leads to unstable error. To resolve these

| | = (12)

issue, a recursive estimator logic using min-max

A weighted vector norm is us ed to adapt the

convergence criterion is proposed.

estimates, an d is defined as

3. Unbound Loop Feedback Min-Max estimation

|| || == ( ) ( 13)

taking the d iagonal value serves as a weight value in

In the proposed approach, the estimation is

the computation of norm w hich tr ies to optimize the

preformed as a recursive estimation, with feedback

convergence function J defin ed as,

error. The optimization criterion in this case is kept

as a linear range of estimates, rather to a fixed limit

, (14)

as observed in conventional modeling. The least error

or minimum square error approach, is best applicable The convergence function J is gi ven by:

to linear channel model, where as this estimate is not

( (|| ||))

observed to be optimal in this scenario. To open the = ( 15)

|| | |

estimate limits, a minimum and maximum error

bound factor is defined, called as ‘Min-Max bound

The estimate is operated over a period of t, and

limits’. This open limits leads to a estimation

converges in the minimization of cost

stabilization under diverse channel condition.

function J by optimal

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH EXPLORER ISSN NO: 2347-6060

estimation of . 1.5

Channel Corrupted Signal for Transmission

denominator of the cost function, relate to the 1

minimizing of cost function, wherein, the

improvement in the estimation of original signal x is 0.5

observed at the numerator term, relating to the

maximization of estimation accuracy. This builds to 0

the equilibrium criterion of min-max stabilization.

The estimate where the two terms result into min J is -0.5

then considered as the estimate value for

equalization.

-1

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

Figure 3: Channel effected signal

The proposed approach is evaluated for a MIMO- For this effected signal the channel

estimation logic is applied. The estimated received

OFDM model under channel Variant condition. The

bits are as illustrated in figure 4.

developed approach of open bound estimation Original Information-1

1.5

-0.5

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

1

1.5

0.5 0.5

-0.5

0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

-0.5

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Fig. 1: original message signal as illustrated in figure below.

These information bits are modulated using a 100

Quadrature modulation scheme, where the real MIMO-OFDM-WS-unbounded Min-max

MIMO-OFDM-WS-LMS

distribution of the complex modulated data is shown MIMO-OFDM-WLMS

10-2

in figure 2.

1.5

10-4

BER

10-6

0.5

10-8

0

-4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

SNR (dB)

-0.5

Fig5: SNR V/s BER comparison plot between

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

MIMO-OFDM-unbound-Min-Max with conventional

Fig 2: Modulated signal output approaches

This information bit is block coded and

transmitted over the channel. The effected signal for The above graph gives the observation for SNR v/s

this transmitted bit is shown in figure 3. BER of both the conventional and proposed methods.

It is clearly observed that the bit error rate of

conventional approaches is more when compared

with the proposed unbound-Min-Max approach.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH EXPLORER ISSN NO: 2347-6060

A similar test is carried out for a simulation performance is also improved due to faster estimation

parameter of noise density of 14 dB, and fading process, which is reduced to be 0.0038 for the

factor of 15 KHz, is simulated. The observed result is proposed models as compared to 0.0012 for the

shown in figure 6. conventional LMS model.

0 6. References

10

MIMO-OFDM-WS-unbounded Min-max

MIMO-OFDM-WS-LMS

MIMO-OFDM-WLMS

[1] Amin, R., Martin, J., Deaton, J., DaSilva, L.

10

-2

A., Hussien, A., & Eltawil, A, Balancing

spectral efficiency, energy consumption, and

-4

fairness in future heterogeneous wireless

10

systems with reconfigurable devices. IEEE

BER

10

-6

Communications, 31(5), 2013, pp: 969-980.

[2] Sharma, Shree Krishna, and Björn Ottersten.,

-8

"Interference alignment for spectral

10

coexistence of heterogeneous

-4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

networks."EURASIP Journal on Wireless

SNR (dB) Communications and Networking, 2013, pp:1-

Fig 6: Simulation result for the developed approach 14.

under noise density of 14dB and fading factor of 15 [3] Hanly, Stephen V., Chunshan Liu, and Philip

KHz. Whiting., "Capacity and stable scheduling in

heterogeneous wireless networks." IEEE

The convergence performance of the developed Journal on Selected Areas in

approach over the conventional estimator is presented Communications 33.6 (2015), pp: 1266-1279.

in figure 7. [4] Tahir, Hatim Mohamad, and Zainor Ridzuan

Yahya., "Selection of access network using

MIMO-OFDM-WLMS cost function method in heterogeneous

0.5

MIMO-OFDM-WS-LMS wireless network." IEEE International

MIMO-OFDM-WS-unbounded Min-max

Conference on Multimedia Computing and

0.4

Systems (ICMCS),. IEEE, 2014.

[5] Khandekar, A., Bhushan, N., Tingfang, J., &

Delay (Sec)

Heterogeneous networks. In Wireless

0.2 Conference (EW), 2010 European (pp. 978-

982). IEEE.

0.1 [6] Wahida Mansouri, KaisMnif, FaouziZarai,

Mohammad S. Obaidat , “A new multi-rat

0

4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

scheduling algorithm for Heterogeneous

SNR(dB) wireless networks”, Journal of Systems and

Fig 7: Convergence performance for the developed Software, Elsevier, 2015.

approaches [7] Karam, Fazal Wahab, and Terje Jensen. "On

schemes for supporting QoS and mobility in

5. Conclusion heterogeneous networks." Proceedings of the

7th International Conference on Frontiers of

An open Min-Max convergence logic is developed Information Technology. ACM, 2009.

for a MIMO-OFDM communication model. The [8] Liu, Mengting, Yinglei Teng, and Mei Song.

approach defines a new cost optimization for MIMO- "Tradeoff Analysis between Spectrum

OFDM system, where the channel is divers in Efficiency and Energy Efficiency in

condition. The randomized channel condition as Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets) Using

observed in real time scenario is simulated for the Bias Factor." Journal of

developed approach, and evaluated under different Communications 10.10 (2015).

channel condition. The observation obtained defines [9] Son, Kyuho, Eunsung Oh, and Bhaskar

the performance improvement of the suggested Krishnamachari. "Energy-efficient design of

approach, where the convergence for the proposed heterogeneous cellular networks from

system is observed to be achieved at 0.25 Sec as in deployment to operation."Computer

comparison to 0.28 by LMS system. The error Networks 78 (2015): 95-106.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH EXPLORER ISSN NO: 2347-6060

[10] He, G., Zhang, S., Chen, Y., & Xu, S. (2013,

April). Spectrum efficiency and energy

efficiency tradeoff for heterogeneous wireless

networks. In 2013 IEEE Wireless

Communications and Networking Conference

(WCNC) (pp. 2570-2574). IEEE.

[11] Hu, Rose Qingyang, and Yi Qian. "An energy

efficient and spectrum efficient wireless

heterogeneous network framework for 5G

systems." IEEE Communications

Magazine 52.5 (2014): 94-101.

[12] Rao, Jaya B., and Abraham O. Fapojuwo.

"Analysis of Spectrum Efficiency and Energy

Efficiency of Heterogeneous Wireless

Networks With Intra-/Inter-RAT

Offloading." IEEE Transactions on Vehicular

Technology 64.7 (2015): 3120-3139.

[13] Shi, Hua, Jiandong Li, Zhao Li, and Honghao

Ju. "Dynamic spectrum allocation in

heterogeneous wireless networks under

interference constraints across the cell

coverage." Wireless Communications and

Mobile Computing15, no. 7 (2015): 1188-

1197.

[14] Iancu, Bogdan, Vasile Dadarlat, and Adrian

Peculea. "A novel end-to-end QoS framework

over heterogeneous networks-an architectural

approach."Acta Technica Napocensis 51.2

(2010): 42.

[15] Badia, L., Miozzo, M., Rossi, M., & Zorzi, M.

(2007). Routing schemes in heterogeneous

wireless networks based on access

advertisement and backward utilities for QoS

support [Quality of Service based Routing

Algorithms for Heterogeneous

Networks]. IEEE Communications

Magazine,45(2), 67-73.

[16] Yang, Kun, Yumin Wu, and Hsiao-Hwa Chen.

"QoS-aware routing in emerging

heterogeneous wireless networks [Quality-of-

Service-Based Routing Algorithms for

Heterogeneous Networks]." IEEE

Communications Magazine 45.2 (2007): 74-

80.

[17] Richter, F., Fehske, A. J., Marsch, P., &

Fettweis, G. P. (2010, May). Traffic demand

and energy efficiency in heterogeneous

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2010 IEEE 71st (pp. 1-6). IEEE.

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