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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH EXPLORER ISSN NO: 2347-6060

AN OPEN BOUND ESTIMATOR UNDER


CHANNEL DIVERSITY IN HETEROGENEOUS
NETWORK
1
B.Manjula, 2Dr.V.Venkata Rao, 3Dr.P.Chandrasekhar Reddy
1Associate Professor, Dept. of ECE, MRCE, Telangana, India.
2Professor and HOD, Dept. of ECE, NEC, Narasaraopeta, AP, India
3Professor-Coordination, Dept. of ECE, JNTUH, Hyderabad, TS, India

Abstract: In the process of service provisioning in


In the propagation model of a wireless network, heterogeneous network, the prime issues observed are
variant format of estimation logic are been proposed the processing overhead due to multiple network
in past. With the evolution of new network models interfacing. The HetNet has the provision of
and variant channel condition, the conventional providing higher network connectivity, however,
estimators are limited under the utilization of the HetNet are limited with the device capability.
evolving new models. To achieve a better estimation Towards improving the performance of HetNet
in heterogeneous network under Multi input multi operation, various past developments were observed.
output (MIMO) for channel diversity condition, in For optimal resource allocation, For the optimization
this work, a new estimator logic based on a open in heterogeneous network, various approaches of
bound estimator using min-max approach. The resource allocation has been observed. In [1] a multi
proposed approach is validated for different channel attribute resource management using spectrum
condition, and the observation reveals the suitability availability and interference model is suggested. In
of the proposed approach under diverse condition. [2] a fairness improvement using spectral
interference and its coordination to mitigate it is
Index Term: channel estimation, propagation model, proposed. The approach defines a new approach of
MIMO, open bound estimation logic. interference controlling be interference alignment
wrt. optimal rate allocation in communication
1. Introduction process. A linear programming model (LP) was
outlined in [3] where a new approach of resource
With the increase in offered service level and allocation based on traffic density and capacity of the
upcoming new architecture, new network models and network is presented. The proposed approach defines
devices are emerging. The next generation services a weighted distribution approach for wireless
communication, where, a weight is allocated to the
demands a very high service quality, and the
network for the optimal registration. Based on the
available resources will be getting constraint to cope user performance model in [4] a cost optimization
with the demanded services. To achieve a higher approach is suggested, where a rely oriented network
service quality with optimal resource utilization, new for data exchange is proposed. In [5] the network
architectures are evolving. In these architectural topology was observed in the allocation of resources
enhancement, Heterogeneous network is observed to and an enhancing logic based on the adaptive
be a very optimal network structure upcoming. The interference and coordination model is suggested for
inter cellular interference in optimal resource
emerging area of communication has resulted in the
allocation. In [6,7] a packet-scheduling scheme based
evolution of new architecture in communication, on dynamic scheduling is proposed. The approach
where multiple sub networks are coming together to utilizes the resource allocation in a multimedia
come up with a new communication network for service, where the traffic are scheduled over a
high range coverage. Among different formats of heterogeneous network based on handover approach.
these evolution, heterogeneous network (HeNet) is A cell range expansion (CRE) approach is defined in
been evolved as a promising approach of this [8,9] for the optimization of wireless communication.
A weight based spectrum allocation in concern to
network. The evolution has lead to the development
energy efficiency is developed. A spectrum
of new standard in wireless communication for next efficiency and energy efficiency model for a optimal
generation wireless communication. resource allocation in defined in [10,11], where the
spectrum over energy allocation is defined using a

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH EXPLORER ISSN NO: 2347-6060

optimal equilibrium approach with multi objective channel, giving the im pact o f noise ef fect, the
approach. The approach of spectral efficiency using received signal at the rece iver is observed as,
inter and intra radio access technology is outlined in ()= ∑ ( − ) (1)
[12]. The approach obtains a efficiency in resource The trans mitt ed signal xp is gener ated at a
allocation based on the maximization of spectrum baud-rate 1 through a time dispersive channel
allocation wrt. energy efficiency in offered quality of T

service. Towards provision of quality of service in response h t . Here the channel offers a signal delay
[13] a new resource allocation approach based on of δ, giving a time shift of NT time shift to the
interference model is presented. In the provisioning original signal time period. The received signal r(t) is
of QoS in [14] a new approach of traffic management observed to be an integrated model of multiple
is suggested. The approach utilizes the end-to-end channel effected signal for paths 1..k.
operation as a framework in defining the QoS. The It is required to estimate the channel effect, the
objective of resource management for provisioning of proposed weighted 2 way LMS logic minimized the
QoS for multiple self operating system was defined. error objective. However, the convergence
A route optimization for the objective of QoS performance under the randomized channel condition
provision in heterogeneous network was outlined is required. Assuming perfect synchroniza andtioncarrier-
[15,16]. The algorithm defines a proactive coding residual elim ination, baud-rate sampling
scheme, where the approach suggest te QoS coding produces the discrete-timeoutp ut
for utility optimization. The objective of provision = + =∑ ℎ + (2)
QoS in a multihop scenario for homogeneous and Where,
heterogeneous network condition is suggested. = ( ) (3)
These interferences are to b e esti mated and
2. Feedback estimator logic equalized to improve the retrieved quality of a
receiver unit. The estimation process at time domain
The channel imperfection in wireless medium lead to /frequency domain or time-frequency domain are
diversity in signal estimation. In the estimation suggested for the analysis of received signal r(t) to
process, the estimator are designed to estimate the regenerate x(t). However, these approaches are
data based on estimates or prior channel information. accurate when the channel is dual of the estimator
However with the increase in demand for greater and degrades in quality when the channel is
services and faster data transmission, these estimators dynamically changing. The estimation, of the
are getting limited with processing speed. The degraded channel is carried out using recursive
concern of such estimator is the convergence period. estimation.
The convergence issue for an estimator unit is a A recursive filter is defined as a measure of forward
primal requirement in wireless communication. It is and backward error measurement, where the
required to have a faster convergence to give fast
approach compute the feedback as a measuring
processing efficiency in wireless communication
system. To improve the processing accuracy and element and process on the computation of error
overhead minimization, the conventional 2 way LMS covariance for the input and the feedback signal. The
logic is improved. A selective logic is defined to approach has the ability to update the error weight
obtain proper signal selection under multipath value based on the feedback operation. The basic
coding. Under channel diverse condition, the bit design model of a feedback estimator is defined by a
sparsing control the channel impact observed. In state updation process where a feedback error
addition the convergence performance for the
estimator is also required to give the system output response is made in the responsibility of feedback
faster. The uncertainty in channel conditions has error. the state estimator operates as a measurement
degraded the estimation performance of conventional and updation process in predict and correct logic in
channel estimator logic and needs an updating. The feedback estimation. The estimator tries to estimate
feedback estimators are developed to achieve the the signal, from the received signal stabilizing the
estimation performance under variant channel state of estimates by a li near es timate equation
condition. In the approach, of wireless
defined by,
communication, data are communicated over
wireless medium from a source to sink. The
= + + (4)
communicating channel offers various noise effects
to the transmitting data resulting in signal
with a measurement z that is,
degradation. In the propagation mode for a
communication system, signal xp is transmitted over a

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH EXPLORER ISSN NO: 2347-6060

(5) The proposed approach optimizes the open loop


estimation error criterion. Here, the proposed open
the estimation feedback error is derived from the bound filter The proposed approach optimizes the
estimated signal, where z is taken as the estimated open loop estimation error criterion. Here, the
channel reference derived from the received signal. proposed open bound used in the estimation of
The measurement of the state stability is governed by signal data, the rec urs ive filt er es timate the state x
the detection of the channel impulse H and noise based on a lin ear sy st e m defined b y,
parameter vk from the estimate. The impulse response
matrix H is defined as a m  n Matrix is used in the = + + (6)
= + (7)
estimation of output state zk. The recursive filters
operates on the averaging of estimation error using Here, A,B,C are the constant parameters of the linear
recursive filters, where the variance is based is system, t is the time parameter, x is the state estimate,
computed using channel variance diversity condition. I is the reference input signal, y is the measuring
The objective of the estimation improvement in such output, and w, n are the noise parameters
condition is constraint with the following limitations, . Th e estimate in this case is observed to
be uncertai n, and estim ation of yt is predicted. Using
1. it is processed under a reference model, the Recurs ive loop the esti mated is c omputed fo r the
where the filter is processed under the signa l s as to filter the noise out gi ven as ,
assumption of knowing the channel noise
variation. =( + )+ ( ) (8)
2. As the filter is a recursive filter, the
feedback error is used to minimize the Where,
average estimate error, and it is limited ist he Recursive g ain.
under worst-case analysis, where the The filter works we ll und er the condition if average
channel has high degradation or high time process noise equals t o zero and, the average
variant operation. measurement noise is zero. However in a real
This assumptions, leads to open loop issues in time communica tion scenario under channel
estimation and noise suppression, and leads to diversity this condition is not achievable, as the time
system instability. Under diverse channel series observation of the channel is non linear. To
condition, where signal travels through multiple overcome this issue, the open bound filter performs a
paths as defined by H matrix of m x n size, min-max estimation, whe re the vec tor norm of the
where ‘m’ is number of information bit passed original signal is com pute d, de fined given by,
from each transmitting antenna with ‘n’
simultaneous channel. This m x n channel || = √ (11)
diversity result in imperfect channel condition, Which is also defined as,
which leads to unstable error. To resolve these
| | = (12)
issue, a recursive estimator logic using min-max
A weighted vector norm is us ed to adapt the
convergence criterion is proposed.
estimates, an d is defined as
3. Unbound Loop Feedback Min-Max estimation
|| || == ( ) ( 13)
taking the d iagonal value serves as a weight value in
In the proposed approach, the estimation is
the computation of norm w hich tr ies to optimize the
preformed as a recursive estimation, with feedback
convergence function J defin ed as,
error. The optimization criterion in this case is kept
as a linear range of estimates, rather to a fixed limit
, (14)
as observed in conventional modeling. The least error
or minimum square error approach, is best applicable The convergence function J is gi ven by:
to linear channel model, where as this estimate is not
( (|| ||))
observed to be optimal in this scenario. To open the = ( 15)
|| | |
estimate limits, a minimum and maximum error
bound factor is defined, called as ‘Min-Max bound
The estimate is operated over a period of t, and
limits’. This open limits leads to a estimation
converges in the minimization of cost
stabilization under diverse channel condition.
function J by optimal

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH EXPLORER ISSN NO: 2347-6060

estimation of . 1.5
Channel Corrupted Signal for Transmission

The average we ighted norm function in the


denominator of the cost function, relate to the 1
minimizing of cost function, wherein, the
improvement in the estimation of original signal x is 0.5
observed at the numerator term, relating to the
maximization of estimation accuracy. This builds to 0
the equilibrium criterion of min-max stabilization.
The estimate where the two terms result into min J is -0.5
then considered as the estimate value for
equalization.
-1
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

4. Results and Discussion


Figure 3: Channel effected signal
The proposed approach is evaluated for a MIMO- For this effected signal the channel
estimation logic is applied. The estimated received
OFDM model under channel Variant condition. The
bits are as illustrated in figure 4.
developed approach of open bound estimation Original Information-1

modeling is used for estimation and compared with 1.5

the conventional LMS estimation approach. A 1

random set of information bits are taken as input bits. 0.5

A set of the processing bit is shown in figure 1. 0


1.5
-0.5
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Recovered Information MIMO-OFDM-system-1


1
1.5

0.5 0.5

-0.5
0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Figure 4: Recovered information bit


-0.5
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

The error performance for the developed approach is


Fig. 1: original message signal as illustrated in figure below.
These information bits are modulated using a 100
Quadrature modulation scheme, where the real MIMO-OFDM-WS-unbounded Min-max
MIMO-OFDM-WS-LMS
distribution of the complex modulated data is shown MIMO-OFDM-WLMS
10-2
in figure 2.
1.5

10-4
BER

10-6

0.5

10-8

0
-4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
SNR (dB)

-0.5
Fig5: SNR V/s BER comparison plot between
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
MIMO-OFDM-unbound-Min-Max with conventional
Fig 2: Modulated signal output approaches
This information bit is block coded and
transmitted over the channel. The effected signal for The above graph gives the observation for SNR v/s
this transmitted bit is shown in figure 3. BER of both the conventional and proposed methods.
It is clearly observed that the bit error rate of
conventional approaches is more when compared
with the proposed unbound-Min-Max approach.

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH EXPLORER ISSN NO: 2347-6060

A similar test is carried out for a simulation performance is also improved due to faster estimation
parameter of noise density of 14 dB, and fading process, which is reduced to be 0.0038 for the
factor of 15 KHz, is simulated. The observed result is proposed models as compared to 0.0012 for the
shown in figure 6. conventional LMS model.
0 6. References
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MIMO-OFDM-WS-unbounded Min-max
MIMO-OFDM-WS-LMS
MIMO-OFDM-WLMS
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