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Cardiac Defibrillators

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Need For A Defibrillator
fib ill ti is
™Defibrillation
™D i ththe d
definitive
fi iti ttreatment
t t ffor the
th life-
lif
threatening cardiac arrhythmias ventricular
fib ill ti and
fibrillation d pulseless
l l ventricular
t i l tachycardia
t h di
™Ventricular fibrillation results from:
¾ Coronary occlusion
¾ Electrical shock
¾ Abnormalities of body chemistry
™This irregular
g contraction of the muscle fibers
causes non effectively blood pumping and that
results in a steep
p fall of cardiac output
p

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Ventricular Fibrillation
t i l fib
™Ventricular
™V fibrillation
ill ti can be
b converted
t d iinto
t a mor
efficient rhythm by applying high energy shock to
th h
the heart.
t
™This causes all muscle fibers to contract
simultaneously, which may then respond to normal
physiological pacemaking pulses

Restoration of normal rhythm in fibrillating heart as achieved by direct


current shock (arrow) across the chest wall. The horizontal line after the
shock shows that the cardiograph was blocked or disconnected for its
protection
i d during
i the
h period
i d off shock
h k
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Defibrillator
fib ill t iis a d
™Defibrillator
™D device
i th
thatt d
deliver
li a th
therapeutic
ti
dose of electrical energy (electric shock) to the
affected
ff t d heart
h t (fibrillated
(fib ill t d h
heartt or other
th shockable
h k bl
rhythm) to force the heart to produce more normal
cardiac
di rhythm
h th
™The shock can be delivered by means electrodes
placed on the chest of the patient (external
defibrillation) or the electrodes may be held directly
against the heart when the chest is open (internal
defibrillation).
™ Higher voltage are required for external defibrillation
than internal defibrillation
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DC Defibrillator
™ An
A energy storage
t capacitor
it isi charged
h d att a relatively
l ti l slow
l
rate from:
¾ The AC line by means of a step-up transformer and rectifier
arrangement or.
¾ A battery and DC to DC converter arrangement
™ During defibrillation the energy stored in the capacitor is then
delivered (Discharged) at a relatively rapid rate (in order of
milliseconds)
illi d ) tto th
the chest
h t off subject
bj t th
throughh th
the patient’s
ti t’
own resistance
™ Energy level of defibrillators is from 2 to 400 Joules (J)
(depends on the size of the patient and skin resistance)
™ Required voltage in the range of 1000 to 6000 V (depend on
the duration of the DC pulse)
™ Current range is from 1 to 20 A
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DC Defibrillator
™ A variable auto transformer T1 forms the primary of
auto-transformer
™ A high voltage transformer T2
™ Rectifying
y g the output
p of the transformer by y a diode D ((half wave
rectification)
™ High voltage change-over switch 1, 2 (vacuum type)
™ Oil-filed
Oil fil d 16 micro-farad
i f d [μF] it C
[ F] capacitor
™ L current limiting inductor to protect the patient (disadvantage: own
resistance → dissipation
p of a p
part of energy
gy duringg the discharge
g pprocess
™ The voltmeter AC is to indicate the energy stored in C

RL

AC

Schematic diagram
Step up
St
Transformer of a defibrillator
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DC Defibrillator
™ RS: limits the charging current to protect the circuit and determine the
time for full charge on C (T=RC)
™ RL: discharge resistance which the patient represents (50 to 100 Ω)
™ In 1 position the capacitor charges to a voltage VP set by the positioning
of the autotransformer (≈4000 V)
™ When the shock is to be delivered to the patient
patient, a foot switch or a push
button mounted on the handle of electrode is operated.
™ After that the high voltage switch changes over to position 2 and the
capacitor is discharged across the heart through the electrodes.

RL

AC

Schematic diagram
Step up
Transformer of a defibrillator 7
Energy Level of DC Defibrillator
™ Energy
E level
l l off a d
defibrillator
fib ill t can b
be controlling:
t lli
¾ The voltage amplitude VP of the defibrillator by varying the setting on
the varactor or
¾ Duration of the defibrillator pulse
gy (WA) stored in the capacitor C and available for
™ The energy
the defibrillation is:
1
WA = C V 2
2

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Waveforms of DC Defibrillator
™ Lown
L waveform:
f C
Curve 1 shows
h a ttypical
i l di
discharge
h pulse
l off
defibrillator which called “Lown” waveform.
¾ I rises rapidly to app
app. 20 A
¾ Then I decays to 0 with 5 ms
¾ A negative pulse is produced for 1 to 2 ms
¾ The pulse width defined as the time that elapses between the start of
the impulse and the moment that the current intensity passes the zero
line for the first time and changes direction (5 ms or 2.5
2 5 ms)

Current waveform I(t) versus


patient impedance RP

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Waveforms of DC Defibrillator
™ Mono-phasic
M h i waveform:f Th
The ddelivered
li d energy th
through
h th
the
patient's chest is in a single direction
¾ current flows in one direction from one electrode to the other
¾ High level of energy

Current delivered in
one direction

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Waveforms of DC Defibrillator
™ Bi
Bi-phasic
phasic waveform: The delivered energy through the
patient's chest is in two direction.
¾ deliver current in two directions
¾ The Bi-phasic waveform reverses the direction of the electrical
energy near the midpoint of the waveform
¾ Low-energy
Low energy biphasic shocks may be as effective as higher
higher-energy
energy
monophasic shocks
¾ Biphasic waveform defibrillation used in implantable cardioverter-
defibrillators (ICDs) and automated external defibrillators (AEDs).

Current delivered in
two direction 11
Defibrillator Electrodes
™ The electrodes for external
defibrillation are metal discs about 3-5
cm in diameter ((or rectangular
g flat
paddle 5x10 cm) and attached to
highly insulated handles
¾ Big size because of the large current, which
is needed by the external defibrillation
(avoiding
(a od go of bu
burning
guunder
de the
eeelectrodes)
ec odes)
¾ The size of electrodes plays an important
part in determining the chest wall
impedance which influence the efficiency
impedance,
of defibrillation External defibrillation
¾ Contain safety switches inside the housing electrode
¾ The capacitor is discharged only when the
electrodes are making a good and firm
contact with the chest of the patient
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Defibrillator Electrodes
™ For internal
defibrillation when the
chest
h iis open, llarge
spoon-shaped
electrodes are used

Internal and external


defibrillation electrodes
External

Internal
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DC Defibrillator with Synchronizer
™ Used for termination of ventricular tachycardia
tachycardia, atrial
fibrillation and other arrhythmias
™ There is a period in the heart cycle in which the danger is
least and defibrillation must take place during this period (this
is called cardio-version))
™ In this device the ECG of the patient is fed to the defibrillator
and the shock is given automatically at the right moment
™ The function of the synchronizer circuit is to permit
placement of discharge at the right point on the patient’s
electrocardiogram( avoided during the T wave and it is
approximately 20 – 30 ms after the peak of the R wave)

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DC Defibrillator with Synchronizer
™ the synchronizer unit contains within it:
¾ An ECG amplifier which receives the QRS complex
¾ A time delayy circuit which triggered
gg by
y the QRS complex
p
¾ The defibrillating capacitor is discharged after a desired delay time
(app. 30 ms) across the chest through the electrodes
™ The electrocardiogram of the patient is simultaneously
monitored on a cardioscope
™ The
Th synchronizer
h i unit
it produce
d a marker
k pulse
l att th
the momentt
the discharge takes place

Defibrillator/cardioverter
block diagram
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Charg Setting
™ The comparator A1 turns the power supply on and off
off,
depending on the voltages applied to its inputs
™ After setting the energy level by mean R3
¾ Pressing the charge switch ⇒
¾ Voltage on terminal 1 (V1) = settled voltage (energy level) ⇒
¾ Voltage on terminal 2 (V2) = 0 ⇒
¾ Comparator output = high ⇒

¾ High voltage power supply is turned on ⇒


¾ Charging the capacitor C ⇒
¾ Increase the voltage on terminal 2 until V1=V2 ⇒
¾ Comparator output = low (0) ⇒
¾ St
Stops th charge
the h cycle
l
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Manual defibrillator
™Manuall d
™M defibrillator
fib ill t iis a normall DC d
defibrillator
fib ill t
where:
¾ The clinician decide what charge (voltage) to use, based
on their prior knowledge and experience, and will deliver
the shock through paddles or pads on the patient's
patient s chest.
chest
¾ They require detailed medical knowledge
¾ These unit are generally only found in hospitals and on
some ambulances.

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Automatic External Defibrillators (AEDS)
™ A unit based on computer technology and designed to analyze
the heart rhythm itself, and then advise whether a shock is
required.
™ It is designed to be used by lay persons, who require little
training.
™ It is usually limited in their interventions to delivering high joule
shocks for VF and VT rhythms
™ The
Th automatic
t ti units
it also
l ttakek titime (generally
( ll 10-20
10 20 seconds)
d ) tto
diagnose the rhythm, where a professional could diagnose and
treat the condition far quicker with a manual unit
™ Automated external defibrillators are generally either held by
trained personnel who will attend incidents, or are public access
units which can be found in places including corporate and
government offices, shopping centers, airports, restaurants,
casinos hotels
casinos, hotels, sports stadiums
stadiums, schools and universities,
universities
community centers, fitness centers and health clubs. 18
Automatic External Defibrillators (AEDS)
™ AEDS require self-adhesive
self adhesive electrodes instead of hand
hand-held
held
paddles for the two following reasons:
¾ The ECG signal
g acquired
q from self-adhesive electrodes usually
y
contains less noise and has higher quality ⇒ allows faster and more
accurate analysis of the ECG ⇒ better shock decisions
¾ “Hands off” defibrillation is a safer procedure for the operator,
especially if the operator has little or no training

Automatic external
defibrillator

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Implantable Defibrillators (AID)
™ Recommended fro patient who are at high risk for ventricular
fibrillation
™ It constantly monitors the patient's
patient s heart rhythm,
rhythm and
automatically administers shocks for various life threatening
arrhythmias, according to the device's programming
™ The capacitor within the device will be charged up to 750 V
™ The heart represents a resistive load of 50 Ω
™ The number of high energy shock is limited to 4 or 5 during
any single arrhythmic episode
™ The shock duration is approx. 4-8 ms ≡ 30-35 J at 750 volts

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Implantable Defibrillators (AID)
™AID systems have three main system components:
¾ The defibrillator itself (AID): houses the power source,
sensing defibrillation,
sensing, defibrillation pacing
pacing, and telemetric
communication system
¾ The lead system: provides physical and electrical
connection between the defibrillator and the heart tissue.
9 High energy pulse is delivered via a 6 cm X 9 cm electrodes
pleased directly on the heart
9 Sensing is provided through leads screwed in the heart

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Implantable Defibrillators (AID)
¾ The programmer recorder/monitor (PRM):
An external device that provide a
bidirectional communications link to an
implanted AID and allows the physician to
view status information and modify the
function of the device as needed
9 This is
Thi i via
i two
t coils,
il one iis contained
t i d
within the wand of the PRM and the
second is contained within the implanted
de ice
device
9 Battery: 3-6 V
9 DC to DC converter: convert the 6 V to
750 V
9 Capacitors are typically aluminum
electrolytic because of the high volumetric Implantable defibrillator
efficiency and working voltage required s stem
system
(most two CS in series)
9 Load resistance is in the range
g of
20 – 50 Ω
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9 Peak current of the order of 40 A
Pacer – Cardioverter – Defibrillator (ICDS)
™ An ICD is an electronic device that constantly monitors your
heart rate and rhythm. When it detects a very fast, abnormal
heart rhythm,
y , it delivers energy
gy to the heart muscle. This
causes the heart to beat in a normal rhythm again.
™ It is used for:
¾ Anti-tachycardia Pacing (ATP) – When the heart beats too fast, a series of
small electrical impulses are delivered to the heart muscle to restore a normal
heart rate and rhythm.
y
¾ Cardioversion – A low energy shock is delivered at the same time as your
heartbeat to restore a normal heart rhythm.
¾ Defibrillation – When the heart is beating dangerously fast
fast, a high-energy
high energy
shock is delivered to the heart muscle to restore a normal rhythm.
¾ Bradycardia pacing – When the heart beats too slow, small electrical
impulses are sent to stimulate the heart muscle to maintain a suitable heart
rate.

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Pacer – Cardioverter – Defibrillator (ICDS)
™ The ICD has in general
two parts:
™ The Lead(s):
( ) monitors
the heart rhythm,
delivers energy used for
pacing, cardioversion
and/or defibrillation.
™ The
Th Pulse
P l generator:t
houses the battery and a
tiny computer
computer. Energy is
stored in the battery until
it is needed. The
computer receives
information from the
l d tto d
leads determine
t i whath t
rhythm is occurring Pacer-cardioverter-defibrillator
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Pacer – Cardioverter – Defibrillator (ICDS)
™ It is composed of five battery-powered units:
¾ Sensing circuit
¾ High voltage
oltage converter
con erter
¾ Switching circuit
¾ Defibrillation control circuit
¾ Pacing control circuit

Block diagram of the


automatic defibrillator
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