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Article: Developing a Definition of Giftedness

Topic: Gifted Support

Date Retrieved/Used: October/November 2017

Bib. Information (APA Paul, K. A., PhD, & Moon, S. M., PhD. (2017). Developing a Definition of Giftedness.
Formatting): In Designing Services and Programs for High-Ability Learners(2nd ed., pp. 28-38).
Thousand Oakes, CA: Sage Publications.
Author(s) Affiliation: Dr. Kristina Paul is a former teacher and coordinator of gifted education services from
Pennsylvania, is now an Assistant Professor of Gifted, Creative, and Talented Studies
at Purdue University. Her teaching and research focus on policy and practice in gifted
education, with specific interests in program evaluation, gifted students from rural
locations, professional development, and technology. Kristina completed her Ph.D at
the University of Connecticut, where for four years she contributed to the work of the
National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented and coordinated Confratute,
UConn's summer conference on enrichment teaching and learning.
She now serves Lower Merion School District as Special Assistant to the
Superintendent reviewing programming.
Dr. Sydney Moon is is a professor in the department of educational studies and the
director of the Gifted Education Resource Institute at Purdue University. She has been
active in the field of gifted education as a parent, counselor, teacher, administrator, and
researcher. She has contributed more than 40 books, articles, and chapters to the
literature on gifted education. Her research interests include social and emotional
issues of gifted students, families of the gifted, differentiated counseling for gifted
children and their families, student outcomes of gifted education programs, and the
development of personal talent.

Type of Resource: This is a Chapter (3) within a larger reference book about designing gifted services.
(Scholarly /Trade/Other)
Summary of essential This article compiles various approaches to defining gifted education.
information:  Conceptual definitions provide a theoretical description of giftedness (p. 28)
 Generally, a school district selects one conception of giftedness to serve as a
foundation for all the gifted programming in the district and then creates
related operational definitions for each programming component within a
continuum of services (p. 28).
 Lewis Terman (19250 and Leta Hollingworth (1926, 1942) defined giftedness
as the ability to achieve a very high score on an individualized intelligence test
 Gardner (1983, 1999, 2011) spoke of multiple intelligences, only three of
which are measured on traditional intelligence tests (p. 29).
 Sternberg (2000) conceptualized giftedness as developing expertise (p. 29).
 Renzulli (1978, 1986, 2012) believed that gifted performance, what he called
creative productivity, requires above-average ability in combination with
creativity and task commitment (p. 29).
 Because giftedness is a somewhat controversial construct in school settings, it
is important for school districts to examine different theories of giftedness and
select a conceptual definition that is consistent with current theory and
research, existing state policies that define giftedness, and the values of most
of the stakeholders in the district (p. 30).
 Giftedness is a social construction that is influenced by culture, values, and
politics (p. 31).
 {Urban setting example} The school district should broaden its definition so
that intellectually, academically, creatively, and artistically gifted students
could be identified and served with specialized programming (p. 33).
 [The] broadened definition was consistent with their state definition in that it is
still encompassed students with an IQ of 130 or greater, but was more
appropriate for their urban, multicultural context (p. 33).
 Gifted and talented students are those who demonstrate outstanding levels of
aptitude (defined as an exceptional ability to reason and learn when compared
with age-mates) or competence in one or more domains (p. 34).
Way in which this This relates to my field of gifted education by pointing out important features of how
source influences the we go about defining gifted education.
field related to your
inquiry (ex. Math
Potential relevance to By defining gifted education, we can take a look at all the opportunities we may have
your research topic and within our school environment to serve these students. By defining what a gifted
study: program can be or what makes up a gifted learner, we can get closer to determining
items of best practice for that type of student.

Article: Providing Programs and Services for Gifted Students at the Secondary Level
Topic: Gifted Education programming
Date Retrieved/Used: October/November 2017

Bib. Information (APA Jacobs, J. K., PhD, & Eckert, R. D, PhD. (2017). Providing Programs and Services for
Formatting): Gifted Students at the Secondary Level. In Designing Services and Programs for High-
Ability Learners(2nd ed., pp. 28-38). Thousand Oakes, CA: Sage Publications.
Author(s) Affiliation: Rebecca D. Eckert, Ph.D., is an associate clinical professor in the Neag School of Education
at the University of Connecticut where she works with pre-service teachers as they
navigate the joys and challenges of their first classroom experiences. As a Professional
Development Center Coordinator for two partner school districts, Becky is fortunate to
maintain a “foot in both worlds” of academia and public education. In her former role as
the Gifted Resource Specialist for the National Association for Gifted Children, Rebecca
co-edited the book Designing Services and Programs for High-Ability Learners with Jeanne
Purcell. Her previous work at The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented
included participation with the research team that developed and implemented the
Schoolwide Enrichment Reading Model (SEM-R). Her research interests include talented
readers, recruitment and preparation of new teachers, arts in the schools, and public
policy and gifted education.

Type of Resource: This is a Chapter (8) within a larger reference book about designing gifted services.
(Scholarly /Trade/Other)
Summary of essential This chapter provides definitions from theorists and those in practice now in order to
information: compare how giftedness is defined and servicing can be approached.
 The decisions educators make about service delivery and program organization
for high-ability students within secondary settings affects the learning
environment for the entire school community (p. 101)
 Although gifted students experience similar developmental milestones as other
secondary students, asynchronous development may result in completely
different trajectories or social and emotional responses. This asynchrony
further complicates secondary school experiences and creates the need for
specific programs or services (p. 101).
 The search for identity and purpose becomes paramount during the secondary
school years and has the power to shape a gifted student’s long-term goals and
career path well into adulthood (p. 102).
 How adolescents fit into (or experience) a school community will influence
strongly how they pursue their passions and interests, and this ultimately
develops their talents. Repeated negative interactions with educator, peers, or
coursework may invalidate or stifle exploration and development (p. 102).
 For gifted students to thrive in a secondary setting requires that school
personnel consider how this group of learners differs from the rest of the
school population and identify potential modifications in the school (p. 102).
 High-quality secondary programs and services for gifted students will
encompass key attributes: curricular offerings and adaptations, social and
emotional supports, transition planning and multiple pathways, flexibility and
responsiveness to individual needs, and integrated professional development
opportunities for staff (p. 102).
 [Gifted] curricular offerings [need to] deliver challenge, choice, and
engagement (p. 103)
 One option for providing advanced curriculum is Advanced Placement,
administered by the College Board. [Those] who participate in AP [courses
have the] possibility of savings of both tuition and time in college (p. 103).
 Another popular advanced curricular option is the International Baccalaureate
Programme (IB). The program focuses on global perspectives and currently
offers curricular frameworks (p. 103).
 IB is more likely to rise to the level of a program for gifted students; it
provides rigorous instruction with a culminating test in all courses (p. 104).
 If students elect to enroll in the full Diploma Programme [as a part of IB], their
coursework will have focused on creativity, community action, independent
research, and an extended essay that pulls together these various elements.
[They] think critically about the world through a variety of lenses, not just one
subject (p. 104).
 In most systems, honors means that the school intends the course to be more
difficult than the regular version of the subject, although in many cases it is left
to the individual teacher to determine what makes a course difficult (p. 105).
 Traditionally [differentiation within the general education classroom], has
referred to adjustments made to the curriculum assessment, and instruction for
gifted students so that they would experience additional challenge, choice and
opportunities for acceleration that may be lacking in the regular curriculum (p.
 In recent years, however, differentiation in the publishing industry has tended
to focus more on supports for ELLs and special education populations (p. 106).
 Some districts provide the option for students to test out of a course in which
they can show mastery (p. 106).
 Differentiated instructional strategies can offer one solution to promoting
challenge and engagement. However, ongoing teacher training and
administrative support for essential to effective implementation (p. 106).
 Independent studies require additional supervisory responsibilities, paperwork,
and a need for flexibility in scheduling. Resources such as the Autonomous
Learner Model or the Secondary Enrichment Triad Model can support
manageable, research-based implementation for secondary gifted students (p.
 Grade skipping, when done effectively, is unlikely to result in any negative
outcomes for learners or their families. Subject-specific acceleration helps
ensure continuous progress for students who may be enough out of a level in a
specific subject area that the school has no appropriate courses for that
individual (p. 108).
 Gifted students develop unevenly relative to their peers and may, therefore, be
more advanced intellectually but behind physically or emotionally, which can
create additional issues. [Those who strive] to meet high expectations can
experience high levels of stress and may benefit from available social and
emotional supports (p. 110).
 High-quality gifted programs offer purposeful, coordinated opportunities such
as counseling, regular communication with students and families, flexible
scheduling and grouping, discussion groups promoting self-discovery and
understanding of giftedness in adolescence (p. 110).
 One size does not fit all; therefore, practioners striving to create a high-quality
secondary gifted program must consider proactively the multiple ways that
they can support talent development and promote positive, engaging learning
environments for all students (p. 112).
Way in which this This relates to my field of gifted education by examining various programing
source influences the approaches and models within gifted education.
field related to your
inquiry (ex. Math
Potential relevance to By looking at a variety of models, we may be able to take pieces of different
your research topic and approaches and put to use in our environment.
Article: Positively Influencing Gifted Education Policy
Topic: Gifted Education policy
Date Retrieved/Used: October/November 2017

Bib. Information (APA Plucker, J. A. (2012). Positively Influencing Gifted Education Policy. Gifted Child
Formatting): Quarterly,56(4), 221-223.
Author(s) Affiliation: Jonathan Plucker is the Julian C. Stanley Professor of Talent Development at Johns
Hopkins University, where he works in the School of Education and the Center for
Talented Youth. He previously served as Raymond Neag Endowed Professor of
Education at the University of Connecticut and as a professor of educational
psychology and cognitive science at Indiana University. A well-known expert
on creativity, intelligence, and education policy, he is the author of over 200 papers
and author or editor of four books: Critical Issues and Practices in Gifted
Education with Carolyn Callahan (1st and 2nd editions), Essentials of Creativity
Assessment with James Kaufman and John Baer, and Intelligence 101 with Amber
Esping. Prof. Plucker has also led the development of a popular web site on human
intelligence. He was the 2007-2008 president of the American Psychological
Association's Society for the Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts
(Division 10).

Type of Resource: Scholarly article within gifted journal publication

(Scholarly /Trade/Other)
Summary of essential This article examines the need for more research to be done on the gifted population.
information: Gifted learners are a diverse population and there isn’t enough research done so that
we can analyze and learn how to teach them better.
 Subotnik et al. make a strong case that there is a desperate need for more and
better research on giftedness and gifted education. The lack of deep, high-
quality research base is a major cause of the field’s poor policy impact (p.
 Subotnik et al.’s proposed approach to conceptualizing giftedness and gifted
education essentially contrasts a whole child (i.e., traditional) approach with a
outcomes-focused approach (i.e., that put forth in the target article). The
outcomes-based conceptualization is understandably controversial but it is
logical and appropriate from a policy perspective (p. 221).
 Arguing degrees of “specialness” is a tough order for the field, as high-ability
children will always be viewed as advantaged over other groups of children (p.
 The field does not have enough research on intervention outcomes, and
creating this research base will greatly assist interactions with policy makers
(p. 222).
 A good example of this dual approach is the recent study by Makel, Lee,
Olszewski-Kubilius, and Putallaz (in press). They examined the Big Fish Little
Pond Effect, which predicts that student self-concept decreases when students
are put into more challenging educational environments (p. 222).
 Makel et al. (in press) designed a study in which the self-concepts of gifted
students were measured before, at the end of, and 6 months after participation
in summer, residential programming for gifted students. The results were
illuminating, with the data suggesting that student academic self-concepts were
more likely to increase rather than decrease, and with nonacademic self-
concepts showing evidence of gains for many students (p. 222).
 As a result, the research informs outcome-based approaches to gifted
education, provides valuable information to those taking the whole child
perspective, and directly informs policy (p. 222).

Way in which this This relates to my field of gifted education by gifted education policy. I want to be able
source influences the to incorporate larger policy procedures into my practice
field related to your
inquiry (ex. Math
Potential relevance to By looking at gifted policy, we can determine better ways to serve the needs of a gifted
your research topic and child.
Article: Teach Students What They Don’t Know but Are Ready to Learn: A Commentary on “Rethinking
Giftedness and Gifted Education”
Topic: Gifted Support
Date Retrieved/Used: October/November 2017
Bib. Information (APA Makel, M. C., Putallaz, M., & Wai, J. (2012). Teach Students What They Don’t Know
Formatting): but Are Ready to Learn. Gifted Child Quarterly,56(4), 198-201.
Author(s) Affiliation: Dr. Makel is the Director of Research at Duke Tip, a program through Duke University
that caters to gifted children in grades school to high school. His research reflects the
value that society places on helping talented people flourish. His content-specific
research focuses on how academically talented students are identified and how they
experience the world. Additionally, his methodological work explores research
methods and emphasizes replicating research findings, preregistering hypotheses, and
removing barriers to open science practices. He also seeks to communicate research
findings to nonresearchers. To this end, he serves as editor of TIP’s Research Digest, a
publication dedicated to providing practical research-based information about raising
and educating academically talented youth. He currently serves as chair of the National
Association for Gifted Children’s Research and Evaluation Network. His work has
won him multiple Mensa Awards for Research Excellence and he frequently travels
internationally to aid gifted experts in other countries in examining policies and
systems for educating the gifted.

Type of Resource: Scholarly article

(Scholarly /Trade/Other)
Summary of essential This article talks about what gifted students should be learning and how it should be
information: done.
 [There is a] need for more unity in how giftedness is defined and discussed (p.
 We agree with the first four guiding principles proposed by the authors: that
abilities matter, that there are different talent domains with different
developmental trajectories, developmental opportunities need to be offered at
each stage, and psychosocial variables play a role in development (p. 198).
 Assessment grows even more complicated when individual motivation and
interest play such a vital role in development, as the authors underscore (p.
 Assessment grows even more complicated when individual motivation and
interest play such a vital role in development, as the authors underscore (p.
 We feel that the focus should be on advancing more students further through
the domain trajectory continuum (p. 199).
 The chief goal of gifted education to be the chief goal of all education: to
ensure that all students receive the education appropriate for them at any given
time by maximizing the match between individual students’ educational
experiences with their individual educational needs (p. 200).
 If the goal of education is to maximize time spent in the zone of proximal
development [Vygostky], then no particular group would be ignored or
undervalued. Such a structuring would also foster master learning goals
because advancing to a new unit would not be determined by time spent on
task but demonstration of mastery (p. 200).
 Researchers recommended providing students with educational opportunities
tailored specifically to their individual learning rates that they now refer to as
“appropriate developmental placement” (p. 200).
 Teach students [J.C. Stanley] “only what they don’t already know”(p. 200).
 Fluidity in curricular pacing that would avoid permanent group tracking (p.
 We need to recognize and respond to changes in learning rate differences so
that students can remain in the zone of proximal development as much as
possible (p. 200).
 Many may claim that radically reorganizing education around current
performance instead of current age would be extremely difficult; and they
would be right/ But would it be any more difficult than asking a teacher to lead
a classroom when some students already know more than half the material to
be covered that year? (p. 200).

Way in which this This relates to my field of gifted education by talking about key features that we need
source influences the to modify to serve gifted students better by teaching students things they don’t know
field related to your but are ready to explore.
inquiry (ex. Math
Potential relevance to This article gives some ideas on new approaches to my current gifted model. In order
your research topic and to teach students what they don’t know, we must assess what they do know and at what
study: thoroughness.

Article: Giftedness and Gifted Education: The Need for a Paradigm Change
Topic: Gifted Support
Date Retrieved/Used: October/November 2017

Bib. Information (APA Ziegler, A., Stoeger, H., & Vialle, W. (2012). Giftedness and Gifted Education. Gifted
Formatting): Child Quarterly,56(4), 194-197.
Author(s) Affiliation: Professor Albert Ziegler is the chair of Educational Psychology and Research on
Excellence at the Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nurnberg and one of the
most productive and cited academicians in gifted education in Europe and also all over
the world. Prof. Ziegler has contributed different theories about gifted education and
education in general. One of his well-known theories is The Actiotope Model of
Giftedness and the 7-Step-Cycle of Self-Regulated Learning.
Type of Resource: Scholarly article
(Scholarly /Trade/Other)
Summary of essential This article gives new light on how we approach gifted education and says that a new
information: thought process and model are needed.
 [We have a need for] shifting the course of research in giftedness (p. 194).
 There have been growing signs that gifted education and giftedness research
has entered a phase of crisis (p. 194).
 In High Ability Studies [a different article in the journal], the authors argued
the urgent need to develop new paradigms in gifted education and its
associated research (p. 194).
 Research papers on giftedness have not made it into the top mainstream
educational and psychological journals (p. 194).
 The concept of giftedness is actively rejected my almost all the expertise
researchers (p. 195).
 Since the beginning of giftedness research, our identification approach has
changed only surprisingly little (p. 195).
 Gifted education can have unintended side effects. Labeling a child as gifted
puts her at risk (p. 195).
 Methods in gifted education are usually ineffective. Even if gifted educational
methods were effective according to conventional criteria, that would not help
greatly (p. 195).
 Giftedness should be linked to eminence. This means we have to search for
educational methods that are at least 15 to 20 times stronger than our most
effective educational methods today (p. 195).
 We need further studies conducted by interdisciplinary research teams to prove
that gifted education pays off in terms of economic, cultural, and societal
progress (p. 195).
 We need to focus more on learning (and less on traits) and to link giftedness to
eminence (that is, the outcome of successful learning processes) (p.195).
 Giftedness is described in theoretically incompatible and logically
contradictory terms as a “manifestation of performance,” a “potential,” an
“achievement,” and a “label” (p. 196).
 Giftedness should be understood as a label granted to individuals for whom we
can identify a learning pathway that leads to eminence (p. 196).
 First, to prove the credentials of gifted education, the help of researchers
specializing in the economics of education is required (p. 196).
 [The] common objective should be the identification of learning pathways to
eminence, the development of much more effective methods of gifted
education, and to prove to society that gifted education and giftedness research
are worthy of their support (p. 196).
Way in which this This relates to my field of gifted education by exploring inconsistencies in the field and
source influences the controversies over the identification of gifted.
field related to your
inquiry (ex. Math
Potential relevance to The article talks about how we don’t know enough about the gifted learner due to the
your research topic and lack of research over the years. If we don’t fully understand this learner yet, how can
study: we properly accommodate and teach them?

Article: Gifted Challenges: Underachievers under-the-radar: How seemingly successful gifted students fall short
of their potential
Topic: Gifted Support
Date Retrieved/Used: November 2017
Bib. Information (APA Post, P. G. (2015, November 23). Gifted Challenges: Underachievers under-the-radar:
Formatting): How seemingly successful gifted students fall short of their potential. Retrieved
November 10, 2017, from

Author(s) Affiliation: Dr. Gail Post is a licensed psychologist, in practice for over 30 years, from
Jenkintown, PA. She has started this blog to bring experience as a clinician to the
understanding of giftedness. She has worked collaboratively with gifted education
supervisors to evaluate gifted programming, and she is aware of the constraints and
struggles schools face. Her experiences as a parent and as past co-chair of a local gifted
advocacy parents group have been humbling and have deepened her understanding of
giftedness in her work as a therapist.

Type of Resource: Website/Blog

(Scholarly /Trade/Other)
Summary of essential This site compiles various articles to serve as a resource for parents who have gifted
information: children.
 Research has shown that many gifted children are underachievers who fail to
reach their potential (p. 1).
 There are underachieving gifted students who remain hidden; their struggles
detected by only the most astute observers (p. 1).
 They might seem cooperative, but in reality, they rebel by taking shortcuts and
performing well beneath their potential (p.1).
 Having lost faith in an educational system that appears dull and lifeless, they
have learned to entertain themselves and exert enough effort to just get by in
school. They don’t know their limits, they don’t’ know how to fail, and they
don’t care to push themselves anymore (p.1).
 Gifted underachievers under-the-radar take shortcuts and certain risks, but
none that ultimately help them succeed or reach their potential. Their decisions
reflect passive rebellion, risk aversion, conflict avoidance, or attempts to
entertain themselves (p. 1).
 Students may take “easier” classes to avoid homework that would require
much effort (p. 1).

Way in which this This relates to my field of gifted education by giving a psychologist perspective with
source influences the the focus of informing parents. This vantage point is helpful because it is someone that
field related to your works in the diagnosis field while also working with gifted students often.
inquiry (ex. Math
Potential relevance to By having a doctor perspective, I get a clinical approach to gifted findings.
your research topic and
Article: Lessons learned about educating the gifted and talented: A synthesis of the research on
educational practice
Topic: Gifted Support
Date Retrieved/Used: January 2018
Bib. Information (APA Rogers, K. B. (2007). Lessons learned about educating the gifted and talented: A
Formatting): synthesis of the research on educational practice. Gifted Child Quarterly, 51(4), pp.

Author(s) Affiliation: Karen B. Rogers, Ph.D. is Professor of Gifted Studies in the Special Education & Gifted
Education Department at the College of Education, Leadership, and Counseling at the
University of St. Thomas in Minneapolis, Minnesota, where she has been employed since
1984. She is a Professorial Fellow at the University of Wollongong and an Honorary
Professor at the University of New South Wales in Australia. She is past president of CEC-
TAG, past SIG AERA chair for the Giftedness, Creativity, and Talent special interest group,
and has been on the Board of Directors for NAGC. She is author of five books, with four
more forthcoming, including Re-forming Gifted Education. She is a manuscript reviewer
for all the major journals in gifted education (U.S. and Australia) and served a term as
Associate Editor for the Journal for Advanced Academics. She has expertise in research-
based gifted practices via research syntheses of the research in the field and has
additional interests in arts education, cognitive processing, parenting, creativity, gifted
program development and evaluation, and twice exceptional education. This latter
interest is a result of a Javits research grant about which she is currently developing two
books of what was discovered about how these learners learn and what teachers can
specifically do to ensure both the giftedness and the disability are addressed

Type of Resource: Scholarly

(Scholarly /Trade/Other)
Summary of essential This resource explains and goes over the best practices associated with gifted support.
information: This article discusses five reconsiderations (lessons) the research on the education of
the gifted and talented suggests. Although several of the considerations derive from
traditional practice in the field, some reconsideration is warranted because of more
currently researched differences in how the gifted learner intellectually functions. It is
argued that thinking of the gifted learner as idiosyncratic, not necessarily one of many
classified as “the gifted,” requires a reconceptualization of how to appropriately and
fully serve this unique learner. The research synthesized here covers the period from
1861 to present and represents the entire body of published research studies and
representative literature (theory, program descriptions, and persuasive essays).
Implications for service development and implementation are also discussed.

 Gifted and talented learners need daily challenge in their specific areas of
 Opportunities should be provided on a regular basis for gifted learners to be
unique and to work independently in their areas of passion and talent.
 Provide various forms of subject-based and grade-based acceleration to gifted
learners as their educational needs require.
 Provide opportunities for gifted learners to socialize and to learn with like-
ability peers.
 For specific curriculum areas, instructional delivery must be differentiated in
pace, amount of review and practice, and organization of content presented.

"Affectively, students in pull-out programs are more positive about school, have more
positive perceptions of giftedness, and are more positive about their program of
study at school than are gifted students not participating in pull-out programs
(Delcourt et al., 1994; Kulik & Kulik, 1992; Lim, 1994; Shields, 2002; Zeidner &
Schleyer, 1999)" (Rogers, p. 389)

Way in which this This relates to my field of gifted education by pointing out important components of a
source influences the strong gifted program and highlights best practices to incorporate into that program.
field related to your
inquiry (ex. Math
Potential relevance to This gives a background of exactly what I’m looking to see in my own practice: best
your research topic and practices to enrich and challenge our gifted students.
Article: Instructional Strategies for Differentiation Within the Classroom
Topic: Gifted Support
Date Retrieved/Used: February 9, 2018

Bib. Information (APA Roberts, J. L. (n.d.). Instructional Strategies for Differentiation Within the Classroom.
Formatting): In NAGC Pre-K-Grade 12 Gifted Education Programming Standards: a guide to
planning and implementing high-quality services(pp. 117-140). Waco, TX: Prufrock.

Author(s) Affiliation: Dr. Julia Link Roberts is the Mahurin Professor of Gifted Studies at Western Kentucky
University. She is the Executive Director of The Center for Gifted Studies and the Carol Martin
Gatton Academy of Mathematics and Science in Kentucky. Dr. Roberts is a member of the
Executive Committee of the World Council for Gifted and Talented Children and a Board
member of The Association for the Gifted (a division of the Council for Exceptional Children)
and the Kentucky Association for Gifted Education. She is co-author with Tracy Inman of
Strategies for Differentiating Instruction: Best Practices for the Classroom (2009 Legacy Award
for the outstanding book for educators in gifted education by the Texas Association for the
Gifted and Talented) and Assessing Differentiated Student Products: A Protocol for
Development and Evaluation. Dr. Roberts is known as an advocate for children who are gifted
and talented at the state and national levels, and for that work she received the first David W.
Belin NAGC Award for Advocacy. She led a ten-year advocacy campaign that resulted in
establishing the Gatton Academy of Mathematics and Science, a statewide residential school.
Dr. Roberts directs summer and Saturday programs for children and young people who are
gifted and talented.

Type of Resource: Chapter 6 of NAGC Pre-K-Grade 12 Gifted Education Programming Standards: a

(Scholarly /Trade/Other) guide to planning and implementing high-quality services
Summary of essential This chapter highlights strategies to infuse differentiation into the regular classroom to better
information: meet gifted needs.
Quotes from the text:
 These new standards do not exclude any children but rather focus attention on
ensuring that all children will make continuous progress and develop their
potentials (p. 117).
 The Gifted Programming Standards highlight the need to see that children with
gifts and talents have opportunities to develop their potential to the highest
levels just as it is expected will happen with other children (p. 117).
 Planning for differentiation, preassessing to determine how to proceed to
ensure that everyone is learning on an ongoing basis, and implementing
learning experiences to match interests, learning preferences and readiness (p.
 Educators must see themselves as talent scouts. Talents need opportunities for
coaching and teaching in academics just as they do in sports (p. 119).
 A classroom teacher who focuses on grade-level learning or proficiency will
not create learning experiences that facilitate all children making a year’s
academic growth for each year in school. In fact, it is possible that advanced
learners make little or no growth in such a classroom (p. 120).
 Gifted children can actually make greater grains than one year’s achievement
growth if the teacher implements best practices for differentiating experiences
by removing the learning ceiling (p. 120).
 “ ‘Excellence gap’ (p.i): ‘The comparatively small percentage of students
scoring at the highest level on the achievement tests suggests that children with
advanced academic potential are being under-served, with potentially serious
consequences for the long-term economic competiveness of the U.S.’ (Plucker
et al., 2010, p. 1)”(p. 120).
 Young people need to understand that working on hard academic tasks will
build an independent, capable learner (p. 121).
 Dweck (2006) described two ways that individuals view intelligence. One
mindset is that intelligence is fixed, and the other mindset views the growth
potential in intelligence, where growth is the result of effort (p. 121).
 Teachers who differentiate effectively focus feedback on effort rather than on
being smart (p. 121)
 Differentiating learning experiences without data is whimsical and cannot be
defended (p. 122-123).
 Adapt, modify and replace are key words describing what the teachers do
when they differentiate the curriculum in effective ways. Assessment data
signal what content and process should be adapted, modified, or replaced in
order to allow for continuous progress (p. 124).

Way in which this NAGC is a great source with which to be more familiar. It guides a lot of what we do
source influences the in gifted ed, along with the PA Chapter 16 guidelines.
field related to your
inquiry (ex. Math
Potential relevance to This shows/suggests good and appropriate ways to include differentiation and variety
your research topic and of instruction within the classroom. This falls under best practices for a gifted student.
Article: Action Plans: Bringing the Gifted Programming Standards to Life
Topic: Gifted Education
Date Retrieved/Used: February 9, 2018

Bib. Information (APA Cotabish, A., & Krisel, S. (n.d.). Action Plans: Bringing the Gifted Programming
Formatting): Standards to Life. In NAGC Pre-K-Grade 12 Gifted Education Programming
Standards: a guide to planning and implementing high-quality services(pp. 231-253).
Waco, TX: Prufrock.

Author(s) Affiliation: Dr. Alicia Cotabish is an Assistant Professor of Teaching and Learning at the University of
Central Arkansas. Previously, she was the Associate Director of the Jodie Mahony Center for
Gifted Education and Advanced Placement Professional Development Center at the University
of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) where she serves as one of two Principal Investigators and
the Director of STEM Starters, a federally-funded Jacob K. Javits Gifted and Talented
project. From 2004 to 2007, Dr. Cotabish coordinated the Arkansas Evaluation Initiative in
Gifted Education, a Javits-funded state-wide school district program evaluation initiative
housed at UALR. Before beginning her career in higher education in 2004, Dr. Cotabish taught
eight years in the public school system as an elementary and middle school science teacher, a
K-12 gifted and talented teacher, and as an award-winning district-level gifted program
administrator. In 2012, Dr. Cotabish received the National Association for Gifted Children
(NAGC) Early Leader Award. She has authored and co-authored more than 40 publications
including two recently released books on the Next Generation Science Standards and gifted
learners. She has delivered more than 170 professional development workshops,
presentations, and keynotes at local, state, national, and international venues. Her recent
work has focused on K-20 STEM and gifted learners, and examining the effects of virtual peer
coaching on the quality of teacher candidates using Skype and Bluetooth Bug-in-the-Ear (BIE)
Dr. Sally Krisel is the Director of Innovative and Advanced Programs for Hall County Schools in
Gainesville, Georgia, leads innovative programming initiatives designed to help teachers
recognize and develop the creative and cognitive abilities of children from culturally and
linguistically diverse groups. A former State Director of Gifted Education and part-time faculty
at the University of Georgia, Dr. Krisel is dedicated to raising academic standards for all
students, including those who are gifted and talented, by expanding rigorous curriculum
offerings and integrating the know-how from programs for the gifted to develop students’
academic potential through engaging, joyful learning experiences. She has helped Hall County
Schools develop 11 charter schools and more than a dozen innovative programs of choice, all
with roots in gifted education.

Type of Resource: Chapter 11 of the NAGC Pre-K-Grade 12 Gifted Education Programming Standards:
(Scholarly /Trade/Other) a guide to planning and implementing high-quality services
Summary of essential This chapter gives teachers a way to put the gifted standards to use and bring them to
information: life within the classroom. There is a chart on page 235 that is called a Snapshot Survey
of Gifted Programming Effectiveness Factors. It is a tool educators can use to assess
their current program, rate the extent of services in place, and/or determine the
amount of effort it would take to modify practices to reach evidence-based practices.
The action plan chart (page 238-239) is used to see the steps that must be taken for the
determined strategy to succeed. Pages 240-246 show how these charts can be put into
place by highlighting an example, Mrs. Jones. There is another example at the end of
the chapter. These examples are great references when needing to see how to
determine holes within gifted programming.

 “The term “evidence-based practices” implies action. When referring to

education, a course of action requires navigating through content or
programming standards with skillful planning” (p. 233).
Way in which this This relates to my field of gifted education by gifted education policy. I want to be able
source influences the to incorporate larger policy procedures into my practice.
field related to your
inquiry (ex. Math
Potential relevance to By looking at the programming standards, I’m able to see what the “rule” says and
your research topic and suggestions on how to make them work within the classroom. I want to be sure the
study: policies are being upheld in classrooms where I work and support students with gifted

Article: Striking balance to meet gifted students’ need
Topic: Gifted Education
Date Retrieved/Used: March 8, 2018

Bib. Information (APA Striking balance to meet gifted students’ need. (1998). Curriculum Administrator,
Formatting): 33(5), 59.
Author(s) Affiliation: Unknown – Used WCU Ebscohost source to find this source

Type of Resource: article

(Scholarly /Trade/Other)
Summary of essential Quotes from this source (all from page 1):
information:  "Gifted children in Pull-Out, Separate Class, and Special School programs
showed higher achievement than gifted students who were not in programs and,
in most cases, than those from Within-Class programs and non-gifted students.
 "Although a limited amount of time was spent in the resource room
(approximately 2 hours/week), the emphasis on academics with the Pull-Out
model appears to have contributed to the achievement of these students.
 "Students from the Separate Class programs scored at the highest levels of
achievement and at the lowest levels of perception of academic competence,
preference for challenging tasks, sense of acceptance by peers, internal
orientation, and attitudes toward learning."
 One district that appears to have found the right formula to meet all its students'
needs is the Skaneateles School District, sixty miles outside Syracuse. Although
it serves only 1,900 students, it offers "as many curriculum opportunities as any
district in New York State," according to Superintendent Walter J. Sullivan. The
district sends 92 percent of its graduating seniors on to college and has racked
up a string of awards. The high school is a National High School of Excellence;
one of the elementary schools is a National Elementary School of Excellence;
and two elementary schools have received International Exemplary Reading
 The district's philosophy in meeting the needs of its gifted students is not
altogether different from its way of servicing special needs students. Sullivan
states, "We approach it from a variety of perspectives, in terms of both
enrichment as well as mainstreaming our special needs children.
 Skaneateles's approach to gifted students is also inclusionary. Sullivan explains,
"We have no tracking in the elementary schools. Rather, we have a pull-out
enrichment program that generally involves special activities led by the full-time
enrichment coordinator. This teacher also works with the elementary classroom
teachers so that the rest of the students are able to experience a lot of these same
activities, as well. So it's a combination."
 Sullivan continues, "The first place where we differentiate is sixth grade math,
which is based on an enrichment model, rather than an accelerated model. We
offer two sections of enrichment math. However, in grade 7 kids have the
opportunity to take two years of math in one year. Our curriculum is so rich,
given the size of the school, that there are multiple pathways for every student
in the system."
 What is perhaps unusual about the Skaneateles approach to its gifted program is
its attitude toward all students. Sullivan says, "Our program at the middle school
and high school is differentiated in the sense that there are a lot of Advanced
Placement courses. But our philosophy is that if a youngster and his/her parents
really want the more challenging curriculum, then we permit the student to do
so. I have historically permitted kids who don't meet the criteria for a particular
AP course to enter that course and see how it goes. Almost without exception,
they're successful. We have interdisciplinary curriculum coordinators that
monitor this. No youngster is shut out from a more challenging course because
of not meeting the criteria, because as objective as one tries to be, we can't
measure a student's motivation to master a more difficult curriculum."

Way in which this This relates to my field of gifted support because it highlights a model/district where
source influences the an approach is working. We can learn from that approach to see if there are elements
field related to your we could utilize in our district.
inquiry (ex. Math
Potential relevance to By looking at gifted servicing in another district, I can see benefits from this model to
your research topic and enhance or influence how I conduct my service.
Article: Gifted Students Need an Education, Too
Topic: Gifted Education
Date Retrieved/Used: March 8, 2018

Bib. Information (APA Winebrenner, S. (2000). Gifted Students Need an Education, Too. Educational
Formatting): Leadership, 58(1), 52.
Author(s) Affiliation: Susan Winebrenner is an educator, a widely published author, a public speaker, a
parent and grandparent. She has worked with schoolteachers, administrators, and
parents in almost every state in the United States, as well as in Canada, Mexico,
and Australia. She is the president and founder of Education Consulting Service,
which is designed to train teachers around the country on gifted education needs.

Type of Resource: Scholarly

(Scholarly /Trade/Other)
Summary of essential This article shows that gifted students need their own instructional techniques. Some
information: elements from the reading:
 To assume that gifted students are learning because they achieve acceptable
standards on state assessments is unrealistic (p. 52).
 Kate [the teacher] makes differentiation the normal and acceptable condition in
her classroom. She knows that when her students know something is all right
with her, it will generally be all right with them, too (p. 52).
 Page 53 talks about how we spend more than the average per-pupil cost on
those underachieving, when those “over” achieving are just as far from the
norm of student ability and yet aren’t getting the level of service.
 In September, many of these youngsters could take the assessments that all
students in their grade will take at the end of the year and still score at or above
the 95th percentile. Simply in the interests of equity, these students are entitled
to receive the same types of differentiation so readily provided to the students
who struggle to learn (p. 53).
 Gifted students who rarely undergo demanding learning experiences may lose
confidence in their ability to perform well on challenging learning tasks. Many
of these students learn to find the easiest way out, postponing their exposure to
challenge in many patterns of underachievement (Rimm, 1990; Schmitz &
Galbraith, 1985) (p. 53).
 Gifted students have already mastered much of the grade-level work, so they
should have opportunities to function at more advanced levels of complexity
and depth and to tie their own passionate interests into their schoolwork (p.
 Many teachers are reluctant to facilitate the needs of gifted students because of
the lack of teacher training in this type of differentiation, a concern that other
students or parents will accuse them of unfairness, or their belief that providing
differentiation for this population is elitist (p. 54).
 Many educators believe that a student who is unproductive in school could not
possibly be gifted (p. 54).
 When teachers learn how to plan and provide these alternative activities
routinely to students who demonstrate prior mastery, these students can make
progress in their own learning during more of their time in school (p. 54).
 How can teachers provide differentiation for gifted students? Compact the
curriculum, design alternative learning experiences, allow differentiated pacing
and agree on expectations (p. 54-55).
 What can administrators do to facilitate differentiation for gifted students?
Acknowledge the needs of gifted students, facilitate gifted education training
for staff, investigate cluster grouping, and communicate expectations (p. 55).
Way in which this This relates to my field of gifted support by confirming my assumptions and
source influences the experiences with gifted students and parents.
field related to your
inquiry (ex. Math
Potential relevance to Gifted students often don’t get as robust an education as general education students
your research topic and due to the level of need. This gives some ideas on how to change that for the better.
Article: Gifted children's relationships with teachers
Topic: Gifted Education
Date Retrieved/Used: March 12, 2018

Bib. Information (APA Kesner, J. (2005). Gifted children’s relationships with teachers . International
Formatting): Education Journal,6(2), 218-223.

Author(s) Affiliation: John Kesner is an associate professor for the College of Education & Human
Development’s Department of Early Childhood and Elementary Education and the
director of Saturday School for Scholars and Leaders.

Type of Resource: scholarly

(Scholarly /Trade/Other)
Summary of essential There is a growing research interest in the interpersonal relationship between teacher
information: and child and how it affects the child's experience in the classroom. This can manifest
differently for a gifted student than a regular education student.
Teachers put forth a tremendous influence on gifted children's academic and social-
emotional development. Many factors are associated with a successful classroom
experience for gifted students, and the classroom teacher (or gifted support teacher)
plays a vital role in that success. The teacher can influence academic life and personal
life of a gifted child.
This research has not been systematically applied to the study of gifted children.
 “Gifted children may be savvier than their non-gifted counterparts when it
comes to their behavior and responses in research studies and thus appear
better adjusted, yet in reality have the kinds of social and emotional difficulties
described by the professionals who work with them every day” (p. 218).
 “Educators and counsellors in the field of gifted education describe the gifted
children they work with as having more social/emotional difficulties than their
non-gifted counterparts” (p. 218).
 “VanTassel-Baska (2000) reported that as many as 63 percent of gifted
children are underachievers and show a record of truancy” (p. 218).
 “Secure relationships with secondary caregivers (that is, teachers) may
compensate for insecure attachment relationships with parents (Van
IJzendoorn and Tavecchio, 1987)” (p. 219).
 “They report that children predicted to be retained at the beginning of
kindergarten, but were not retained, had more secure relationships with their
teacher compared to those who were retained” (p. 219).
 “Gifted children tend to suffer from the often disabling effects of perfectionism
which may contribute to chronic underachievement” (p. 219).
 “Often gifted children feel the need to live up to unrealistic expectations,
sometimes self imposed or imposed by others” (p. 219).
 “Teachers reported significantly less conflict in their relationships with gifted
students as compared to reports from teachers of non-gifted students. Teachers
of gifted students also reported that they perceived more dependency in their
relationships with students as compared to teachers of non-gifted students” (p.
 “The same level of closeness and lower levels of conflict suggest a more
positive relationship between teachers and gifted students as compared to
teachers of non-gifted students” (p. 222).
 “Gifted students, by virtue of their advanced intellectual capabilities may be
even more dependent upon the teacher to provide for their specific academic
needs” (p. 222).
 “NAGC has long recognized that meeting gifted students’ affective needs is as
important as meeting their academic needs” (p. 222)
 “NAGC suggests that a highly successful teacher of the gifted is able to
inspire and motivate students, reduce tension and anxiety for gifted
students and appreciate their high levels of sensitivity” (p. 222).
 “Gifted students are even more profoundly affected by the interactions they
have with their teachers compared to other students (Croft, 2003)” (p. 222)
 “Teachers are in a unique position to either nurture or stifle positive
relationships with children” (p. 222)

Way in which this This relates to my field of gifted best practices because I’m wondering if the student-
source influences the teacher relationship has an impact on the success of the gifted child. If so, how does
field related to your that teacher’s interactions need to be in order to have maximum support for the gifted
inquiry (ex. Math child?
Potential relevance to By looking at this article, I can see if I’m doing things that may be novel in terms of
your research topic and relationship building or if there are areas that I need to improve. Is it me or my
study: environment (or both) that are supporting the gifted students? Or, are there ways I can
improve relationship building to enhance the learning environment for the students.

Article: Identifying “Good” Teachers for Gifted Students
Topic: Gifted Education
Date Retrieved/Used: March 12, 2018

Bib. Information (APA Khalil, M., & Accariya, Z. (2016). Identifying “Good” Teachers for Gifted
Formatting): Students. Creative Education,07(03), 407-418.

Author(s) Affiliation: College of Sakhnin, Academic College for Teacher Education, Sakhnin Israel

Type of Resource: scholarly

(Scholarly /Trade/Other)
Summary of essential This is a study to identify unique features of how gifted students perceive to be
information: essential in their teachers. In this qualitative, one-year study, data and responses from
15 gifted students in a high school in an Arab village in northern Israel were gathered
from interviews, student diaries, and letters they were asked to write.
 “Findings revealed that gifted students defined a good teacher through three
major categories: 1) qualities in teachers; 2) excellent teaching; and 3) the
unique qualities of the individual student-teacher relationship” (p. 407)
 “According to Avinon (2004) a good teacher is brave, honest, and affectionate,
and demonstrates self-respect, self-awareness, individual responsibility,
imagination, improvisation skills, and a sense of humor” (p. 409).
 “Teachers acquired their professionalism from abilities for reflective
expression and creating new knowledge, along with their professional and
autonomous maturity, as a result of work experience” (p. 414)
 “Gifted students place great importance on the teacher’s personal qualities and
his willingness to invest time and effort in his students to be able to meet their
personal, emotional, and social needs” (p. 415)

The Pygmalion effect comes from the research of Davis and Rimm (2004) which
shares how the “teacher’s belief in his students and high expectations of their abilities
causes the students to believe in themselves, leading to an increase in motivation and a
parallel increase in performance” (p. 416)

Way in which this This relates to my field of gifted best practices because I’m wondering if the student-
source influences the teacher relationship has an impact on the success of the gifted child. If so, how does
field related to your that teacher’s interactions need to be in order to have maximum support for the gifted
inquiry (ex. Math child?
Potential relevance to By looking at this article, I can see if I’m doing things that may be novel in terms of
your research topic and relationship building or if there are areas that I need to improve. Is it me or my
study: environment (or both) that are supporting the gifted students? Or, are there ways I can
improve relationship building to enhance the learning environment for the students.

Article: Teachers’ Attitudes Towards Gifted Students and Differences in Attitudes Regarding the Years of
Topic: Gifted Education
Date Retrieved/Used: March 12, 2018
Bib. Information (APA Krijan, I. P., & Borić, E. (2015). Teachers’ Attitudes Towards Gifted Students and
Formatting): Differences in Attitudes Regarding the Years of Teaching / Stavovi učitelja prema
darovitim učenicima i razlike u stavovima s obzirom na staž. Croatian Journal of
Education - Hrvatski časopis Za Odgoj I Obrazovanje,17(0), 165-178. Retrieved
March 12, 2018.

Author(s) Affiliation: Faculty of Teacher Education, University of J. J. Strossmayber in Osijek, Croatia.

Type of Resource: Scholarly article

(Scholarly /Trade/Other)
Summary of essential Quotes from this source:
information:  Teachers with positive attitudes help ensure positive and supporting
environments for the gifted students, which contributes to the fulfillment of
their needs (p. 166).
 Teachers mainly have negative attitudes towards acceleration while the results
towards ability group vary (p. 166).
 Researchers often strive to find the connection between years of teaching
experience or lack of experience and positivity of attitudes toward gifted (p.
 Teacher beginners (0-4 years experience) tend to highly agree: Special
educational needs of gifted students in our schools are too often ignored (p.
171). Teachers will more experience tend to think the schools do a fine job of
meeting gifted needs.
 Gifted students are a valuable resource of our society and the other one being
the leaders of tomorrow’s society will come mostly from the gifted of today,
where the youngest teachers mostly agree with the previous statements (p.
 Youngest teachers were more aware of the fact that the gifted have more
difficulty in making friends (p. 171).
 Nevertheless, schools do not have a consistent policy for working with the
gifted, which does not provide teachers with the opportunity to perceive the
advantages or disadvantages of acceleration and ability grouping, and are
therefore unable to express their opinion on that issue (p. 175).
 Younger teachers expressed more positive attitudes towards the gifted than
their older colleagues (p. 175).
 Positive attitudes of younger teachers can be explained with their enthusiasm
and willingness to meet the challenges of working with the gifted, whereas
older teachers are more aware of personal engagement that working with the
gifted brings, as well as of insufficient professional support from schools (p.

Way in which this This relates to my field of gifted support by looking at how teachers feel, react, and
source influences the treat gifted students.
field related to your
inquiry (ex. Math
Potential relevance to By looking at teachers attitudes toward gifted students, I’m able to gain more
your research topic and perspective and understanding to help support regular education teachers and gifted
study: students.

Article: The Zone of Proximal Development in Child Cognitive Theory
Topic: Gifted Education
Date Retrieved/Used: April 9, 2018

Bib. Information (APA Bainbridge, C. (2017, August 18). The Zone of Proximal Development in Child
Formatting): Cognitive Theory. Retrieved April 09, 2018, from

Author(s) Affiliation: Carol has been providing advice to parents of gifted children for fifteen years,
including work as a gifted children expert on and meeting with
parents in her local parent support group. She is currently working on fiction books
about language, with accompanying workbooks, and blogging
Carol has a BA degree in psychology and an ABD in linguistics, with a focus on
verbally gifted children.
Carol was a board member of the Indiana Association for the Gifted for 13 years,
from 1999 to 2012. She helped with their yearly conference and after creating their
first Web site, was the web administrator for the site ( for
eight years. She is also the co-founder and president of a local parent support
group, which seeks to help parents learn about and advocate for their gifted
children. Along with another member of her local parent group, Carol started a
Saturday enrichment program for gifted children in the area.
(as seen on

Type of Resource: website

(Scholarly /Trade/Other)
Summary of essential Quotes from the source:
information:  When the work is just right, it creates an optimal learning environment (p. 1)
 The area between the comfort zone and the frustration zone is the one where
learning will take place, the ZPD [zone of proximal development] theory
suggests (p. 3).
 Vygotsky also believed that even naturally curious children would not advance
far without a structured learning environment (p. 3).
 A child’s intelligence rested in his or her problem-solving abilities rather than
the volume of what he or she knows (p. 3).
 Language and the ability to communicate were key components of the ZPD
since children develop cognitive skills from others through dialogue, the
theory posits (p. 4).
Way in which this This relates to my field of gifted education by giving a breakdown of ZPD and while
source influences the this is good for all children, this is particularly important for gifted children to ensure
field related to your growth in their educational experience.
inquiry (ex. Math
Potential relevance to By looking at ZPD, I can get further confirmation that gifted students need more time
your research topic and in this “space” between comfort and frustration to truly grow into themselves,
study: cognitively.

Article: Gifted Education Guidelines
Topic: Gifted Education
Date Retrieved/Used: April 9, 2018

Bib. Information (APA Gifted service delivery options. (2014). In Pennsylvania Department of Education
Formatting): gifted guidelines. Retrieved from Pennsylvania Department of Education

Author(s) Affiliation: Pennsylvania Department of Education

Type of Resource: Website/PDF document of GIEP rules and regulations from PDE
(Scholarly /Trade/Other)
Summary of essential Some important pieces from this resource:
information: Gifted Guidelines (PDE, 2014), Chapter 2: Identification and Placement of
Mentally Gifted Students
 The Gifted Individualized Education Plan. The Gifted Individualized
Education Plan for each gifted student must be based on the Gifted
Multidisciplinary Team's evaluation report and recommendations and
are expected to contain the following: ...There should be a description
of the student's present levels and other information necessary to
develop appropriate goals and outcomes by subject area to provide
acceleration, enrichment or both as needed. (PDE, 2014, p. 19)
 Present levels must include multiple measures, among which may be
ability and assessment test scores, group and individual achievement
measures, grades, progress on goals, instructional levels, aptitudes,
interests, specialized skills, products and evidence of excellence in
other than academic areas. All members of the Gifted Individualized
Education Plan team may contribute evidence of present levels of
achievement. Present levels must be updated annually and progress
towards the annual goals and short-term learning outcomes
determined. For a detailed explanation of Present Levels of Educational
Performance, locate the Annotated Gifted Individualized Education Plan
and Sample Gifted Individualized Education Plan on the Pennsylvania
Department of Education's website:
(PDE, 2014, p. 19)
 The goals and outcomes should reflect the students' present levels of
educational performance, where the learning experience should begin
and specify the performance levels to be achieved through the
individualized education plan based on the rate of acquisition/retention,
academic acceleration needs and academic enrichment needs. Annual
goals and short-term learning outcomes should be child-specific and
measurable. The annual goals and short-term learning outcomes are
not based on, nor limited to, what the district has in place or is willing to
provide, but on the child's learning needs. (PDE, 2014, p. 20)
 Objective criteria, assessment procedures and timelines should be
appropriate and used to determine, on a t least an annual basis,
whether the short-term learning outcomes are being achieved. (22 Pa
Code § 16.32(d) (5)). Objective criteria would set the level, standard,
grade, performance and the percent of mastery or completion that is
expected. Assessment procedures are the tests or procedures that will
be used to measure the achievement. Evaluation data should clearly
monitor the progress of the student during the delivery of Gifted
Individualized Education Plan. Timelines are when and how often
assessment will be made (PDE, 2014, p.21)

PDE Gifted Guidelines (2014), Chapter 3: Gifted Service Delivery Options,

pages 27-28.
 A combination of acceleration and enrichment provides the greatest
opportunity for flexible programming to meet the needs of the gifted.
Even if a pullout option is present in the school district, an individualized
plan must be provided. The individualized plan must establish learning
opportunities to insure meaningful progress. (22 Pa. code §§ 16.1(viii),
16.41(2)). Minimal or trivial progress is not meaningful progress. The
gifted student must be provided instruction at an appropriate level of
challenge and with adjustments that accommodate individual needs.
The instruction must be reasonably calculated to yield meaningful
educational benefit and student progress. (PDE, 2014, p. 27)
 A comprehensive service delivery model for gifted students cannot be
limited to enrichment alone, one academic area, one program option or
solely extracurricular activities such as Odyssey of the Mind, Future
Problem Solving, Mock Trail, MATHCOUNTS, or National History Day.
Each school district must decide what service delivery options are
needed to provide specially designed instruction for each gifted student.
A needs assessment survey of gifted students is a highly effective tool
to guide decisions on service delivery changes and options. Once the
needs of the students are known, the school district may utilize many
types of resources, on and off campus, to provide a full continuum of
services. (PDE, 2014, p. 28)

PDE Gifted Guidelines (2014), Chapter 4: Curriculum and Instruction,

pages 29-32
Three fundamental differences that distinguish gifted learners from other
learners are:
 The capacity to learn at faster rates, more in-depth and with greater
 The capacity to find, solve, and act on problems more readily; and
 The capacity to manipulate abstract ideas and make connections.

Taking these fundamental differences into account, difficulties arise when

gifted service delivery options are limited to:
 A pull-out program.
 Offering more of the same level of material or the same kind of
 Providing either enrichment or acceleration alone.
 Teaching higher thinking skills in isolation from academic content.
 Presenting additional work that is simply different from the core
curriculum, but not differentiated specifically for the gifted learner.
 Grouping with intellectual peers without differentiating content and
 Providing only grade-level content.
 Overlooking curricular gaps between elementary and secondary
placements. (PDE, 2014, p. 29)

 PDE Gifted Guidelines (PDE, 2014, p. 34). "Teachers of gifted

students should have ample time for preparation, teacher-to-teacher
contact, Gifted Multidisciplinary Evaluation Involvement, Gifted
Individualized Education Plan development and parent conferences.
When teachers are assigned to teach or direct the learning experiences
for gifted students, there should be evidence that they are trained and
able to fulfill this assignment. When regular education and gifted
education teachers are working together, their roles need to be clearly
defined. All teachers need appropriate support, reasonable schedules,
adequate materials, technology assistance and appropriate training."

Way in which this This relates to my field of gifted education by giving a background of what the
source influences the department of education states about gifted education, while also determining what
field related to your we, as gifted teachers, can do to implement these guidelines.
inquiry (ex. Math
Potential relevance to By looking at gifted guidelines from the PDE, I can see what essential pieces of any
your research topic and program or service around the state of PA should include. I can also use this
study: guidelines to increase my understanding of the “rules” while making sure we are
doing our part at my school to incorporate these standards.

Article: Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development and Child IQ
Topic: Gifted Education
Date Retrieved/Used: April 9, 2018

Bib. Information (APA Frank, K. (2013, February 28). General Psychology. Retrieved April 09, 2018, from

Author(s) Affiliation: The author is Kay Frank. This source is from a General Psychology Blog created by
Pratt Institute General Psychology Class, Spring 2012. I would assume that it had a
professor’s gaze in the course of its creation. The author, herself, isn’t found online
and no biography is included. I was able to see the Gifted Quarterly source this is
talking about (link at bottom of essential information) and I’m able to see the
analysis/summary of that article is on target.

Type of Resource: website

(Scholarly /Trade/Other)
Summary of essential This resource looked at a study conducted in Australia in order to make connections
information: between IQ and the development of play. The study demonstrated that toddlers that
were later found to have higher IQ’s learned pretend play in the ZPD more quickly.

Quotes from the source:

 The researchers begin by defining ‘giftedness’ in children as “a capacity for
advanced functioning in areas such as abstract thinking and language....rapid
and efficient learners, with strong memories, advanced metacognitive and
analogical skills and high levels of intellectual motivation”.
 His concept of ZPD can be defined as “the difference between what the child
can do unaided and what it can accomplish with the assistance of adults”.
 Ultimately, this study showed that there was no significant correlation
between the pretend play levels and IQ.

Doubts about this study: While reading this study, it was hard to ignore the fact that
only 21 mother-child pairs participated in the research. I wonder how accurate the
results could be when the pool of participants was so shallow? Also, I can imagine
that the mother’s interactions with their children were more forced in the laboratory
setting than they would be in their own environments. Another doubt of mine was
the participants themselves. The study provides details about the recruitment process
and it seems as though there is not much diversity in the pool of participants.
Ultimately, what I found interesting was the strong connection between Vygotsky’s
theories about the importance of the development of abstract thought in children
and the relationships found between pretend play and IQ.

Link to article that this website post is referencing:

Way in which this This relates to my field of gifted education by seeing if there is a correlation between
source influences the giftedness and play. I also am able to see if there are signs we should be looking for at
field related to your an early age in order to foster a gifted learner sooner.
inquiry (ex. Math
Potential relevance to By looking at play in association with IQ, I’m able to pull some themes that children
your research topic and show at an early stage. I’m also able to see that play can be crucial to a gifted mind in
study: order to explore and experience their own passions of study.

Article: Stress, Learning, and the Gifted Child
Topic: Gifted Education
Date Retrieved/Used: April 9, 2018

Bib. Information (APA Wessling, S. (2016, October 12). Stress, Learning, and the Gifted Child. Retrieved
Formatting): April 09, 2018, from

Author(s) Affiliation: Suki Wessling attended Stanford University and the University of Michigan, where
she received an MFA in Creative Writing and won the Hopwood Award for short
Since becoming a parent, her work has changed to match her life, focusing on
journalism about parenting, gifted education, and homeschooling; fiction for children;
and teaching writing and literature to homeschooled kids. Suki’s journalism stems
from my belief that our modern "village" is creating a new form of informed
parenting, and that we are all better parents when we join together. Her book, From
School to Homeschool, grew from her observation that parents of gifted children (who
really should be classified as children with special needs) were more and more
coming to homeschooling in crisis mode. The book Hanna, Homeschooler was
inspired when Wessling’s homeschooled daughter noticed that all the chapter books
she read took place in school. Homeschool with Confidence is based on the goal-
setting work she did with her own children and with students. (taken from her site:

Type of Resource: website

(Scholarly /Trade/Other)
Summary of essential Notes/quotes from the webpage:
information:  “Misinformed idea that learning can be imposed by external pressure (p. 1).
 “ …joy that accompanies child-led discovery” (p. 1)
 “all incoming information goes first to the amygdala, ‘deep in the network of
the emotionally responsive limbic system’” (p. 1)
 “what we call ‘learning’ literally passes through and gets vetted by a student’s
emotional state before it can be passed into the prefrontal cortex – the
‘thinking brain’” (p. 1).
 “by forcing her to do math in a way that caused her stress, I ignited the fight or
flight instinct in her brain. And by responding explosively so that even
thinking about how she’d ever learn math raised by stress level, I stopped
myself from being able to think through the problem logically” (p. 2).
 “Take note of what causes stress in the child and immediately remove those
stresses – in our case, stop doing math on paper entirely” (p.3).
 “the idea of heading off stress reactions through redirection and student-led
problem-solving is one that teachers and parents working with a teacher can
effectively implement in the classroom” (p. 3).
 “Willis points out that educators have a tendency to respond to the behavior
rather than to troubleshoot the underlying source of the stress” (p. 3)
 “ ‘Educators may limit their access to the appropriate interventions for their
gifts because the student are presumed incapable of more challenging work.’
(Willis, 24)” (p. 3).
 “It’s clear that if our goal is learning – and not creating a homogenous
population of similarly-skilled adults – it shouldn’t matter if one child needs to
learn differently within the context of a classroom” (p. 3)
 “’Teachers know the value of differentiation and individualization,” writes
Willis. ‘However, they are not given the specialized professional development
or graduate school instruction in the neuroscience of learning and the brain.’
(Willis, 25)” (p. 4).

Way in which this This relates to my field of gifted education by looking at how stress accompanies the
source influences the learning process, especially for gifted children. Since our educational system isn’t
field related to your always designed for them, there can be more stress about the learning process.
inquiry (ex. Math
Potential relevance to By looking at stress, learning and the gifted, I’m able to gain more insight to guide my
your research topic and conclusions that we need to pay attention to the stress that may accompany gifted
study: learners when learning at their level.

Article: Helping Gifted Students with Stress Management
Topic: Gifted Education
Date Retrieved/Used: April 9, 2018

Bib. Information (APA Kaplan, L. S. (n.d.). Helping Gifted Students with Stress Management. Retrieved April
Formatting): 9, 2018, from

Author(s) Affiliation: Leslie Kaplan has an educational doctorate from William and Mary. She has authored
many items with her husband, Dr. Bill Ownings. They wrote American Education:
Building a Common Foundation (Wadsworth/Cengage, 2011) intended for college
students who plan to become educators, this innovative textbook integrates the
traditional educational foundations content with contemporary educational issues
in a way that makes it highly relevant to readers.

Dr. Kaplan, now a retired school administrator from Newport News Public Schools,
is currently a full-time education writer and researcher. She and Dr. Owings,
Professor of Educational Leadership at Old Dominion University, have also
published "American Public School Finance" (Wadsworth/Thomson, 2006) as well as
other books, monographs, and dozens of scholarly articles in refereed professional
journals. Kaplan and Owings are also co-editors of the Journal for Effective Schools.
(taken from

Type of Resource: website

(Scholarly /Trade/Other)
Summary of essential Topics/themes of importance from this source:
information: What is stress
Ways to help gifted children cope with stress
Stress associated with self-esteem
Signs of a burnout

Essential quotes from the resource:

Is a Gifted Student More Likely to Feel Stress than Others? Many gifted youngsters have
a heightened sensitivity to their surroundings, to events, to ideas, and to expectations.
Some experience their own high expectations for achievement as a relentless pressure to
excel. Constant striving to live up to self-expectations--or those of others-- to be first,
best, or both can be very stressful. With every new course, new teacher, or new school
questions arise about achievement and performance, since every new situation carries
with it the frightening risk of being mediocre. Striving becomes even more stressful when
unrealistic or unclear expectations are imposed by adults or peers. The pressure to excel,
accompanied by other concerns such as feeling different, self-doubt (the "imposter"
syndrome), and the need to prove their giftedness can drain the energy of gifted students
and result in additional stress.

Stress occurs even when everything is going well. Youngsters get tired from their constant
efforts and may secretly fear that next time they will not be as successful.
How Can a Youngster Experience Stress When Nothing Bad Is Happening? Anything can
be a stressor if it lasts long enough, happens often enough, is strong enough, or is
perceived as stress. Working diligently on a project, performing many simple but boring
tasks, or earning an "A" grade when one expected an "A+" may all be stressful.

Understanding and following rules does not mean conforming to every situation. There
are some occasions when gifted students should not be expected to accommodate
others. For example, a severe mismatch between a youngster's ability level and a school
program may be very stressful. Altering the student's curriculum may solve the problem.

Some parents unintentionally send mixed messages regarding behavior. When children
are rude or uncooperative and offend teachers, other adults, or peers, their parents
behave as though giftedness somehow excuses such behavior and the offending actions
highlight their child's specialness. Some even seem pleased. These parents do their
children a great disservice by denying them the opportunity to learn empathy, teamwork,
and tolerance for individual differences.

Way in which this This relates to my field of gifted education by making connections between stress and
source influences the giftedness.
field related to your
inquiry (ex. Math
Potential relevance to By looking at gifted stressors, I can examine how stress is effecting performance of
your research topic and gifted learners. It seems that many of these stresses can flourish at home, after the
study: conclusion of the school day. I also serve as a resource to parents when they encounter
such behaviors.