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1.

Philip Zimbardo's study of a simulated prison environment that used college students as
prisoners and prison guards:
demonstrated that a social structure can influence the type of social interactions that occur.
2. Social interaction is: the ways in which people respond to one another.
3. Cultural relativism:
viewing foreign workers and factory owners from the perspective of their own cultures
4. economy: The sociocultural evolution approach developed by Gerhard Lenski categorizes
preindustrial societies according to the way in which the __________ is organized.
5. Industrial society: Which type of society relies chiefly on mechanization for the production of
its economic goods and services?
6. Laissez-faire is a form of capitalism under which people compete.
7. Theodor Adorno
The Schaefer text indicates which of the following individuals as being associated with the
concept of the culture industry?
8. Socialism
In which type of economic system is the laissez-faire philosophy rejected, and the central
government, acting as a representative of the people, makes basic economic decisions?
9. funeral ceremonies
In his research, George Murdock determined which of the following to be a cultural universal?
10. Socialism:
The U.S. has considered a national health care system that would guarantee medical coverage
to all citizens as a basic human right. The government's involvement in providing health care for
all citizens is characteristic of which type of economic system
11. ---
12. ---
13. The self is the:
distinct identity that sets us apart from others
14. The looking-glass self is:
Charles Horton Cooley's term for the way in which a sense of self develops as the product of
our social interactions with others
15. Which is the first part of Charles Horton Cooley's "looking-glass self?"
imagining how we present ourselves to others
16. Which of the following is an ascribed status?:
South African
17. Which sociological perspective(s) is (are) especially interested in ascribed statuses, because they
often confer privileges or reflect a person's membership in a subordinate group?:
conflict perspective
18. An individual can acquire an achieved status by: attending school. establishing a friendship.
inventing a new product.
all of these
19. An achieved status is a social position:
attained by a person largely through his or her own efforts.
20. Which of the following is an achieved status?:
television news reporter
21. One of the most crucial aspects of the relationship between dominant and subordinate groups is
the ability of the dominant group to:
define a society's values.
22. –
23. Jan, Randy, and Terry are science majors, and when they graduate from college, they find jobs
as a nurse, a midwife, and a hospital administrator, respectively. These new positions are
examples of:
statuses.
24. Achieved status:
a social position that a person attains largely through his or her own efforts.
25. –
26. When Malcolm X's eighth grade teacher dismissed Malcolm's desire career goal of lawyer and
instead suggested he become a carpenter, the teacher viewed Malcolm's race as a (an):
master status
27. One shortcoming of Karl Marx's work is that he failed to anticipate the
extent to which political liberties and relative prosperity could contribute to
28. wealth and income:
Max Weber uses the term "class" to refer to people who share a similar level of
29. –
30. Functionalist perspective:
Which sociological perspective argues that when changes occur in one part of a society, there
must be adjustments in other parts, and if these adjustments do not occur, the society's
equilibrium may be threatened?
31. Conflict perspective
Which sociological perspective views education as an instrument of elite domination?
32. –
33. Technology is an example of nonmaterial culture: Ideas are an example of Inventions are an
example of
34. Representative democracy:
The United States utilizes which type of government?
35. When a culture becomes too rigid -
survive
36. Because subsistence practices involve tapping into available resources to satisfy a society’s basic
needs, this aspect of culture is known as _______________.
infrastructure
37. In many Native American societies _______________.
more than two genders are recognized
38. Which of the following is evidence of cultural behavior among non-human animals?
All except D
39. The sanitary habits of food foraging peoples _______________.
were highly adaptive in the context of foraging, but are maladaptive in the context of
sedentism
40. A sign, sound, emblem, or other thing that is arbitrarily linked to something else and represents
it in a meaningful way is called _______________.
a symbol