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4/8/2018 ASME Code Section 8

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The ASME Code Section 8 is the Search this
construction code for pressure vessel and Site! More than 300
covers design, manufacturing and Articles!
pressure vessel inspection and testing in
Home the manufacturing shop.

This Code section addresses the


GENERAL mandatory requirements, specific
prohibitions, and non-mandatory guidance Site
Pre-Shipment for Pressure Vessel Materials, design,
Inspection
fabrication, examination, inspection,
Sponsors
Third Party testing, certification, and pressure relief.
Inspection
In this article you will learn about the
Vendor
different subsections and guidelines for
Inspection
the use and application of this code.
Commodity
Inspection For ASME Code Section 8 scope and
Inspection and boundaries, review the Pressure Vessel
Test Plan Definition article.

Factory
You may know ASME Code Section 8 has
Acceptance Test
three divisions. Division 1 covers pressure
up to 3000 psi, Division 2 has an
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4/8/2018 ASME Code Section 8

Industrial
Inspection

Quality Control

Plant Inspection

Coating
Inspection

alternative rule and covers up to 10,000


FIX psi and Division 3 can be used for
pressure higher than 10,000 psi.
EQUIPMENT
Pressure Vessel Hierarchy of Standard

Heat Exchanger 1. Law and Regulation at Location of


Piping System Installation

Industrial Valve
Mandatory application of ASME pressure
Steam Boiler vessel code is determined by rule and
regulation at location of installation.
Storage Tank

Process Heater For example, if you are living in the state


of Minnesota, the application of ASME
Code for construction and stamping is
ROTARY mandatory in your location, but if you are
EQUIPMENT living in the state of South Carolina, it is
not mandatory.
Centrifugal
Pump 2. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Centrifugal Code
Compressor
The next item in this hierarchy is ASME
Reciprocating
Code itself; the ASME Code generally is
Compressor
divided into three groups as following:
Gas Turbine

Steam Turbine Group 1: Construction Codes

Fan & Blower Some of them are: Section VIII for


pressure vessel, Section I for Power

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4/8/2018 ASME Code Section 8

E&I Boiler, section III for Nuclear Power Plant


and Section IV for heating Boiler
EQUIPMENT
Group 2: Reference Codes
Electric
Generator
These are the codes which are referenced
Electric Motor from construction codes as explained in
Power group 1.
Transformer
The ASME Section IX for welding and
Control Panel
Section V for Non Destructive Testing are
Switchgear in this Group.
Power Cable
For example, ASME Code section VIII for
welding requirement such as WPS
GET IN (Welding Procedure Specification), PQR
(Procedure Qualification Record), Welder
TOUCH
Performance Qualification, etc. refer you
About Me to ASME Section IX.

Contact Group 3: In-Service Codes


Services
These are the codes for in-service
Blog
inspection after placing the equipment into
Privacy Policy service.

The ASME Section VI for the heating


We will be updating boiler and Section VII are from this group.
and growing this
site with more and 3. National Board Inspection
more of industrial Code(NBIC):
inspection related
articles. We have assigned a separate article for
the NBIC, but as required for this article,
Please subscribe to
the NBIC is making certification for ASME
my monthly
newsletter so you Authorized Inspectors and is also
don't miss a thing. certifying R stamp for Repair services for
stamped pressure vessels.

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ASME Code Section 8 Content:


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This section is divided into three


Subsections, Mandatory Appendices, and
Nonmandatory Appendices.

Subsection A consists of Part UG,


covering the general requirements
applicable to all pressure vessels.

Subsection B covers specific


requirements that are applicable to the
various methods used in the fabrication of
pressure vessels.

It consists of Parts UW, UF, and UB


dealing with welded, forged, and brazed
methods, respectively.

Subsection C covers specific


requirements applicable to the several
classes of materials used in pressure
vessel construction.

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It consists of Parts UCS, UNF, UHA, UCI,


UCL, UCD, UHT, ULW, and ULT dealing
with carbon and low alloy steels,
nonferrous metals, high alloy steels, cast
iron, clad and lined material, cast ductile
iron, ferritic steels with properties
enhanced by heat treatment, layered
construction, and low temperature
materials, respectively.

For example, if you need to manufacture a


pressure vessel with SA 516 Gr.70
material (Carbon Steel), then you need to
meet the marked items in above Fig.

Please note that ASME Code Section 8,


does not provide you fabrication
tolerances except for misalignment and
weld reinforcement.

For example, for nozzle orientation,


projection, elevation and other required
tolerances there are no values in the
code, and you may refer to pressure
vessel handbooks for such information.

Review the Pressure Vessel Dimension


Inspection article for such tolerances.

If you review the ASME Forward


statement it clearly says “The Code does
not address all aspects of construction
activities, and those aspects which are not
specifically addressed should not be
considered prohibited.”

In continuing it says, “The Code is not a


handbook and cannot replace education,

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4/8/2018 ASME Code Section 8

experience, and the use of engineering


judgments.”

For example, ASME Code Section 8 Div 1


in UG-28 mandates all loading to be
considered in pressure vessel design, but
the method for calculation of all of them
has not been addressed.

For example, the formula for wind or


earthquakes is not provided in the ASME
Code Section 8, and these items and
other similar loading considerations need
to be designed by using the information
provided in the pressure vessel
handbooks.

For ASME pressure vessel manufacture


certification, as well as Authorized
Inspection Agency certification, Review
the Pressure Vessel Certification article.

What is the Summary of Important


Points in ASME Code Section 8 ?

1. ASME Code Section 8 edition is issued


once every 3 years and addenda, once a
year – both on July 1st. Edition and
addenda become effective on the 1st of
January of next year (i.e., 6 months after
issue).

2. Thickness of cylindrical shell t =


PR/(SE-0.6P) + C

3. Longitudinal weld is more critical


because it is subjected to double the
stress than Circ. Weld.

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4. “Weld joint categories” A, B, C, D – are


based on joint locations in the vessel and
stress levels encountered. “Weld Types”
(type 1, 2, 3, etc.) describe the weld itself.

5. Depths of 2:1 Ellip. and hemisph. heads


are D/4 and D/2 respectively. (D= Head
diameter.)

6. Weld Joint categories:

Category A:

- All longitudinal welds in shell and


nozzles.

- All welds in heads, Hemisph-head to


shell weld joint

Category B:

- All circumferential welds in shell and


nozzles

- Head to shell joint (other than Hemisph.)

Category C and D are flange welds and


nozzle attachment welds respectively.

7. Weld Types:

Type 1: Full penetration welds (Typically


Double welded)

Type 2: Welds with backing strip

Type 3: Single welded partial penetration


welds

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Type 4, 5 and 6: Various Lap welds (rarely


used)

8. For full penetration welds (type 1):

Joint efficiency, E = 100%, 85%, 70%

(For the radiography = Full, Spot, Nil


respectively)

9. Radiography marking on name plates


(typically for Type-1 welds)

RT-1: (E=1) All butt welds – full length


radiography

RT-2: (E=1.0) All Cat. A Butt welds Full


length, Cat B, spot

RT-3: (E=0.85) Spot radiography of both


Cat A and B welds

RT-4: (E=0.7) Partial/No radiography

10. For Welded Heads for E=1, all welds


within the head require full length
radiography (since they are all Cat. A
welds)

11. For seamless heads, E=1, If a) head


to shell weld is fully radiographed (if Cat.
A), and at least spot radiographed (if Cat.
B)

12. Compared to Cylindrical shell,


thickness of 2:1 Ellipsoidal head is
approx. same as shell, Hemisph. head
approx. half and Torisph head is 77%
higher.

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13. MAWP is calculated for: Working


condition (Hot & Corroded). Vessel MAWP
is always taken at the Top of the Vessel
and is lowest of all part MAWPs adjusted
for static pressure.

14. Hydro-Test is Standard Pressure test


on Completed Vessels.

Hyd. Test Pr. = 1.3 x MAWP x stress ratio

Insp. Pressure (hydro) = test pr. / 1.3

Min. Test temp. = MDMT + 30°F

Max. Inspection temp. = 120°F

15. Pneumatic test is performed if hydro is


not possible due to design or process
reasons. Prior to the test, NDT as per UW-
50 is mandatory.

Pneumatic test pressure = 1.1 x MAWP x


stress ratio, Pressure should be increased
in steps (Total 6).

1st step – 50% of test pressure

2nd to 6 step – 10% of test pressure

Insp. Pr. (pneumatic) = test pressure /1.1

16. Pressure gauge range should be


about twice the test pressure. However, in
any case it shall not be lower than 1.5
times and not higher than 4 times the test
pressure.

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17. Vessel MAWP represents the


maximum safe pressure holding capacity
of the vessel. Vessel MAWP is measured
at top-most point and is lowest of vessel
part MAWPs, adjusted for hydrostatic
head.

18. For vertical vessels, hydrostatic


pressure caused due to liquid with specific
gravity = 1, 1ft of height = 0.43 psig. Or 1
mtr of height = 0.1 Bar

19. Total pressure at any point of Vertical


vessel is given by:

Total Pr. = Vessel MAWP + h x 0.433.

(h = height from top in ft.)

20. If part MAWP and elevations are


known, Vessel MAWP can be calculated
by the deducting hydrostatic head from
part MAWP.

21. Ext. Pressure is worked out on basis


of Geometric factor A (which depends on
L/Do and Do/t ratios) and factor B
(depends on A, )

Allowable Ext. Pressure, Pa = 4B/(3(Do/t))

22. For values of A falling to the left of


material line in the material chart:

Pa = 2AE/(3(Do/t))

23. Name plate shows The Code


stamping, MAWP, design temp., MDMT,
and Extent of Radiography.

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24. ASME materials (SA) shall be used for


code stamped vessel fabrication instead
of ASTM (A) materials.

25. Reinforcement pad is not required, if


the size of finished opening is (UG 36)

Not exceeding 2-3/8” for all thicknesses


of vessel

Not exceeding 3-½”, if vessel thickness


is ≤ 3/8’’

26. Reinforcement pad with OD = 2d and


thk = vessel thk is always safe (d =
diameter of finished opening)

27. Reinforcement limit along vessel wall


= 2d

28. Reinforcement limit normal to vessel


wall = smaller of 2.5 t or 2.5 tn

29. In reinforcement pad calculations,


credit can be taken for area available in
shell and nozzle.

30. Fillet weld throat dimension = 0.707 x


leg of weld

31. Adequacy of weld sizes shall be


checked as required by UW-16. The
nozzles construction shall be one of the
Code acceptable types.

32. The maximum permitted ovality


tolerance (D max – D min) shall not
exceed 1% of nominal diameter of vessel.
If there is opening, then the tolerance can

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be increased by 2% x d (d = diameter of
opening) if measurement is taken within a
distance of ‘d’ from axis of opening.

33. The mismatch tolerances and the


maximum allowable weld reinforcement is
more strict on longitudinal welds
compared to circumferential welds (UW-
35).

34. Principle of reinforcement:

Area removed = Area compensated.

Compensation area shall be within


reinforcement limits.

35. For use as pressure parts, the plates


shall be fully identified. Maximum
permitted under tolerance on plates is
0.01” (0.3 mm) or 6% of ordered
thickness, whichever is less.

36. All welding (including tack, seal, etc.)


shall be done using qualified procedures
and welders.

37. Mandatory full radiography in ASME


Code Section 8 is required for all welding
with thickness exceeding Table UCS-57,
and also for lethal service vessels and
unfired boilers with Design Pr. More than
50 psig.

38. PWHT is ASME Code Section 8


requirement if thickness exceeds those
given in tables UCS-56 (given in notes
under the tables). These tables also give
min. PWHT temperature and min. holding

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time (soaking period) based on P-Nos.


and thickness respectively.

39. For Furnace PWHT in ASME Code


Section 8 , Loading Temperature shall not
exceed 800°F, heating rate 400 deg
F/hr/inch of thickness, cooling rate 500°F
/hr/inch of thickness. Still air cooling
permitted below 800°F. During soaking
period, temp difference between hottest
and coldest part shall not exceed 150°F.

40. Minimum overlap for PWHT in multiple


heats = 5 ft.

41. For the ASME Code Section 8 impact


test requirement, UCS 66 curve. If MDMT-
thickness combination falls on or above
the curve, impact testing is exempted.
Additional exemptions are given as per
UG-20(f) and UCS=68 (c).

Related Articles

Pressure Vessel Definition, Pressure Vessel


Certification, Pressure Vessel Heads, Pressure Vessel
Handbook, Spherical Pressure Vessel, Pressure Vessel
Plate Material, ASME Pressure Vessel Joint
Efficiencies, ASME Impact Test Requirement, Pressure
Vessel RT Test , Vessel Pressure Testing ,Third Party
Inspection for Pressure Vessel, Inspection and Test
Plan for Pressure Vessel

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