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Design of Laterally

Restrained Beams
Design of Tension Members Design of Steel Structures to EC3

1. Introduction:
Beams are structural members which transfer the transverse loads they
carry to the supports by bending and shear actions. Beams generally
develop higher stresses than axially loaded members with similar loads,
while the bending deflections are much higher. These bending deflections
of a beam are often, therefore, a primary design consideration. On the other
hand, most beams have small shear deflections, and these are usually
neglected.
Beam cross-sections may take many different forms, as shown in Figure
1-1, and these represent various methods of obtaining an efficient and
economical member.
In many cases, a steel beam is required to support a reinforced concrete
slab, and in this case its strength may be increased by connecting the steel
and concrete together so that they act compositely. The fire resistance of a
steel beam may also be increased by encasing it in concrete. The final
member cross-section chosen will depend on its suitability for the use
intended, and on the overall economy.
The strength of a steel beam in the plane of loading depends on its section
properties and on its yield stress FY. When bending predominates in a
determinate beam, the effective ultimate strength is reached when the most
highly stressed cross-section becomes fully yielded so that it forms a
plastic hinge. The moment Mp at which this occurs is somewhat higher
than the first yield moment My at which elastic behavior nominally ceases,
as shown in Figure 1-2.

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Design of Tension Members Design of Steel Structures to EC3

Figure 1-1 Beams Types

Figure 1-2 Moment–curvature relationships for steel beams

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Design of Tension Members Design of Steel Structures to EC3

2. Beam Design:
Steel beams in simple design should be checked against the following
limit states:
1. Bending strength at ULS, including
a) Local buckling of flange or web
b) LTB if the beam is not fully restrained
c) Plastic moment capacity
2. Shear strength at ULS
3. Resistance to transverse forces at ULS (web bearing and web
buckling)
4. Deflection SLS.
2.1. Beam Bending ULS
Lateral-Torsional Buckling:
When a simply-supported steel I beam bends under downward loads the
extreme fibres at the top of the beam are in compression. This puts the top
flange of the beam into compression, and the bottom flange into tension.
The top flange therefore acts as a strut, and may buckle under the
compressive force. Generally the web of the steel section will prevent the
flange from buckling by deflecting vertically, but the flange can move
horizontally by a combination of lateral movement and twisting. This is
termed lateral-torsional buckling (often abbreviated to LT or LTB) and is
illustrated in Figure 2-1.

Figure 2-1 LTB of an unrestrained beam

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Design of Tension Members Design of Steel Structures to EC3

LTB can be prevented by restraining the compression flange along its


entire length, and methods of achieving this are shown in Figure 2-2.
Alternatively, discrete transverse restraints can be provided at intervals
along the beam, as shown in Figure 2-3, but it may still be possible for
LTB to occur between the restraints as shown in Figure 2-4.

Figure 2-2 Cross-sections through beams with full restraint

Figure 2-3 Cross-sections through beams with restraint to compression flange

Figure 2-4 LTB of a beam with central restraint and central point load

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Design of Tension Members Design of Steel Structures to EC3

A beam may fail by LTB before it reaches its plastic moment capacity.
Thus it is necessary to investigate the bending strength ULS of beams in
two ways:

 Laterally Restrained.
 Laterally Unrestrained.
3. Laterally Restrained Beams
Bending Resistance:

Laterally restrained beams are not subject to LTB, so their bending


strength is determined from the properties of the cross-section and the
strength of the steel.

Uniaxial Bending:

The design value of the bending moment, MEd, at each cross-section, must
satisfy the condition:

𝑀𝐸𝑑 ≤ 𝑀𝑐,𝑅𝑑

𝑀𝐸𝑑 𝑑𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡

𝑀𝑐,𝑅𝑑 𝑑𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑜𝑛𝑒 𝑝𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑖𝑝𝑙𝑒 𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑎 𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

The design resistance Mc, Rd for bending about one principal axis of a cross-
section is deter- mined, in case of absence of shear forces, on the basis of
the cross-section class as described next:

• For class 1 or 2 cross-sections:

𝑊𝑃𝑙 𝑓𝑦
𝑀𝑐,𝑅𝑑 = 𝑀𝑃𝑙,𝑅𝑑 =
𝛾𝑀0

Where:

𝑊𝑃𝑙 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑐 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑙𝑢𝑠

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Design of Tension Members Design of Steel Structures to EC3

𝑓𝑦 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑦𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ

𝛾𝑀0 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑎𝑓𝑒𝑡𝑦 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟

• For class 3 cross-sections:

𝑊𝑒𝑙,𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑦
𝑀𝑐,𝑅𝑑 = 𝑀𝑒𝑙,𝑅𝑑 =
𝛾𝑀0

𝑊ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑊𝑒𝑙,𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑐 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑙𝑢𝑠

• For class 4 cross-sections:

𝑊𝑒𝑓𝑓,𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑦
𝑀𝑐,𝑅𝑑 =
𝛾𝑀0

𝑊ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑊𝑒𝑓𝑓,𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑐 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑙𝑢𝑠

Uniaxial Bending:

• For class 1 or 2 cross-sections:

𝛼 𝛽
𝑀𝑦,𝐸𝑑 𝑀𝑧,𝐸𝑑
[ ] +[ ] ≤ 1.0
𝑀𝑝𝑙,𝑦,𝑅𝑑 𝑀𝑝𝑙,𝑧,𝑅𝑑

Where:

I or H Sections: 𝛼 = 2 & 𝛽 = 1

CHS Sections: 𝛼 = 𝛽 = 2

RHS Sections: 𝛼 = 𝛽 = 1.66

• For class 3 or 4 cross-sections:

𝑀𝑦,𝐸𝑑 𝑀𝑧,𝐸𝑑 𝑓𝑦
[ ]+[ ] ≤
𝑊𝑒𝑙,𝑦 𝑀𝑒𝑙,𝑧 𝛾𝑀0

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Design of Tension Members Design of Steel Structures to EC3

Shear Resistance:

The design value of the shear force VEd at each cross-section must not be
greater than the design shear resistance, VC, Rd, that is the following
conditions must be fulfilled:

𝑉𝐸𝑑 ≤ 𝑉𝑐,𝑅𝑑

For plastic design 𝑉𝑐,𝑅𝑑 has to be assumed as the design plastic shear
resistance 𝑉𝑝𝑙,𝑅𝑑 which can be evaluated as:

𝑓𝑦
𝐴𝑣 ( )
𝑉𝑃𝐿,𝑅𝑑 = √3
𝛾𝑀0

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Design of Tension Members Design of Steel Structures to EC3

The shear area AV may be taken as follows:

Bending and Shear Interaction:

𝑉𝐸𝑑 ≤ 50% 𝑉𝑃𝐿,𝑅𝑑 → 𝑁𝑜 𝑅𝑒𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

𝑉𝐸𝑑 > 50% 𝑉𝑃𝐿,𝑅𝑑 → 𝑅𝑒𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑀𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡

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Design of Tension Members Design of Steel Structures to EC3

In I or H sections with equal flanges, under major axis bending, the


reduced design plastic moment resistance My, V, Rd may be obtained from:

Where:

𝐴𝑊 = ℎ𝑤 × 𝑡𝑤

Deflection Resistance:

Deflections of flexural members must be limited to avoid damage to


finishes, ceilings and partitions, and should be calculated under SLS
loads.

EC3 states that limits for vertical deflections should be specified for each
project and agreed with the client. The UK National Annex to EC3
suggests:

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Design of Tension Members Design of Steel Structures to EC3

 Standard rules for maximum deflection:

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Design of Tension Members Design of Steel Structures to EC3

4. Problems:
1- Verify a S275 IPE300 (Parallel Flange I Section) simply supported
beam in accordance with EC3, which is subjected to a uniform dead
load of 5.0 kN/m and a uniform live load of 10.0 kN/m. The beam
supports plastered partition walls. Lateral displacement and torsion are
prevented at both ends.
Solution:
 Combination of actions at ULS:
𝐹𝐸𝑑 = 𝛾𝐺 𝐺𝐾 + 𝛾𝑄 𝑄𝐾 → 1
𝐹𝐸𝑑 = 1.35 × 5 + 1.5 × 10 = 21.75 𝐾𝑁/𝑚

𝐹𝐸𝑑 = 𝛾𝐺 𝐺𝐾 + 𝜁 𝛾𝑄 𝑄𝐾 → 2

𝐹𝐸𝑑 = 1.35 × 5 + 0.925 × 1.5 × 10 = 20.625 𝐾𝑁/𝑚

𝐹𝐸𝑑 = 𝑚𝑎𝑥. (21.75,20.625) = 21.75 𝐾𝑁/𝑚

 Shear force and Bending moment Diagrams:

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Design of Tension Members Design of Steel Structures to EC3

∴ 𝑀𝐸𝑑 = 67.97 𝐾𝑁. 𝑚 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑉𝐸𝑑 = 54.38 𝐾𝑁


 Geometrical properties:
ℎ = 300𝑚𝑚; 𝑏𝑓 = 150𝑚𝑚; 𝑡𝑓 = 10.7𝑚𝑚; 𝑡𝑤 = 7.1𝑚𝑚; 𝐴 = 5380𝑚𝑚2
𝑟 = 15𝑚𝑚; 𝑊𝑃𝐿,𝑦 = 628.4𝑐𝑚3 ; 𝑊𝑒𝐿,𝑦 = 557.1𝑐𝑚3 ; 𝐼𝑦 = 8356𝑚𝑚4
 X-Section Classification:
For flange:
𝑐 150 − 7.1 − 2 × 15
( )= = 5.30
𝑡 2 × 10.7
9𝜖 = 9 × 0.92 = 8.28
→ 5.3 < 8.28 →→ 𝑐𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑠 1
For web:
𝑐 300 − 2 × 10.7 − 2 × 15
( )= = 35.00
𝑡 7.1
72𝜖 = 72 × 0.92 = 66.24
→ 35 < 66.24 →→ 𝑐𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑠 1
→ 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑥 − 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑖𝑠 𝑐𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑠 1(𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑐)
 Flexural Strength Verification:

𝑀𝐸𝑑 = 67.97 𝐾𝑁. 𝑚

𝑊𝑃𝑙 𝑓𝑦 628.4 × 103 × 275


𝑀𝑐,𝑅𝑑 = 𝑀𝑃𝑙,𝑅𝑑 = = × 10−6 = 172.81𝐾𝑁. 𝑚
𝛾𝑀0 1.0
> 67.97𝐾𝑁. 𝑚 → 𝑂. 𝐾

 Shear Strength Verification:

𝑉𝐸𝑑 = 54.38 𝐾𝑁

Shear area:
𝐴𝑣 = 𝐴 − 2𝑏𝑡𝑓 + (𝑡𝑤 + 2𝑟)𝑡𝑓 ≥ ƞℎ𝑤 𝑡𝑤
= 5380 − 2 × 150 × 10.7 + (7.1 + 2 × 15) × 10.7 = 2567𝑚𝑚2
> 1.0 × (300 − 2 × 10.7) × 7.1 = 278.6𝑚𝑚2

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Design of Tension Members Design of Steel Structures to EC3

𝑓𝑦
𝐴𝑣 ( )
√3 = 2567 × 275 × 10−3 = 407.57 𝐾𝑁 > 54.375 𝐾𝑁
𝑉𝑃𝐿,𝑅𝑑 =
𝛾𝑀0 √3 × 1.0
𝑉𝐸𝑑 = 54.375𝐾𝑁 < 50% 𝑉𝑃𝐿,𝑅𝑑 = 203.78𝐾𝑁
→ 𝑁𝑜 𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑛 𝑑𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔

 Deflection Verification:
SLS unfactored vertical action:

5 𝑞𝑘 𝑙 4 5 10 × 50004
𝛿𝑚𝑎𝑥,𝑚𝑖𝑑 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑛 = × = × = 4.64𝑚𝑚
384 𝐸𝐼𝑦 384 210000 × 8356 × 104

Vertical deflection limit:


𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑛 5000
= = 13.89𝑚𝑚
360 360
→ 4.64𝑚𝑚 < 13.89𝑚𝑚 →→ 𝑂. 𝐾

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Design of Tension Members Design of Steel Structures to EC3

2- Select the lightest suitable section in S275 steel required for a simply
supported steel beam loaded as shown below. Assume that the beam is
fully laterally restrained. Choose a suitable UB section.

Solution:
 Combination of actions at ULS:
𝐹𝐸𝑑(𝑈𝐷𝐿) = 𝛾𝐺 𝐺𝐾 + 𝛾𝑄 𝑄𝐾
𝐹𝐸𝑑(𝑈𝐷𝐿) = 1.35 × 9 + 1.5 × 7.5 = 23.4 𝐾𝑁/𝑚
𝐹𝐸𝑑(𝑃𝐿) = 𝛾𝐺 𝐺𝐾 + 𝛾𝑄 𝑄𝐾
𝐹𝐸𝑑(𝑃𝐿) = 1.35 × 10 + 1.5 × 15 = 36 𝐾𝑁
 Design Shear forces and Bending moments:
𝐹𝐸𝑑(𝑈𝐷𝐿) 𝐿 𝐹𝐸𝑑(𝑃𝐿) 23.4 × 8 36
𝑉𝐸𝑑 = + = + = 111.6 𝐾𝑁
2 2 2 2
𝐹𝐸𝑑(𝑈𝐷𝐿) 𝐿2 𝐹𝐸𝑑(𝑃𝐿) 𝐿 23.4 × 82 36 × 8
𝑀𝐸𝑑 = + = + = 259.2𝐾𝑁. 𝑚
8 4 8 4
 Choose a suitable section size:
Assume class 1 x-section, calculate the minimum plastic modulus
𝑊𝑃𝐿,𝑦 about y-y axis.
𝑀𝐸𝑑 𝛾𝑀0 259.2 × 106 × 1.0
𝑊𝑃𝑙,𝑦 = = × 10−3 = 942.55𝑐𝑚3
𝑓𝑦 275

From blue book try UB356x171x57 where 𝑊𝑃𝐿,𝑦 = 1010𝑐𝑚3 .

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Design of Tension Members Design of Steel Structures to EC3

 Geometrical properties:
ℎ = 358𝑚𝑚; 𝑏𝑓 = 172.2𝑚𝑚; 𝑡𝑓 = 13𝑚𝑚; 𝑡𝑤 = 8.1𝑚𝑚; 𝐴 = 72.6𝑚𝑚2
𝑟 = 10.2𝑚𝑚; 𝑊𝑃𝐿,𝑦 = 1010𝑐𝑚3 ; 𝑊𝑒𝐿,𝑦 = 896𝑐𝑚3 ; 𝐼𝑦 = 16000𝑐𝑚4
 X-Section Classification:
For flange:
𝑐
( ) = 5.33
𝑡
9𝜖 = 9 × 0.92 = 8.28
→ 5.33 < 8.28 →→ 𝑐𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑠 1
For web:
𝑐
( ) = 38.50
𝑡
72𝜖 = 72 × 0.92 = 66.24
→ 38.50 < 66.24 →→ 𝑐𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑠 1
→ 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑥 − 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑖𝑠 𝑐𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑠 1(𝑃𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑐)
 Flexural Strength Verification:

𝑀𝐸𝑑 = 259. 2 𝐾𝑁. 𝑚

𝑊𝑃𝑙 𝑓𝑦 1010 × 103 × 275


𝑀𝑐,𝑅𝑑 = 𝑀𝑃𝑙,𝑅𝑑 = = × 10−6 = 277.75 𝐾𝑁. 𝑚
𝛾𝑀0 1.0
> 259.2 𝐾𝑁. 𝑚 → 𝑂. 𝐾

 Shear Strength Verification:

𝑉𝐸𝑑 = 111.6 𝐾𝑁

Shear area:
𝐴𝑣 = 𝐴 − 2𝑏𝑡𝑓 + (𝑡𝑤 + 2𝑟)𝑡𝑓 ≥ ƞℎ𝑤 𝑡𝑤
= 7260 − 2 × 172.2 × 13 + (8.1 + 2 × 10.2) × 13 = 3153.3𝑚𝑚2
> 1.0 × (358 − 2 × 13) × 8.1 = 2689.2𝑚𝑚2

𝑓𝑦
𝐴𝑣 ( )
√3 = 3153.3 × 275 × 10−3 = 500.65 𝐾𝑁 > 111.6 𝐾𝑁
𝑉𝑃𝐿,𝑅𝑑 =
𝛾𝑀0 √3 × 1.0

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Design of Tension Members Design of Steel Structures to EC3

𝑉𝐸𝑑 = 111.6 𝐾𝑁 < 50% 𝑉𝑃𝐿,𝑅𝑑 = 250.33 𝐾𝑁


→ 𝑁𝑜 𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑛 𝑑𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔
Shear buckling:
Shear buckling of the unstiffened web need not be considered provided:
ℎ𝑤 ∈
≤ 72
𝑡𝑤 ƞ
ℎ𝑤 332
= = 40.99
𝑡𝑤 8.1
∈ 0.92
72 = 72 × = 66.24
ƞ 1.0
40.99 < 66.24
→ 𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑒 𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑏𝑢𝑐𝑘𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑐𝑘 𝑛𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑛𝑜𝑡 𝑏𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑑
 Deflection Verification:
SLS unfactored vertical action:

5 𝑞𝑘 𝑙 4 𝑄𝑘 𝑙 3
𝛿𝑚𝑎𝑥,𝑚𝑖𝑑 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑛 = × +
384 𝐸𝐼𝑦 48𝐸𝐼𝑦
5 7.5 × 80004 15 × 103 × 80003
= × +
384 210000 × 16000 × 104 48 × 210000 × 16000 × 104
= 16.67𝑚𝑚
Vertical deflection limit:
𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑛 8000
= = 22.22𝑚𝑚
360 360
→ 16.67𝑚𝑚 < 22.22𝑚𝑚 →→ 𝑂. 𝐾

Adopt 356x171x57 UKB in S275 steel.

Page(17) Dr.Mamoun Alqedra Eng.Mohammed AbuRahma Eng. Haya Baker


Design of Tension Members Design of Steel Structures to EC3

Note:
 Steel beam with web stiffeners:

Page(18) Dr.Mamoun Alqedra Eng.Mohammed AbuRahma Eng. Haya Baker