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UCALP Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud Inglés Técnico I Lic. en Terapia Ocupacional Cuadernillo de

UCALP Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud

Inglés Técnico I Lic. en Terapia Ocupacional

Cuadernillo de Trabajos Prácticos

Profesora Titular: Deleglise, Manuela B. Profesora Asociada: Tolcach, Bárbara Año: 2018

TEXT 1

THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

The human respiratory system is a series of organs responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide. The primary organs of the respiratory system are lungs, which carry out this exchange of gases as we breathe.

Red blood cells collect the oxygen from the lungs

  • 5 and carry it to the parts of the body where it is needed. During the process, the red blood cells collect the carbon dioxide and transport it back to the lungs, where it leaves the body when we exhale.

TEXT 1 THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM The human respiratory system is a series of organs responsible forcarry out this exchange of gases as we breathe. Red blood cells collect the oxygen from the lungs 5 and carry it to the parts of the body where it is needed. During the process, the red blood cells collect the carbon dioxide and transport it back to the lungs, where it leaves the body when we exhale. 10 The human body needs oxygen to sustain itself. A decrease in oxygen is known as hypoxia and a complete lack of oxygen is known as anoxia. These conditions can be fatal; after about four minutes without oxygen, brain cells begin dying which can lead to brain damage and ultimately death. 1. What words can you understand without using the dictionary? Classify them. Nouns Adjectives Verbs Adverbs Others 2. Read the sentences and write T (true) or F (false): a. b. c. Lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system. ____ Red blood cells collect the carbon dioxide from the lungs. ____ Red blood cells collect the carbon dioxide to the lungs. ____ d. Oxygen leaves the body when we exhale. ____ 3. Underline all the verbs in the Simple Present Tense. Can you find their subjects? 4. Translate the text into Spanish Inglés Técnico I Lic. en Terapia Ocupacional UCALP 1 " id="pdf-obj-1-18" src="pdf-obj-1-18.jpg">
  • 10 The human body needs oxygen to sustain itself. A decrease in oxygen is known as hypoxia and a complete lack of oxygen is known as anoxia. These conditions can be fatal; after about four minutes without oxygen, brain cells begin dying which can lead to brain damage and ultimately death.

    • 1. What words can you understand without using the dictionary? Classify them.

Nouns

Adjectives

Verbs

Adverbs

Others

         
  • 2. Read the sentences and write T (true) or F (false):

a.

b.

c.

Lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory

system.

____

Red blood cells collect the carbon dioxide from the

lungs.

____

Red blood cells collect the carbon dioxide to the

lungs.

____

  • d. Oxygen leaves the body when we

exhale.

____

  • 3. Underline all the verbs in the Simple Present Tense. Can you find their subjects?

  • 4. Translate the text into Spanish

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TEXT 2

LAYERS OF THE SKIN 5 10
LAYERS OF THE SKIN
5
10

Although you may not typically think

of the skin as an organ, it is in fact made of tissues that work together as a single structure to perform unique and critical functions. The skin and its accessory structures

make up the integumentary system, which provides the body with overall

protection. The skin

is

made

of

multiple layers of cells and tissues, which are held to underlying

  • 15 structures by connective tissue. The deeper layer of skin iswell vascularized (has numerous blood vessels). It also has numerous sensory, and autonomic and sympathetic nerve fibers ensuring communication to and from the brain. The skin is composed of two main layers: the epidermis, made of closely packed epithelial cells, and the dermis, made of dense, irregular connective tissue that houses blood vessels, hair follicles,

  • 20 sweat glands, and other structures. Beneath the dermis lies the hypodermis, which is composed mainly of loose connective and fatty tissues.

    • 1. READING COMPREHENSION: Read the text and answer the following questions.

      • a. What is the integumentary system?

      • b. How many layers does the skin have? Name them.

  • 2. Look at these sentences. How are they linked in the text?

The skin and its accessory structures make up the integumentary system. The integumentary system provides the body with overall protection.

Now find other similar examples in the text.

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3.

VERBS: Find the subjects of these verbs and translate the verbs into Spanish.

SUBJECT

VERB

TRANSLATION

 

perform

 
 

provides

 
 

is

 
 

has

 
 

houses

 
 

lies

 
  • 4. WORD FORMATION: Find in the text a word related to the one given below, indicate its category and underline its suffix/prefix. PROTECT: ________________________________________________________________ CONNECT: _______________________________________________________________ SENSE: __________________________________________________________________ COMMUNICATE: __________________________________________________________

  • 5. ERROR CORRECTION: Read the sentences, find the grammar mistakes and correct them.

    • a. The epidermis are made of four or five layers.

    • b. Skin that have four layers of cells is referred to as “thin skin.”

    • c. Melanin gives hair and skin its color, and also help protect the living cells of the epidermis from ultraviolet (UV) radiation damage.

    • d. The hypodermis is a layers directly below the dermis.

    • e. Too much sun exposure can leads to wrinkling.

  • 6. TRANSLATION: translate the first paragraph.

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TEXT 3

PHYSIOLOGY OF THE LUNGS: PULMONARYVENTILATION

Our lungs receive air from the external environment through the process of negative pressure breathing. Negative pressure breathing requires a pressure differential between the air inside the

  • 5 alveoli and atmospheric air. Muscles surrounding the lungs, such as the diaphragm, intercostal muscles, and abdominal muscles, expand and contract to change the volume of the thoracic cavity. Muscles expand the thoracic cavity and decrease the pressure inside the alveoli to

TEXT 3 PHYSIOLOGY OF THE LUNGS: PULMONARYVENTILATION Our lungs receive air from the external environment throughintercostal muscles, and abdominal muscles, expand and contract to change the volume of the thoracic cavity. Muscles expand the thoracic cavity and decrease the pressure inside the alveoli to 10 draw atmospheric air into the lungs. This process of drawing air into the lungs is known as inhalation or inspiration. Muscles can also contract the size of the thoracic cavity to increase the pressure inside of the alveoli and 15 force air out of the lungs. This process of pushing air out of the lungs is known as exhalation or expiration. Normal breathing involves several different mechanisms: 20  Shallow breathing is accomplished by the contraction of the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles for inhalation. During exhalation, the muscles relaxing and the elasticity of the lungs returning to their resting volume expels air out of the lungs. 25  Our bodies accomplish deep breathing by a pronounced inferior movement of the diaphragm towards the abdomen. The external intercostal muscles along with the sternocleidomastoid and scalene muscles in the neck expand the space between the ribs, increasing the volume of the chest. During deep exhalation, the internal intercostal muscles and abdominal muscles contract to decrease the volume of the thoracic cavity, forcing air 30 out of the lungs.  Eupnea is the quiet breathing that happens when the body is at rest. During eupnea, the body mostly depends on shallow breathing with occasional deep breaths as the body needs slightly higher levels of gas exchange. 1. READING COMPREHENSION: Read the text and answer the following questions in Spanish. a. Describe the processes of inhalation and exhalation. b. Describe the different normal breathing mechanisms. Inglés Técnico I Lic. en Terapia Ocupacional UCALP 4 " id="pdf-obj-4-22" src="pdf-obj-4-22.jpg">
  • 10 draw atmospheric air into the lungs. This process of drawing air into the lungs is known as inhalation or inspiration. Muscles can also contract the size of the thoracic cavity to increase the pressure inside of the alveoli and

  • 15 force air out of the lungs. This process of pushing air out of the lungs is known as exhalation or expiration. Normal breathing involves several different mechanisms:

  • 20 Shallow breathingis accomplished by the contraction of the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles for inhalation. During exhalation, the muscles relaxing and the elasticity of the lungs returning to their resting volume expels air out of the lungs.

  • 25

Our bodies accomplish deep breathing by a pronounced inferior movement of the diaphragm towards the abdomen. The external intercostal muscles along with the sternocleidomastoid and scalene muscles in the neck expand the space between the ribs, increasing the volume of the chest. During deep exhalation, the internal intercostal muscles and abdominal muscles contract to decrease the volume of the thoracic cavity, forcing air

  • 30 out of the lungs. Eupnea is the quiet breathing that happens when the body is at rest. During eupnea, the body mostly depends on shallow breathing with occasional deep breaths as the body needs slightly higher levels of gas exchange.

    • 1. READING COMPREHENSION: Read the text and answer the following questions in Spanish.

      • a. Describe the processes of inhalation and exhalation.

      • b. Describe the different normal breathing mechanisms.

Inglés Técnico I Lic. en Terapia Ocupacional UCALP

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2.

VERBS: Find the subjects of these verbs and translate the verbs into Spanish.

SUBJECT

VERB

TRANSLATION

 

receive

 
 

requieres

 
 

expand

 
 

involves

 
 

accomplish

 
 

depends

 
  • 3. Find examples of nouns, adjectives and adverbs in the text.

Nouns: ______________________________________________________________ Adjectives: __________________________________________________________ Adverbs: ___________________________________________________________

  • 4. ERROR CORRECTION: Read the sentences, find mistakes and correct them.

    • a. The passage of air into the lungs is called inhale.

    • b. The passage of air out of the lungs to expels carbon dioxide is known as exhalation.

    • c. The anatomical features of the respiratory system in mammals includes trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs and diaphragm.

    • d. The anatomical structure of the lungs does is less complex in reptiles.

    • e. The major function of the respiratory system is gas exchange between the external environment and an organism’s circulatory system.

  • 5. TRANSLATION: translate the first paragraph.

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    TEXT 4 HOW DOES YOUR HEART WORK?

    The blood enters the right atrium, one of the upper receiving chambers of the heart. Blood is pumped through the tricuspid valve into the ventricle. The right and left

    • 5 ventricles are larger than the right and left atria because they are responsible for the pumping action of the heart. The right ventricle pumps de-oxygenated blood away from the heart through the T-shaped

    TEXT 4 HOW DOES YOUR HEART WORK? The blood enters the right atrium, one of the
    • 10 pulmonary artery. By the time blood arrives in the lungs the body has taken out most of the oxygen and made use of it for tissue function. In a healthy heart, the blood flows efficiently through the heart to the lungs, which re-oxygenate the blood and return it to the heart

    • 15 through the pulmonary vein. Oxygenated blood enters the heart through the left atrium and is pumped to the left ventricle. The left ventricle is encased in thicker cardiac muscle than the right side because it has to pump oxygenated blood around the entire body via the aorta, the largest artery of the body. The cardiac cycle relies on the efficiency of the four valves between the atria, the ventricles and the pulmonary blood vessels. These valves open to let in sufficient blood flow to

    • 20 fill each heart chamber and then shut to prevent the backflow of blood. Irregularities in blood flow because of blockages in the blood vessels can lead to heart disease. 1. READING COMPREHENSION: Read the text and explain what the following parts of the heart do.

    the atria

    the valves

    the ventricles

    the pulmonary vein

    the pulmonary artery

    the aorta

    Inglés Técnico I Lic. en Terapia Ocupacional UCALP

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    2.

    GRAMMAR:Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

    • a. The heart __________

    (be)

    a muscular organ in humans and other animals.

    b.

    Blood

    ______________

    (provide) the body with oxygen and nutrients.

    (transport)

    blood to the heart and carry deoxygenated

    blood.

    • d. Systolic failure is when the heart __________________ force to push enough blood into circulation.

    (can not) pump with enough

    • e. Heart failure often ______________

    (develop)

    after other conditions have damaged

     

    or weakened your heart. However, the heart ______________ weakened to cause heart failure.

    (not

    need) to be

    3.

    ENGLISH IN USE: Write the Spanish equivalent of the following words.

    the right atrium:

     

    cardiac muscle:

     

    tricuspid valve :

    heart disease:

    the right and left ventricles:

    blood flow:

    de-oxygenated blood:

    the pulmonary blood vessels:

     

    pulmonary artery:

     

    4.

    VERBS: Find the subjects of these verbs and translate the verbs into Spanish.

     

    SUBJECT

    VERB

     

    TRANSLATION

     

    enters

     
     

    are

     
     

    flows

     
     

    has

     
     

    relies

     

    5.

    TRANSLATION: Write the text in Spanish.

     

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    TEXT 5

    THROAT CANCER

    There are numerous research studies focusing on throat cancer. One area of research involves the body's immune system and how it reacts to cancer cells. Understanding this relationship will help to identify new treatments. Cancer researchers are also developing new screening methods, including a blood test to determine whether a tumor has returned or is in remission. Another topic of study is

    • 5 treatment options for more advanced stages of cancer. How common is throat cancer? Like all cancers, throat cancer is considered a serious disease. Treatments such as surgery, radiation and chemotherapy can eliminate tumors, and follow up care helps to check for recurrence and spread of cancer to other parts of the body. Throat and oral cancer affects about 10 in 100,000

    • 10 people each year, while voice box cancer affects about 3 in 100,000. Approximately 60 percent of people diagnosed with throat cancer survive the disease. Survival rates are similar for cancer of the voice box and other parts of the throat. Survival is more likely when the cancer is in an earlier stage and has not spread to other parts of the body.

    1. READING COMPREHENSION: Read the text and answer the following questions in Spanish.

    • a. What kind of screening methods are cancer researchers developing? Why? _____________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

    • b. What treatments are used to eliminate tumors? ____________________________________________________________________

    • c. How many people are affected by throat cancer and voice box cancer? ____________________________________________________________________

    • d. How many people diagnosed with throat cancer survive? ____________________________________________________________________

    • e. When is survival more likely? ____________________________________________________________________

    • 2. GRAMMAR: Look at the following sentence and write it in Spanish.

    One area of research involves the body's immune system and how it reacts to cancer cells.

    ___________________________________________________________________________

    _________________________________________________________________________

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    What is ‘s”, possession or the verb to be? Write the sentences in Spanish.

    • a. There are billions of cells in each person's body. __________________________________________________________________________

    • b. It’s possible to be born with certain genetic mutations. __________________________________________________________________________

    • c. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) inhibits the body's ability to fight infections. __________________________________________________________________________

    • d. Chemotherapy’s generally used to treat cancer that has spread. __________________________________________________________________________

    • e. A growing tumor becomes a lump of cancer cells that can destroy the normal cells around the tumor and damage the body's healthy tissues. ___________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

    • f. it’s rare to know exactly what caused any one person’s cancer. __________________________________________________________________________

    3. VERBS: Complete the chart and translate the verbs into Spanish.

    SUBJECT

    VERB

    TENSE

    TRANSLATION

     

    involves (line 1)

       
     

    reacts (line 2)

       
     

    are alsodeveloping (L 3)

       
     

    can eliminate (L8)

       
     

    survive (L 11)

       
     

    Are (L 11)

       

    Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

    • a. Our scientists

    __________________

    (work) together on new discoveries these days.

    • b. Chemotherapy literally ________________

    (mean) drug treatment.

    • c. Doctors ______________

    (have)

    a lot of experience using radiotherapy in medicine.

    • d. We

    ___________________

    (fight) over 200 cancers at the moment.

    Inglés Técnico I Lic. en Terapia Ocupacional UCALP

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    • e. The treatment ______________

    (aim)

    to give a high dose to the cancer, but as low a dose as

    possible to the surrounding healthy cells.

    • 4. ENGLISH IN USE: Write the Spanish equivalent of the following words.

    Research studies: _______________________ Treatment: ____________________________ Immune system: _______________________ Develop: ______________________________ Blood tests: ___________________________ Advanced stages: _______________________ Serious disease: ________________________

    Throat cancer: _________________________ Voice box cancer: ______________________ Surgery: ______________________________ Radiation and chemotherapy:

    _____________________________________ Recurrence and spread of cancer:

    _____________________________________

    • 5. WORD FORMATION: Read the text and complete the chart below.

     

    WORD FROM THE TEXT

    CATEGORY

    SUFFIX

    TREAT

         

    SURVIVE

         

    LIKE

         
    • 6. TRANSLATION: Write the text in Spanish.

    Inglés Técnico I Lic. en Terapia Ocupacional UCALP

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    TEXT 6

    SKELETAL SYSTEM: FACTS & FUNCTION

    The adult human skeletal system consists of 206 bones, as well as a network of tendons, ligaments and cartilage that connects them. The skeletal system performs vital functions support, movement, protection, blood cell production, calcium storage and endocrine regulation that enable us to move through our daily lives.

    • 5 Animals with internal skeletons made of bone, called vertebrates, are actually the minority, as 98 percent of all animals are invertebrates, meaning they do not have internal skeletons or backbones. Human infants are born with 300 to 350 bones, some of which fuse together as the body develops. By the time most children reach the age of 9 they have 206 bones. The skeletal system has two distinctive parts: the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton.

    • 10 The axial skeleton, with a total of 80 bones, consists of the vertebral column, the rib cage and the skull. The axial skeleton transmits the weight from the head, the trunk and the upper extremities down to the lower extremities at the hip joints, which help humans maintain our upright posture. The appendicular skeleton has a total of 126 bones, and is formed by the pectoral girdles, the upper limbs, the pelvic girdle and the lower limbs. Their functions are to make walking, running and other

    • 15 movement possible and to protect the major organs responsible for digestion, excretion and reproduction. THE SKULL A collection of 22 bones, the skull protects the all-important brain and supports the other soft

    • 20 tissues of the head. During fetal development, the bones of the skull form within tough, fibrous membranes in a fetus’ head. As these bones grow throughout fetal and childhood development, they begin to fuse together, forming a single skull. The only bone that remains separate from the rest of the skull is the mandible, or jaw bone. Early separation of the bones provides the fetal skull with the flexibility necessary to pass through the tight confines of the birth canal. During childhood

    • 25 development, the skull bones remain somewhat separated, allowing for growth of the brain and skull. Upon reaching maturity, our skull bones fuse to produce a rigid protective shell for the soft nervous tissue of our brain

      • 1. READING COMPREHENSION: Read the text and write T (true) or F (false). Correct the false sentences.

        • a) The skeletal system performs functions that enable us to

    move.

    ____

    b)

    Invertebrates are the

    minority.

    ____

    c)

    d)

    e)

    Adults have 350

    bones.

    ____

    The axial skeleton helps humans to

    move.

    ____

    The appendicular skeleton helps to

    breathe.

    ____

    Inglés Técnico I Lic. en Terapia Ocupacional UCALP

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    f)

    g)

    h)

    i)

    When we grow the bones begin to fuse

    together.

    ____

    The only bone that remains separate from the rest of the skull is the

    mandible.

    ____

    During childhood development, the skull bones are

    together.

    ____

    During adulthood, the bones fuse to produce a rigid protective shell for the

    brain.

    ___

    • 2. Write the sentences into your native language.

    a.

     

    __________________________________________________________________

    b.

     

    __________________________________________________________________

    c.

     

    __________________________________________________________________

    d.

     

    __________________________________________________________________

    e.

     

    __________________________________________________________________

    f.

     

    __________________________________________________________________

    g.

    __________________________________________________________________

    h.

     

    __________________________________________________________________

    i.

     

    __________________________________________________________________

    • 3. ENGLISH IN USE: Write the Spanish equivalent of the following words.

    Skeletal system Blood cell production Calcium storage Endocrine regulation Vertebral column Rib cage

    Skull Trunk Upper extremities Lower limbs Hip joints Jaw bone

    • 4. Adjectives. Find adjectives in the text and identify the nouns they are modifying.

    ADJECTIVE NOUN
    ADJECTIVE
    NOUN

    Inglés Técnico I Lic. en Terapia Ocupacional UCALP

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    5.

    GRAMMAR: Complete the chart and translate the verbs into Spanish.

    SUBJECT

    VERB

    TRANSLATION

     

    performs (line 2)

     
     

    enable (line 4)

     
     

    are born (L7)

     
     

    help (L 12)

     
    • 6. ERROR CORRECTION. Read the sentences, find grammar mistakes and correct them.

      • a. Arthritis are a group of more than 100 inflammatory diseases that damage joints and their surrounding structures.

      • b. The skeletal system is also susceptibles to breaks, strains and fractures.

      • c. Bursitis is a disorder that causes pain in the bodys joints.

  • 7. TRANSLATION: Write from L1 to L9 in your native language.

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    TEXT 7

    ALEXANDER FLEMING

    Alexander Fleming was born in Ayrshire, Scotland, on August 6, 1881, and studied medicine, serving as a physician during World War I. Through research and experimentation, Fleming discovered a bacteria-

    • 5 destroying mold which he would call penicillin in 1928, paving the way for the use of antibiotics in modern healthcare. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1945 and died on March 11, 1955. BIOGRAPHY

    TEXT 7 ALEXANDER FLEMING Alexander Fleming was born in Ayrshire, Scotland, on August 6, 1881, and
    • 10 Alexander Fleming was born in rural Lochfield, in East Ayrshire, Scotland, on August 6, 1881. His parents, Hugh and Grace were farmers, and Alexander was one of their four children. He also had four half-siblings who were the surviving children from his father Hugh's first marriage. He attended the Louden Moor School, the Darvel School and Kilmarnock Academy before moving to London in 1895, where he lived with his older brother, Thomas Fleming. In London, Fleming finished his basic education at the Regent Street Polytechnic (now the

    • 15 University of Westminster). Fleming was a member of the Territorial Army, and served from 1900 to 1914 in the London Scottish Regiment. He entered the medical field in 1901, studying at St. Mary's Hospital Medical School at the University of London. While at St. Mary's, he won the 1908 gold medal as the top medical student. In November 1921, while nursing a cold, Fleming discovered lysozyme, a mildly antiseptic enzyme present in

    • 20 body fluids, when a drop of mucus dripped from his nose onto a culture of bacteria. Thinking that his mucus might have some kind of effect on bacterial growth, he mixed it with the culture. A few weeks later, he observed that the bacteria had been dissolved. This marked Fleming's first great discovery, as well as a significant contribution to human immune system research. "When I woke up just after dawn on September 28, 1928, I certainly didn't plan to revolutionize all medicine by

    • 25 discovering the world's first antibiotic, or bacteria killer. But I suppose that was exactly what I did."

      • 1. READING COMPREHENSION: Read the text and answer the questions.

        • a) Was Alexander Fleming born in Ireland? ____________________________________________________________________

        • b) Were his parents farmers? ____________________________________________________________________

        • c) Was he an only child? ____________________________________________________________________

        • d) Was he a member of the Navy? ____________________________________________________________________

          • 2. VERBS. Find regular verbs in the text.

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    3. GRAMMAR: Write the negative form of the following sentences:

    • a. He attended the Louden Moor School. __________________________________________________________________________

    • b. In London, Fleming finished his basic education at the Regent Street Polytechnic (now the University of Westminster). ____________________________________________________________________

    • c. He entered the medical field in 1901. ________________________________________________________________________________

    • d. In November 1921, while nursing a cold, Fleming discovered lysozyme. _________________________________________________________________________________

    • e. This marked Fleming's first great discovery, as well as a significant contribution to human immune system research. _________________________________________________________________________________

    4. GRAMMAR: Auxiliary verb “DID”. Answer the following questions.

    • g. What did Alexander Fleming study? __________________________________________________________________________

    • h. Where did he finish his basic education? __________________________________________________________________________

    • i. What did he discover? __________________________________________________________________________

    5. VERBS: Fill in the chart for the following verbs/verb phrases from the text.

    SUBJECT

    VERB/VERB PHRASE

    TENSE

    TRANSLATION OF THE VERB/VERB PHRASE

     

    studied (L 2)

       
     

    finished (L 14)

       
     

    dripped (L20)

       
     

    didn’t plan (L 24)

       
     

    suppose (L25)

       
    • 6. TRANSLATION: Write from L1 to L15 in your native language.

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    TEXT 8

    X-RAYS

    X-rays are used to analyze problems with bones, teeth and organs in the human 5 body;
    X-rays are
    used
    to
    analyze problems with
    bones, teeth and
    organs in the human
    5
    body; to detect cracks
    in
    metal
    in
    industry;
    and
    even
    at
    airports
    for luggage inspection.
    Yet,
    despite
    their
    10
    versatility,
    the
    invention
    of
    the
    X-ray
    wasn't
    intentional. The
    scientific and medical community will forever be
    indebted
    to
    an accidental discovery made by

    German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen in 1895.

    15

    While

    experimenting

    with

    electrical

    currents

    through glass cathode-ray tubes, Röntgen discovered that a piece of barium platinocyanide

    glowed even though the tube was encased in thick black cardboard and was across the room. He

    • 20 theorized that some kind

    of

    radiation

    must

    be

    traveling

    in

    the

    space.

    Röntgendidn't

    fully

    understand his discovery so he dubbed it X-

    radiation for its unexplained nature.

    To test his newfound theory, Röntgen enlisted the

    • 25 help of his wife for his first X-ray photos and captured images of the bones in her hand and her wedding ring in what would become known as the

    first röntgenogram.

    He

    discovered

    that

    when

    emitted

    in

    complete

    darkness,

    X-rays

    passed

    • 30 objects

    through

    of

    varying

    density, rendering the flesh and

    muscle of his wife's hand mostly

    density, rendering the flesh and muscle of his wife's hand mostly

    transparent. The denser bones

    and the

    ring

    left

    behind a

    • 35 shadow on a special photographic plate covered in

    barium

    platinocyanide.

    The

    term X-radiation or X-ray stuck

     

    although it

    is still sometimes referred to

    as

    the

    • 40 Röntgen ray in German-speaking countries. Röntgen's discovery garnered much attention in the scientific community and with the public. He gave his first public lecture on X-rays in January 1896 and showed the rays' ability to photograph the bones

    • 45 within living flesh. A few weeks later in Canada, an X-ray was used to find a bullet in a patient's leg. Honorary degrees, medals, streets named in his honor and memberships to academic societies all followed. The recognition peaked with the awarding

    • 50 of the first Nobel Prize for physics in 1901. Röntgen deliberately didn't patent his discovery, feeling that scientific advances belonged to the world and should not be for profit.

    • 1. READING COMPREHENSION: Read the text and answer the questions in Spanish.

      • a. What are X-rays used for? ____________________________________________________________________

      • b. Was the invention of the X-ray intentional? ____________________________________________________________________

      • c. Why did Röntgen need his wife’s help? ____________________________________________________________________

      • d. What did he discover when the X-rays were emitted in complete darkness? ____________________________________________________________________

      • e. Why did they use X-ray in Canada? ____________________________________________________________________

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    • f. Did Röntgen patent his discovery? Why? Why not? ____________________________________________________________________

      • 2. VERBS. Find regular and irregular verbs in the text.

    Regular

    Irregular

       
    • 3. Write two sentences in the affirmative and two in the negative form using the verbs in exercise 2.

    1- ______________________________________________________________ 2- ______________________________________________________________ 3- ______________________________________________________________ 4- ______________________________________________________________

    • 4. Find the subjects of these verbs and translate the verbs into Spanish.

    SUBJECT

    VERB

    TENSE

    TRANSLATION

     

    wasn't (L 11)

       
     

    theorized (L 20)

       
     

    didn't fully understand (L

       

    21)

     

    passed (L 29)

       
     

    belonged (L 52)

       
    • 5. ERROR CORRECTION: Read the sentences, find mistakes and correct them.

      • a. Röntgen refer to the radiation as "X", to indicate that it was an unknown type of radiation.

      • b. Many of he colleagues suggested calling them Röntgen rays.

      • c. Röntgen discovered its medical use when he make a picture of his wife's hand.

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    _________________________________________________________________________

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    TRANSLATION: Write from L1 to L14 and from L 41 to 54 in your native language.

    Inglés Técnico I Lic. en Terapia Ocupacional UCALP

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    TEXT 9

    FEVER FACTS

    A fever -- also known as a high fever or a high temperature -- is not by itself an illness. It's usually a symptom of an underlying condition, most often an infection.

    Fever is usually associated with physical discomfort, and most people feel better when a fever is treated. But depending on your age, physical condition, and the underlying cause of your fever, you may or may not

    • 5 require medical treatment for the fever alone. Many experts believe that fever is a natural bodily defense against infection. There are also many non-infectious causes of fever. Fever is generally not considered dangerous, but hyperthermia can cause dangerous rises in body temperature. This can be due to an extreme temperature associated with heat injury such as heat stroke, side effects of certain medications or illicit drugs. With hyperthermia, the body is no longer able to control body

    • 10 temperature. In children with fever, accompanying symptoms such as lethargy, fussiness, poor appetite, sore throat, cough, ear pain, vomiting, and diarrhea are important to relay to your doctor. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, if you have an infant younger than 4 months old with a rectal temperature of 100.4 F or above, you should immediately call your doctor or go to an emergency room,

    • 15 because it could be a sign of a potentially life-threatening infection. Also call your doctor or go to the emergency room if any child has a fever above 104 F. High fever can cause seizures in young children. Call your doctor right away if your child has a fever and:

    Looks very sick Is drowsy or very fussy

    Call the doctor if the fever lasts more than 1 day in a child less than 2 years old or lasts more than 3 days in a child age 2 or older.

    • 1. READING COMPREHENSION: Read the text and answer the questions.

    • a. Is fever an illness? ____________________________________________________________________

    • b. Is a medical treatment always necessary? Why?/Why not? ____________________________________________________________________

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    c.

    What is hyperthermia? ____________________________________________________________________

    2. GRAMMAR. Look at these sentences.

     
    • a. Call your doctor or go to the emergency room if any child has a fever above 104 F.

    • b. If your child’s less than 3 months old, anything above 100.4F warrants a quick call to the doctor.

    • c. If your baby has a runny nose and a low-grade fever (under 101F), it usually means he's got a common cold.

    • d. Let your doctor know right away if your child complains of a sore throat or an earache.

    • e. Call 911 if her tongue, lips, or nails are blue.

    What do these sentences express? ________________________________________________

    How would you translate them?

    a.

     

    _______________________________________________________________________

    _______________________________________________________________________

    b.

     

    _______________________________________________________________________

    _______________________________________________________________________

    c.

     

    _______________________________________________________________________

    _______________________________________________________________________

    d.

     

    _______________________________________________________________________

    _______________________________________________________________________

    e.

     

    _______________________________________________________________________

    _______________________________________________________________________

    3. TRANSLATION: Write from L13 to 25 in your native language.

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