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The frame is a means to stabilize a framework or structure of linear elements that fit into a
certain shape, with their ends connected by knots or or articulated joints and forming a
geometry such that the system behaves stably when receiving weights applied directly on
these knots. This type of systems have the characteristic of being very light and with a great
capacity to support weights. They are used mainly in buildings with large lights, as like cellar
roofs, warehouses, churches and in general buildings with large spaces in its intenor.
In the pure frame it is considered that all the members are connected by knots at their ends,
some to only one of two possibilities internal actions of forces; axial tension or axial
compression. The triangulation of the interior is a basic necessity for a frame, in addition to
the favorable elements that must be taken into account. There must be enough reaction
components for the speed of the frame, but they must allow the armor to be freed from the
actions of the weights.
The triangle is the basic unit of the flat frame, the tetrahedron (solid of four sides), it is for
the space frame.
They are all those structures that are only located in the plan, their weitghts are applied to the
main axes of inertia of the structural elements.
Structural walls
This system has two distinctive elements in the general structure of the building:
Walls: used to provide lateral stability, as well as support for the elements that cover the
clearing. They are generally compression elements. They can be monolithic or frameworks
assembled of many pieces. Although they are not used for vertical load transmission, they
are often used to provide lateral stability.
Elements to cover clearings: they work as floors and ceilings. Within these are a wide variety
of assemblies, from simple wooden boards and joists to precast concrete units or steel frames.
Elements to cover clearings: they work as floors and ceilings. Within these are a wide variety
of assemblies, from simple wooden boards and joists to precast concrete units or steel frames.
System of poles and beams
The use of trunks and trees in primitive cultures as building elements was the origin of this
basic system, which is important constructive technique of the structural repertoire. The two
basic elements are:
Pole: is an element that works in linear compression and is subject to crushing or buckling,
depending on its relative slenderness.
Beam: basically it is a linear element subject to a transverse load; must generate internal
resistance to shear and bending stresses and resist excessive stress, the structure of beams
and posts requires the use of a secondary structural filler system to produce the surfaces of
the walls, floors and ceilings.
Some variations of this system are:
• extension of the ends of the beams
• rigid support of beams and poles
• rigid support with extension of the ends of the beams
• widening of the ends of the poles
• continuous beam.
Rigid frames
When the elements of a linear frame are rigidly fastened, that is, when the joints are capable
of transferring flexion between the members, the system assumes a particular character. If all
the joints are rigid, it is impossible to load some of the members transversely without causing
the bending of the others.

Frame: Unitary physical entity, conceived as an organization of bodies arranged in space so
that the concept of the whole dominates the relationship between the parties. According to
this definition, we see that a structure is an assembly of elements, that maintains its form
and its unity. Its objectives are: to resist loads resulting from its use and its own weight and
to shape a body, civil work or machine, a clear example of these structures are bridges,
dams, towers, buildings.
A structural system, is an assembly of members or independent elements to form a single
body and whose objective is to give solution (loads and shape) to a specific civil problem.
The manner of assembly, the type of assembled member define the final behavior of the
structure and constitute different structural systems.
In some cases, the elements are not distinguished as individual but the structure is in itself a
continuous system as is the case of domes, continuous or solid slabs and walls, and are
analyzed following the concepts and basic principles of mechanics.