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- Chemistry Ch 2 Notes
- error analysis
- Manua(Nuc. Physics)
- engineering metrology
- Propagation of Uncertainty - MIT
- test 3
- Reliability Accuracy and Validity
- IA Lab Report Section
- cole_2009_hwd
- Metrology
- ASTM 2084 Reometro Disco Oscilante
- WA
- 2r_rules for Rounding
- 3 8 a precisionaccuracymeasurement
- Nonprobability Sampling
- Measure Physics
- Diplomasem2appliedscience Physics Unit1 Chap2errors 150312232517 Conversion Gate01
- 3 8 a precisionaccuracymeasurement
- 3 8 a precisionaccuracymeasurement
- 1 2b Errorsanduncertainties

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Uncertainty occurs due to the limitations of the apparatus itself and the taking of readings from

scientific apparatus. For example during a titration there are generally four separate pieces of

apparatus, each of which contributes to the uncertainty.

The error is the difference between the result obtained and the generally accepted 'correct'

result found in the data book or other literature. If the 'correct' result is available it should be

recorded and the percentage error calculated and commented upon in your conclusion. Without

the 'correct ' value no useful comment on the error can be made.

o Qualitative = color, texture, general heat given off or absorbed

o Quantitative = specific numerical values such as change in temp, mass, absorbance that

can be measured using instrumentation.

places. Uncertainties are caused by limitations of the measuring apparatus and other

uncontrollable factors that are inevitable in any experiment.

o Uncertainties can be minimized by repeated trials, but can never

be eliminated.

o Random uncertainty can also be minimized by a thoughtful design

for an experiment.

An experiment using 0.05 g of Mg with a balance

that reads to the 1/100th place gives an uncertainty

of ±0.01. This uncertainty represents( 0.01/0.05) x

100 = 20% of the mass! This would not be a good

choice for the mass of the magnesium! However, if

you increase the mass of the Mg to 1.00 grams, then

your uncertainty is greatly diminishes and is now

(0.01/1.00) x 100 = 1%. A far better percent

uncertainty that 20%! PLANNING MATTERS.

o Uncertainty is represented by a ± amount after the

measurement such as 0.27 ± 0.01 grams. The ± 0.01 is the

uncertainty in the measurement and means that the 0.27

could be + 0.01 grams more or – 0.01 grams less.

1

That is referred to as the range and the acceptable values would then be 0.26 to

0.28 g.

Estimating Uncertainties

Estimating (random) uncertainties is somewhat different based on the type of measurement

tool you are using. For

o Analogue apparatus includes beakers, graduated cylinders, burets, alcohol

thermometers. The uncertainty for analogy measurements is taken to be ½ of the

smallest division. So a graduated cylinder whose smallest division is 1 mL will have an

uncertainty of ± 0.5 mL. The volume would be represented as 25.0 ± 0.5 mL. Notice how

both the volume recorded and the uncertainty have the same number of decimal

places!!! Very important!

o Digital Instruments include electronic balances and computer based technology that

determines values for you. The uncertainties are given below

0.1 g ±0.1 g

0.01 g ±0.01 g

0.001 g ±0.001 g

o Humans bring limitation and thus uncertainty to every experiment they do. These fall

under the category of random errors. For example, if you were doing an experiment that

required you to measure the time taken for a reaction mixture to change color in order

to determine the rate of the reaction you would probably use a stopwatch. You would

have to see measure your reaction time and then decide on an acceptable uncertainty. A

suitable uncertainty for this type of experiment might be ± 0.5 sec or ± 1 sec.

Let’s say you’re a really great dart player. Nobody can beat

you. After throwing 10 darts, the dartboard for you looks like

the board below. All ten darts are clumped in the middle of

the board showing your significant dart throwing abilities. In

terms of measurement, we could talk about your success in

terms of two important terms: precision and accuracy. Your

2

accuracy is excellent as well as your precision. Let’s take a look at these two terms in more

detail.

As you continued your evening of winning at darts to all who challenged you, it became

apparent to your very analytical mind that four different patterns of darts board emerged after a

the darter (is that a word?) finished her or her round of ten. They are shown below. You can see

that both terms, precise and accurate are included.

error

Precise

1. 2.

Not precise

(reproducibility error)

3. 4.

Precision is defined in science as the reproducibility of results. Do you keep getting the

same value over and over again regardless of how you conduct your experiment? If so, then we

can say you have a high degree of precision. All of your measurements are very close together.

When this is the case, precision is high. Precision does not mean that your results are actually

“good” results. Precision only means that you are consistent for those particular results. Notice

that dartboards 1 and 2 show all of the darts bunched together in one location.

3

The table below shows temperatures taken for the 6 readings. The values are very close

together and the average is also close to each of the individual measurements. This collection of

data represents, once again, high precision.

We can talk about the precision of a

single measurement, which is dependent

only on the number of significant figures.

For example, a temperature reading of

21.33 ± 0.01OC is more precise than a

temperature reading of 21.2 ± 0.1 OC

refers to how close a

measurement is to the actual value of a particular quantity. You may remember back to T1

chemistry when you determined the density of pennies. I asked you to compare your

experimental result for the density of copper with the literature value. If your experimental

value (the average of al your trials) was close to the actual value for the density of copper (8.96

g/mL), thenyour accuracy was very high.

terms of precision and accuracy are shown. Random errors

1: High precision and high accurancy A random error, is an error which affects a reading

2: High precision and low accuracy at random.

Sources of random errors include:

3: Low precision and fairly high accurancy

4: Neither precision nor accuracy. The observer being less than perfect

The random error in experimental results is due to the

inabilitiy of experimenter’s to consistently read an analogue External effects on the observed item

Systematic errors

A systematic error, is an error which occurs at each

reading.

4

Sources of systematic errors include:

instrument (graduated cylinder or beaker) in consistently the same way. This will result in a

spread of results, even in the most carefully designed of experiments. Due to the random

nature of these errors, there is an equal chance that they will be above or below the ‘true’

value. To minimize such errors, it is good practice to take many readings and find the mean,

even in the simplest of experiments. Because it is impossible to know the ‘true’ value, the best

estimate is the mean of repeat readings.

Systematic Errors

Systematic errors arise in an experiment as a result of the apparatus used or the procedure

followed. Systematic errors result in a loss of accuracy. A systematic error cannot be diminished

by repeated trials. For example, you use an electronic balance to take the masses of the various

substances you are using in your experiment. It turns out the balance is not properly calibrated.

Your measurement of 23.25 grams is actually 24.25 g. No matter how many times you repeat

taking the mass of this object, it will be 1.00 g heavier than it should be.

literature value. In terms of the density experiment you did 2 years ago in 9 th grade, the actual

value for the density of copper is 8.96 ± 0.5 g/ml and let’s say your experimental value is 7.96 ±

0.5 g/ml. Since your experimental value is not particularly close to your actual (theoretical

value), one could propose systematic errors may be one of reasons. We can use percent error to

compare an experimental value with the accepted literature value:

ABSOLUTE VALUE

|value| means you take the

% E = percent error = |experimental value – literature value| x 100 positive value

accepted value

Recall that we take the absolute value of the difference between the

experimental and literature values. Percent error is always given as a positive value.

%E>%U

If % error > % uncertainty,

For the above density example, the percent error would be:

systematic errors need to be

considered. |7.96 – 8.96| x 100 = |-1.00| = 1.00 x 100 = 11.1%

8.96 8.96 8.96

We can calculate a value called the percent uncertainty, which is due to random error.

experimental value 7.96

You may need to compare the percent error and the percent uncertainty when you are

completing your research project at the beginning of your T4 year. If the percent error is greater

than the percent uncertainty, we can reasonably assume the experiment involves some

systematic errors. For any density experiment where water displacement is involved, one

primary systematic error is the unreliability of the graduated cylinder. Also, the pennies were

5

not completely copper metal and thus another error. Remember, systematic errors can be

reduced by changing the way in which the experiment is carried out in this case. You could

actually find the volume of the penny by using a ruler to measure the

height of the penny and the diameter and then use the volume of a % E< % U

cube equation to determine the volume. This would give a more If % error < % uncertainty, you

precise volume measurement that could be used with the mass of the have designed a very good

pennies to determine the density. procedure and your

experiment has worked well as

a way of obtaining a particular

When the percent error < percent uncertainty, then the experiment value.

has worked well as a way of obtaining a value for this particular

quantity.

The table below summarizes the relationship between percent error and percent uncertainty

and how one’s experiment may be impacted.

Percent error << percent random uncertainty Experiment has worked well as a way of

obtaining a value for a particular quantity when

compare to an accepted literature value.

Percent error < percent uncertainty Experiment should be further refined by using

more precise measuring apparatus and/or taking

additional measurements

Percent error > percent uncertainty Systemic errors exist and these must be

eliminated as far as is possible.

Do Problems 1,2

6

11.2 Significant figures

In order to do calculations using measurements you have collected, you first have to be able to

determine the number of significant figures in any measurement. In science, we talk about “the

number of significant figures” in a measurement and counting them correctly means your

calculated answers are also correct.

Measurement

Two situations when zeros Definition Example # of sig figs

are NOT significant

RULE 1 Numbers Trailing zeros are not significant and 50 km 1

greater than 1. are therefore not counted. A trailing 500 km 1

zero appears at the end of a 25,000 m 2

measurement. Notice there are no 100 mL 1

decimal points.

RULE 2 Numbers less Sandwiched zeros are not 0.0056 dg 2

than 1 significant. A sandwiched zeros 0.005 pm 1

appears between the decimal point 0.000124 ng 3

and the first non-zero digit 0.0100 L 3

1) All non-zero digits are significant. 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9

2) Zeros are sometimes significant and sometimes not so they are the trickiest.

Remember the two times when zeros ARE NOT significant and all other they are

counted.

Examples: 50 kg, 1 SF

50,000 km, 1 SF

320 liters 2 SF

ii. For number less than one, zeros that appear between the decimal and

the first digit are not significant

Examples: 0.0025 g 1 SF

0.00160 cm 3 SF

the zeros between the decimal and number 1 are not significant, but the

zero at the end is! I know, tricky.)

0.0065 mm 2 SF

We say that all non-zero digits are significant. They count in terms of expressing the specificity

or precision of a measurement. For example, 12.5 mL has 3 sig figs and 25.55 mL has 4 sig figs.

7

This must mean that the measuring tool I am using in the first measurement above is not as

good a measurement device as the second measurement.

Very often we do not include uncertainty in our measurements. In your recent water

crystallization lab, you may recall you were asked for the uncertainty. When you

recorded the mass of your crucible, you also took note of whether it was a balance that

recorded to the 1/10th , 100th, or 1/100th place. For example, a crucible mass of 44.316 g

would, with uncertainty include the uncertainty for the balance. For all electronic

balances, the uncertainty of ±0.01, ±0.01 or ± 0.001 grams depending on the balance

used. Going back to our mass, the complete measurement with uncertainty would be

written as 44.316 ± 0.001 grams. Notice that the measurement value goes to the

1/1000th place. This means that the uncertainty must match the measurement and also

have the same degree of precision. It would not be correct to write a measurement with

the following uncertainty in the following way:

363.2 ± 100 kg. The measurement is too precise for the uncertainty or the uncertainty is

not

Correct measurement and uncertainty Range precise

362.2 ± 0.1 mL 362.1362.3 mL enough

362 ± 5 mL 358 367 mL for the

360 ± 10 mL 350 370 mL

400 ± 100 kg 300 500 kg

measurement. Only you know the measuring device you used. Let’s say the balance you

used was very simple and not precise—a balance you might use at a warehouse that

measured large masses. The correct adjustment for this measurement would be 400 ±

100 kg. Listed below are all the possibilities of how the measurement precision could be

adjusted and the corresponding uncertainty that would need to be used.

In the table to the right, we have 6 different readings of

volumes. No uncertainty is given. We also see a calculated Reading Volume Deviation from

mean (average). If we want to include the uncertainty with (cm3) the mean

an calculated average value, we can do the following:

1 21.0 0.4

2 21.9 0.5

1. Find the largest deviation from the mean, which is

3 22.1 0.7

represented in column 3. Each of the six measurements were 4 21.2 0.2

subtracted from the mean value of 21.4 cm3 to arrive at the 5 20.7 0.7

deviation (difference) from the mean value. We can see that 6 21.5 0.1

0.7 cm3 is the largest deviation. mean 21.4

value

8

2. Multiply this deviation by 2/3. Thus we have 0.7 cm 3 (2/3) = 0.46 cm3. Our measurement are

all to the 1/10th place so we

round 0.46 to 0.5 cm3. Now we can write our mean value for volume with an uncertainty, 21.4

± 0.5 cm3 and be reasonable sure that the range of values will fall 20.9 21.9 cm3.

Do problems 3,4

Mathematical Operations How do determine Example Answer

and Significant Figures number of SF.

Adding and Subtracting Least place holder 4.5 g 10.6 g

4.55 g Least place holder is the tenths in the

4.547 g first number

10.597 g

Multiplying and Dividing The measurement will 4.55 g = 0.318 g/mL

have the same number of 14.30 mL Numerator has 3 sig figs and

sig figs. as the denominator has 4 sig figs so the

measurement with the answer will have 3.

least number of SF. 55.82 m = 27.91 m

2 2 is not a measurement so don’t

include in determining number of SF

The above table is a review of how to handle significant figures when you begin calculating

values based on the measurements you obtain from a particular experiment. Adding and

subtracting are handled differently than multiplication/division. You should be able to see that

for add/subtract, the number of sig figs in your calculation is based on the decimal place of the

measurements. If all measurements end in the 1/100th place, but one ends in tne 1/10th place,

then your addition or subtraction must end in the 1/10th place. The add/subtract rules shows up

when you are determining the percent error of a measurement.

9

For example, the literature value for the heat released when 50 mL of 0.1 M NaOH reacts with

50 mL of 0.1 M HCl is -57.3 kJ/mol. The experimental value obtained was recorded as

-55.80 kJ/mol. Recall that percent error is:

accepted value

The literature value is given to the 1/10th place but the experimental value is given to the

1/100th place. Thus the difference of these two values will be only to the 1/10 th place or 1.5

kJ/mol not 1.50 kJ/mol.

When we multiply or divide, our calculated answer is based on our least significant

measurement. To complete the percent error for the heat released, we take the difference

calculated and divide by our literature value. Thus,

When to Round?

|-57.3-(-55.80)| x 100 = 2.6% In general, when you have a

|-57.3| calculation that involves many

steps, wait until you arrive at your

final answer. Round that value to

1.5 has two sig figs and the literature value has three sig figs, the correct number of significant

therefore we report our answer with two sig figs. figures.

Do problems 1-4

a. 140. 74 mL _____5_______

b. 0.0041 g ______2______

c. 4 aardvarks _____1 _______

d. 450 nm ______2______

e. 3.700 x 1014 pg ______4______

f. 31.000 mg ______5______

g. 1300 nm ______2______

h. 847.050 mg ______5______

i. 2,495 km ______4______

j. 0.00410 µL _______3_____

2. Round each measurement to the number of correct number of significant figures indicated in

parentheses.

b. 0.0041198 g (2 SF) ______0.0041g_____

c. 81.67 mL (2 SF) ______82mL______

10

d. 191,000 km (1 SF) ______200,000km______

e. 150.6142 g (3 SF) _______151g_____

f. 2.0097 x 10-12 pL (4 SF) _______2.001x10^-12pL_____

g. 0.0115 dg (2 SF) _____0.012dg_______

h. 89.69 mL (3 SF) _______89.7mL_____

3. Perform the following calculations and give your answer to the correct number of significant

figures.

a. 18.7644 g – 3.472 g + 0.4101 g = _____15.70g_______

b. 17.441 g/mL ÷ 3 = __5.8137mL_ (3 not a meas; finding average)

c. 14.044 mL + 8.11 mL + 3.4 mL = _____25mL_______

d. 3.41 g – 0.086652 g = ______3.32g______

e. 0.87 mm x 4.061 x 10.4 = _____37mm_______

f. 21.01 m x 2 m ______40m______

g. Calculate the average of the following set of density values (g/cm 3):

18.4, 18.45, 18.54 and 18.7 = _____18.5g/cm3____

standard form, convert to standard notation.

a) 47,000 kg __________47 x 10^3 kg_______ (sci-n)

b) 0.0008 M HCl _________8 x 10^-4 M HCl________ (sci-n)

c) 675,000,000 m _________675 x 10^6m________ (sci-n)

d) 157,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 pg ________157 x 10^2 1pg_________(sci-n)

e) 0.0000003407 pL _______3.407 x 10^7 pL__________(sci-n)

f) 7.66 x 10–2 mg _________0.0766 mg________ (stn)

e) 7.8 x 105 km_______780,000 km_______(stn)

h) 4.75 x 10–4 cm3 ________0.000475 cm3_______(stn)

f) 6 x 10–3 g _______0.006 g________(stn)

g) 9x 108 km __________900,000,000 km_____________________(stn)

j) 6.022 x 1023 mol _______602,200,000,000,000,000,000,000 mol_____(stn)

There are two ways to report uncertainty: absolute or percent. The absolute uncertainty has

the same units as the measurement. For example, if I massed an amount of an NaOH on the

electronic balance that reads to the 1/100th place, I would report that value as 21.75 g ± 0.01 g.

11

Notice that both the measurement and its corresponding uncertainty (the uncertainty shown

on the back of the electronic balance) are in grams. The absolute uncertainty would be 0.01 g.

The percent uncertainty is exactly what it says: a percent of the actual mass you measure. For

our above mass, we would take the absolute uncertainty (0.01 g) and divide by our mass (21.75

g) and then multiplying by 100.

21.75 g

We can see that our % uncertainty is very small and that is what we want. We do not want our

error to be such a large percentage of our measurements that we are unable to carry out a

particular experiment with some relative degree of confidence. If our percent uncertainty were

15%, we would definitely need to rethink the experiment and/or our choice of measuring tools

and perhaps the procedure too.

Suppose you would like to determine the absolute uncertainty and are only given the percent

uncertainty. This is possible by undoing the percent uncertainty to get to the absolute

uncertainty.

Example: Find the absolute uncertainty for the following measurement: 5.2 g ± 2%

Return the percent to a decimal and multiple by the quantity measured—in this case 5.18 g.

Mathematically we have,

100

Therefore, our measurement with absolute uncertainty would be recorded as 5.2 ± 0.1 g.

Notice that both the measurement value and the absolute uncertainty match in that they are

both carried to the 1/10th place.

12

c. 13.21 ± 0.01 m d. 0.002 ± 0.001 g

2. Convert the following to absolute uncertainties. Rewrite the measurement with that

uncertainty to the correct number of significant figures.

a. 3.5 cm ± 10 % b. 16 s ± 8 %

calculations?

When performing mathematical calculations with measurements that have uncertainty, you

must deal with that uncertainty while you are doing the mathematical operation. There is one

rule for adding and subtrating and another for multiplying and dividding.

• Adding or subtracting

The mathematical operation is carried out and the uncertainties of the measurements are

added together. This is true for both adding and subracting. The following example is shown

below with a table of temperature data and the uncertainty for each temperature.

13

To get the change in temperature, ∆T, we subtract,

We deal with the uncertainty for each measurement by adding them together. Thus,

When multiplying and dividing, percent uncertainties should be used (not absolute

uncertainties). This is more involved (and more tedious) than for adding or subtracting, but not

necessarily more difficult. Let’s see how this works with the following example.

EXAMPLE: Calculate the moles of 3.45 ± 0.05 L of a 2.55 ± 0.01 M NaOH and write your final

answer with:

a. uncertainty (percent is assumed)

b. absolute uncertainty.

c. Correct number of significant figures.

2.55 3.45

a. Our moles can be written as (3.45 L • 2.55 mol/L) = 8.80 mol ± 0.59%

b. To calculate the absolute uncertainty, we take our percent uncertainty, divide it by 100

and then multiply by our moles. Recall, that we avoid rounding errors by rounding at the

final calculation. Thus we will multiply M • V = 3.45 L • 2.55 mol/L = 8.7975 moles and

keep all of the digits until the end.

100

14

We keep to the 1/100th place because our moles are to the 1/100th place.

Suppose we want to multiply the volume, 12.12 ± 0.05 mL by 3. We would represent that value

as

The uncertainty of one

12.12 mL •3 = 36.36 mL

measurement is very large

0.05 mL • 3 = 0.15 mL When the uncertainty of one measurement is

with the final value reported as 36.36 ± 0.15 mL so large relative to the uncertainties of the

other measurements, the uncertainty of the

If we need to divide a number (as in an average), we final calculation can be considered as arising

from this measurement with the large

divide the uncertainty as well.

uncertainty.

5

15

Answer Key

16

Self Test 11.2

1. a. 3 2. a. 3.74 mg

b. 2 b. 0.0041 g

c. 1 c. 82 mL

d. 2 d. 200,000 km

e. 4 e. 2.001 x 10-12 pL

f. 5 f. 0.012 dg

g. 2 g. 89.7 mL

h. 6

i. 4

j. 3

3. a. 14.882 g 4. a. 4.7 x 104 kg

b. 5.8137 g/mL b. 8 x 10 -4 M HCl

c. 25.6 g c. 6.75 x 108 m

d. 3.32 g d. 1.57 x 1023 pg

e. 3.407 x10-7 pL

e. 37 mm3 f. 0.0766 mg

f. 40 m2 g. 780,000 km

g. 18.5 g/cm3 h. 0.000475 cm3

i. 0.0006 g

j. 900,000,000 km

k. 602,200,000,000,000,000,000,000 mol Self Test

11.3b

1 a. 1.85%

b. 0.67%

c. 0.08%

d. 50%

e. 8.3%

f. 8%

2 a. 3.5 ± 0.4 cm

b. 16 ± 1 sec

c. 8.9 ± 0.1 g

d. 12.12 ± 0.01 cm

17

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