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IEE REVIEW

The physics of fusion welding


Part 2: Mass transfer and heat flow

J.F. Lancaster, BEng, CEng, FIM, Hon F Weld I

Indexing terms: Industrial applications of power, Arcing, Stability, Power utilisation and industrial applications, Welding

Doan and Weed [232] burnt a coated electrode on to a


The second part of the review covers mass and moving steel strip, and thereby separated the drops.
heat transfer in fusion welding, other than that Larson [233] passed a thin steel strip through the arc to
specifically related to the arc column. Metal trans- achieve the same end. Subsequently the use of this
fer is considered under the headings of flux- method has been questioned on the grounds that drops
shielded and gas-shielded processes. The major could fuse together on the collecting device.
portion of experimental work is concerned with Light cinematography has been used by many investi-
the gas-shielded processes, for which a substantial gators: for example, Hilperts [234] and Erdmann-
amount of quantitative information is available on Jesnitzer [235]. Details of the process may be seen but it
such matters as transfer modes, drop rates, drop is impossible to distinguish with certainty between slag
temperature, the effect of shielding gas and the and metal when viewing slag-shielded processes, and in
effect of pressure. The development of specialised such cases high-speed X-ray photography may be pre-
power sources for the gas metal arc process is con- ferred [236, 237]. In submerged arc welding it is possible
sidered. Flow in the weld pool has been studied to insert a ceramic tube in the groove ahead of the weld
for those cases (for example, submerged arc
welding) where it is mechanically induced, and for and make high-speed light films through the tube, which
gas tungsten arc welds where electromagnetic or melts as the weld advances [238, 239]. Indirect methods
surface tension forces may dominate. The exten- include the acoustic measurements which have been
sive literature on heat flow in the workpiece is reviewed earlier [207, 215], oscillograms of current and
briefly reviewed, and recent developments in voltage fluctuations (usually combined with other
welding process modelling are surveyed. measurements) and electronic digital recording of the
same phenomena [211].
Metal transfer modes have been classified by the Inter-
national Institute of Welding (IIW), as shown in Table 1
Part 1 of this Review (The electric arc in welding) was [7].
published in the September 1987 issue of IEE Pro-
ceedings Part B, Electric Power Applications, pp. 233-254.
Part 1 contained Sections 1-4, Figs. 1-26 and References Table 1: IIW classification of metal transfer
1-230.
Designation of Welding processes (examples)
transfer type
Free flight transfer
5 Metal transfer Globular
Drop Low current gas metal arc (GMA)
5.1 General welding
The nature of metal transfer in arc welding has been of Repelled CO2 shielded GMA welding
interest since the process was first introduced. Hudson Spray
[231] made the first cinematographic film of metal trans- Projected Intermediate-current GMA
Streaming Medium-current GMA
fer from coated electrodes (at 32 frames per second) in Rotating High-current GMA
1918. Since that time techniques have improved such that Explosive Coated electrodes
speeds of 104-2 x 104 frames per second are possible. Bridging transfer
Rehfeldt [211] has reviewed the methods that have Short-circuiting Short-arc GMA
Bridging without Welding with filler
been used and are now available for investigating the interruption wire addition
metal transfer process. These fall into three categories: Slag-protected transfer
mechanical, photographic and the measurement of sec- Flux-wall guided Submerged arc welding
ondary effects. Mechanical techniques use some method Other modes Coated electrodes, cored
for collecting individually transferred drops: for example wire, electroslag

Paper 5585B received in final form 13th February 1987. Commissioned


IEE Review. 5.2 Flux -shielded processes
The author is a consultant on materials and welding working from The Processes that use a flux share certain common features:
Cottage, Balcombe Forest, Sussex RH17, 6JY, United Kingdom for example the generation of gas through flux decompo-
IEE PROCEEDINGS, Vol. 134, Pt. B, No. 6, NOVEMBER 1987 297
sition, and the modification of surface tension forces. It is [251]. Mazel [252] considers that when welding with
therefore convenient to group these together, as does coated electrodes under optimum conditions the amount
Houldcroft in his book on welding processes [240].

5.2.1 Coated electrodes: The early work up to 1942 is 15 3.0


well summarised by Spraragen and Lengyel [1]. The
most important single factor that governs directional 2:5
transfer of metal from electrode to workpiece would 10
appear, from this review, to be the generation of gas and D 2 0

its expansion due to the heat of the arc. Such gas gener- *- 1.5
ation may occur outside the electrode or inside the liquid
drop of steel at the electrode tip. In the latter case the 1.0
drop bursts, scattering droplets towards the weld pool;
alternatively it may expand until it touches the weld pool, 0.5
causing a short-circuit [241]. When welding in the over-
head position, most metal transfer takes place during the oL
TiO2 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
period of short-circuits [234]. Erdmann-Jesnitzer et al. °/o of CaF2 in mixture
[242] confirmed that bubbles may form in the drop at
the electrode tip, and that such bubbles were due to Fig. 27 Relationship between electrode coating composition, transfer
rate n and drop mass mfor coated electrodes with 8 mm core wire; DC
carbon monoxide formation. Exploding drops have also electrode positive [248]
been observed in pulsed-arc GMA welding; in this case current = 350A, voltage = 32V
the droplets so formed are either deposited on the work- coating: TiO 2 CaF 2 mixture + 10% ferromanganese, 4% ferrosilicon, 2% cellu-
piece as spatter or reformed into a single drop [243]. lose, 4% mica
core wire diameter = 8 mm
Erdmann-Jesnitzer and Pysz [244] studied the cause of
spatter in welding with coated electrodes and found that
in certain cases at least it originated from the weld pool, of metal transferred by drops in free flight is unimpor-
and was caused by CO formation which generated tant, and the bulk of the metal transfers during short-
exploding bubbles. On the other hand, Klimant [245] circuits. Fig. 28 shows how the frequency of
made simultaneous high-speed X-ray and light films of
transfer from rutile-coated electrodes, and found little
evidence of bubble formation. In Klimant's work the
electrode was fully deoxidised.
The size, mass and other characteristics of metal drops 8. 20
transferred from coated electrodes have been determined
by many investigators, using the mechanical technique,
15
high speed cinematography and other means [245-253].
Van der Willigen and Defize examined high-speed films
and obtained frequency histograms for drops of various 10
sizes [246]. As a rule, electrodes with rutile coatings
produce relatively fine drops whereas the transfer from
basic coated electrodes is in the form of relatively large
diameter drops [246, 247]. When the coating is com-
pounded using a mixture of calcium fluoride and tita- 20 25 30 35
nium dioxide, the drop size increases as the CaF2/TiO2 arc voltage, V
ratio increases [247]. At the same time the drop rate Fig. 28 Effect of the rated arc voltage, when welding with electrodes
(number of large drops transferring per second) decreases with single-component coverings, on the number of short circuits [252]
(Fig. 27) [248]. The drop rate also increases in propor- 9 electrode positive
tion to the current density in the core wire. Drop rates • electrode negative
for electrodes with a different coating composition plot in
a similar way, but with a different gradient [249]. In
welding with coated electrodes, the drop rate is much short-circuiting increases as the arc voltage (i.e. the arc
higher than would be expected from a comparison with length) decreases. However, the work in question was
either gas-shielded or submerged arc welding using the carried out using light cinematography, whereas Klimant
same diameter wire [7]. Burnoff rates calculated from [245] found that in many cases apparent short-circuits
mean drop rate multiplied by mean drop mass for elec- consisted of slag which bridged between electrode and
trode negative are in the range 2.5-3 x 10" 6 kg/As workpiece, and that voltage peaks, interpretable as being
regardless of the type of coating [250]. Yoshida et al due to reignition, could result from the formation of a
found, from the examination of high-speed films, that double arc. Buschoff [253] also found that transfer from
metal transfer from coated electrodes fell into three cate- rutile-coated electrodes was in the form of relatively
gories: globular, spray and explosive. Drops had an coarse drops. In this investigation the voltage/arc length
initial velocity on detachment ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 characteristic was determined. The cathode fall was esti-
m/s. The drops were accelerated in transferring across the mated to be about 11 V, and the anode fall 6-8 V.
arc, and the gas velocity calculated from the acceleration Conn [8] developed an 'undulatory' theory according
was 250, 200 and 180 m/s for cellulosic, rutile and basic to which metal transfers from the electrode in a form
coated electrodes, respectively. These velocities are about akin a string of pearls [254], but Klimant found no evi-
three times the amount that would be calculated for an dence to support this view [245]. Based on an exami-
electromagnetically induced jet and the flow was con- nation of such high-speed X-ray films, Becken concluded
sidered to result from decomposition of the coating that pressure at the arc root due to vapourisation caused
298 IEE PROCEEDINGS, Vol. 134, Pt. B, No. 6, NOVEMBER 1987
oscillation of the liquid metal at the electrode tip, project sideways to collide with the bubble of molten flux
resulting eventually in drop detachment or short-circuit surrounding the arc, and then transfer to the weld pool
[15]. Both Mazel [252] and Becken [15] conclude that through the flux [239, 256]. The bubble of molten flux
electromagnetic forces play only a subsidiary role in periodically bursts, reforms and expands [258, 259]. The
metal transfer from coated electrodes. nature of the flux (which can be acid or basic) affects the
character of the drop transfer only slightly; similarly the
5.2.2 Submerged arc welding: The submerged arc formation of carbon monoxide in liquid steel drops has
process was investigated using oscillographs by Paton little effect [239]. Increasing arc voltage causes a modest
and his colleagues [255], and it was determined to be an increase in drop mass and decrease in drop rate.
arc welding process and that metal transfer was by dis- As will be seen below, metal transfer in submerged arc
crete drops. Franz observed metal transfer through a welding is generally similar in character to that in gas-
ceramic tube [238, 239] as did van Adrichem [256], shielded metal arc welding; however, the streaming mode
whereas Pokhodnya and Kostenko [257], and Eichhorn of transfer has not been observed, although Pokhodnya
and his colleagues [258-261] used X-ray cinemato- and Kostenko consider that it is possible [257]. Electro-
graphy. Fig. 29 shows the arrangement used by Franz magnetic forces, combined with the 'arc force' are con-
sidered to be dominant factors affecting metal transfer in
(vii) (v i i i) (ix) (x) submerged arc welding [239].
The possible effect of surface tension between metal
and slag has been considered by workers from the Paton
Welding Institute, Kiev [262, 263]. Surface tension was
measured by the drop weight method, giving a mean
value of 1.12 N/m for steel in air and 0.87-0.905 N/m for
steel in the type of slag used in electroslag welding. The
effect of adding chromium and vanadium to the steel was
also investigated, as it is known that the presence of these
elements may make the slag more difficult to detach after
(vi) submerged arc welding. It was found that the interphase
(v) (iv)
tension was reduced by such additions to between 0.6
(iii)
and 0.7 N/m, and it was suggested that such a reduction,
by promoting wetting of the weld surface by the slag,
Fig. 29 Method of examining metal transfer in submerged arc welding could have the observed effect on detachability [263].
[238]
(i) workpiece (ii) bubble of molten flux (iii) ceramic tube (iv) gas inlet (v) polarisa-
tion filter (vi) camera objective (vii) flux (viii) electrode (ix) weld pool (x) slag
5.2.3 Flux-cored arc welding: In this process the flux is
contained within a tubular steel sheath. The sheath may
and by van Adrichem. Work prior to 1965 is reviewed by be made from flat strip, and some of the typical cross-
Franz [238]. sections are illustrated in Fig. 31 [264]. A limited number
The character of drop formation and transfer depends
on the polarity of the electrode. When this is negative a area of metal
name of cross section diameter
large drop of irregular shape forms at the electrode tip, wire of wire of wire,
whereas with electrode positive the tip becomes conical mm (mm 2 ) ratio, %>
and small drops are formed and detached in a fairly
regular manner [238, 257]. Increasing current causes the
A o 1.6 1.45 72

drop size to decrease and the drop rate to increase: Fig.


30 shows drop rate for electrode positive with 3, 4 and 5
mm-diameter electrodes [239]. When drops detach they
B
o 2.0 1.92 61

C 2.0 1.90 60
may travel in free flight to the weld pool or they may

80
NA

Fig. 31
o 2.0 1.95 62

Cross-sections and diameter of flux-cored wires tested by


60 Ushio et al. [264]

of investigations of metal transfer from such electrodes


have been made [264-267]. Ushio et al. [264] used the
types of wire shown in Fig. 31 with CO2 shielding. The
I 20 flux was of the rutile (titanium dioxide) type. With a
direct current of 230 A and electrode positive, the sheath
and flux melted together and transferred as single drops.
E 0 At a higher current (380 A) the sheath melted first such
200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 that solid flux projected into the weld pool. Drops
welding current, A
formed on the side and were projected nonaxially. With
Fig. 30 Mean drop rate as a function of welding current for sub- electrode negative the metal sheath always melted prefer-
merged arc welding [239] entially so that flux and metal transferred separately to
Voltage 3O-33V, welding speed-0.33 mm/s, position polarity the weld pool and metal drops projected nonaxially.
(i) electrode diameter = 3 mm
(ii) electrode diameter = 4 mm Typical burnoff (melting) rates for the 1.6 mm diameter
(iii) electrode diameter = 5 mm wire were 1.3 x 10 " 6 kg/As with electrode positive and
IEE PROCEEDINGS, Vol. 134, Pt. B, No. 6, NOVEMBER 1987 299
1.8 x 10 6 kg/As for electrode negative. The burnoff uity in the drop rate at the threshold. The burnoff rate is
rates for electrode negative were, for any given current, higher below the threshold, and it has been suggested
always higher [264]. Melting rates for stainless steel flux- that this could be due to a lower mean drop temperature
cored wires increased as the electrical resistance of the in the larger subthreshold drops, associated with convec-
wire increased [265] and where iron powder was tional heat transfer in the drop [274]. Needham's work
included in the flux, a higher proportion of iron powder has been repeated with a solid-state power source
reduced the burnoff rate [266]. Morigaki et al. found that capable of maintaining a constant current output and it
the diameter of transferred drops was reduced by increas- has been found that there is no discontinuity in the drop
ing the complexity of the metal section, by reducing the rate/current plot [275]. However, there is a discontinuity
wire diameter and by increasing the proportion of vola- in the wire feed speed/current curve, and plotting these
tile elements in the flux [267]. data as a function of wire feed speed gives a curve very
similar to Fig. 31.
5.3 Gas -shielded processes Pintard [139, 276] examined the metal transfer mode
5.3.1 Transfer modes — electrode positive: Numerous for the GMA process with a steel electrode of 1.2 mm
investigations of the character of metal transfer in inert diameter and measured drop mass, anode root size,
gas shielded welding have been made [268-284] and initial velocity, initial acceleration of drops, and the
Cooksey and Milner in particular covered a wide spec- further acceleration of drops across the arc for the
trum of metal/gas combinations [268]. The transfer current range 60-220 A. At all currents the drops pos-
sessed an initial velocity relative to the wire, and an
modes have been classified, as noted above, by the Inter- initial acceleration, prior to detachment. For currents of
national Institute of Welding [7]. This type of classi- 140 A and below, the initial acceleration was below that
fication has been critically examined by Dilthey [269] due to gravity but both velocity and acceleration
and by Ruckdesche [270] and has been discussed in rela- increased rapidly above this level (Fig. 33). At currents of
tion to the possibility of fusion welding in space by Hoff-
meister and Rudiger [271, 272].
Needham [273] investigated the GMA process with a 0.5 -

1.6 mm diameter aluminium wire. The plot of drop rate


against wire feed speed (Fig. 32) shows a 'subthreshold'
. 0.4
500

o
200 ^ 0.3

100
0.2

50

0.1
20

10
0 50 100 150 200
welding current, A

Fig. 3 3 Initial velocity of drops relative to that of the electrode wire:


GMA welding with a 1.2 mm diameter steel wire [139]

2 -
190 A and above the arc root covered the whole drop
surface before detachment, and above this current the
1 - electrode developed a conical tip [139]. Ando and Nishi-
guchi showed that under such conditions the solid-liquid
interface was also conical, and concluded that the conical
0.5 -
formation was caused by radial heat flow due to spread
of the arc root up the electrode [277].
At still higher currents there is a transition to stream-
0.2 ing transfer in which a tapering column of liquid projects
20 30 50 100
electrode feed r a t e , mm/s
from the electrode tip, and eventually breaks up into a
spray of fine drops. The transition current increases with
Fig. 3 2 Drop frequency for a 1.6 mm diameter aluminium wire in electrode diameter and decreases as the length of elec-
argon [273]
trode projecting beyond the contact tube (the stickout)
(i) projected small droplet transfer
(ii) subthreshold large globular transfer increases. At still higher currents the liquid column col-
lapses into a rotating spiral [277].
region where drops were relatively large, and detached For a steel electrode the drop rate increases sharply
gravitationally, and a 'normal' region, where the drops with current. Lesnewich [278] found a sharp discontin-
were projected from the electrode tip, with a discontin- uity in the drop rate at the transition between globular
300 IEE PROCEEDINGS, Vol. 134, Pt. B, No. 6, NOVEMBER 1987
and spray transfer, but Ludwig [279] obtained a contin- obtained the specific gravity and hence, using standard
uous curve. Fig. 34 shows drop rate and burnoff rate as data, the mean temperature. For steel this was found to
determined for a 1.2 mm diameter steel wire using a con- increase from 1900 K at 60 A to 2830 K at 150 A [139].

100 140 180 220 260 300 340 380 420 460
arc current, A
Fig. 34 Influence of current and electrode extension on burnoff rate and metal transfer frequency using 1.2 mm mild steel in an argon/5% CO2 shield
[280]
A Q O burnoff rate • (i) region A: globular
A • • detachment frequency (ii) region B:fineglobules/projected spray
A A electrode stickout, / = 20 mm (iii) drop spray
• • / = 10 mm (iv) region C: stream spray
• O ' = 5 mm nominal arc length = 5 mm

stant current power source [280]. The drop rate against Villeminot [286] measured the surface temperature of
current curves are continuous and the transfer modes are steel drops in the current range 10-90 A and found steep
not necessarily clearly defined. Needham et al. deter- temperature gradients at the drop tip and adjacent to the
mined the terminal velocity of drops in the GM A welding fusion boundary, with zero gradient in the central zone.
of various metals [281]. The cone that formed at 260 A, however, was close to the
GMA welding is normally performed with a wire boiling point at the tip, with a constant gradient down to
having a diameter of 1.0 to 1.6 mm, but Watanabe et al. the fusion boundary. Measurements were made for both
[282] describe the transfer modes achieved with a 4 mm electrode positive and electrode negative (Fig. 36), and as
wire shielded with argon-carbon dioxide mixtures. The will be seen, the drop temperature with electrode negative
effect of arc voltage is shown in Fig. 35. At low voltages is consistently lower than for electrode positive.
(short arcs) the electrode stubs into the workpiece; as the Jelmorini et al. [285] measured temperatures by
voltage (arc length) increases the transfer passes through allowing drops to impinge directly on a thermocouple,
the short-circuiting and then into free flight modes. This and for steel obtained a value of 2400°C which varied
diagram suggests that the drop rate against current curve little with current in the range 100-200 A. Most other
will be displaced in the direction of higher current as the measurements have been made by calorimetry, [287-289]
arc voltage increases. and have yielded results, for carbon steel, in the range
2000-2700°C. Maruo and Hirata [289] estimate that the
5.3.2 Transfer modes — electrode negative: The effect drop temperature at 300 A is only 2000-2200°C; other-
of making a normal steel electrode cathodic is similar to wise, recent work would suggest that the results shown in
that observed in submerged arc welding; the drop at the Fig. 36 are about right, possibly a little high.
electrode tip becomes large and misshapen, and tends to Ando and Nishiguchi found that the mean tem-
climb up the electrode. Welding under such conditions is perature of aluminium drops in GMA welding ranged
not practicable. However, if the wire has a relatively thin from 1800°C at 100 A (below the threshold) to 2200°C at
coating of an alkali or alkaline-earth metal salt, the elec- 200 A (above the threshold) [290]. The variation of drop
trode melting and metal transfer is similar to that with temperature as a function of arc length has been mea-
the electrode positive [91, 278]. Thin coatings mainly sured for pure aluminium. With long arcs it was 1800°C,
affect cathode processes, but larger amounts may modify at intermediate lengths 1200°C, and in the short-
the behaviour of the arc column [283]. Increased pres- circuiting mode, close to the melting point [291]. Like
sure has the effect of constricting the arc root area and at steel, cupronickel drops formed at low current (30 A) had
0.5 MPa it is restricted to the tip of the electrode and a mean temperature just above the melting point, and
normal metal transfer is possible [284]. rose to 190O-230O°C at 300 A [292].
The burnoff rates due to arc heating for a number of
metals and arc atmospheres have been summarised by
5.3.3 Drop temperature and the melting (burnoff) Lancaster [7]. With electrode positive the variation in
rate: Drop temperature measurements in GMA welding different atmospheres is remarkably small [293, 294]. Of
have been reviewed by Jelmorini et al. [285]. From mea- the metals tested, copper appears to have the highest, and
surements of drop volume and drop mass, Pintard aluminium the lowest, burnoff rate; steel is slightly higher
IEE PROCEEDINGS, Vol. 134, Pt. B, No. 6, NOVEMBER 1987 301
than aluminium. Tarasov [295] obtained similar results [299]. The amount of this contribution has been calcu-
at low currents (15-30 A), but found that the burnoff rate lated and compared with measured values [299-301].
decreased with increasing electrode diameter. Waszink and Van den Heuvel [208] found that the elec-
trical resistance of the stickout varies only slightly with
current, an increase in Joule heating being compensated
by an increase in melting rate.
The burnoff rate for electrical negative is higher than
35 for electrode positive except in the case of coated
(activated) steel. This could, in part, be accounted for by
the lower drop temperature [286], but it will be recalled
that measurements of the cathode heat on the surface of
a steel plate gave relatively low values [95].
o
a (vi)
5.3.4 Effect of shielding gas: Pure argon or helium is
1 25 used as a shielding gas for the GMA welding of non-
u ferrous metals, but in the case of carbon and alloy steel it
O
is necessary to add an oxidising gas to argon to restrict
20 movement of the cathode arc root (See Section 2.4.2). The
transfer mode is not greatly affected provided that the
proportion of oxidising gas is not too high [278].
However, additions of oxygen may reduce the current at
500 600 700 800 900 1000 which the transition to streaming transfer occurs [292].
welding current, A In high-current GMA welding, the CO 2 content of the
Fig. 3 5 Relationship between droplet transfer, welding current, and gas was found to have a more complex effect on tran-
arc voltage [282] sitions between the various transfer modes [282]. The
Shielding gas: Ar + 25% C O 2 ; welding speed = 600 mm/min; L = 20 mm effect of different gas mixtures on steel electrodes of
(i) globular and projected various diameters has been investigated, and changes in
(ii) projected and streaming
(iii) streaming the transfer mode were associated with changes in the
(iv) instant short circuiting shape of the luminous region of the arc [302].
(v) stubbing
(vi) short circuiting
CO 2 is a cheaper alternative to argon-oxygen or
(vii) globular argon-C0 2 mixtures as a shielding gas in GMA welding.
GMA welding with a 4 mm diameter steel wire However, the free flight transfer mode is unfavourable,
because the drop is repelled away from the workpiece,
3.Or
and directional control of transfer is lost [268, 303].
Repulsion of the drop has been variously ascribed to the
lack of plasma streaming in CO 2 [268, 303], to electro-
magnetic effects [269] and to the reaction force resulting
2.5
from fumes emitted by the drop [304]. Control of metal
transfer in CO 2 shielded GMA welding is normally
achieved by using a short arc and thereby obtaining
short circuit transfer [303] (see Section 5.3.6). However,
there may still be an undesirable amount of spatter, and
- 2.0
this may be reduced by pulsed arc welding, adjusting the
conditions to obtain one drop per pulse (Fig. 37) [305].
Spray transfer has been obtained with CO 2 shielding by
using activated wires [306].
Nitrogen has been used experimentally for gas shield-
1.5 ing for GMA welding with a copper wire (the solubility
of nitrogen in copper is very low). Cooksey and Milner
[268] found that the drop was repelled in nitrogen;
however, Young was able to obtain regular globular
transfer in the nitrogen-shielded welding of copper. No
1.0 transition to spray transfer was found up to 450 A and
100 200 300 welding was only possible in the flat position [307].
welding current, A Kiyohara et al. [291] identified a 'mesa-spray' transfer
Fig. 36 Drop temperature as measured pyrometrically for metal trans- mode at intermediate arc lengths in the GMA welding of
fer in argon-shielded GMA welding using a 1.2 mm diameter carbon steel aluminium. The transfer in this mode appears to be
electrode. After Villeminot [286] similar to the 'normal' mode as designated by Needham
electrode positive
electrode negative
[273]. Explosive transfer has been observed in GMA
welding with aluminium-magnesium wires in a 75% He
25% Ar shielding gas. The explosive effect was due to
The electrode stickout contributes to the total heating
effect due to its electrical resistance and the total burnoff selective vapourisation of magnesium [308].
rate b is given by [278, 296]. 5.3.5 Effect of pressure: The effect of above-
b = ccl + ft x (stickout) x / : atmospheric ambient pressure on the GMA process
(4) has received a limited amount of attention [203-205]
Values of a and fi have been obtained by various investi- and the subject was reviewed by Allum in 1983 [200].
gators [278, 284, 297, 298]. The contribution of resistance The effect of increased pressure in limiting the mobility of
heating to the burnoff rate is significant for steel wires cathode spots on the electrode and permitting directional
302 IEE PROCEEDINGS, Vol. 134, Pt. B, No. 6, NOVEMBER 1987
metal transfer has already been noted (Section 5.3.2). 5.3.6 Short-circuiting transfer: Short-circuiting occurs
Increasing pressure increases the current for the tran- when the growing drop at the electrode tip contacts the
sition from projected to streaming transfer from about weld pool before it has grown to the size at which it
would normally detach; in other words, when the arc is
short and arc voltage low. Fig. 39 shows the short-circuit
150r

Jtl
100

10 15 20
peak current duration Tp , ms
50
Fig. 37 Reduction of spattering loss by the use ofCO2 pulsed welding
[305]
O /„ = 500 A
D lp = 450 A
• / = 250 A (CP)
CO 2 pulse welding; mild steel wire (1.2 mm diameter);

250 A at 0.1 MPa to over 300 A at 0.5 MPa. The burnoff 10 20 30


rate is little affected by pressure with electrode positive open-circuit voltage, V
but with electrode negative it is reduced quite sharply as Fig. 39 Short-circuit transfer frequency curve for 1.19 mm diameter
the ambient pressure increases (Fig 38) [284]. The drop wire showing typical oscillograms for different zones of voltage [303]

frequency as a function of arc voltage for CO 2 shielded


GMA welding [303].
On the left-hand side of the diagram stubbing occurs,
and on the right the transfer is almost entirely in the free
flight mode. With a constant potential type transformer-
rectifier power source, an inductance is connected in
series with the supply circuit to limit the rate of rise of
the short-circuit current and minimise spatter due to
explosive reignition of the arc. There is an optimum value
of the inductance (and, correspondingly of the time con-
stant of the circuit) for smooth welding operation [303].
The physics of short-circuiting transfer has been
studied by a few authors [310-312]. Bless [310] con-
siders that there is a critical drop size which varies with
the capillary constant. Drops larger than the critical size
are absorbed by the weld pool, whereas smaller drops
may form a stable meniscus. However, electromag-
netically induced streaming can make an otherwise stable
meniscus unstable. Zaruba [311], and Lebedev et al.
U 6
ambient gas pressure, MPa [312] have calculated the heat liberated during the short-
circuit/ period, and have compared the results with mea-
Fig. 38 Burnoff rate of carbon steel wire in argon-shielded GM
welding as a function of ambient pressure
sured values. The limiting current for short-circuiting
current = 350 A, wire stickout = 23 mm: streaming transfer
transfer was calculated as a function of drop size and
After Nishiguchi and Matsunawa [284] surface tension [312]. Other authors have obtained for-
• — • electrode negative mulas to describe the dynamics of rupture of the liquid
# — • electrode positive
metal bridge following a short-circuit [313]
rate as a function of pressure in the GMA welding of 5.3.7 Power source developments and pulsed GMA
aluminium was measured by Amson and Salter [309]. welding: In normal GMA welding the wire feed speed is
For a 1.6 mm diameter wire and a wire feed speed of 0.1 set at a constant rate and advantage is taken of the self-
m/s with electrode positive, the drop rate increased from adjusting property of the arc, whereby as the arc length
about 80 drops/s at 13 kPa to nearly 500 drops/s at 0.2 decreases the burnoff rate increases and vice versa [314,
MPa. In the same range the burnoff rate decreased from 315]. Self-adjustment is improved by the use of'constant
2.7 x 10 ~6 kg/As to 2.0 x 10" 6 kg/As. potential' power sources which generate relatively large
1EE PROCEEDINGS, Vol. 134, Pt. B, No. 6, NOVEMBER 1987 303
changes of current for relatively small changes of arc Between these extremes one pulse-one transfer is possible
length and therefore arc voltage [280]. In manual [289]. Transfer may also occur outside the peak and this
welding with coated electrodes or using the tungsten-arc may be beneficial in welding aluminium [319, 320]. In
process, on the other hand, it is required that inadvertent general, however, one transfer per pulse is preferred, and
changes in arc length do not produce large current fluc- results in minimum spatter [289]. One transfer per pulse
tuations and thereby alter (for example) the degree of is obtained when l2p tp = constant, where Ip and tp are the
penetration. It has been suggested that the same argu- peak current and duration, respectively [280]. The
ment could apply to GMA welding, and that there would optimum shielding gas is Ar + 5% CO 2 . The burnoff
be an advantage in operating at constant current [280]. rate is proportional to the mean current, and is
A constant current supply is possible with the solid-state 2.8 x 10 ~6 kg/As for zero wire extension (stickout) with
power sources referred to earlier [58, 59] but the self- various average current levels and pulse frequency. This
adjusting property of the arc is lost and arc length must figure is the same as for continuous current operation
be controlled by a feedback system which modulates the [289]. Allum and Quintino have examined the effect of
wire feed speed [280]. Power sources incorporating such process variables on penetration [321] and have devel-
systems have been termed (somewhat imprecisely) 'syn- oped a simple model for the thermal balance [322].
ergic', and have been used for constant current GMA Fusion characteristics have a practical significance
welding and pulsed arc welding [316]. because the pulsed-current process, like short-circuiting
Pulsed arc welding was developed to extend the use of CO2 shielded welding, may be subject to lack of fusion
the GMA process to lower current ranges where the defects if the welding variables are not properly con-
metal transfer was normally globular, and process trolled [321].
control was inadequate [317]. However, in the earlier Waszink and Piena [323] examined the process of
version of the process, the current waveform was sinus- necking and drop detachment in pulse arc welding and
oidal although variable frequency was possible [318]. found that, as with steady current, drops had an initial
Development of transistor-controlled power sources has velocity and acceleration, and were further accelerated in
removed such limitations and made possible a variation crossing the arc. Prior to detachment, the area of the
of pulse frequency, amplitude and waveform over a wide neck diminished in proportion to time
range [280]. Control of metal transfer in GMA welding may also
Transfer modes obtainable in pulsed current operation be achieved by applying a pulse motion to the wire feed
are illustrated in Fig. 40. With high peak currents and mechanism thereby shaking the drop off the electrode tip
at the required frequency [324].

5.3.8 Theory of metal transfer in GMA welding: Theo-


ries of metal transfer in GMA welding fall into two main
'b —• categories, those that rely on an equilibrium of the static
electromagnetic, gravitational and surface tension forces,
and those based on the theory of instability in cylindrical
fluids. These two categories will be reviewed in turn.
Green [325] assumed a spherical drop at the electrode
tip, with an 'active electrode area' carrying the arc
current at constant current density, and based on this
geometry, calculated the electromagnetic force acting on
the drop as a whole. The effect of this force is to increase
the apparent density of the liquid metal, and hence
reduce the size of the drop that can be supported by
surface tension forces. A graphical method was used to
construct drop profiles and hence obtain drop size as a
function of the material properties, and the point of mar-
ginal stability was found by matching the calculated
profile with the electrode radius. Voropai and Kolesni-
chenko [326] developed a similar method of calculating
drop profiles. Amson found that the drop shape as
observed, for example, in high-speed films could be rep-
resented by a few geometric forms, for each of which the
electromagnetic force could be calculated. These configu-
rations are static and cannot describe the development
and motion of the drop, so Cram [327] has used a 1-
dimensional model, taking account of surface tension and
gravitational forces only, in which the fluid has an axial
velocity. Profiles obtained by a numerical method show
the development of a bulbous drop with an elongated
Fig. 4 0 Schematic representation of pulsed metal transfer [289] neck.
a Pulsed spray transfer Waszink and Graat [328] used the plasma-MIG
b One pulse-one droplet transfer process [329], where it is possible to vary the current
c Pulsed drop transfer carried by the wire electrode over a wide range, to
measure the gravitational and drag force (due to shield-
duration spray transfer develops during the peak period ing gas) on the drop, and by subtracting these from the
and a number of drops transfer. Low peak currents and retention force due to surface tension, obtain the electro-
short durations lead to transfer after several cycles. magnetic force. A plot of the figures so obtained is shown
304 IEE PROCEEDINGS, Vol. 134, Pt. B, No. 6, NOVEMBER 1987
in Fig. 41. Also shown are the results of calculations of It has been suggested that rotating transfer, which is
the electromagnetic force using the formula developed by observed in high-current GMA and plasma-MIG
Greene [325] together with the result of Pintard [139] welding is due to a kink instability [336]. Basler [339]
found that in the presence of a longitudinal magnetic
field the transition to rotating transfer was shifted to a
lower current level, as would be expected from Murty's
analysis. However, rotating transfer has also been attrib-
uted to softening of the electrode wire combined with
axial pressure from the arc [278, 340].
Needham et al. [281] proposed that high-velocity
plasma jets acted on the drop to detach it and propel it
across the arc. Amson and Salter considered that about
half the detaching force was due to aerodynamic drag
and half to electromagnetic forces [309]. Paton and
Sheiko analyse drop transfer as an equilibrium between
surface tension and electromagnetic force [341].
Another factor that could affect metal transfer is pres-
sure in the arc column. Mechev and Sychev [342] have
made calculations for CO 2 shielded GMA welding that
indicate a fall in arc pressure as the molten drop grows,
and the authors suggest that such a change would facili-
tate transfer.
100 150 200 250
current, A

Fig. 41 Forces acting on the drop at an electrode tip [328] 6 The weld pool
surface tension
— • — calculated electromagnetic force 6.1 General
V—V electromagnetic force The form and behaviour of the molten weld pool in arc
A—A drag force welding is influenced by surface tension, which may
• — D gravitational force
determine the profile of the reinforcement bead [343],
and of the penetration or root bead [344]. If there is a
for anode spot size. The electromagnetic force is negative gradient of surface tension on the weld pool surface this
at low values of the current because the anode spot diam- may generate flow [345, 346]. Flow may also be gener-
eter is smaller than that of the wire. Agreement between ated mechanically due to the presence of a cavity or
measurement and theory is good for currents up to 160 depression in the weld pool surface [160]. Alternatively
A, i.e. in the globular transfer range. flow may result from the electromagnetic force associated
A second method of dealing with the problem of drop with divergent current flow lines [144] or from the drag
detachment is to use the theory of instability in cylin- of the electromagnetically induced jet in the arc column
drical systems, first developed by Rayleigh [330], later by [169]. As a rule, the form of the pool and the character of
Chandrasekhar [331] and applied to the case of a current the flow depend on the welding process used, and this
carrying liquid cylinder by Murty [332, 333]. An oscil- Section is subdivided accordingly.
lating perturbation is applied to the cylindrical surface,
and the conditions under which the perturbation will 6.2 Flux -shielded processes
grow are expressed in a dispersion equation, from which
the critical wavelength for instability and the time con- 6.2.1 Coated electrodes: The presence of a depression
stant for the system may be obtained. A linear approx- in the weld pool surface below the arc in welding steel
imation is used, such that the theory is strictly applicable with coated electrodes has been known for many years,
only to small perturbations. In the absence of an electri- and was the subject of a number of papers by Doan and
cal current, the only unstable mode is a radial pinch, but his colleagues [159, 347]. The depression or crater was
with an axial electric current in a longitudinal magnetic considered then (as it is today) to be due to the stagna-
field, higher unstable modes are possible [333]. One such tion pressure of gases generated at the electrode tip.
mode is the kink instability, in which the cylinder col- Doan also suggested that a reduction of surface tension
lapses into a spiral, and the existence of this mode was at the centre of the weld pool contributed to this effect
demonstrated by Dattner using a falling column of [159, 347]. Berent and Minkoff [160] showed that in the
mercury [334]. Allum has extended Murty's analysis to case of a rutile coated electrode with a welding current of
the case of a viscous cylinder carrying a surface charge of 160 A, and a basic-coated rod at 188 A, the crater was
electricity. For liquid metals it is found that viscosity has nearly the same depth as the final weld penetration. They
a very small effect and may be ignored [335]. postulated the flow pattern shown in Fig. 42.
One way in which this theory may be applied to the Razmyshlyaev [348] has calculated the flow rate of
case of metal transfer is to assume that the drop at the liquid metal at the leading edge of a weld pool containing
electrode tip will grow until its length is approximately a crater, taking account of electromagnetic forces,
equal to the minimum wavelength for instability in a gravity, arc pressure and viscosity. The maximum veloc-
cylinder of equivalent radius [336, 337]. From this ity so obtained is two orders of magnitude higher than
assumption it is possible to calculate the drop size and the welding speed. The thickness of the film of liquid
drop transfer rate [337], and to obtain an order-of- metal below the crater depends on the welding variables.
magnitude estimate of the initial velocity and acceler-
ation of drops [336]. Cech has explored the possibility of 6.2.2 Submerged arc welding: The flow pattern in sub-
applying Murty's results to GMA welding in a similar merged arc welding pools has been investigated by
manner [338]. Eichorn and Engel [349] and Mori and Horii [350]. Fig.
1EE PROCEEDINGS, Vol. 134, Pt. B, No. 6, NOVEMBER 1987 305
43 illustrates the results. A crater is formed at the forward 6.3 Gas -shielded processes
edge of the pool and liquid flows backward along the
fusion boundary and then forward across the surface. 6.3.1 Electromagnetic effects: Under conditions where
the depression in the weld pool surface is not sufficiently
deep to determine the pattern of flow, as, for example, in
GTA welding at low and moderate currents, electromag-
netic forces may have a significant effect. This effect may
be direct causing either a toroidal or a spinning type of
flow [354-357, 359] or it may be indirect, as when the
drag force of a plasma jet impinging obliquely on the
metal surface is dominant [169, 360, 361]. Such drag
forces are characteristic of high-current, high-speed auto-
matic GTA welding and may cause severe distortion of
the weld bead profile [169, 361].
Kublanov and Erokhin [354] simulated electromag-
netically induced toroidal flow by passing an electric
current from an electrode into a basin containing liquid
gallium. The flow pattern and velocity were determined.
liquid
It was observed by these authors and also by Lawson
and Kerr [357] that the liquid surface was depressed
around the current source; this effect has also been pre-
Fig. 42 Melting process dicted theoretically [7, 145, 362]. Other authors have
a Without crater. The extent of the liquid/solid boundary is determined in the yy used mercury to simulate the weld pool. In earlier work a
direction by transfer of heat through the liquid bath. Any increase of penetration clearly defined toroidal flow pattern was not obtained;
in the yy direction requires excess heat expenditure on the pool
b With crater. Travel of the arc implies continuous melting off of a strip xx and instead eddies were observed near the electrode [355] or
transfer to x'x'. An increment in depth may be obtained without heating an excess the pool developed a spin [355]. BojareviSs and Scherb-
depth of liquid [160]
inin [356] report tests in which an insulated water cooled
electrode was used to introduce electric current to the
surface of a hemispherical bowl of mercury. In the first
set of experiments, the electrode pointed downwards, and
at low currents a toroidal flow directed inwards across
the surface was obtained. At currents above about 15 A,
however, this flow was accompanied by a rotation, as
observed by Woods and Milner [355]. Tests were also
made with the electrode passing upwards through the
original bath of mercury but again discharging the current at the
plate
surface surface. In this case a stable toroidal flow was set up
Fig. 4 3 Typical flow pattern in submerged arc welding pool [349]
directed outwards across the surface, and when a rota-
For clarity the electrode has been omitted from this diagram
tional flow was mechanically induced, it soon died out
[356]. Lawson and Kerr used tracer metals to show the
flow pattern in aluminium and steel GTA weld pools
[357], and determined the fusion boundary as an indica-
Submerged arc welding is an automatic process usually tion of flow in moderate to high speed GTA welding
operated at high current, and the weld pool is relatively [358]. The results of the second set of tests were inter-
large and elongated. preted as showing the effects of drag from the plasma jet.
The submerged arc process is also used for overlay The flow pattern was similar to that determined by Brad-
welding with a strip electrode, thereby depositing a rela- street.
tively wide weld bead on the surface of the backing At currents over 200 A, a depression forms in the weld
material. Nishiguchi and collaborators calculated the pool surface; hot metal from the leading edge of the pool
form of the meniscus of a 2-dimensional weld pool of this flows around the depression to the rear of the weld pool,
type [351], and have also made a numerical analysis of forming two parallel longitudinal channels. In a number
the 3-dimensional problem [352]. of cases the pool was deeper at the rear than at the front
This work is summarised by Matsunawa [343]. The and this was interpreted as being due to trapping of the
2-dimensional analysis results in an expression for the superheated metal at the rear of the pool due to the pres-
surface profile in terms of elliptic integrals, and indicates sure of the crater [358].
that there is a maximum height for the liquid weld bead, Flow from a point source of current in a hemispherical
depending on the contact angle between deposit and container was considered theoretically by Sozou and
plate surface. The contact angle, in turn, depends on the Pickering for the case of a dense, viscous fluid. As with
relationship between the bead width and the volume of earlier investigations of such flows in a semi-infinite
metal it contains. Fig. 44 shows the relationship between medium, singularities appeared in the solution at low
bead width and height. The profile of horizontal-vertical values of the current [363]. Ignoring inertia effects, and
welds has been calculated in terms of the capillary con- assuming a uniform current source of finite dimensions
stant for various values of the weld width and cross- and a container of hemispheroidal form, a positive result
sectional area [353]. is obtained [362]. With an electrode of relatively large
Nishiguchi et al. have calculated the profile of fillet diameter and a relatively shallow container, it is found
welds using a 2-dimensional approximation and have that eddies form at the edge of the electrode (Fig. 45). The
determined the relationship between leg length and presence of eddies near the edge of a shallow, developing
volume for the optimum weld bead shape [352]. GTA weld pool may be inferred from work done by Ishi-
306 1EE PROCEEDINGS, Vol. 134, Pt. B, No. 6, NOVEMBER 1987
zaki and his colleagues [7, 364, 365]. Andrews and conducting fluid (flow of this type is also called poloidal
Craine used a system of notional current sources and and meridional). It is demonstrated that in the absence of
sinks to simulate a distributed flow of current over the an azimuthal force, the axial velocity tends to infinity at a
flat surface of a hemisphere and found that, depending on critical value of the current, but in the presence of such
the disposition of these sources and sinks, double flows a force (which could be due to the presence of a
and reversals of direction of the flow could be obtained longitudinal magnetic field), both axial and azimuthal
[366]. Other authors [367-369] have also set up mathe- velocities increase to a maximum just above the critical
matical models for the electromagnetically induced flow current and then fall as the current is further increased.
in simulated weld pools due to distributed current The conversion of a meridional to a spinning type of flow
sources [367-369]. In Reference 369, the work of Sozou is analogous to the formation of a vortex in water drain-
and Pickering on flows associated with a finite sized elec- ing from a sink or in a tornado. The calculations confirm
trode is extended to take account of inertia forces. As in that outwardly directed flows are stable [356].
the case of a point source [363], the solution breaks
down above a relatively low current level. Also the eddies 6.3.2 Surface tension effects: Ishizaki has studied the
that were found in the linear solution [362] did not effect of surface tension on the form of the solidified weld
appear in this result. bead, on circulation in the molten weld pool, and on the
mechanism of penetration, and has published many
papers on this subject. A selection of the more accessible
documents is referenced [364, 365, 370-372]. Ishizaki
1.0 proposed that circulation in the weld pool could be gen-
6 = 90°
erated by a gradient of surface tension across the surface,
which in turn resulted from a temperature gradient. The
possibility of such flow was demonstrated by making a
0.5 simulated weld pool in paraffin wax, using a soldering
6=45° iron as a heat source [364].
Andersson confirmed the streaming effect with paraffin
wax; however, on repeating the experiment with water
and mercury no such streaming occurred, except with
mercury under high vacuum. It was concluded that
0 2 U 6 8 surface tension streaming was inhibited in air due to the
bead width WB/{/2cr/pg
presence of surface-active agents [373], and that for the
Fig. 44 Relation between width and height of liquid having constant same reason surface tension induced flow in weld pools
contact angle on flat plate [351] was unlikely.
Interest in this subject has been renewed in recent
years in connection with the problem of variable pen-
etration when making automatic GTA welds on austen-
itic chromium-nickel steel sheet from different casts.
Several proposals have been made regarding the cause of
such variations. One is that due to the presence of insu-
lating impurities such as aluminium or titanium oxide,
the anode current density may be reduced and the heat
input spread over a wider area [218, 219, 374, 375], or
the heat flux distribution could be modified by the vapo-
ration of volatile elements [98, 218, 376-378]. Most of
the recent investigations, however, have been concerned
with the effect of surface tension gradients on weld pool
circulation. This type of phenomenon was first investi-
gated by Marangoni and the associated flow is com-
monly termed 'Marangoni flow' [379].
Investigators of the problem of cast-to-cast variation
have frequently used the ratio of depth of the weld to its
width as a measure of weldability; casts giving low
depth-to-width (D/W) ratios being inferior. The presence
of more than 200 parts in 106 of aluminium tends to
reduce the D/W ratio [380] whereas higher sulphur con-
tents have the opposite effect [379]. Heiple and Roper
made GTA weld runs on stainless steel that had been
doped on the one hand with aluminium, and on the other
with sulphur, and examined motion in the weld pool as
Fig. 45 Streamlines for flow due to a uniformly distributed current evidenced by the behaviour of aluminium oxide particles
source at the surface of a hemispheroidal liquid pool, showing eddies at the scattered on the surface. With aluminium doping, the
edge of the electrode [362]
particles clustered around the outside edge of the weld
The solid line represents part of the electrode; the dotted line is the free surface
Depth to width ratio of pool: a 0.22, b 0.24 pool, indicating outward flow across the weld surfaces,
Ratio of electrode diameter to pool diameter: a 0.89, b 0.876 whereas the sulphur-doped welds showed an accumula-
tion of particles in the centre of the pool, indicating
Bojarevics and Scherbinin made a substantial contri- inward flow [379]. This behaviour was associated with
bution by calculating the effect of a small azimuthal force the fact that when contaminated with surface-active
on an inwardly directed toroidal flow in a semi-infinite agents, iron has a positive gradient of surface tension
IEE PROCEEDINGS, Vol. 134, Pt. B, No. 6, NOVEMBER 1987 307
with temperature, whereas in the pure metal this gradient melting. The arc-melted absorption is proportional to the
is negative. Aluminium acts as a scavenger, combining square root of pressure up to a saturation value of 0.06%
with surface-active agents and nullifying their effect by mass, and is 20 times higher than the equilibrium
[388]. solubility. It was concluded that at the arc anode the
Subsequent work has confirmed and amplified these nitrogen is in an excited state, although the nature of the
results. Heiple et al. have shown that other surface-active excitation was not determined [389]. The absorption of
agents, including oxygen have an effect similar to that of nitrogen in iron and steel welds is also increased by the
sulphur [381]. Keene et al. confirmed the reversal of presence of surface active agents [390, 391]. This has
surface tension gradient by direct measurement [382], as been ascribed to the effect of the adsorbed layer in hin-
did Rogers [383]. Other investigators recommend dering the desorption of gas; Ishizaki, however, has sug-
specifying that the sulphur content of type 304 L stainless gested that it could be due to surface tension streaming
steel used for GTA welded tube be 100 to 200 parts in carrying the nitrogen-rich solution formed at the arc root
106 [384]. Robinson et al. carried out tests with laser and down into the lower parts of the weld pool [392].
electron beam weld runs, and found that the variability of Ohji and Nishiguchi [393] have explored the possi-
penetration was the same as for GTA welding. The bility of modelling weld pool profiles in the case of GTA
authors conclude that material characteristics determine welding of thin plate, and have obtained results that are
the weld pool behaviour rather than arc effects [385]. qualitatively similar to those observed in practice. The
Fig. 46 shows a comparison of the surface tension/ conditions for instability of a weld pool made in the flat
position (burn through) were also determined [393].
2.Or Bead profiles have been calculated for fillet welds [351],
as noted earlier in Section 6.2.2.
sample A The flow velocity in a simulated weld pool was mea-
(poor weldability)
sured by Kublanov and Erokhin [354] and by Woods
and Milner [355]. Mori and Horii [350] and Eichhorn
and Engel [349] obtained values for flow velocity in real
19
(submerged arc) weld pools. The results have been tabu-
lated [7] and they range from 0.02 to 0.40 m/s. In cases
where a crater is formed, a relationship between welding
speed and flow velocity would be expected, and indeed
this appears to be the case [349]. Calculations of the elec-
tromagnetically induced flow in a hemisphere using a
sample B
(after prolonged
point source model give values an order of magnitude
heating in H 2 ) higher than measurement [7], but numerical computa-
tions based on a distributed source of electric current
give reasonable results [366].
Electromagnetic stirring, achieved by applying a longi-
tudinal magnetic field to the weld pool, has been used by
1.7
a number of investigators, mainly to improve metallurgi-
cal properties. This work has been surveyed up to 1979
by Willgoss [394] who found that the variability of
depth-to-width ratio in austenitic stainless steel welds
sample B could be reduced by such means.
(good weldability) As indicated earlier, the pattern of flow, particularly in
1.6
GTA welding, can significantly affect the fusion boundary
1500 1600 1700 1800
profile [357, 358, 364, 371]. Essers and Walter [395] have
MOO
temperature, x10 °C
studied the effect of the impingement of drops transferred
across the arc on this profile. By applying an oscillating
Fig. 46 Variation of surface tension with temperature for two samples magnetic field to the arc in plasma- MIG welding, it was
of type 316 stainless steel which exhibit poor and good weldability possible to swing the axis along which drops were pro-
sample with poor weldability
sample with good weldability
jected from side to side. Two finger-like extensions of the
sample with good weldability after preheating liquid metal in an atmo- penetration were then observed (Fig. 47). It was con-
sphere of H 2 to remove surface-active agents cluded from this and other observations that in high-

temperature plots of two stainless steels having good and


bad weldability, respectively [386]. This problem is
encountered mainly in the welding of austenitic stainless
steels, which are usually produced with low sulphur con-
tents, but it has also affected low sulphur ferritic steel.*
A model for surface tension streaming in a semicylin- Fig. 4 7 Cross-section of weld bead on plate obtained with electromag-
drical basin, giving velocity distribution, temperature and netic control of impact point of droplets on molten pool [395]
streamlines has been developed [387] and Craine [388]
has obtained a solution for the case of a moving weld current GMA welding superheated drops penetrate to
pool boundary. the bottom of the weld pool and transfer heat locally to
Uda et al. determined the amount of nitrogen the plate material, giving rise to the central finger-like
absorbed under arc-melting conditions and compared the penetration that is characteristic of these conditions.
results with the solubility of the same gas in levitation
6.3.3 Weld pool temperature: The temperature of the
ALLUM, C.J.: Private communication, 1986 molten pool has been measured using thermocouples
308 IEE PROCEEDINGS, Vol. 134, Pi. B, No. 6, NOVEMBER 1987
[396, 397] and its surface temperature distribution has power density of about 1010 W/m2 below which vapor-
been obtained by infra-red pyrometry [398]. Howden isation does not occur. This mechanism does not apply to
[399] and Erokhin [400] also used the evaporation rate the plasma arc welding of thin material [407, 408].
to assess the surface temperature of arc-melted metals. Oparin et al. found that in laser welding the absorption
Another indirect method is to measure the amount of coefficient of the metal was an important factor in deter-
hydrogen absorbed by the molten pool [401]. The mining the required welding conditions. Absorption coef-
average temperature may be obtained by ejecting the ficients were measured and nomograms for calculating
liquid metal into a calorimeter [290]. the welding variables were obtained [408].
The results of such measurements have been tabulated Dowden et al. have calculated streamlines and tem-
[7]. For steel, surface temperatures in the range 1750 to perature distributions for liquid metal surrounding the
2200°C have been measured; Uda also found that the keyholes in laser welding [409]. In their model the hole is
temperature at the gas tungsten arc root in arc melting assumed to be circular, while flow in the liquid is irro-
iron was 2200°C [389]. Erokhin [400] determined that in tational. The results are shown in terms of non-
arc melting iron, nickel and stainless steel, the mean dimensional temperature and distance in Fig. 49. Lankin
surface temperature was about equal to the volumetric
mean.
A theoretical average weld pool temperature may be
calculated assuming a point heat source and zero convec-
tion. This is shown as a function of the operating param-
eter n (which will be discussed in Section 7.1.1) in Fig. 48.

2 0
o" y 0

1-9

18

3 1.7
-2 -

1.6

en
S 1.5
0.01 0.1 1 10 100 Fig. 49 Streamlines and temperature distribution for laser welding
operating parameter, n with a keyhole, according to the model of Dowden et al. [409]
Fig. 4 8 Average temperature Tm of the molten pool based on thermal temperature distribution
conduction theory [436] streamlines
7} = melting point
[410] has also developed a model for flow around the
As would be expected, the average temperatures measured cavity in deep penetration electron beam welding.
for steel welds by Ando and Nishiguchi [290] lie below The shape of the keyhole in the electron beam welding
this curve; those for aluminium, however, lie above. of carbon steel has been studied by high-speed X-ray
Slavin [402] found a peak temperature of 1700°C in photography. There is a neck 2 mm under the surface,
the GTA welding of austenitic chromium-nickel steel and below this the cavity bulges before coming to a point
sheet. Increased welding speed resulted in lower tem- at the tip. In a typical case the bulge fluctuates period-
perature gradients in the weld pool and higher gradients ically from about 1 to 4 mm in width [411].
at the fusion line. Details of the energy interchange within the keyhole
have been considered [412] and the power requirements
6.3.4 Welding with a keyhole: With the plasma arc, for particular welding conditions have been calculated
laser and electron beam processes, it is possible to form a [413]. A model of the transfer of power and matter
'keyhole' that passes completely through the molten across the interface between the liquid and gaseous
region, and thereby to make a butt weld in a single pass. phases in laser welding has been set up and used to calcu-
The associated weld pool is annular in form, and its late the keyhole shape and the distribution of various
movement has been studied by inserts, for example of quantities as a function of depth. It is assumed that the
copper in steel. The flow is mainly circular, from front to laser beam is totally reflected at the interface and that
rear of the weld pool, but there is also some flow down heat transfer in the gaseous phase is by conduction [414].
the front wall and up the rear wall [403]. In electron beam welding there is no such reflection
The conditions under which a stable keyhole can be and it has been assumed that the front wall acquires a
maintained have been studied for the plasma welding of shape such that each element of the surface absorbs
relatively thin material [404-406]. The balance of forces power from the electron beam so as to melt it at the same
within a keyhole has been examined by Andrews and rate. However, the front wall may be subject to pertur-
Atthey [407] and by Quigley [161]. Surface tension and bations due to nonuniform flow of liquid metal [415].
gravitational forces tend to close the keyhole, which is An expression relating penetration depth, process vari-
kept open due to recoil and vapour pressure resulting ables and thermophysical properties of the metal has
from evaporation of the metal. Vapourisation is essential been obtained. The depth of penetration depends mainly
for maintenance of a keyhole in thick material using the on thermal conductivity and melting temperature if all
laser or electron beam processes, and there is a minimum other variables are constant [416].
IEE PROCEEDINGS, Vol. 134, Pt. B, No. 6, NOVEMBER 1987 309
7 Heat flow in welding and welding process ditions. These expressions have the advantage of simpli-
modelling city but do not allow the calculation of weld thermal
7.1 Heat flow cycles or cooling rates. The Rosenthal equations,
A primary source of information on the mathematical however, do yield such information and Christensen et al.
theory of heat flow in welding is to be found in the text- [436] carried out a major investigation to determine how
book by Rykalin [417]. Rykalin also reviewed work far the point source 3-dimensional model gave realistic
(mainly Russian) on heat flow up to 1968 [418] and pro- values for weld pool dimensions and thermal cycles. The
duced an overview of the subject in 1970 [419]. Rosenthal equations were expressed in nondimensional
terms, and the various quantities were plotted as a func-
Rosenthal was the first to explore analytical solutions tion of the operational parameter n:
of the heat conduction equation for moving heat sources,
and to apply these equations to arc welding [420, 421]. qv
The theory of moving heat sources is also covered by n = 4na2C p(T -T ) (5)
v e 0
Carslaw and Jaeger [422]. Myers et al. discuss the effect
of simplifying assumptions, such as constant thermal where q is heat input rate, v is welding speed, a is the
properties, on the accuracy of the temperature distribu- thermal diffusivity, Cv is the specific heat capacity, p is
tions calculated using the Rosenthal equations [423]. the density, Te is a chosen reference temperature (e.g. the
melting point of the metal) and To is the ambient tem-
7.1.1 Development of analytical expressions for heat perature.
flow: Subsequent authors have developed this work pri- It was found that the point source equation predicted
marily in connection with the arc welding of steel, where the fused cross-sectional area quite well over a wide
knowledge of cooling rates is important in relation to the range of n, but that for other quantities it was less satis-
hardening and possible embrittlement of the weld metal factory; in particular real weld pools are wider and
and adjacent regions [424, 425]. Adams studied cooling longer and cooling rates lower than would be predicted,
rates and the effect of plate thickness [426, 427], whereas particularly at low values of n. These deviations were
Nippes developed a semi-empirical expression of the tem- considered to be due to the finite size of the heat source
perature distribution in a plate of finite thickness [428, and to convection in the weld pools [436].
429]. Jackson [430-432] has made many determinations An expression which allowed the calculation of
of the effect of welding variables on cooling rates, and has cooling rates for partial penetration welds, or weld runs,
related cooling rate to the cross-sectional area of the on plates of finite thickness was obtained by Rosenthal
fused zone (the nugget area) as shown in Fig. 50. Other [421]. Nippes et al. found that at a point adjacent to the
weld, the cooling rate was proportional to the tem-
io 3 F perature and was dependent on the heat input per unit
length of weld (q/v) but independent of travel speed
within a range 1-5 mm/s [429]. Adams developed equa-
tions for the cooling time between two temperatures for
3- and 2-dimensional heat flow [426, 427] and proposed
a graphical method of interpolation for an intermediate
condition [427]. In the case of 3-dimensional heat flow
such cooling times were also proportional to q/v. Tanaka
[437] obtained the temperature distribution due to a
moving point source on a plate offinitethickness taking
account of surface heat loss, and this work has been
reported in an English-language document by Kohira
10 [438]. The Tanaka equation may also be used to obtain
cooling times. Kas and Van Adrichem have also investi-
gated cooling times and have obtained a chart for the
cooling time between 800°C and 500°C (used by metal-
lurgists to assess the degree of hardening in the heat
affected zone) as a function of heat input rate and plate
"F/s = thickness [439].
The relationship between heat input rate (q/v) and
cooling rate was investigated by Bennett, who found that
a weld made using the submerged arc process gave the
same cooling rate at the weld boundary as one made
10 with coated electrodes provided that the value of q/v was
-2 -1 the same [440]. Koslov et al. studied the effect of preheat
10 10
nugget area na, ir/ on cooling rate, and found that it had a significant effect
only below temperatures about equal to twice the preheat
Fig. 5 0 Effect of nugget area on cooling rate at 538°C with 93-749°C temperature. For a substantial change at higher temper-
preheat [432]
tures the unit heat input for preheating should be about
T o SMAW
OSAW equal to that of welding [441].
A D GMAW
• GMAW (149°C preheat) 7.7.2 Heat sources: In modelling the arc welding
process it is necessary to establish the form of the heat
workers have made contributions along similar lines source and the power distribution across its surface.
[433, 434]. Some relevant measurements of power distribution have
Wells [435] developed a useful relation between heat already been noted [81, 229, 230]. Rykalin has also inves-
input rate and weld width for 3- and 2-dimensional con- tigated the interaction between a plasma torch and a flat
310 IEE PROCEEDINGS, Vol. 134, Pt. B, No. 6, NOVEMBER 1987
solid [442] and has calculated the heat distribution in the change in cross-section of a weld run in an aluminium
solid [443]. Generally, power distributions are Gaussian plate, close to the start and finish [452], and temperature
in form [442] and in welding with coated electrodes profiles in the multipass welding of thick plate [453].
[347], submerged arc welding [349], high-current GMA Computational techniques have been applied to deep
and high-current GTA welding [290], a crater forms penetration welds. Goldak et al. [454] used the double
below the arc. Information on welding heat sources was ellipsoid model to calculate cooling times for electron
reviewed by Rykalin in 1974 [444]. beam welds, and obtained good agreement with experi-
Taking such facts into account, various geometric ment. Using the Rosenthal line source equation for calcu-
forms and power distributions have been assumed for lating fused zone and heat-affected zone widths for such
heat source models to compute realistic temperature dis- welds showed some deviation from measured values
tributions. Pavelic and his collaborators [445] proposed [454].
a disc source having radial symmetry and with a Gauss- Kerr and his colleagues used a line source to simulate
ian distribution of flux to represent GTA welding. Fried- full penetration GTA welds in thin plate, taking into
man [446] and Krutz and Segerlind [447] developed this account latent heat and cooling from the plate surface;
model by using an elongated source with a correspond- also using different values for thermal conductivity in the
ingly elongated power distribution. Surface heat sources weld pool and the plate. All computed outlines of the
of this type represent a low-current gas tungsten arc quite weld pool were less elongated than real weld pools, and
well, but for conditions under which a crater forms under this was considered to be due to the effect of convection
the arc a hemispherical or ellipsoidal representation of [455].
the source is required. Westby [448] and Paley and Passoja developed an equation for the temperature
Hibbert [449] used such a model with constant power distribution due to heat diffusion from a line source that
density throughout its volume. Goldak et al. [450] con- is analogous to the equation for unidirectional mass dif-
sidered the constant power density to be unrealistic and fusion, and obtained reasonable agreement with experi-
proposed the use of an ellipsoid with a Gaussian distribu- ment [456]. The temperature distribution in the liquid
tion of heat flux centred at the origin. To simulate actual around a keyhole (in this case simulating a laser weld)
weld pools more accurately a double ellipsoid is used in has been calculated assuming steady irrotational flow,
which the front half is the quadrant of one ellipsoid and, and the results (Fig. 52) indicate a steep temperature gra-
the rear half is the quadrant of another (more elongated) dient at the rear of the weld pool [409].
ellipsoid (Fig. 51).
i.o—i
7.1.3 Computation of temperature distributions:
Numerical techniques using thefinite-differenceor finite-
flux q, J/ms,

Fig. 52 Temperature distribution in the molten region of a laser


keyhole weld, according to the model ofDowden et al. [409]
Linear dimensions are multiples of the keyhole radius

7.2 Welding process modelling


Process modelling has the objective of predicting tem-
Fig. 51 Double ellipsoid heat source configuration together with the peratures, stresses and strains and hence the mechanical
power distribution function along the £, axis [456] and metallurgical effects of welding; specifically, distor-
tion, residual stress, metallurgical transformations and
defects such as hot cracking and hydrogen cracking
element methods have been used to calculate the tem- [452]. Masubuchi has considered the mechanical aspects
perature distributions in an electrode [74], in arcs [98, [457] and Ueda and Murakawa [458] have reviewed
133] and in the workpiece [409, 445^51]. computational methods as applied to welding.
Most authors have been concerned with the 3- Acquisition of a database for use in weld process mod-
dimensional bead-on-plate problem. In a typical finite elling is considered by Key and his colleagues, who
element analysis, the temperature distribution in a refer- studied automatic GTA welding of austenitic chromium-
ence plane at right angles to the line of travel of the heat nickel steel plate [459]. The same authors have described
source is calculated, so that the problem becomes two the further development of this model [460]. Glickstein
dimensional. Agreement with experimental results is [461, 462] and Shaw [463, 464] have also made basic
nevertheless good, and better than is obtainable with studies of the GTA process with the object of producing
point source models [451]. One advantage of numerical computer models. The principles of closed-loop control
analysis is the ability to take account of variations of techniques for arc welding have been reviewed in relation
thermal properties with temperature. It has also been to power sources [465] and for the automatic welding of
shown that the heat of fusion and of transformation has a pipe [466]. A theory for optimising control systems for
significant effect on the result. A truly 3-dimensional arc welding has been developed [467].
model is practicable but costly in computer time [451]. Clark describes the use of modelling techniques for the
Transient effects have been studied; for example, the control of the manual welding of low alloy steel with
1EE PROCEEDINGS, Vol. 134, Pt. B, No. 6, NOVEMBER 1987 311
coated electrodes. In the first stage [468] data relating 246 VAN DER WILLIGEN, P.C., and DEFIZE, L.F.: The determi-
the dimensions of the fused and heat-affected zones for nation of droplet size in arc welding by high speed cinemato-
graphy', Philips Tech. Rev., 1953,15, (4), pp. 122-128
single weld runs on plate were obtained. These were cor- 247 POKHODNYA, I.K., and KOSOTENKO, B.A.: 'Research into
related using an expression originally obtained by Myers, the kinetics of electrode melting during welding', Autom. Weld.,
et al. [423] and adapted by Bennett [440]. The data were 1965,18, (4), pp. 11-14
then incorporated in a program designed to predict the 248 POKHODNYA, I.K., MARCHENKO, A.E., and KOSTENKO,
B.A.: 'The duration of the reactions between the molten electrode
effect of process variables on the metallurgical quality of metal and slag and gases during welding', ibid., 1965, 18, (5), pp.
2-layer welds [469] and finally means of applying the 8-10
required technique on the shop floor were developed 249 VON HOFE, D., POTTHOFF, F., and RUGE, J.: 'Wirkung von
[470]. The use of computers for the control of welding Stromimpulsen auf den Werkstoffubergang beim Lichtbogen-
handschweissen', Schweissen + Schneiden, 1976, 28, (5), pp. 170-174
operations in production is the subject of a recent con- 250 POKHODNYA, I.K., and KORITSKII, G.G.: 'Influence of
ference [471]. coating thickness on electrode metal transfer characteristics', Weld.
Goldak et al. [452] discuss the extension of computer Prod., 1970,17, (8), pp. 32-33
modelling to the calculation of stress, strain and dis- 251 YOSHIDA, T, ABE, T., and ONOUE, H.: 'Transferring pheno-
placment, and state: 'The costs (of computation) which mena of coated welding electrode'. International Institute cf
Welding Document 212-25-64, 1964
now are often less than the costs of experiment, will fall 252 MAZEL, A.G.: 'Metal transfer in manual arc welding', Autom.
by more than a factor of 100 in the next seven years and Weld., 1961,14, (1), pp. 34-^3
in large problems by a much larger factor. Thus, we con- 253 BUSCHOFF, P.: 'Electrische Kenngrossen des Lichtbogen bei
clude that computational weld mechanics will become umhullter Schweisselectroden'. Dissertation, Technische Hoch-
schule, Aachen, West Germany, 1966
the driving force advancing welding technology'. 254 CONN, W.M.: 'An instability of the molten electrode in arc
welding', Weld. J., 1962,14, pp. 171s-174s
8 Acknowledgments 255 PATON, B.E., and MAKARA, A.M.: 'Experimental research into
the automatic submerged arc welding process', Izv. Akad. Nauk.
The author wishes to express his appreciation of the help Ukr. SSR Kiev, 1944
of M. R. Bryant, J. Loader and the staff of the Library at 256 VAN ADRICHEM, J.T.: 'Metal transfer in submerged arc
the Welding Institute, Cambridge, and to thank Emeritus welding'. International Institute of Welding Document 212-78-66,
1966
Professor A.E. Guile and Professor Ushio of Osaka Uni- 257 POKHODNYA, I.E., and KOSTENKO, B.A.: 'Fusion of elec-
versity for their assistance and advice. trode metal and its interaction with the slag during submerged arc
welding', Autom. Weld., 1965,18, (10), pp. 16-22
9 References 258 EICHHORN, F., and ENGEL, A.: 'Pulsation of the welding
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1918, 1,(10), pp. 6-10 260 EICHHORN, F., FELLEISEN, R., and HUWER, W.:
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(extended abstract) Report W81-024, 1981; also International Institute of Welding

312 IEE PROCEEDINGS, Vol. 134, Pt. B, No. 6, NOVEMBER 1987


Document 212-515-81, 1981 298 WAZINK, J.H., and VAN DEN HEUVEL, G.J.P.M.: 'Heat gener-
272 HOFFMEISTER, H., and RUDIGER, J.: 'Welding under space ation and heat flow in the filler metal in GMA welding', Weld. J.,
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273 NEEDHAM, J.C: 'Control of transfer in aluminium consumable ments and calculation of the resistance of the wire extensions in arc
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Welding, London, 1966) Welding Institute, Cambridge, 1980)
274 LANCASTER, J.F.: 'Influence of heat flow on metal transfer in the 300 VILLEMINOT, P.: Temperature distribution in the stickout in
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275 TRINIDADE, E.M., and ALLUM, C.J.: 'Characteristics in steady 301 HALM0Y, E.: 'Wire melting rate, droplet temperature, and effec-
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278 LESNEWICH, A.: 'Control of melting rate and metal transfer in 303 SMITH, A.A.: 'Characteristics of the short-circuiting CO2-shielded
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279 LUDWIG, H.C.: 'Metal transfer characteristics in gas-shielded arc 304 HILTUNEN, V, and PIETIKAINEN, Dh.: 'Investigations and
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280 ALLUM, C.J.: 'MIG welding: time for a reassessment', Met. in 'Arc physics and weld pool behaviour' (The Welding Institute,
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281 NEEDHAM, J.C., COOKSEY, C.J., and MILNER, D.R.: 'Metal 305 MATSUDA, F., USHIO, M., ITONAGA, K., and YOKOO, T.:
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284 NISHIGUCHI, K., and MATSUNAWA, A.: 'Gas metal arc 309 AMSON, J.C., and SALTER, G.R.: 'An analysis of the gas-
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Document 212-371-76, 1976 311 ZARUBA, I.I.: The nature of short circuits of the CO 2 welding
285 JELMORINI, G., TICHELAAR, G.W., and VAN DEN arc', Autom. Weld., 1973, 26, (5), pp. 14-17
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1977 metal with short-circuiting of the arc gap', ibid., 1975, 28, (9), pp.
286 VILLEMINOT, P.: 'Pyrometrie photographique appliquee au 1-3
soudage', International Institute of Welding Document Number 313 BELOUSOV, V.N., OSTROV, D.D., and STEPANOV, V.V.: 'On
212-83-66, 1966; also 'Soudage MIG sous argon d'acier doux, the construction of a liquid metal bridge between the electrode and
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287 JILONG, MA, and APPS, R.L.: 'Analysing metal transfer during 314 NEEDHAM, J.C., and HULL, W.G.: 'Self-adjusting welding arcs',
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42, pp. 482^85, 518 316 AMIN, M.: 'Synergic pulse MIG welding', Met. Constr., 1981, 13,
289 MARUO, H., and HIRATA, Y.: 'Study on pulsed MIG Welding'. pp. 349-353
International Institute of Welding Document 212-585-84, 1984 317 NEEDHAM, J.C: 'Pulse controlled consumable electrode welding
290 ANDO, K, and NISHIGUCHI, K.: 'Average temperature of the arc', Br. Weld. J., 1965,12, pp. 191-197
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161-68, 1968 pulsed current arc welding'. International Institute of Welding
291 KIYOHARA, M., YAMAMOTO, H., and HARADA, S.: 'Melting Document 212-163-69, 1969
characteristics of a wire electrode in the MIG welding of alu- 319 QUINTINO, L., and ALLUM, C.J.: 'Pulsed GMAW: interactions
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292 RIMSKII, ST., SVETSINSKII, V.G., and SMIYAN, O.D.: Trans- 320 QUINTINO, L., and ALLUM, C.J.: 'Pulsed GMAW: Interactions
fer of electrode metal during welding using shielding gases with between process parameters — Part 2', ibid., 1984, 52, (4), pp.
oxygen added', Autom. Weld., 1979, 32, (10), pp. 19-33 126-129
293 YAMAUCHI, N., and JACKSON, C.E.: 'Effects of shielding gas 321 ALLUM, C.J., and QUINTINO, L.: 'Control of fusion character-
on wire melting rate in GMAW'. International Institute of Welding ics in pulsed current MIG welding. Part 1: Dependance of fusion
Document 212-358-76, 1976 characteristics on process parameters', Met. Constr., 1985, 17, pp.
294 OZAWA, J, MORITA, T , and OMWA, K.: 'The influence of 242R-245R
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295 TARASOV, N.M.: 'Special features of the formation of droplets of 323 WASZINK, J.H., and PIENA, M.J.: 'Experimental investigation of
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nozzle', Weld. Prod., 1981, 28, (5), pp. 7-8 J., 1985, 64, pp. 37s-48s
296 WILSON, J.L., CLAUSSEN, G.E., and JACKSON, C.E.: The 324 DORN, L., RIPPL, P., and SCHOFER, E.: 'An examination of
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297 VAN DEN HEUVEL, G.J.P.M., JELMORINI, G., and TICHEL- E146-E149
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the form of droplets of electrode metal in welding in shielding of formation of horizontal welds in the vertical plane', Autom.
gases', Autom. Weld., 1979, 32, (9), pp. 27-32 Weld., 1983, 36, (3), pp. 21-24
327 CRAM, L.E.: 'A numerical model of droplet formation', in NO YE, 354 KUBLANOV, Y. and EROKHIN, A.: 'On metal motion in a sta-
J., and FLETCHER, C. (Eds.): 'Computational techniques and tionary weld pool'. International Institute of Welding Document
applications: CTAC 83' (Elsevier Science Publishers BV (North 212-318-74, 1974
Holland), 1984) 355 WOODS, R.A., and MILNER, D.R.: 'Motion in the weld pool in
328 WASZINK, J.H., and GRAAT, L.H.J.: 'Der Einfluss der Gas- arc welding', 1971, 50, pp. 163s-173s
stromung auf die Tropfenablosung beim Plasma-MIG Schweissen', 356 BOJAREVICS, V, and SCHERBININ, E.V.: 'Azimuthal rotation
in 'DVS Berichte 57' (Deutscher Verband fur Schweisstechnik, in the axisymmetric meridional flow due to an electric-current
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329 ESSERS, W.G., JELMORINI, G., and TICHELAAR, G.W.: 'Arc 357 LAWSON, W.H.S., and KERR, H.W.: 'Fluid motion in GTA weld
characteristics and metal transfer with plasma-MIG welding', Met. pools. Part I: Flow patterns and weld pool homogeneity', Weld.
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330 LORD RAYLEIGH: 'On the instability of jets', Proc. London 358 LAWSON, W.H.S., and KERR, H.W.: 'Fluid motion in GTA weld
Math. Soc, 1879,10, pp. 4-13 pools. Part II: Weld pool shapes', ibid., 1976, 6, pp. 1-17
331 CHANDRASEKHAR, S.: 'Hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic sta- 359 WILLGOSS, R.A.: 'Regulation of fluid motion in the weld pool'.
bility' (Dover Publications, New York, 1981) International Institute of Welding Document 212-428-78, 1978
332 MURTY, G.S.: 'Instability of conducting fluid cylinder due to axial 360 DEMYANTSEVICH, V.P, and MATYUKHIN, V.I.: 'Character-
current', Ark. Fys., 1960,18, (14), pp. 241-250 istics of the movement of molten metal in the weld pool during
333 MURTY, G.S.: 'Instability of a conducting fluid cylinder in the welding with a non-consumable electrode', Weld. Prod., 1972, 19,
presence of an axial current, a longitudinal magnetic field, and a (10), p. 1-3
coaxial conducting cylinder', ibid., 1960,19, (35), pp. 483-497 361 PATON, B.E., MANDEL'BERG, S.L., and SIDORENKO, B.G.:
334 DATTNER, A.: 'Current-induced instabilities of a mercury jet', 'Certain special features of welds made at high speeds', Autom.
ibid., 1962, 21, (7), pp. 71-80 Weld., 1971,8, (8), pp. 1-6
335 ALLUM, C.J.: 'Metal transfer in arc welding as a varicose insta- 362 SOZOU, C , and PICKERING, W.M.: 'Magneto-hydrodynamic
bility. I: Varicose instabilities in a current-carrying liquid cylinder flow in a container due to the discharge of an electric current from
with a surface charge', J. Phys. D, 1985,18, pp. 1431-1446 a finite size electrode', Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A, 1978, 362, pp.
336 LANCASTER, J.F.: 'Metal transfer in fusion welding', in 'Arc 509-523
physics and weld pool behaviour' (The Welding Institute, Cam- 363 SOZOU, C, and PICKERING, M.W.: 'Magneto-hydrodynamic
bridge, 1980) flow due to the discharge of an electric current in a hemispherical
337 ALLUM, C.J.: 'Metal transfer in arc welding as a varicose insta- container', J. Fluid Mech., 1976, 73, (4), pp. 641-650
bility. II. Development of model for arc welding', J. Phys. D, 1985, 364 ISHIZAKI, K., MURAI, K., and KANBE, Y.: 'Penetration in arc
18, pp. 1447-1468 welding and convection in molten metal'. International Institute of
338 CECH, F.: 'Abschniirung einer Stromfiihrenden Fliissigen Metall- Welding Document 212-77-66, 1966
sau'le, speziell einer Schmelzelectrode'. Trita-Epp-78-01, Royal 365 ISHIZAKI, K.: 'Interfacial tension theory of the phenomena of arc
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339 BASLER, H-B.: 'Magnetische Beeinfliissung von Lichbogen und arc' (The Institute of Welding, London, 1966)
Werkstoffiibergang bei der Metall-Schutzgasschweissung', in DVS 366 ANDREWS, J.G., and CRAINE, R.E.: 'Fluid flow in a hemisphere
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of Welding Document 212-282-73, 1973 367 ATTHEY, D.R.: 'A mathematical model for fluid flow in the weld
340 HALM0Y, E., AND FOSTERVILL, H.: 'Rotating welding arcs'. pool at high currents', ibid., 1980,98, pp. 787-801
International Institute of Welding Document 212-558-83, 1983 368 CRAINE, R.E., and WEATHERILL, N.P.: 'Fluid flow in a hemi-
341 PATON, B.E., and SHEIKO, P.P.: 'Controlling metal transfer in spherical container induced by a distributed source of current and
arc welding with a consumable electrode'. International Institute of a superimposed uniform magnetic field', ibid., 1980,99, pp. 1-11
Welding Document 212-90-66,1966 369 AJAYI, O.O., SOZOU, C, and PICKERING, W.M.: 'Nonlinear
342 MECHEV, V.S., and SYCHEV, L.I.: 'Changes in characteristics of fluid motions in a container due to the discharge of an electric
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with a consumable electrode', Autom. Weld., 1983, 36, (10), pp. 370 ISHIZAKI, K.: 'Solidification of the molten pool and bead forma-
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343 MATSUNAWA, A.: 'Role of surface tension in fusion-welding tute, Cambridge, 1980)
(Part 1) — Hydrostatic effect', Trans. JWRI, 1982, 11, (2), pp. 371 ISHIZAKI, K.: 'A new approach to the mechanism of penetration',
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344 MATSUNAWA, A., and OHJI, T.: 'Role of surface tension in Cambridge, 1980)
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345 MATSUNAWA, A.: 'Role of surface tension in fusion welding welding'. International Institute of Welding Document 212-620-85,
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1965 to cast variations in TIG welding'. International Institute of
347 DO AN, G.E., and YOUNG, S.S.: 'Crater formation in arc Welding Document 212-326-75, 1975
welding', Weld. J., (Research Supplement) 1938,17, (10), pp. 61-67 375 METCALFE, J.C., and QUIGLEY, M.B.C.: 'Arc and pool insta-
348 RAZMYSHLYAEV, A.O.: The hydrodynamic parameters of the bility in GTA welding', Weld. J., 1977, 56, pp. 133s-139s
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pool', Autom. Weld., 1982,35, (1), pp. 20-25, 39 minor elements on fusion zone dimensions in Inconel 600', ibid.,
349 EICHHORN, F., and ENGEL, A.: 'Mass transfer in the weld 1977, 56, pp. 126s-132s
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1970 minor element effects on the welding arc and weld penetration'.
350 MORI, N., and HORII, Y.: 'Molten pool phenomena in the sub- Welding Research Council Bulletin 226, May 1977
merged arc welding'. International Institute of Welding Document 378 CHASE, T.F., and SAVAGE, W.F.: 'Effect of anode composition
212-188-70, 1980 on tungsten arc characteristics', Weld. J., 1971, 50, pp. 467s-473s
351 NISHIGUCHI, K., OHJI, T., and MATSUI, H.: 'Study on bead 379 HEIPLE, C.R., and ROPER, J.R.: 'Mechanism for minor element
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391-77, 1977 380 BENNETT, W.S., and MILLS, G.S.: 'GTA weldability studies on
352 NISHIGUCHI, K., and OHJI, T.: 'Study on behaviour of molten high manganese stainless steel', ibid., 1974, 53, pp. 548-553s
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Japanese) effects of residual, impurity and micro-alloying elements on weld-
353 BEREZOVSKII, B.M., SUREDALEV, I.V., and STIKHIN, O.A. ability and weld properties' (The Welding Institute, Cambridge,
and V. A.: 'Mathematical modelling and optimisation of the process 1984)

314 IEE PROCEEDINGS, Vol. 134, Pt. B, No. 6, NOVEMBER 1987


382 KEENE, B.J., MILLS, K.C., ROBINSON, J.L., and RODWILL, 9, pp. 2181-2194
M.H.: 'The effect of surface tension on variable penetration behav- 408 OPARIN, M.L., NIKIFOROV, G.D., and FEDOROV, S.A.:
iour during the mechanised TIG welding of austenitic stainless 'Energy features of the heating of metals in welding with the light
steel' in 'The effects of residual, impurity and micro-alloying ele- beam', Weld. Prod., 1981, 28, (7), pp. 11-13
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383 ROGERS, K.J.: 'A study of penetration variability using mecha- 1987-1994
nised TIG welding', in 'The effects of residual, impurity and micro- 410 LANKIN, Yu.N.: 'Flow of molten metal at the front wall of the
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384 TINKLER, M.J, GRANT, I., MIZUNO, G., and GLUCK, C : 411 ARATA, Y., ABE, N., WANG, Hu, TOMIE, M., and ABE, F.:
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characteristics, in 'The effects of residual, impurity and micro- Trans. JWRI, 1983,12, (1), pp. 1-7
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Institute, Cambridge, 1984) beam and laser welding', J. Appl. Phys., 1976, 47, pp. 2165-2174
385 ROBINSON, J.L., DE ROSA, S., and HUTT, G.A.: 'Variable pen- 413 DO WDEN, J.M., DAVIS, M., and KAPADIA, P.: 'Some aspects
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surface coatings, and comparison with non-arc welding processes', 123-146
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386 KEENE, B.J., MILLS, K.C., and BROOKS, R.S.: 'Surface proper- 415 LESKOV, G.I, TRUNOV, E N , and ZHIVAGA, L.I.: The form,
ties of liquid metals and their effects on weldability', Mater. Sci. & dimensions and stability of vapour dynamic channels in the metal
Technoi., 1985,1, pp.568-571 in electron-beam welding', Autom. Weld., 1976, 29, (6), pp. 10-14
387 YOKOYA, S., ASAKO, Y., and MATSUNAWA, A.: 'Surface 416 REZNICHENKO, V.F., and EROKHIN, A.A.: 'On calculating
tension driven flow in semi-cylindrical basin', Trans. Jpn. Weld. the depth of penetration in electron beam welding', Weld. Prod.,
Soc, 1983, 14, (2), pp. 51-58; also in International Institute of 1976, 23, (3), pp. 3-6
Welding Document 212-618-85, 1985 417 RYKALIN, N.N.: 'Calculation of heat flow in welding' (Mishgaz,
388 CRAINE, R.E.: 'On determining the shape of weld pools'. Interna- Moscow, 1951) (in Russian); Also 'Berechnung der War-
tional Institute of Welding Document 212-658-86, 1986; also Appl. mevorgange beim Schweissen' (Verlag Technik, Berlin, 1957); also
Sci. Res., 1987,44, pp. 261-275 English translation by PALEY, Z., and ADAMS, CM.: US Army
389 UDA, M., OHNO, S., and WAD A, T.: 'Solubility of nitrogen in Contract UC-19-O66-OO1-C-3817
arc and levitation melted iron and iron alloys', J. Jpn. Weld. Soc, 418 RYKALIN, N.N.: 'Report on heat flow in arc welding'. Interna-
1969, 38, (4), pp. 382-392 tional Institute of Welding Document 212-168-69, 1969
390 UDA, M., and OHNO, S.: 'Effect of surface active element on 419 RYKALIN, N.N., and NIKOLAEV, A.V.: 'Welding arc heat flow'.
nitrogen content of iron under arc melting', ibid., 1972, 41, pp. International Institute of Welding Document 212-194-70, 1970
772-780 420 ROSENTHAL, D.: 'Mathematical theory of heat distribution
391 CHOH, T., and INOUYE, M.: 'Studies on the rate of absorption during welding and cutting', Weld. J., 1941, 20, pp. 220s-234s
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Iron & Steel Inst. Jpn., 1968, 54, pp. 19-33 application to metal treatments', Trans. AS ME, 1946, 68, pp.
392 ISHIZAKI, K.: 'Surface active elements and arc welding pheno- 849-866
mena'. International Institute of Welding Document 212-619-85, 422 CARSLAW, H.S., and JAEGER, J.C.: 'Conduction of heat in
1985 solids' (Oxford University Press, London, 1959)
393 OHJI, T., and NISHIGUCHI, K.: 'Mathematical modelling of a 423 MYERS, P.S., UYEHARA, O.A, and BORMAN, G.L.: 'Funda-
molten pool in arc welding of thin plate', Technoi. Rep. Osaka mentals of heat flow in welding'. Welding Research Council Bulle-
Univ., 1983, 33, (1688), pp. 35-43 tin 123, New York, 1967
394 WILLGOSS, R.A.: 'Electromagnetic control of fluid motion in 424 STOUT, R.D., and DOTY, W.D'O.: 'Weldability of Steels'
TIG weld pools', in 'Arc physics and weld-pool behaviour' (The (Welding Research Council, New York, 1953)
Welding Institute, Cambridge, 1980) 425 "Welding Handbook' (American Welding Society, Miami, FL,
395 ESSERS, W.G., and WALTER, R.: 'Some aspects of the penetrat- USA; Macmillan, London, 1982, 7th edn.)
ion in metal-inert gas (MIG) welding', in 'Arc physics and weld 426 ADAMS, CM.: 'Cooling rates and peak temperatures in fusion
pool behaviour' (The Welding Institute, Cambridge, 1980) welding', Weld. J., 1958, 37, (5), pp. 210s-215s
396 RABKIN, D.M.: 'Temperature distribution through the weld pool', 427 JHAVERI, P., MOFFAT, W.G., and ADAMS, CM.: The effect of
Br. Weld. J., 1959, 6, pp. 132-137 plate thickness and radiation on heat flow in welding and cutting',
397 STAVIN, G.A., and EFIMOV, A.A.: 'Temperature conditions in ibid., 1962,41,(1), pp. 12s-16s
the weld pool when sheet metals are welded by pulsed arc process 428 HESS, W.F., MERRILL, L.L., NIPPES, E.F., and BUNK, A.P.:
with a non-consumable electrode', Autom. Weld., 1983, 36, (10), pp. 'The measurement of cooling rates associated with arc welding and
26-30 their application to the selection of optimum welding conditions',
398 EROKHIN, A.A.: 'Metal surface temperature in arc welding'. ibid., 1943, 22, pp. 377s-422s
International Institute of Welding Document 212-427-78, 1978 429 NIPPES, E.F., MERRILL, L.L., and SAVAGE, W.F.: 'Cooling
399 HOWDEN, D.G.: 'Mass transfer of metal vapour and anode tem- rates in arc welds in |-in. plate', ibid., 1949, 28, pp. 556s-564s
perature in arc welding', Weld. J., 1969, 48, pp. 125s-132s 430 JACKSON, C.E., and SHRUBSALL, A.E.: 'Control of penetration
400 EROKHIN, A.A.: The temperature field of the liquid metal pool and melting ratio with welding technique', ibid., 1953, 32, pp. 172s-
in arc heating', Weld. Prod., 1982, 29, (2), pp. 16-17 178s
401 HOWDEN, D.G., and MILNER, D.R.: 'Hydrogen absorption in 431 JACKSON, C.E., and SHRUBSALL, A.E.: 'Energy distribution in
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402 SLAVIN, G.A.: 'An investigation of thermal processes in the liquid 432 JACKSON, C.E.: 'Control of welding performance by selected
metal of the pool in argon arc welding', Weld. Prod., 1977, 24, (6), technique parameters'. International Institute of Welding Docu-
pp. 3-5 ment XII K-85-77, 1977
403 BASALAEVA, M.A., and RASHENKO, V.V.: The movement of 433 DORSCHU, K.E.: 'Control of cooling rates in steel weld metal',
metal in the weld pool in electron beam welding', Weld. Prod., Weld. J., 1968,47, pp. 473s-484s
1977, 24, (3), pp. 1-3 434 BRADSTREET, B.J.: 'Effect of welding conditions on cooling rate
404 JACKSON, C.E.: 'Mechanism and control of keyhole formation in and hardness in the heat-affected zone', ibid., 1969, 48, pp. 499s-
plasma welding'. International Institute of Welding Document 212- 504s
234-72, 1972 435 WELLS, A.A.: 'Heat flow in welding', ibid., 1952, 31, pp. 263s-267s
405 TOMSIC, H.J., and JACKSON, C.E.: 'An examination of the 436 CHRISTENSEN, N., DA VIES, V. de L., and GJERMUNDSEN,
energy distribution of keyhole mode plasma arc welding'. Interna- K.: 'Distribution of temperatures in arc welding', Br. Weld. J.,
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406 METCALFE, J.C., and QUIGLEY, M.B.C.: 'Keyhole stability in 437 TANAKA, S.: Temperature distribution in a finite thick plate due
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212-398-77, 1977 438 KOHIRA, K., YATAKA, T., and YURIOKA, N.: 'A numerical
407 ANDREWS, J.G., and ATTHEY, D.R.: 'Hydrodynamic limit to analysis of the diffusion and trapping of hydrogen in steels and
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440 BENNETT, A.P.: 'A comparison between the temperature fields 457 MASUBUCHI, K : 'Analysis of welded structures' (Pergamon
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446 FRIEDMAN, E.: 'Thermo-mechanical analysis of the welding 463 SHAW, C.B.: 'Diagnostic studies of the GTAW arc. Part 1: Obser-
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447 KRUTZ, G.W., and SEGERLIND, L.J.: 'Finite element analysis of ematical Model', ibid., 1975, 54, pp. 81s-86s
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448 WESTBY, O.: 'Temperature distribution in the workpiece by ungstechnik bei Lichtbogenschweissverfahren' in 'DVS Berichte 42,
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449 PALEY, Z., and HIBBERT, P.D.: 'Computation of temperatures 466 MASUBUCHI, K., HARDT, D.E., POYNTER, H.M., CON-
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450 GOLDAK, J., CHAKRAVARTI, A., and BIBBY, M.: 'A double welding through modelling, measurement and real-time control', in
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451 MOORE, J.E., BIBBY, M.J., and GOLDAK, J.A.: 'The signifi- 467 RYKALIN, N.N., UGLOV, A.A., and MELUKOV, V.V.: 'Theory
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tute of Welding Document 212-604-85, 1985 ment 212-448-78, 1978
452 GOLDAK, J., BALVANTRAI, P., BIBBY, M.J., and MOORE, 468 CLARK, J.N.: 'Manual metal arc modelling. Part 1: Effect of
J.E.: 'Computational weld mechanics'. Carleton University, process parameters on dimensions of weld bead and heat-affected
Ottawa, 1985; also International Institute of Welding Document zone', Mater. Sci. & Technoi., 1985,1, pp. 1069-1080
212-644-86, 1986 469 CLARK, J.N.: 'Manual metal arc modelling: Part 2: Treatment of
453 PINKO WISH, J.A., and WHITMAN, P.K.: 'Three-dimensional multipass weld', ibid., 1985, 1, pp. 1081-1089
temperature history of a multi-pass filled weldment. Part 2'. Oak 470 CLARK, J.N.: 'Manual metal arc modelling. Part 3: Implementa-
Ridge National Laboratory Report ORNL/MIT-245, Oak Ridge, tion of two-layer heat-affected zone refinement technique under
TN, USA, 1976 shop floor conditions', ibid., 1985, 1, pp. 1090-1093
454 BIBBY, M.J., GOLDAK, J.A., and MEHROTRA, V.: 'The fusion 471 'Computer technology in welding'. Proceedings of International
and heat-affected width of electron beam welds'. International Conference, The Welding Institute, Cambridge, (to be published);
Institute of Welding Document IV-385-85, 1985 for a summary see STREET, J.A.: 'Computer technology in
455 GHENT, H., HERMANCE, C.E., KERR, H.W., and STRONG, welding — the first international conference', Met. Constr., 1987,
A.B.: 'Heat conduction modelling of two dimensional TIG weld 19, pp. 81-83

316 IEE PROCEEDINGS, Vol. 134, Pt. B, No. 6, NOVEMBER 1987