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Soil Liquefaction

Roesyanto
What is liquefaction?
Review of shear strength of soil
1. For Cohesive/ Clay soils
t f
C is dominant
c
s

2. For Non-Cohesive/ Sandy soils


t
f
f is dominant

c s
What happens when loose sand received cyclic load ?

Loose sand

200
150
acceleration(gal)

100
50
0
-50
-100
-150
-200
0 5 10 15 20 25
time (second)

Densify
What happens when the loose sand is saturated ?
Soil boiling
Reduction in effective stress induce liquefaction
s  s 'u
s s u
'

Soil liquefaction:
Significant loss of soil strength due to reduction in
effective confining stress as a result of pore pressure
increase
Liquefaction
 All liquefaction is dependent on generation of
excess pore pressure under undrained loading
conditions
What are the effects of liquefaction?
Soil Liquefaction due to Nigata Earthquake
Schematic illustrations
of examples of
potential
liquefaction-induced
Global Instability
and/or lateral spreading
Schematic illustrations
of examples of
potential
liquefaction-induced
Local Instability
and/or lateral spreading
Increased Lateral Pressure on Retaining Wall
Settlement Due To Liquefaction
Flores Earthquake 1994
Schematic diagram on modes of damage
Schematic diagram on modes of damage
Schematic diagram on modes of damage
Working stress: Cyclic Stress Ratio

t
CSR=
sn

sn
200
150
t
acceleration(gal)

100
50
0
-50
-100
-150
-200
0 5 10 15 20 25
time (second)
EQ Loading Characterization

 Estimate the Average Cyclic Shear Stress of


Earthquake

Cyclic Stress Ratio generated by the anticipated


earthquake ground motion = CSReq

(t / s’0) = 0.65 * (s0 / s’0) * (amax / g) * rd


amax at ground surface

200
150

acceleration(gal)
100
50
0
-50
-100
-150
-200
0 5 10 15 20 25
time (second)
Maximum PGA for Indonesia for 500-years Return
Period for Bed Rock (Sb)
Working stress (CSR)

Soil resistance
The denser the sand,
the less potential of liquefaction

The higher the density Dr,


The stronger the sand,
The less potential to liquefaction
Resistance against liquefaction is measured by using :
 SPT (Standard Penetration Test)
 CPT (Cone Penetration Test) CPT

SPT
t
CSR=
sn

Liquefied
Non-Liquefied

N
Cyclic Stress Ratio versus SPT Resistance for Various
Earthquake Magnitude
Standard Penetration Resistance

Relationship between cyclic stress ratios causing liquefaction and (N1)60 values for silty
sands in M = 7.5 earthquakes (Seed et al., 1975)
Standard Penetration Resistance

CPT-based Liquefaction Curves


When does liquefaction result in ground
surface damage?
Condition under which
ground surface
damaged will be
caused by liquefaction
Soil Improvement Techniques
By Dynanic Compaction
The denser the sand,
the less potential of liquefaction

N
Dr = sv in psi
1.7 (sv +10)

N
Dr = sv in t/m2
1.7 (1.42 sv +10)

Requirement: Dr > 70%


Mitigation of Liquefaction Hazard

 Adapt – by building liquefaction resistant structures

 Alter – soil stabilization (by enhancing the strength,


density, and/or drainage characteristics of the soil):

- Densify the liquefied soil


- Provide drainage for pore pressure dissipation
Recommendation of Liquefaction Remediation
It is recommended to use pile foundation for important
and heavy buildings

Ground surface

Non liquefied layer

Liquefiable layer

Non liquefied layer


Schematic diagram of liquefaction
remediation measures applied to deep
underground structures
Schematic diagram of liquefaction
remediation measures applied to
shallow underground structures
Schematic diagram of liquefaction
remediation measures applied to medium
depth underground structures
Thank You

For Your Kind Attention