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Presentation on theme: "Hardware: Input, Processing, and Output Devices"—

Presentation transcript:

1 Hardware: Input, Processing, and Output Devices


Chapter 3 <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/1/Hardware%3A+Input%2C+Proce
ssing%2C+and+Output+Devices.jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="Hardware:
Input, Processing, and Output Devices" title="Chapter 3.">

2 Chapter Topics Computer system components


The power, speed, and capacity of processing and main memory devices.Access
methods, capacity and portability of secondary storage devices.Input & output
devicesThe popular classes of computer systems <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/2/Chapter+Topics+Computer+syste
m+components.jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="Chapter Topics Computer
system components" title="The power, speed, and capacity of processing and main
memory devices. Access methods, capacity and portability of secondary storage
devices. Input & output devices. The popular classes of computer systems.">

3 Hardware: Typical System


Printer (output)Monitor (output)Speakers (output)Mouse (input)Keyboard
(input)System unit (processing and secondary storage) <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/3/Hardware%3A+Typical+System.j
pg" width="800" align="left" alt="Hardware: Typical System" title="Printer
(output) Monitor (output) Speakers (output) Mouse (input) Keyboard (input)
System unit (processing and secondary storage)">

4 Computer Hardware CPU Memory System Unit Input Devices Storage


Output
Peripherals“Ports”“Motherboard”“ExpansionSlots” <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/4/Computer+Hardware+CPU+Mem
ory+System+Unit+Input+Devices+Storage+Output.jpg" width="800" align="left"
alt="Computer Hardware CPU Memory System Unit Input Devices Storage
Output" title="Peripherals. Ports Motherboard Expansion. Slots">

5 On the Motherboard A “motherboard” CPU A RAM chip A “firewire” card


Pins to attach toThe motherboardExpansion slots <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/5/On+the+Motherboard+A+mother
board+CPU+A+RAM+chip+A+firewire+card.jpg" width="800" align="left"
alt="On the Motherboard A motherboard CPU A RAM chip A firewire card"
title="Pins to attach to. The motherboard. Expansion slots.">

6 CPU FetchDecodeExecuteWrite-backMemory RegistersALUControlUnit <img


src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/6/CPU+Fetch+Decode+Execute+W
rite-back+Memory+Registers+ALU+Control+Unit.jpg" width="800" align="left"
alt="CPU Fetch Decode Execute Write-back Memory Registers ALU Control
Unit" title="CPU Fetch Decode Execute Write-back Memory Registers ALU
Control Unit">

7 CPU Control Unit Arithmetic/logic Unit (ALU) Registers Maintains order


Controls CPU activityDirects sequence of operationsArithmetic/logic
Unit(ALU)Manipulates dataPerforms arithmetic computationsPerforms logical
operationsRegistersTemporary storage areas for instructions or dataoffer the
advantage of speedwork under the direction of the control unit to accept, hold, and
transfer instructions or data <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/7/CPU+Control+Unit+Arithmetic%
2Flogic+Unit+%28ALU%29+Registers+Maintains+order.jpg" width="800"
align="left" alt="CPU Control Unit Arithmetic/logic Unit (ALU) Registers
Maintains order" title="Controls CPU activity. Directs sequence of operations.
Arithmetic/logic Unit. (ALU) Manipulates data. Performs arithmetic computations.
Performs logical operations. Registers. Temporary storage areas for instructions or
data. offer the advantage of speed. work under the direction of the control unit to
accept, hold, and transfer instructions or data.">

8 Machine Cycle Fetch Decode Write-back Execute Instruction Cycle


Execution Cycle <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/8/Machine+Cycle+Fetch+Decode+
Write-back+Execute+Instruction+Cycle.jpg" width="800" align="left"
alt="Machine Cycle Fetch Decode Write-back Execute Instruction Cycle"
title="Execution Cycle.">

9 Machine Cycle Time Measures


Microseconds (1 millionth)Nanoseconds (1 billionth)Picoseconds (1
trillionth)MIPS (Millions of Instructions Processed per Second) <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/9/Machine+Cycle+Time+Measures.
jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="Machine Cycle Time Measures"
title="Microseconds (1 millionth) Nanoseconds (1 billionth) Picoseconds (1
trillionth) MIPS (Millions of Instructions Processed per Second)">
10 How fast is a Nanosecond?
If one nanosecond is..One mileOne personOne minuteOne square mileThen one
second is equivalent to …2000 trips to the moon and backPopulation of China and
the U.S.1900 years17 times the land are of the world <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/10/How+fast+is+a+Nanosecond.jpg
" width="800" align="left" alt="How fast is a Nanosecond" title="If one
nanosecond is.. One mile. One person. One minute. One square mile. Then one
second is equivalent to … 2000 trips to the moon and back. Population of China
and the U.S. 1900 years. 17 times the land are of the world.">

11 Data Bus Fetch Decode Execute Write-back “Word sizes” 8 bits 16 bits
<img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/11/Data+Bus+Fetch+Decode+Exec
ute+Write-back+Word+sizes+8+bits+16+bits.jpg" width="800" align="left"
alt="Data Bus Fetch Decode Execute Write-back Word sizes 8 bits 16 bits"
title="Data Bus Fetch Decode Execute Write-back Word sizes 8 bits 16 bits">

12 Processing Characteristics
Clock speed: electronic pulses affecting machine cycle timeHertz: one cycle
(pulse) per secondMegahertz (MHz): millions of cycles per secondMicrocode:
internal, predefined elementary operations in a CPU <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/12/Processing+Characteristics.jpg"
width="800" align="left" alt="Processing Characteristics" title="Clock speed:
electronic pulses affecting machine cycle time. Hertz: one cycle (pulse) per second.
Megahertz (MHz): millions of cycles per second. Microcode: internal, predefined
elementary operations in a CPU.">

13 Microcode Instruction Sets


Complex instruction set computing: CPU contains many microcode
instructionsReduced instruction set computing (RISC): Minimal set of microcode
instructionsVery Long Instruction Word (VLIW): Each microcode instruction is
longer and does more. <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/13/Microcode+Instruction+Sets.jpg
" width="800" align="left" alt="Microcode Instruction Sets" title="Complex
instruction set computing: CPU contains many microcode instructions. Reduced
instruction set computing (RISC): Minimal set of microcode instructions. Very
Long Instruction Word (VLIW): Each microcode instruction is longer and does
more.">
14 Multiprocessing More than one CPU is present
Tasks are divided among CPUs in true “parallel processing”Parallel processing
uses multiple processors to execute instructions in concert. <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/14/Multiprocessing+More+than+on
e+CPU+is+present.jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="Multiprocessing More than
one CPU is present" title="Tasks are divided among CPUs in true parallel
processing Parallel processing uses multiple processors to execute instructions in
concert.">

15 Parallel Processing Control CPUCombined Results <img


src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/15/Parallel+Processing+Control+C
PU+Combined+Results.jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="Parallel Processing
Control CPU Combined Results" title="Parallel Processing Control CPU
Combined Results">

16 Physical Characteristics of the CPU


Digital circuits on chipsElectrical current flows through siliconMoore’s Law states
that transistor density of chips will double every 18 months <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/16/Physical+Characteristics+of+the
+CPU.jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="Physical Characteristics of the CPU"
title="Digital circuits on chips. Electrical current flows through silicon. Moore’s
Law states that transistor density of chips will double every 18 months.">

17 Memory Characteristics and Functions <img


src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/17/Memory+Characteristics+and+F
unctions.jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="Memory Characteristics and
Functions" title="Memory Characteristics and Functions">

18 Memories Random Access Memory (RAM) ROM CPU Secondary Primary


Cache
System BusExternalStorageDevicesExpansion slotsI/O BusROM <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/18/Memories+Random+Access+Me
mory+%28RAM%29+ROM+CPU+Secondary+Primary+Cache.jpg" width="800"
align="left" alt="Memories Random Access Memory (RAM) ROM CPU
Secondary Primary Cache" title="System Bus. External. Storage. Devices.
Expansion slots. I/O Bus. ROM.">

19 ROM Chip and BIOS ROM stands for Read Only Memory
ROM is a non-volatile memory on a chipThe ROM chip containsBasic
input/output system BIOSThe BIOS has the instructions necessaryto start up your
computer <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/19/ROM+Chip+and+BIOS+ROM+
stands+for+Read+Only+Memory.jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="ROM Chip
and BIOS ROM stands for Read Only Memory" title="ROM is a non-volatile
memory on a chip. The ROM chip contains. Basic input/output system BIOS. The
BIOS has the instructions necessary. to start up your computer.">

20 RAM RAM stands for Random Access Memory


RAM is a volatile memory on a chipRAM chips store information in
“addresses”that can be accessed directly and quickly <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/20/RAM+RAM+stands+for+Rando
m+Access+Memory.jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="RAM RAM stands for
Random Access Memory" title="RAM is a volatile memory on a chip. RAM chips
store information in addresses that can be accessed directly and quickly.">

21 Storage Media Storage devices retain data when power is switched off
Storage devices are slower than memory devices like RAM <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/21/Storage+Media+Storage+device
s+retain+data+when+power+is+switched+off.jpg" width="800" align="left"
alt="Storage Media Storage devices retain data when power is switched off"
title="Storage devices are slower than memory devices like RAM.">

22 Memory Versus Storage Memory Storage


A temporary holding place for data and instructionsConsists of one or more chips
on the motherboardSometimes called primary storageStorageThe media on which
data, instructions, and information are kept, as well as the devices that record and
retrieve these itemsStorage also called secondary storage, auxiliary storage,
permanent storage, or mass storageStorage is nonvolatile <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/22/Memory+Versus+Storage+Mem
ory+Storage.jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="Memory Versus Storage Memory
Storage" title="A temporary holding place for data and instructions. Consists of
one or more chips on the motherboard. Sometimes called primary storage. Storage.
The media on which data, instructions, and information are kept, as well as the
devices that record and retrieve these items. Storage also called secondary storage,
auxiliary storage, permanent storage, or mass storage. Storage is nonvolatile.">

23 Managing Memory Remember the “Machine Cycle?” Page is Decoding


and
“swapped in”Decoding andExecutionPage is“swapped out” <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/23/Managing+Memory+Remember
+the+Machine+Cycle+Page+is+Decoding+and.jpg" width="800" align="left"
alt="Managing Memory Remember the Machine Cycle Page is Decoding and"
title="swapped in Decoding and. Execution. Page is. swapped out">

24 Starting Up BIOS read 2. OS “kernel,” or from ROM supervisor program


becomesmemory resident.3. CPU reads andexecutes instructions <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/24/Starting+Up+BIOS+read+2.+OS
+kernel%2C+or+from+ROM+supervisor+program.jpg" width="800" align="left"
alt="Starting Up BIOS read 2. OS kernel, or from ROM supervisor program"
title="becomes. memory resident. 3. CPU reads and. executes instructions.">

25 Storage Capacity Storage TermNumber of bytesAbbreviationThe number of


bytes (characters) a storage medium can holdManufacturers use many terms to
define the capacity of storage mediaKilobyteKB 1 thousandMegabyteMB 1
millionGigabyteGB 1 billionTerabyteTB 1 trillionPetabytePB 1 quadrillion <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/25/Storage+Capacity+Storage+Ter
m.+Number+of+bytes.+Abbreviation.+The+number+of+bytes+%28characters%29
+a+storage+medium+can+hold..jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="Storage
Capacity Storage Term. Number of bytes. Abbreviation. The number of bytes
(characters) a storage medium can hold." title="Manufacturers use many terms to
define the capacity of storage media. Kilobyte. KB. 1 thousand. Megabyte. MB. 1
million. Gigabyte. GB. 1 billion. Terabyte. TB. 1 trillion. Petabyte. PB. 1
quadrillion.">

26 Data Representation A computer circuit represents the 0 or the 1 electronically


by the presence or absence of an electronic charge.Binary Digit (Bit): Electronic
StateOn OffBinary system: two unique digits, 0 and 1Bit: the smallest unit of data
the computer can representA byte: a group of 8 bits: represents a single character
in the computer <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/26/Data+Representation+A+comput
er+circuit+represents+the+0+or+the+1+electronically+by+the+presence+or+absen
ce+of+an+electronic+charge..jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="Data
Representation A computer circuit represents the 0 or the 1 electronically by the
presence or absence of an electronic charge." title="Binary Digit (Bit): Electronic
State. 1 On. 0 Off. Binary system: two unique digits, 0 and 1. Bit: the smallest unit
of data the computer can represent. A byte: a group of 8 bits: represents a single
character in the computer.">

27 Bits and Bytes Byte Eight bits Kilobyte - 1 thousand bytes


Megabyte - 1 million bytesGigabyte - 1 billion bytesTerabyte trillion bytes <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/27/Bits+and+Bytes+Byte+Eight+bit
s+Kilobyte+-+1+thousand+bytes.jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="Bits and
Bytes Byte Eight bits Kilobyte - 1 thousand bytes" title="Megabyte - 1 million
bytes. Gigabyte - 1 billion bytes. Terabyte - 1 trillion bytes.">

28 Coding Schemes A byte provides enough different combinations of 0s and 1s to


represent 256 individual characters.A coding scheme: the defined combinations of
0s and 1s that represent characters by patternsASCII(The American Standard Code
for Information Interchange)ASCII represents 0-9, upper and lower case A-Z, and
English language punctuation in byte codeEBCDIC (The Extended Binary Coded
Decimal Interchange Code)Unicode <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/28/Coding+Schemes+A+byte+provi
des+enough+different+combinations+of+0s+and+1s+to+represent+256+individual
+characters..jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="Coding Schemes A byte provides
enough different combinations of 0s and 1s to represent 256 individual characters."
title="A coding scheme: the defined combinations of 0s and 1s that represent
characters by patterns. ASCII(The American Standard Code for Information
Interchange) ASCII represents 0-9, upper and lower case A-Z, and English
language punctuation in byte code. EBCDIC (The Extended Binary Coded
Decimal Interchange Code) Unicode.">

29 Data Storage Hierarchy


DOG…..CAT….FOX….FileRecordDOG, FOUR LEGS, TWO
EARSFieldDOGCharacter (byte)D O GBits <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/29/Data+Storage+Hierarchy.jpg"
width="800" align="left" alt="Data Storage Hierarchy" title="DOG….. CAT….
FOX…. File. Record. DOG, FOUR LEGS, TWO EARS. Field. DOG. Character
(byte) D O G. Bits. 01000100 01001111 01000111.">

30 Storage Modes Direct(Random) Access Sequential


records can be retrieved in any orderFaster (nanoseconds)Usually more
expensiveSequentialrecords must be retrieved in orderSlower (milliseconds)Less
expensiveThe dog barked.T H E D O G . Th bard og k ed e <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/30/Storage+Modes+Direct%28Ran
dom%29+Access+Sequential.jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="Storage Modes
Direct(Random) Access Sequential" title="records can be retrieved in any order.
Faster (nanoseconds) Usually more expensive. Sequential. records must be
retrieved in order. Slower (milliseconds) Less expensive. The dog barked. T. H. E.
D. O. G. . Th. bar. d. og. k. ed. e.">
31 Sequential access versus Direct access
Method used for floppy disks, hard disks, and compact discsAlso called random
accessYou can locate a particular data item or file immediately, without having to
move consecutively through items stored in front of the desired data item or
fileFasterUsed as the primary method of storageSequential accessMethod used for
tapeReading and writing data consecutivelyYou must forward or rewind the tape to
a specific point to access a specific piece of dataMuch slowerUtilized most often
for long-term storage and backup <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/31/Sequential+access+versus+Direc
t+access.jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="Sequential access versus Direct
access" title="Method used for floppy disks, hard disks, and compact discs. Also
called random access. You can locate a particular data item or file immediately,
without having to move consecutively through items stored in front of the desired
data item or file. Faster. Used as the primary method of storage. Sequential access.
Method used for tape. Reading and writing data consecutively. You must forward
or rewind the tape to a specific point to access a specific piece of data. Much
slower. Utilized most often for long-term storage and backup.">

32 Storage Technologies Magnetic Optical


Read/write head uses electrical impulses to create or interpret patterns of magnetic
impulsesFloppy disksHard disksTapeOpticalLaser beam creates or reads non-
reflective pits and reflective land areasCDsDVDsAncient DecTapesystems <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/32/Storage+Technologies+Magneti
c+Optical.jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="Storage Technologies Magnetic
Optical" title="Read/write head uses electrical impulses to create or interpret
patterns of magnetic impulses. Floppy disks. Hard disks. Tape. Optical. Laser
beam creates or reads non-reflective pits and reflective land areas. CDs. DVDs.
Ancient DecTape. systems.">

33 Disks Read/WriteHeadSectorCluster <img


src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/33/Disks+Read%2FWrite+Head+Se
ctor+Cluster.jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="Disks Read/Write Head Sector
Cluster" title="Disks Read/Write Head Sector Cluster">

34 Access time costless expensivemore expensivespeedfasterslowerMemory


(RAM)The amount of time it takes the device to locate an item on a diskDefines
the speed of a disk storage deviceHard DiskCompact DiscFloppy DiskTape <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/34/Access+time+cost.+less+expensi
ve.+more+expensive.+speed.+faster.+slower.+Memory+%28RAM%29.jpg"
width="800" align="left" alt="Access time cost. less expensive. more expensive.
speed. faster. slower. Memory (RAM)" title="The amount of time it takes the
device to locate an item on a disk. Defines the speed of a disk storage device. Hard
Disk. Compact Disc. Floppy Disk. Tape.">

35 CD-R & CD-RW CD-R (compact disc-recordable)


You write on the CD-R using a CD recorder or a CD-R drive and special
softwareThe CD-R drive can read and write both audio CDs and standard CD-
ROMsYou cannot erase the disc’s contentsMost CD-ROM drives can read a CD-
RCD-RW (compact disc-rewritable)An erasable disc you can write on multiple
timesYou must have CD-RW software and a CD-RW drive <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/35/CD-R+%26+CD-RW+CD-
R+%28compact+disc-recordable%29.jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="CD-R &
CD-RW CD-R (compact disc-recordable)" title="You write on the CD-R using a
CD recorder or a CD-R drive and special software. The CD-R drive can read and
write both audio CDs and standard CD-ROMs. You cannot erase the disc’s
contents. Most CD-ROM drives can read a CD-R. CD-RW (compact disc-
rewritable) An erasable disc you can write on multiple times. You must have CD-
RW software and a CD-RW drive.">

36 DVD-ROM (digital video disc-ROM)


An extremely high capacity compact disc capable of storing from 4.7 GB to 17
GBYou must have a DVD-ROM drive or DVD player to read a DVD-ROMLooks
just like a CD-ROM but data, instructions, and information is stored in a slightly
different manner to achieve a higher storage capacity <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/36/DVD-
ROM+%28digital+video+disc-ROM%29.jpg" width="800" align="left"
alt="DVD-ROM (digital video disc-ROM)" title="An extremely high capacity
compact disc capable of storing from 4.7 GB to 17 GB. You must have a DVD-
ROM drive or DVD player to read a DVD-ROM. Looks just like a CD-ROM but
data, instructions, and information is stored in a slightly different manner to
achieve a higher storage capacity.">

37 Magnetic Tapes A magnetically coated ribbon of plastic capable of storing large


amounts of data and information at a low costA tape drive reads from and writes
data and information on a tapeOlder computers used reel-to-reel tape drivesA tape
cartridge is a small, rectangular, plastic housing for tape used in today’s tape
drivesUsed by business and home users to backup personal computer hard
disksBoth external and internal tape units for personal computersLarger computers
use tape cartridges mounted in a separate cabinet called a tape library <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/37/Magnetic+Tapes+A+magneticall
y+coated+ribbon+of+plastic+capable+of+storing+large+amounts+of+data+and+in
formation+at+a+low+cost..jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="Magnetic Tapes A
magnetically coated ribbon of plastic capable of storing large amounts of data and
information at a low cost." title="A tape drive reads from and writes data and
information on a tape. Older computers used reel-to-reel tape drives. A tape
cartridge is a small, rectangular, plastic housing for tape used in today’s tape
drives. Used by business and home users to backup personal computer hard disks.
Both external and internal tape units for personal computers. Larger computers use
tape cartridges mounted in a separate cabinet called a tape library.">

38 Storage techniques used in an enterprise system


Storage area network (SAN): A high-speed network that connects storage
devicesTape library: A high-capacity tape system that works with multiple tape
cartridges for storing backups of data, information, and instructionsRAID system:
Ensures that data is not lost if one drive failsServer: Stores data, information, and
instructions need by users on the networkCD-ROM jukebox: Holds hundreds of
CD-ROMs that can contain application programs and data. Also called a CD-ROM
serverInternet backup: Stores data, information, and instructions on the Web <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/38/Storage+techniques+used+in+an
+enterprise+system.jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="Storage techniques used in
an enterprise system" title="Storage area network (SAN): A high-speed network
that connects storage devices. Tape library: A high-capacity tape system that works
with multiple tape cartridges for storing backups of data, information, and
instructions. RAID system: Ensures that data is not lost if one drive fails. Server:
Stores data, information, and instructions need by users on the network. CD-ROM
jukebox: Holds hundreds of CD-ROMs that can contain application programs and
data. Also called a CD-ROM server. Internet backup: Stores data, information, and
instructions on the Web.">

39 RAID Redundant array of independent disks


A type of hard disk system that connects several smaller disks into a single unit
that acts like a single large hard diskMore reliable than a traditional disk system
but quite expensiveRAID duplicates data, instructions, and information to improve
data reliability <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/39/RAID+Redundant+array+of+ind
ependent+disks.jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="RAID Redundant array of
independent disks" title="A type of hard disk system that connects several smaller
disks into a single unit that acts like a single large hard disk. More reliable than a
traditional disk system but quite expensive. RAID duplicates data, instructions, and
information to improve data reliability.">
40 How does RAID work? Level 1, called mirroring, has one backup disk for each
diskLevels beyond level 1 use a technique called striping, which splits data,
instructions, and information across multiple disks in the arrayMirroring (RAID
Level 1)Striping <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/40/How+does+RAID+work+Level
+1%2C+called+mirroring%2C+has+one+backup+disk+for+each+disk..jpg"
width="800" align="left" alt="How does RAID work Level 1, called mirroring,
has one backup disk for each disk." title="Levels beyond level 1 use a technique
called striping, which splits data, instructions, and information across multiple
disks in the array. Mirroring (RAID Level 1) Striping.">

41 Additional Devices and Media


Memory CardsA thin, credit card-sized deviceFits into a PC Card slot on a
notebook other personal computerDifferent types and sizes add storage, additional
memory, communications, and sound capabilities to a computerThree types of PC
CardAdvantage of a PC Card for storage is portability between systemsFlash
memoryAlso called flash ROM or flash RAMNonvolatile memory that can be
erased electronically and reprogrammedStores data and programs on many
handheld computers and devicesFlash memory cards store flash memory on
removable devices instead of chips <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/41/Additional+Devices+and+Media
.jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="Additional Devices and Media" title="Memory
Cards. A thin, credit card-sized device. Fits into a PC Card slot on a notebook
other personal computer. Different types and sizes add storage, additional memory,
communications, and sound capabilities to a computer. Three types of PC Card.
Advantage of a PC Card for storage is portability between systems. Flash memory.
Also called flash ROM or flash RAM. Nonvolatile memory that can be erased
electronically and reprogrammed. Stores data and programs on many handheld
computers and devices. Flash memory cards store flash memory on removable
devices instead of chips.">

42 Input and Output Device DriversoftwareInterrupts <img


src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/42/Input+and+Output+Device+Driv
er+software+Interrupts.jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="Input and Output
Device Driver software Interrupts" title="Input and Output Device Driver software
Interrupts">

43 Input devices What is input? Types of input


Any data or instructions you enter into the memory of the computerUsers can input
data and instructions in a variety of waysTypes of inputData: A collection of raw
unprocessed facts, figures, and symbolsInstructions: Programs, Commands, User
responses <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/43/Input+devices+What+is+input+
Types+of+input.jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="Input devices What is input
Types of input" title="Any data or instructions you enter into the memory of the
computer. Users can input data and instructions in a variety of ways. Types of
input. Data: A collection of raw unprocessed facts, figures, and symbols.
Instructions: Programs, Commands, User responses.">

44 Data Data can be human or machine readable


Data entry converts human readable data into machine-readable formData input
transfers machine-readable data into the systemSource data automation <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/44/Data+Data+can+be+human+or+
machine+readable.jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="Data Data can be human or
machine readable" title="Data entry converts human readable data into machine-
readable form. Data input transfers machine-readable data into the system. Source
data automation.">

45 Input Devices Personal computer input devices


KeyboardMouseVoice-recognition devicesDigital camerasTerminals <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/45/Input+Devices+Personal+compu
ter+input+devices.jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="Input Devices Personal
computer input devices" title="Keyboard. Mouse. Voice-recognition devices.
Digital cameras. Terminals.">

46 Input Devices Scanning devices Optical data readers Bar code scanners
MICR devicesPOS (point-of-sale) devicesPen input devicesLight pensTouch
screens <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/46/Input+Devices+Scanning+devic
es+Optical+data+readers+Bar+code+scanners.jpg" width="800" align="left"
alt="Input Devices Scanning devices Optical data readers Bar code scanners"
title="MICR devices. POS (point-of-sale) devices. Pen input devices. Light pens.
Touch screens.">

47 Output Devices Monitors Printers Plotters


Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs)Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs)Active matrixPassive
matrixPrintersPlottersComputer Output Microform (COM)Music Devices <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/47/Output+Devices+Monitors+Print
ers+Plotters.jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="Output Devices Monitors Printers
Plotters" title="Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs) Active
matrix. Passive matrix. Printers. Plotters. Computer Output Microform (COM)
Music Devices.">

48 What is a CRT monitor? Contains a cathode ray tube (CRT), a large sealed,
glass screenThe screen is coated with tiny dots of phosphor materialA pixel, or
picture element, is a single point in an electronic imageThree dots (red, blue, and
green) combine to make up each pixelcathode ray tubescreenCRT monitor <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/48/What+is+a+CRT+monitor+Cont
ains+a+cathode+ray+tube+%28CRT%29%2C+a+large+sealed%2C+glass+screen.
+The+screen+is+coated+with+tiny+dots+of+phosphor+material..jpg"
width="800" align="left" alt="What is a CRT monitor Contains a cathode ray tube
(CRT), a large sealed, glass screen. The screen is coated with tiny dots of phosphor
material." title="A pixel, or picture element, is a single point in an electronic
image. Three dots (red, blue, and green) combine to make up each pixel. cathode
ray tube. screen. CRT monitor.">

49 What is a liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor?


A type of flat-panel displayUses liquid crystals between two sheets of material to
present information on a screenAn electric current passes through the crystals
which creates the images on the screen <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/49/What+is+a+liquid+crystal+displ
ay+%28LCD%29+monitor.jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="What is a liquid
crystal display (LCD) monitor" title="A type of flat-panel display. Uses liquid
crystals between two sheets of material to present information on a screen. An
electric current passes through the crystals which creates the images on the
screen.">

50 What is display resolution?


Describes the sharpness and clearness of an imageResolution of a display device
stated as dots, or pixels800 x 600 typically the standard800 horizontal pixels600
vertical pixels1280 x 1024 maximum resolution of most monitorsTotal of 480,000
pixels on screen2048 x 1536 maximum for high-end monitors <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/50/What+is+display+resolution.jpg
" width="800" align="left" alt="What is display resolution" title="Describes the
sharpness and clearness of an image. Resolution of a display device stated as dots,
or pixels. 800 x 600 typically the standard. 800 horizontal pixels. 600 vertical
pixels. 1280 x 1024 maximum resolution of most monitors. Total of 480,000 pixels
on screen. 2048 x 1536 maximum for high-end monitors.">
51 What is a video card? Converts digital output from the computer into an analog
video signalSends the signal through a cable to the monitorControls how the
display device produces the pictureAlso called a graphics card or video adapter
<img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/51/What+is+a+video+card+Convert
s+digital+output+from+the+computer+into+an+analog+video+signal.+Sends+the+
signal+through+a+cable+to+the+monitor..jpg" width="800" align="left"
alt="What is a video card Converts digital output from the computer into an analog
video signal. Sends the signal through a cable to the monitor." title="Controls how
the display device produces the picture. Also called a graphics card or video
adapter.">

52 How does video travel from the processor to a CRT monitor?


Step 1: The processor sends digital video data to the video card.Step 2: The video
card’s digital-to-analog converter (DAC) converts the digital video data to an
analog signal.Step 3: The analog signal is sent through a cable to the CRT
monitor.Step 4: The CRT monitor separates the analog signal into red, green, and
blue signals.Step 5: Electron guns fire the three color signals to the front of the
CRT.Step 6: An image displays on the screen when the electrons hit phosphor dots
on the back of the screen. <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/52/How+does+video+travel+from+t
he+processor+to+a+CRT+monitor.jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="How does
video travel from the processor to a CRT monitor" title="Step 1: The processor
sends digital video data to the video card. Step 2: The video card’s digital-to-
analog converter (DAC) converts the digital video data to an analog signal. Step 3:
The analog signal is sent through a cable to the CRT monitor. Step 4: The CRT
monitor separates the analog signal into red, green, and blue signals. Step 5:
Electron guns fire the three color signals to the front of the CRT. Step 6: An image
displays on the screen when the electrons hit phosphor dots on the back of the
screen.">

53 What is bit depth? 28 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 256 colors


8-bit video card (8-bit color)Uses 8 bits to store information about each pixelCan
display 256 different colors28 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 256 colorsWhat is
bit depth?The number of bits a video card uses to store information about each
pixelAlso called the color depthDetermines the number of colors a video card can
displayThe greater the number of bits, the better the resulting image24-bit video
cardUses 24 bits to store information about each pixelCan display 16.7 million
colors224 = million colors <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/53/What+is+bit+depth+28+%3D+2
+x+2+x+2+x+2+x+2+x+2+x+2+x+2+%3D+256+colors.jpg" width="800"
align="left" alt="What is bit depth 28 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 256 colors"
title="8-bit video card (8-bit color) Uses 8 bits to store information about each
pixel. Can display 256 different colors. 28 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 256
colors. What is bit depth The number of bits a video card uses to store information
about each pixel. Also called the color depth. Determines the number of colors a
video card can display. The greater the number of bits, the better the resulting
image. 24-bit video card. Uses 24 bits to store information about each pixel. Can
display 16.7 million colors. 224 = 16.7 million colors.">

54 What are various video standards?


The Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA) develops video standards
<img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/54/What+are+various+video+stand
ards.jpg" width="800" align="left" alt="What are various video standards"
title="The Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA) develops video
standards.">

55 Computer System Types Network computer Personal computer


Workstation
Midrange computerMainframe computerSupercomputer <img
src="http://slideplayer.com/1592829/5/images/55/Computer+System+Types+Netw
ork+computer+Personal+computer+Workstation.jpg" width="800" align="left"
alt="Computer System Types Network computer Personal computer Workstation"
title="Midrange computer. Mainframe computer. Supercomputer.">

56 <img src="http://images.slideplayer.com/5/1592829/slides/slide_57.jpg"
width="800" align="left" alt="" title="">

57 Selecting and Upgrading Computer Systems


Computer system architecture: the configuration of a computer system’s hardware
components