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01-01 Chap Gere

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Tension, Compression,

and Shear

P1

Normal Stress and Strain

A

Problem 1.2-1 A solid circular post ABC (see figure) supports

a load P1 2500 lb acting at the top. A second load P2 is dAB

uniformly distributed around the shelf at B. The diameters of P2

the upper and lower parts of the post are dAB 1.25 in. and

dBC 2.25 in., respectively.

B

(a) Calculate the normal stress AB in the upper part of the post.

(b) If it is desired that the lower part of the post have the dBC

same compressive stress as the upper part, what should be

the magnitude of the load P2?

P1 2500 lb ALTERNATE SOLUTION

dAB 1.25 in. P1 P2 P1 P2

sBC 2

dBC 2.25 in. ABC 4 dBC

P1 P1

sAB 2 sBC sAB

(a) NORMAL STRESS IN PART AB AAB 4 dAB

P1 2500 lb P1 P2 P1 dBC 2

sAB 2040 psi — 2 2 or P2 P1 B ¢ ≤ 1R

AAB 4 (1.25 in.) 2 dBC dAB dAB

dBC

1.8

(b) LOAD P2 FOR EQUAL STRESSES dAB

P1

P1 P2 2500 lb P2 ∴ P2 2.24 P1 5600 lb —

sBC 2 A

ABC 4 (2.25 in.)

AB 2040 psi

Solve for P2: P2 5600 lb — P2

1

2 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

50 mm

piston rod (see figure) when a force P 40 N is applied to the

brake pedal. 5 mm

Assume that the line of action of the force P is parallel to the 225 mm

piston rod, which has diameter 5 mm. Also, the other dimensions

shown in the figure (50 mm and 225 mm) are measured perpen-

P = 40 N

dicular to the line of action of the force P.

Piston rod

50 mm EQUILIBRIUM OF BRAKE PEDAL

A ©MA 0

225 mm F(50 mm) P(275 mm) 0

F

275 mm 275

P = 40 N F P¢ ≤ (40 N) ¢ ≤ 220 N

50 mm 50

F compressive force in piston rod F 220 N

sc 11.2 MPa —

d diameter of piston rod A 4 (5 mm) 2

5 mm

tall tower and holds a 200-pound weight at its lower end

(see figure).

If the diameter of the circular rod is 1⁄4 inch, calcu-

late the maximum normal stress max in the rod, taking

into account the weight of the rod itself. (Obtain the

weight density of steel from Table H-1, Appendix H.) 110 ft

1

— in.

4

200 lb

SECTION 1.2 Normal Stress and Strain 3

WP P

P 200 lb smax gL

A A

d L 110 ft

1 ft2

d 1⁄4 in. gL (490 lbft3 )(110 ft) ¢ ≤

L 144 in.2

Weight density: 490 lb/ft3 374.3 psi

W Weight of rod P 200 lb

4074 psi

A 4 (0.25 in.) 2

(Volume)

max 374 psi 4074 psi 4448 psi

AL

Rounding, we get

P 200 lb

max 4450 psi —

P = 200 lb

mm is loaded in compression by forces P (see figure). The out- P

P

side and inside diameters are 60 mm and 50 mm, respectively. A

strain gage is placed on the outside of the bar to measure normal

L = 400 mm

strains in the longitudinal direction.

(a) If the measured strain is 550 106, what is the

shortening of the bar?

(b) If the compressive stress in the bar is intended to be 40

MPa, what should be the load P?

Strain gage

P P

L 400 mm 40 MPa

d2 60 mm A [d22 d12] [ (60 mm) 2 (50 mm) 2 ]

4 4

d1 50 mm 863.9 mm2

0.220 mm —

4 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

uniformly in compression is shown in the figure.

20 in.

(a) Determine the average compressive stress c in

the concrete if the load is equal to 2500 k.

(b) Determine the coordinates x and y of the point where the 16 in.

resultant load must act in order to produce uniform normal

stress. 48 in. 16 in.

16 in.

O 20 in. 16 in. x

P 2500 k

16 in.

x P 2500 k

C sc 1.70 ksi —

48 in. 16 in. 2 A 1472 in.2

1 3

y (b) COORDINATES OF CENTROID c

16 in. 4

1

O x From symmetry, y (48 in.) 24 in. —

20 in. 16 in. 2

© xi Ai

x (see Chapter 12, Eq. 12 7a)

USE THE FOLLOWING AREAS: A

1

A1 (48 in.)(20 in.) 960 in.2 x (x1 A1 2x2 A2 x3 A3 )

A

1

A2 A4 (16 in.)(16 in.) 128 in.2 1

2 [ (10 in.)(960 in.2 )

1472 in.2

A3 (16 in.)(16 in.) 256 in.2

2(25.333 in.)(128 in.2)

A A1 A2 A3 A4

(28 in.)(256 in.2)]

(960 128 256 128) in.2

15.8 in. —

1472 in.2

is pulled slowly up a steep inclined track by a steel cable Cable

(see figure). The cable has an effective cross-sectional area

of 490 mm2, and the angle of the incline is 30°.

Calculate the tensile stress t in the cable.

SECTION 1.2 Normal Stress and Strain 5

W T W sin

W Weight of car st

A A

T Tensile force in

cable SUBSTITUTE NUMERICAL VALUES:

Angle of incline W 130 kN 30

R2

A Effective area of A 490 mm2

R1 cable

(130 kN)(sin 30)

R1, R2 Wheel reactions (no friction force between st

490 mm2

wheels and rails)

133 MPa —

EQUILIBRIUM IN THE INCLINED DIRECTION

©FT 0Q b T W sin 0

T W sin

weighing 18 lb (see figure). Wire AB is at an angle 34°

to the horizontal and wire BC is at an angle 48°. Both C

wires have diameter 30 mils. (Wire diameters are often

A

expressed in mils; one mil equals 0.001 in.)

Determine the tensile stresses AB and BC in the

two wires.

B

FREE-BODY DIAGRAM OF POINT B

SUBSTITUTE NUMERICAL VALUES:

TAB TBC TAB(0.82904) TBC(0.66913) 0

TAB(0.55919) TBC(0.74314) 18 0

34 48

d 30 mils 0.030 in. SOLVE THE EQUATIONS:

y d 2 TAB 12.163 lb TBC 15.069 lb

W = 18 lb A 706.9 10 6 in.2

4

TENSILE STRESSES IN THE WIRES

0 x

TAB

sAB 17,200 psi —

A

EQUATIONS OF EQUILIBRIUM

TBC

Fx 0 TAB cos TBC cos 0 sBC 21,300 psi —

A

Fy 0 TAB sin TBC sin W 0

6 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

shores set at an angle of 30° and supported by concrete

thrust blocks, as shown in the first part of the figure. The Soil Retaining

wall

shores are evenly spaced, 3 m apart.

For analysis purposes, the wall and shores are idealized Concrete

Shore thrust B

as shown in the second part of the figure. Note that the base block

of the wall and both ends of the shores are assumed to be F

pinned. The pressure of the soil against the wall is assumed 30° 30°

1.5 m C

to be triangularly distributed, and the resultant force acting

A 0.5 m

on a 3-meter length of the wall is F 190 kN.

If each shore has a 150 mm 150 mm square cross sec- 4.0 m

tion, what is the compressive stress c in the shores?

Wall F 190 kN

B A area of one shore

Shore

F

30° A (150 mm)(150 mm)

1.5 m C

0.5 m

22,500 mm2

A

4.0 m 0.0225 m2

©MA 0

B

F(1.5 m)CV (4.0 m)CH (0.5 m) 0

F 30° CH

or

1.5 m 30°

A CV

AH

C (190 kN)(1.5 m) C(sin 30)(4.0 m) C(cos 30)(0.5 m) 0

AV ∴ C 117.14 kN

CH horizontal component of C C 117.14 kN

sc

CV vertical component of C A 0.0225 m2

CV C sin 30

SECTION 1.2 Normal Stress and Strain 7

ABC supported by a cable BD is subjected to a load P

(see figure). The cable has an effective cross-sectional area

A 0.471 in2. The dimensions of the crane are H 9 ft, Cable

L1 12 ft, and L2 4 ft.

H

(a) If the load P 9000 lb, what is the average tensile

stress in the cable?

Girder

(b) If the cable stretches by 0.382 in., what is the average A B C

strain?

L1 L2

EQUILIBRIUM

D

©MA 0

TV (12 ft) (9000 lb)(16 ft) 0

TV 12,000 lb

H TH L1 12 ft

TV H 9 ft

12

A B C ∴ TH TV ¢ ≤

9

L1 L2 12

TH (12,000 lb) ¢ ≤

9

H 9 ft L1 12 ft P = 9000 lb

16,000 lb

L2 4 ft A effective area of cable

TENSILE FORCE IN CABLE

A 0.471 in.2

T TH2 TV2 (16,000 lb) 2 (12,000 lb) 2

P 9000 lb

20,000 lb

FREE-BODY DIAGRAM OF GIRDER

(a) AVERAGE TENSILE STRESS IN CABLE

T TV

T 20,000 lb

s 42,500 psi —

A 0.471 in.2

A TH B C

(b) AVERAGE STRAIN IN CABLE

12 ft 4 ft L length of cableL H 2 L21 15 ft

0.382 in.

T tensile force in cable e 2120 10 6 —

L (15 ft)(12 in.ft)

P 9000 lb

8 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

Problem 1.2-10 Solve the preceding problem if the load P 32 kN; the

cable has effective cross-sectional area A 481 mm2; the dimensions of

the crane are H 1.6 m, L1 3.0 m, and L2 1.5 m; and the cable

stretches by 5.1 mm. Figure is with Prob. 1.2-9.

D

H L2 1.5 m A effective area of cable

A 481 mm2 P 32 kN

A B C

L1 L2

P = 32 kN

FREE-BODY DIAGRAM OF GIRDER TENSILE FORCE IN CABLE

T TV T = tensile force

in cable T TH2 TV2 (90 kN) 2 (48 kN) 2

TH

102 kN

A B C

P = 32 kN T 102 kN

s 212 MPa —

EQUILIBRIUM A 481 mm2

©MA 0

(b) AVERAGE STRAIN IN CABLE

TV (3.0 m) (32 kN)(4.5 m) 0

L length of cable

TV 48 kN

L H 2 L21 3.4 m

TH L1 3.0 m

stretch of cable

TV H 1.6 m

3.0 5.1 mm

∴ TH TV ¢ ≤

1.6

5.1 mm

3.0 e 1500 10 6 —

TH (48 kN) ¢ ≤ L 3.4 m

1.6

90 kN

Problem 1.2-11 A reinforced concrete slab 8.0 ft square and 9.0 in.

thick is lifted by four cables attached to the corners, as shown in

the figure. The cables are attached to a hook at a point 5.0 ft above

the top of the slab. Each cable has an effective cross-sectional area

Cables

A 0.12 in2.

Determine the tensile stress t in the cables due to the weight of

the concrete slab. (See Table H-1, Appendix H, for the weight density

of reinforced concrete.)

Reinforced

concrete slab

SECTION 1.2 Normal Stress and Strain 9

W

T tensile force in a cable

Cable AB:

A TV H

H

T LAB

Cable

H

TV T ¢ ≤ (Eq. 1)

H L22

2

t

EQUILIBRIUM

B

L Fvert 0 ↑ ↓

L

W 4TV 0

H height of hook above slab W

TV (Eq. 2)

L length of side of square slab 4

weight density of reinforced concrete H W

T¢ ≤

W weight of slab L2t H L 2

2 2 4

D length of diagonal of slab L2 W H 2 L22 W

T 1 L22H 2

4 H 4

DIMENSIONS OF CABLE AB

A TENSILE STRESS IN A CABLE

LAB length of cable

H T W

2

st 1 L22H2 —

L A 4A

H2

B

D= L B 2

2 2 SUBSTITUTE NUMERICAL VALUES AND OBTAIN t :

H 5.0 ft L 8.0 ft t 9.0 in. 0.75 ft

FREE-BODY DIAGRAM OF HOOK AT POINT A 150 lb/ft3 A 0.12 in.2

W L2t 7200 lb

W TH

W

st 1 L22H2 22,600 psi —

4A

A TV

T

T T T T

Problem 1.2-12 A round bar ACB of length 2L (see figure) rotates about

an axis through the midpoint C with constant angular speed (radians

per second). The material of the bar has weight density . A B

C x

(a) Derive a formula for the tensile stress x in the bar as a function of

L L

the distance x from the midpoint C.

(b) What is the maximum tensile stress max?

10 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

from the

midpoint C. The variable

ranges from x to L.

C

x g

d

dM g A dj

L

dF Inertia force (centrifugal force) of element of mass dM

g

dF (dM)(j 2 ) g A 2jdj

angular speed (rad/s)

B L

gA 2 2

A cross-sectional area

g

Fx dF A 2jdj (L x 2)

g 2g

weight density D x

g

g mass density

(a) TENSILE STRESS IN BAR AT DISTANCE x

Fx g 2 2

sx (L x 2) —

A 2g

We wish to find the axial force Fx in the bar at

Section D, distance x from the midpoint C.

(b) MAXIMUM TENSILE STRESS

The force Fx equals the inertia force of the part of

the rotating bar from D to B. g 2L2

x 0smax —

2g

Problem 1.3-1 Imagine that a long steel wire hangs vertically from a

high-altitude balloon.

(a) What is the greatest length (feet) it can have without yielding if the

steel yields at 40 ksi?

(b) If the same wire hangs from a ship at sea, what is the greatest

length? (Obtain the weight densities of steel and sea water from

Table H-1, Appendix H.)

W total weight of steel wire smax 40,000 psi

Lmax (144 in.2ft2 )

S weight density of steel gS 490 lbft3

L 490 lb/ft3 11,800 ft —

63.8 lb/ft3 F tensile force at top of wire

A cross-sectional area of wire F

F (gS gW ) ALsmax (gS gW )L

A

max 40 psi (yield strength)

smax

Lmax

(a) WIRE HANGING IN AIR gS gW

W S AL 40,000 psi

(144 in.2ft2 )

(490 63.8)lbft3

W

smax gSL

A 13,500 ft —

SECTION 1.3 Mechanical Properties and Stress-Strain Diagrams 11

from a high-altitude balloon.

(a) What is the greatest length (meters) it can have without breaking

if the ultimate strength (or breaking strength) is 1500 MPa?

(b) If the same wire hangs from a ship at sea, what is the greatest

length? (Obtain the weight densities of tungsten and sea water

from Table H-1, Appendix H.)

T weight density of tungsten F tensile force at top of wire

L 190 kN/m3 F (TW)AL

W weight density of sea water F

smax (gT gW )L

10.0 kN/m3 A

smax

A cross-sectional area of wire Lmax

gT gW

max 1500 MPa (breaking strength) 1500 MPa

(190 10.0) kNm3

(a) WIRE HANGING IN AIR

8300 m —

W T AL

W

smax gTL

A

smax 1500 MPa

Lmax

gT 190 kNm3

7900 m —

and C, are tested in tension using test specimens having Gage

diameters of 0.505 in. and gage lengths of 2.0 in. (see figure). P length

At failure, the distances between the gage marks are found to

be 2.13, 2.48, and 2.78 in., respectively. Also, at the failure P

cross sections the diameters are found to be 0.484, 0.398, and

0.253 in., respectively.

Determine the percent elongation and percent reduction

in area of each specimen, and then, using your own judgment,

classify each material as brittle or ductile.

12 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

0.505 in A0 A1

Percent reduction in area (100)

P P A0

A1

2.0 in ¢1 ≤ (100)

A0

L1 L0 L1 d0 initial diameter d1 final diameter

Percent elongation (100) ¢ 1 ≤100

L0 L0 A1 d1 2

¢ ≤ d0 0.505 in.

L0 2.0 in. A0 d0

L1

Percent elongation ¢ 1 ≤ (100) (Eq. 1) Percent reduction in area

2.0

where L1 is in inches. d1 2

B1 ¢ ≤ R (100) (Eq. 2)

0.505

where d1 is in inches.

Material (in.) (in.) (Eq. 1) (Eq. 2) Ductile?

B 2.48 0.398 24.0% 37.9% Ductile

C 2.78 0.253 39.0% 74.9% Ductile

Problem 1.3-4 The strength-to-weight ratio of a structural in which is the characteristic stress and is the weight

material is defined as its load-carrying capacity divided by density. Note that the ratio has units of length.

its weight. For materials in tension, we may use a character- Using the ultimate stress U as the strength parameter,

istic tensile stress (as obtained from a stress-strain curve) calculate the strength-to-weight ratio (in units of meters)

as a measure of strength. For instance, either the yield for each of the following materials: aluminum alloy

stress or the ultimate stress could be used, depending upon 6061-T6, Douglas fir (in bending), nylon, structural steel

the particular application. Thus, the strength-to-weight ratio ASTM-A572, and a titanium alloy. (Obtain the material

RS/W for a material in tension is defined as properties from Tables H-1 and H-3 of Appendix H. When

a range of values is given in a table, use the average value.)

RS/W

The ultimate stress u for each material is obtained u RS/W

from Table H-3, Appendix H, and the weight density (MPa) (kN/m3) (m)

is obtained from Table H-1.

Aluminum alloy 310 26.0 11.9 103

The strength-to-weight ratio (meters) is 6061-T6

Douglas fir 65 5.1 12.7 103

su (MPa) Nylon 60 9.8 6.1 103

RSW (103 ) Structural steel 500 77.0 6.5 103

g(kNm3 )

ASTM-A572

Values of u, , and RS/W are listed in the table. Titanium alloy 1050 44.0 23.9 103

why it is used in space vehicles and high-performance

airplanes. Aluminum is higher than steel, which makes

it desirable for commercial aircraft. Some woods are also

higher than steel, and nylon is about the same as steel.

SECTION 1.3 Mechanical Properties and Stress-Strain Diagrams 13

connected bars is loaded by a force P (see figure). The angle

between the inclined bars and the horizontal is 48°. The axial A B C

strain in the middle bar is measured as 0.0713.

Determine the tensile stress in the outer bars if they are

constructed of aluminum alloy having the stress-strain diagram

shown in Fig. 1-13. (Express the stress in USCS units.)

L length of bar BD

A B C L1 distance BC

L cot L(cot 48) 0.9004 L

L2 length of bar CD

L csc L(csc 48) 1.3456 L

D

Elongation of bar BD distance DE eBDL

P

eBDL 0.0713 L

Aluminum alloy

L3 distance CE

48

L3 L21 (L eBD L) 2

eBD 0.0713

Use stress-strain diagram of Figure 1-13 (0.9004L) 2 L2 (1 0.0713) 2

B C 1.3994 L

elongation of bar CD

L3 L2 0.0538L

L

L2 Strain in bar CD

L3 0.0538L

0.0400

D L2 1.3456L

s 31 ksi

E

14 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

Problem 1.3-6 A specimen of a methacrylate plastic is tested in tension STRESS-STRAIN DATA FOR PROBLEM 1.3-6

at room temperature (see figure), producing the stress-strain data listed in Stress (MPa) Strain

the accompanying table.

8.0 0.0032

Plot the stress-strain curve and determine the proportional limit, 17.5 0.0073

modulus of elasticity (i.e., the slope of the initial part of the stress-strain 25.6 0.0111

curve), and yield stress at 0.2% offset. Is the material ductile or brittle? 31.1 0.0129

39.8 0.0163

44.0 0.0184

P

48.2 0.0209

53.9 0.0260

P 58.1 0.0331

62.0 0.0429

62.1 Fracture

Using the stress-strain data given in the problem PL proportional limit PL 47 MPa —

statement, plot the stress-strain curve:

Modulus of elasticity (slope) 2.4 GPa —

Y yield stress at 0.2% offset

Stress

60 (MPa) Y 53 MPa —

Material is brittle, because the strain after the

PL

proportional limit is exceeded is relatively

40 small. —

slope ≈ 40 MPa = 2.4 GPa

0.017

20

0.2% offset

0

0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04

Strain

Problem 1.3-7 The data shown in the accompanying table were TENSILE-TEST DATA FOR PROBLEM 1.3-7

obtained from a tensile test of high-strength steel. The test specimen

Load (lb) Elongation (in.)

had a diameter of 0.505 in. and a gage length of 2.00 in. (see figure for

Prob. 1.3-3). At fracture, the elongation between the gage marks was 1,000 0.0002

2,000 0.0006

0.12 in. and the minimum diameter was 0.42 in. 6,000 0.0019

Plot the conventional stress-strain curve for the steel and determine 10,000 0.0033

the proportional limit, modulus of elasticity (i.e., the slope of the initial 12,000 0.0039

part of the stress-strain curve), yield stress at 0.1% offset, ultimate stress, 12,900 0.0043

percent elongation in 2.00 in., and percent reduction in area. 13,400 0.0047

13,600 0.0054

13,800 0.0063

14,000 0.0090

14,400 0.0102

15,200 0.0130

16,800 0.0230

18,400 0.0336

20,000 0.0507

22,400 0.1108

22,600 Fracture

SECTION 1.3 Mechanical Properties and Stress-Strain Diagrams 15

d0 0.505 in. L0 2.00 in. ENLARGEMENT OF PART OF THE STRESS-STRAIN CURVE

d02 Stress

A0 0.200 in.2 (psi)

4

P ≈ 69,000 psi

P PL (0.1% offset)

s e PL ≈ 65,000 psi

A0 L0

60,000 0.1% pffset

Load P Elongation Stress 50,000 psi

(lb) (in.) (psi) Strain e Slope ≈

0.00165

1,000 0.0002 5,000 0.00010 ≈ 30 × 106 psi

2,000 0.0006 10,000 0.00030 50,000

6,000 0.0019 30,000 0.00100 0 0.0020 0.0040

10,000 0.0033 50,000 0.00165 Strain

12,000 0.0039 60,000 0.00195

12,900 0.0043 64,500 0.00215

RESULTS

13,400 0.0047 67,000 0.00235

13,600 0.0054 68,000 0.00270 Proportional limit 65,000 psi —

13,800 0.0063 69,000 0.00315

Modulus of elasticity (slope) 30 106 psi —

14,000 0.0090 70,000 0.00450

14,400 0.0102 72,000 0.00510 Yield stress at 0.1% offset 69,000 psi —

15,200 0.0130 76,000 0.00650 Ultimate stress (maximum stress)

16,800 0.0230 84,000 0.01150

18,400 0.0336 92,000 0.01680 113,000 psi —

20,000 0.0507 100,000 0.02535 Percent elongation in 2.00 in.

22,400 0.1108 112,000 0.05540

L1 L0

22,600 Fracture 113,000 (100)

L0

0.12 in.

STRESS-STRAIN DIAGRAM (100) 6% —

2.00 in.

Percent reduction in area

150,000

A0 A1

Stress (100)

(psi) A0

100,000 (100)

0.200 in.2

31% —

50,000

Strain

16 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

Problem 1.4-1 A bar made of structural steel having the stress- (ksi)

strain diagram shown in the figure has a length of 48 in. The yield 60

stress of the steel is 42 ksi and the slope of the initial linear part of

the stress-strain curve (modulus of elasticity) is 30 103 ksi. The

40

bar is loaded axially until it elongates 0.20 in., and then the load

is removed.

How does the final length of the bar compare with its original 20

length? (Hint: Use the concepts illustrated in Fig. 1-18b.)

0

0 0.002 0.004 0.006

ELASTIC RECOVERY eE

A B sB 42 ksi

eE 0.00140

Slope 30 103 ksi

RESIDUAL STRAIN eR

E

eR eB eE 0.004170.00140

0 R B 0.00277

Slope 30 103 ksi 0.13 in.

0.20 in. Final length of bar is 0.13 in. greater than its original

length. —

STRESS AND STRAIN AT POINT B

B Y 42 ksi

0.20 in.

eB 0.00417

L 48 in.

steel having the stress-strain diagram shown in the figure. The 300

yield stress of the steel is 250 MPa and the slope of the initial

linear part of the stress-strain curve (modulus of elasticity) is

200 GPa. The bar is loaded axially until it elongates 6.5 mm, 200

and then the load is removed.

How does the final length of the bar compare with its original 100

length? (Hint: Use the concepts illustrated in Fig. 1-18b.)

0

0 0.002 0.004 0.006

SECTION 1.4 Elasticity and Plasticity 17

ELASTIC RECOVERY eE

L 2.0 m 2000 mm sB 250 MPa

A B eE 0.00125

Yield stress Y 250 MPa Slope 200 GPa

Slope 200 GPa

RESIDUAL STRAIN eR

E 6.5 mm

eR eB eE 0.003250.00125

0 R B 0.00200

Permanent set eRL (0.00200)(2000 mm)

STRESS AND STRAIN AT POINT B

4.0 mm

B Y 250 MPa Final length of bar is 4.0 mm greater than its

6.5 mm original length. —

eB 0.00325

L 2000 mm

Problem 1.4-3 An aluminum bar has length L 4 ft and (a) What is the permanent set of the bar?

diameter d 1.0 in. The stress-strain curve for the alu- (b) If the bar is reloaded, what is the proportional limit?

minum is shown in Fig. 1-13 of Section 1.3. The initial (Hint: Use the concepts illustrated in Figs. 1-18b and

straight-line part of the curve has a slope (modulus of elas- 1-19.)

ticity) of 10 106 psi. The bar is loaded by tensile forces

P 24 k and then unloaded.

B STRESS AND STRAIN AT POINT B

B

P 24 k

sB 31 ksi

A A 4 (1.0 in.) 2

From Fig. 1-13: eB 0.04

ELASTIC RECOVERY eE

E

sB 31 ksi

eE 0.0031

0 R B Slope 10 106 psi

RESIDUAL STRAIN eR

L 4 ft 48 in.

eR eB eE 0.04 0.0031 0.037

d 1.0 in.

(Note: the accuracy in this result is very poor because eB is

P 24 k approximate.)

See Fig. 1-13 for stress-strain diagram

(a) PERMANENT SET

Slope from O to A is 10 106 psi.

eRL (0.037)(48 in.)

1.8 in. —

(b) PROPORTIONAL LIMIT WHEN RELOADED

B 31 ksi —

18 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

The stress-strain diagram for the material is shown in the figure. The

bar is loaded in tension to an elongation of 5.6 mm, and then the load

(MPa)

is removed.

(a) What is the permanent set of the bar?

100

(b) If the bar is reloaded, what is the proportional limit?

(Hint: Use the concepts illustrated in Figs. 1-18b and 1-19.)

0

0 0.005 0.010

(spl ) 1 88 MPa

(PL )2 B Slope 44 GPa

eA 0.002

(PL )1 A

STRESS AND STRAIN AT POINT B

5.6 mm

eB 0.007

L 800 mm

From e diagram: B (PL)2 170 MPa

E

0 R B ELASTIC RECOVERY eE

eE 0.00386

Slope Slope 44 GPa

5.6 mm

(PL )1 initial proportional limit RESIDUAL STRAIN eR

88 MPa (from stress-strain diagram) eR eB eE 0.007 0.00386

(PL )2 proportional limit when the bar is 0.00314

reloaded

(a) PERMANENT SET

INITIAL SLOPE OF STRESS-STRAIN CURVE eRL (0.00314)(800 mm)

From e diagram: 2.51 mm —

At point A: (PL )1 88 MPa (b) PROPORTIONAL LIMIT WHEN RELOADED

eA 0.002 (PL)2 B 170 MPa —

Problem 1.4-5 A wire of length L 4 ft and diameter (a) Construct a stress-strain diagram for the material.

d 0.125 in. is stretched by tensile forces P 600 lb. (b) Determine the elongation of the wire due to the

The wire is made of a copper alloy having a stress-strain forces P.

relationship that may be described mathematically by the (c) If the forces are removed, what is the permanent

following equation: set of the bar?

18,000 (d) If the forces are applied again, what is the proportional

0 0.03 ( ksi) limit?

1 300

in which is nondimensional and has units of kips per

square inch (ksi).

SECTION 1.5 Hooke’s Law and Poisson’s Ratio 19

Solution 1.4-5 Wire stretched by forces P ALTERNATIVE FORM OF THE STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIP

L 4 ft 48 in. d 0.125 in.

Solve Eq. (1) for e in terms of :

P 600 lb s

e 0 s 54 ksi(s ksi) (Eq. 2)

18,000 300s

COPPER ALLOY

This equation may also be used when plotting the

18,000e stress-strain diagram.

s 0 e 0.03 (s ksi) (Eq. 1)

1 300e

(b) ELONGATION OF THE WIRE

(a) STRESS-STRAIN DIAGRAM (From Eq. 1)

P 600 lb

s 48,900 psi 48.9 ksi

60 A 4 (0.125 in.) 2

= 54 ksi

B

From Eq. (2) or from the stress-strain diagram:

e 0.0147

40

eL (0.0147)(48 in.) 0.71 in. —

(ksi) STRESS AND STRAIN AT POINT B (see diagram)

20 B 48.9 ksi eB 0.0147

E = B − R

ELASTIC RECOVERY eE

R B

0 sB 48.9 ksi

0.01 0.02 0.03 eE 0.00272

Slope 18,000 ksi

INITIAL SLOPE OF STRESS-STRAIN CURVE

RESIDUAL STRAIN eR

Take the derivative of with respect to e:

eR eB eE 0.0147 0.0027 0.0120

ds (1 300e)(18,000) (18,000e)(300)

de (1 300e) 2 (c) Permanent set eR L (0.0120)(48 in.)

18,000

0.58 in.

(1 300e) 2 —

At e 0, 18,000 ksi

de

B49 ksi —

∴ Initial slope18,000 ksi

When solving the problems for Section 1.5, assume that the material behaves

linearly elastically.

Problem 1.5-1 A high-strength steel bar used in a large crane has

diameter d 2.00 in. (see figure). The steel has modulus of elasticity d

E 29 106 psi and Poisson’s ratio 0.29. Because of clearance P P

requirements, the diameter of the bar is limited to 2.001 in. when it is

compressed by axial forces.

What is the largest compressive load Pmax that is permitted?

20 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

STEEL BAr d 2.00 in. Max.

d 0.001 in. AXIAL STRESS

E 29 106 psi 0.29 Ee (29 106 psi)(0.001724)

50.00 ksi (compression)

LATERAL STRAIN Assume that the yield stress for the high-strength

¢d 0.001 in. steel is greater than 50 ksi. Therefore, Hooke’s law is

e¿ 0.0005 valid.

d 2.00 in.

MAXIMUM COMPRESSIVE LOAD

AXIAL STRAIN

e¿ 0.0005

e 0.001724 Pmax sA (50.00 ksi) ¢ ≤ (2.00 in.) 2

n 0.29 4

(shortening) 157 k —

aluminum alloy 7075-T6 (see figure). When the bar is stretched d = 10 mm

P P

by axial forces P, its diameter decreases by 0.016 mm.

Find the magnitude of the load P. (Obtain the material prop- 7075-T6

erties from Appendix H.)

d 10 mm

d 0.016 mm AXIAL STRESS

(Decrease in diameter) Ee (72 GPa)(0.004848)

349.1 MPa (Tension)

7075-T6

Because < Y , Hooke’s law is valid.

From Table H-2: E 72 GPa 0.33

From Table H-3: Yield stress Y 480 MPa LOAD P (TENSILE FORCE)

LATERAL STRAIN P sA (349.1 MPa) ¢ ≤ (10 mm) 2

4

¢d 0.016 mm

e¿ 0.0016 27.4 kN —

d 10 mm

AXIAL STRAIN

e¿ 0.0016

e

n 0.33

0.004848 (Elongation)

Problem 1.5-3 A nylon bar having diameter d1 3.50 in. is placed inside Steel

a steel tube having inner diameter d2 3.51 in. (see figure). The nylon bar tube

is then compressed by an axial force P.

d1 d2

At what value of the force P will the space between the nylon bar and

the steel tube be closed? (For nylon, assume E 400 ksi and 0.4.) Nylon

bar

SECTION 1.5 Hooke’s Law and Poisson’s Ratio 21

AXIAL STRAIN

e¿ 0.002857

e 0.007143

d1 d2 n 0.4

(Shortening)

AXIAL STRESS

Compression Ee (400 ksi)(0.007143)

d13.50 in.

d1 0.01 in. 2.857 ksi

d23.51 in. (Compressive stress)

Nylon: E 400 ksi 0.4 Assume that the yield stress is greater than and

Hooke’s law is valid.

LATERAL STRAIN

FORCE P (COMPRESSION)

¢d1

e¿ (Increase in diameter)

d1 P sA (2.857 ksi) ¢ ≤ (3.50 in.) 2

4

0.01 in.

e¿ 0.002857 27.5 k —

3.50 in.

by tensile forces P (see figure). The bar has length L 1.5 m and d

diameter d 30 mm. It is made of aluminum alloy with modulus P P

of elasticity E 75 GPa and Poisson’s ratio 1⁄3.

If the bar elongates by 3.6 mm, what is the decrease in L

diameter

d? What is the magnitude of the load P?

E 75 GPa 1⁄3

d e
d (0.0008)(30 mm) 0.024 mm —

3.6 mm 180 MPa

e 0.0024

L 1.5 m (This stress is less than the yield stress, so Hooke’s law

is valid.)

LATERAL STRAIN

LOAD P (TENSION)

e¿ ne ( 13 )(0.0024)

0.0008 P sA (180 MPa) ¢ ≤ (30 mm) 2

4

(Minus means decrease in diameter) 127 kN —

22 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

Problem 1.5-5 A bar of monel metal (length L 8 in., Appendix H, determine the increase in length of the bar and

diameter d 0.25 in.) is loaded axially by a tensile force the percent decrease in its cross-sectional area.

P 1500 lb (see figure). Using the data in Table H-2,

From Table H-2: E 25,000 ksi 0.32

d 2

Original area: A0

AXIAL STRESS 4

P 1500 lb Final area:

s 30,560 psi

A 4 (0.25 in.) 2

Assume is less than the proportional limit, so that A1 (d ¢d) 2

4

Hooke’s law is valid.

A1 [d2 2d¢d (¢d) 2 ]

4

AXIAL STRAIN Decrease in area:

s 30,560 psi

A A0 A1

e 0.001222

E 25,000 ksi

¢A (¢d)(2d ¢d)

4

INCREASE IN LENGTH

¢A (¢d)(2d ¢d)

LATERAL STRAIN Percent (100) (100)

A0 d2

e¿ ne (0.32)(0.001222)

0.0003910 (0.0000978)(0.4999)

(100)

(0.25) 2

DECREASE IN DIAMETER

0.078% —

¢d e¿d (0.0003910)(0.25 in.)

0.0000978 in.

10 mm in diameter using a gage length of 50 mm (see figure).

When the tensile load P reaches a value of 20 kN, the distance 10 mm

50 mm

between the gage marks has increased by 0.122 mm.

P P

(a) What is the modulus of elasticity E of the brass?

(b) If the diameter decreases by 0.00830 mm, what is

Poisson’s ratio?

SECTION 1.5 Hooke’s Law and Poisson’s Ratio 23

P 20 kN 0.122 mm

d 0.00830 mm s 254.6 MPa

E 104 GPa —

e 0.002440

AXIAL STRESS

s 254.6 MPa

A 4 (10 mm) 2 e e

Assume is below the proportional limit so that

Hooke’s law is valid.

d e d ed

¢d 0.00830 mm

AXIAL STRAIN n 0.34 —

ed (0.002440)(10 mm)

0.122 mm

e 0.002440

L 50 mm

P

Problem 1.5-7 A hollow steel cylinder is compressed by a force P

(see figure). The cylinder has inner diameter d1 3.9 in., outer diameter

d2 4.5 in., and modulus of elasticity E 30,000 ksi. When the force P

increases from zero to 40 k, the outer diameter of the cylinder increases

by 455 106 in.

(a) Determine the increase in the inner diameter.

(b) Determine the increase in the wall thickness.

(c) Determine Poisson’s ratio for the steel.

d1

d2

d1 3.9 in. (c) POISSON’S RATIO

d2 4.5 in. P

Axial stress: s

d1 d2 A

t 0.3 in.

2

E 30,000 ksi t A [d d21 ] [ (4.5 in.) 2 (3.9 in.) 2 ]

4 2 4

P 40 k (compression) 3.9584 in. 2

d2 455 106 in. (increase) P 40 k

s

LATERAL STRAIN A 3.9584 in.2

e¿ 0.0001011 ( Y ; Hooke’s law is valid)

d2 4.5 in.

Axial strain:

(a) INCREASE IN INNER DIAMETER s 10,105 ksi

¢d1 e¿d1 (0.0001011)(3.9 in.) e

E 30,000 ksi

394 10 6 in. —

0.000337

(b) INCREASE IN WALL THICKNESS e¿ 0.0001011

n

¢t e¿t (0.0001011)(0.3 in.) e 0.000337

30 10 6 in. — 0.30 —

24 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

Problem 1.5-8 A steel bar of length 2.5 m with a square 100 mm 100 mm

cross section 100 mm on each side is subjected to an axial

tensile force of 1300 kN (see figure). Assume that E 200

GPa and v 0.3. 1300 kN

Determine the increase in volume of the bar.

2.5 m

Length: L 2.5 m 2500 mm e¿ ne 195 10 6

Side: b 100 mm ¢b e¿b (195 10 6 )(100 mm)

Force: P 1300 kN 0.0195 mm

E 200 GPa 0.3

FINAL DIMENSIONS

AXIAL STRESS

L1 L ¢L 2501.625 mm

P P b1 b ¢b 99.9805 mm

s

A b2

FINAL VOLUME

1300 kN

s 130 MPa

(100 mm) 2 V1 L1b21 25,006,490 mm3

Stress is less than the yield stress, so Hooke’s law

INITIAL VOLUME

is valid.

V Lb2 25,000,000 mm3

AXIAL STRAIN

INCREASE IN VOLUME

s 130 MPa

e

E 200 GPa

V V1V 6490 mm3 —

650 10 6

INCREASE IN LENGTH

¢L eL (650 10 6 )(2500 mm)

1.625 mm

SECTION 1.6 Shear Stress and Strain 25

to the flange of a column by two 5⁄8-inch diameter bolts (see figure). A

uniformly distributed load acts on the top face of the bracket with a

pressure p 300 psi. The top face of the bracket has length L 6 in. and

p

width b 2.5 in.

Determine the average bearing pressure b between the angle bracket

b

and the bolts and the average shear stress aver in the bolts. (Disregard

friction between the bracket and the column.)

F 300 psi

b F resultant force acting on the bracket

pbL (300 psi) (2.5 in.) (6.0 in.) 4.50 k

L

Ab bearing area of one bolt

dt (0.625 in.) (0.5 in.) 0.3125 in.2

F 4.50 k

t sb 7.20 ksi —

2Ab 2(0.3125 in.2 )

d 0.625 in.

As Shear area of one bolt

t thickness of angle 0.5 in.

b 2.5 in. d2 (0.625 in.) 2 0.3068 in.2

4 4

L 6.0 in. F 4.50 k

taver 7.33 ksi —

2As 2(0.3068 in.2 )

26 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

Problem 1.6-2 Three steel plates, each 16 mm thick, are joined P/2

P

by two 20-mm diameter rivets as shown in the figure. P/2

(a) If the load P 50 kN, what is the largest bearing stress

acting on the rivets?

(b) If the ultimate shear stress for the rivets is 180 MPa, what

force Pult is required to cause the rivets to fail in shear? P P

(Disregard friction between the plates.)

P P 50 kN

P/2

P sb

P/2 2Ab 2dt 2(20 mm)(16 mm)

t

78.1 MPa —

P P

P

Shear force on two rivets

2

P

Shear force on one rivet

4

t thickness of plates 16 mm

Let A cross-sectional area of one rivet

d diameter of rivets 20 mm

P4 P P

P 50 kN Shear stress t d 2

4( 4 ) d

2

A

ULT 180 MPa (for shear in the rivets) or, P d

2

(a) MAXIMUM BEARING STRESS ON THE RIVETS

PULT d 2tULT (20 mm) 2 (180 MPa)

Maximum stress occurs at the middle plate.

226 kN —

Ab bearing area for one rivet

dt

P

Problem 1.6-3 A bolted connection between a vertical

column and a diagonal brace is shown in the figure. The

connection consists of three 5⁄8-in. bolts that join two 1⁄4-in.

end plates welded to the brace and a 5⁄8-in. gusset plate Column

welded to the column. The compressive load P carried

by the brace equals 8.0 k. Brace

Determine the following quantities:

(a) The average shear stress aver in the bolts, and

(b) The average bearing stress b between the gusset plate End plates

for brace

and the bolts. (Disregard friction between the plates.)

Gusset

plate

SECTION 1.6 Shear Stress and Strain 27

End plates A cross-sectional area of one bolt

d2

0.3068 in.2

4

V shear force acting on one bolt

P 1 P P

¢ ≤

3 2 6

Gusset V P 8.0 k

plate taver

A 6A 6(0.3068 in.2 )

4350 psi —

3 bolts in double shear

(b) AVERAGE BEARING STRESS AGAINST GUSSET PLATE

P compressive force in brace 8.0 k

Ab bearing area of one bolt

d diameter of bolts 5⁄8 in. 0.625 in.

t1d (0.625 in.)(0.625 in.) 0.3906 in.2

t1 thickness of gusset plate

F bearing force acting on gusset plate from

5⁄8 in. 0.625 in. one bolt

t2 thickness of end plates

P

3

1⁄4 in. 0.25 in.

P 8.0 k

sb 6830 psi —

3Ab 3(0.3906 in.2 )

supported at end A by a 20-mm diameter pin that passes through Box beam

the beam and its supporting pedestals (see figure). The roller A B C

support at B is located at distance L/3 from end A.

(a) Determine the average shear stress in the pin due to a load

P equal to 10 kN.

L 2L

(b) Determine the average bearing stress between the pin and — —

3 3

the box beam if the wall thickness of the beam is equal to

12 mm.

Box beam

Pin at support A

28 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

P P 10 kN

A B C d diameter of pin 20 mm

t Wall thickness of box beam 12 mm

L 2L

— — Double shear

3 3

R = 2P 2P 4P

taver 2 31.8 MPa

2P 2 d

2¢ d ≤

4

R R

=P =P 2P P

2 2 sb 41.7 MPa

2(dt) dt

five steel plates, each 3⁄16 in. thick, joined by a single 1⁄4-in. 360 lb

diameter bolt. The total load transferred between the plates is 600 lb

480 lb

1200 lb, distributed among the plates as shown. 600 lb

360 lb

(a) Calculate the largest shear stress in the bolt, disregarding

friction between the plates.

(b) Calculate the largest bearing stress acting against the bolt.

t thickness of plates ⁄16 in.

3 Vmax 4Vmax

tmax d2 7330 psi —

4 d2

360 lb

A A (b) MAXIMUM BEARING STRESS

600 lb

B B

480 lb Fmax maximum force applied by a plate

B B

600 lb against the bolt

A A

360 lb Fmax 600 lb

Fmax

Free-body diagram of bolt sb 12,800 psi —

dt

Section A A: V 360 lb

Section B B: V 240 lb

Vmax max. shear force in bolt

360 lb

SECTION 1.6 Shear Stress and Strain 29

hoisted by a cable sling that has a clevis at each end (see figure).

The pins through the clevises are 18 mm in diameter and are

located 2.0 m apart. Each half of the cable is at an angle of 32°

to the vertical.

Cable sling

For these conditions, determine the average shear stress aver

in the pins and the average bearing stress b between the steel 32° 32°

plate and the pins.

Clevis

2.0 m

Steel plate

(2.5 × 1.2 × 0.1 m)

Volume of plate: V (2.5) (1.2) (0.1) m 0.300 m3 Fvertical 0 ↑ ↓

Weight density of steel: 77.0 kN/m3 W

T cos 32 0

Weight of plate: W V 23.10 kN 2

d diameter of pin through clevis 18 mm W 23.10 kN

T 13.62 kN

t thickness of plate 0.1 m 100 mm 2 cos 32 2 cos 32

FREE-BODY DIAGRAMS OF SLING AND PIN SHEAR STRESS IN THE PINS (DOUBLE SHEAR)

T 13.62 kN

P=W T taver

32° 2Apin 2( 4 )(18 mm) 2

26.8 MPa

Pin

H

Cable W BEARING STRESS BETWEEN PLATE AND PINS

2

Ab bearing area

32° 32°

td

T 13.62 kN

sb

td (100 mm)(18 mm)

7.57 MPa

H H

W W

2 2

2.0 m

30 CHAPTER 1 Tension, Compression, and Shear

Steel plate

passes through a hole in a steel plate (see figure). The hexagonal head

of the bolt bears directly against the steel plate. The radius of the circum-

d

scribed circle for the hexagon is r 0.40 in. (which means that each side

P

of the hexagon has length 0.40 in.). Also, the thickness t of the bolt head 2r

is 0.25 in. and the tensile force P in the bolt is 1000 lb.

(a) Determine the average bearing stress b between the hexagonal t

head of the bolt and the plate.

(b) Determine the average shear stress aver in the head of the bolt.

d 0.50 in. (a) BEARING STRESS BETWEEN BOLT HEAD AND PLATE

d

t 0.25 in. Ab area of hexagon minus area of bolt

P

2r

P 1000 lb 3r2 3 d2

2 4

3

Ab (0.40 in.) ( 3) ¢ ≤ (0.50 in.)

2 2

t 2 4

0.4157 in.20.1963 in.2

Area of one 0.2194 in.2

equilateral triangle

P 1000 lb

r r2 3 sb 4560 psi —

Ab 0.2194 in.2

4

Area of hexagon (b) SHEAR STRESS IN HEAD OF BOLT

3r2 3 As shear area As dt

2r 2 P P 1000 lb

taver

As dt (0.50 in.)(0.25 in.)

2550 psi —

steel plates bonded to a chloroprene elastomer (an artificial

a

rubber) is subjected to a shear force V during a static loading test

(see figure). The pad has dimensions a 150 mm and b 250 V

mm, and the elastomer has thickness t 50 mm. When the force

V equals 12 kN, the top plate is found to have displaced laterally

8.0 mm with respect to the bottom plate. t

What is the shear modulus of elasticity G of the chloroprene?

SECTION 1.6 Shear Stress and Strain 31

d = 8.0 mm V 12 kN

taver 0.32 MPa

V ab (150 mm)(250 mm)

d 8.0 mm

t = 50 mm gaver 0.16

t 50 mm

b = 250 mm t 0.32 MPa

G 2.0 MPa —

V 12 kN g 0.16

Length of pad: b 250 mm

d 8.0 mm

is filled with a flexible epoxy that bonds securely to the A

concrete (see figure). The height of the joint is h 4.0 in., its

length is L 40 in., and its thickness is t 0.5 in. Under the

action of shear forces V, the slabs displace vertically through L B

the distance d 0.002 in. relative to each other.

h

(a) What is the average shear strain aver in the epoxy?

(b) What is the magnitude of the forces V if the shear t

modulus of elasticity G for the epoxy is 140 ksi?

d

A B

h V

V

A B

d

V h gaver 0.004 —

V t

Average shear stress : aver Gaver

h 4.0 in.

V aver(hL) Gaver(hL)

t 0.5 in.

(140 ksi)(0.004)(4.0 in.)(40 in.)

L 40 in.

89.6 k —

d 0.002 in.

G 140 ksi

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