7 tayangan

Diunggah oleh darshanpokar

© All Rights Reserved

- Sustainable Highway System Presentation
- THESIS-EMPRESE Sustainable Rural Roads
- Flexible Road Pavements
- Solar Pavement - A New Emerging Technology
- Pavement Design Supplement
- Flexible Pavement Manual March 152008
- Subgrade Rutting Flexible Pavement
- IRJET-Experimental Studies on the Properties of Modified Bituminous Mixes using Crumb-Rubber
- Mines Safety Bulletin112 Mine Road Safety
- Fiker Alebachew
- 1.0 Introduction to Pavement Engineering CE 44 Highway Engineering (Philippines)
- VBPWI001 Safe Use of BRP Road Patches
- Multi-criteria Decision-making Approach based on Multi-valued Neutrosophic Geometric Weighted Choquet Integral Heronian Mean Operator
- Metodos-Funcionales.pdf
- Benkelman Beam Deflection Technique Transport Road - Diamond Point Road
- tds004
- 10.1.1.109.6996
- 01KeraliHDM4Introduction08
- Basics of Good Road 0
- Receive and File the 2013 Pavement Management Program Update Report 12-03-13

Anda di halaman 1dari 18

com

ScienceDirect

International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology xxx (2018) xxx–xxx

www.elsevier.com/locate/IJPRT

Ajit Pratap Singh ⇑, Antriksh Sharma, Raunak Mishra, Makrand Wagle, A.K. Sarkar

Civil Engineering Department, Birla Institute of Technology and Science Pilani, 333031, India

Received 14 June 2017; received in revised form 9 November 2017; accepted 19 December 2017

Abstract

Roads are the lifeline of a nation which provides a reliable and easy access to diﬀerent areas across the country. Once the roads are

constructed, their condition goes on deteriorating with time. Therefore, implementing periodic pavement maintenance is equally impor-

tant as that of construction for the satisfactory performance throughout their design life. This study develops an approach for pavement

condition assessment and their prioritization which can be dealt with a variety of performance indicators for evaluating diﬀerent aspects

of pavement performance. Pavement stretches with low ratings will have a high probability to be scheduled for maintenance and reha-

bilitation, depending on the availability of funds and the importance of roads.

This paper presents two approaches of fuzzy mathematical analysis to conceive strategic planning for maintenance and rehabilitation

of pavements. The pavement deterioration condition has been marked by four performance indicators: (a) International Roughness

Index (IRI) (b) Surface Modulus (Eo) (c) Rut depth (R) and (d) Friction Coeﬃcient (f). A methodology has been framed to assess con-

dition of Pradhan Mantri Gramin Sadak Yojna (PMGSY) all weather roads located in Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan, India. These

stretches have been prioritized on the basis of their performance parameters using two soft computing techniques: (a) Fuzzy Analytical

Hierarchy Process (FAHP) and (b) Fuzzy Weighted Average (FWA) method.

The results clearly demonstrate that FAHP being more scientiﬁc approach can be considered as a base model for assessing the pave-

ment condition, however to have sound decisions, results so obtained are compared eﬀectively from FWA method.

Ó 2017 Chinese Society of Pavement Engineering. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND

license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Keywords: Pavement condition assessment; Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP); Fuzzy Weighted Average (FWA) method; PMGSY roads;

Pavement maintenance, rehabilitation and management

1. Introduction roads was rather slow and the existing roads were also

not being maintained in the absence of adequate funding.

Accessibility in rural areas plays an important role in Thus, in year 2000, the Government of India (GoI)

poverty eradication and overall socio-economic develop- launched a nationwide fully centrally sponsored rural road

ment. Thus, the need for road connectivity has been con- development scheme, popularly known as Pradhan Mantri

sidered vital in the developing countries having vast rural Gramin Sadak Yojna (PMGSY). The main objective of

population. In India, traditionally the construction of rural this scheme was to provide connectivity through all-

roads has been the responsibility of the provincial govern- weather roads to rural areas so that overall development

ments and thus the progress of construction of quality can be ensured at local, regional and national levels. The

PMGSY scheme was designed so as to ensure that a new

road constructed would be maintained by the contractor

⇑ Corresponding author. Fax: +91 01596 244183. for the ﬁrst ﬁve years. Most of the rural roads constructed

E-mail address: aps@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in (A.P. Singh). during the ﬁrst few years after the inception of the project

Peer review under responsibility of Chinese Society of Pavement are quite old now and in the absence of proper mainte-

Engineering.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.12.006

1996-6814/Ó 2017 Chinese Society of Pavement Engineering. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Please cite this article in press as: A.P. Singh et al., Pavement condition assessment using soft computing techniques, Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol.

(2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.12.006

2 A.P. Singh et al. / International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology xxx (2018) xxx–xxx

nance are showing distresses of various magnitudes. The The main objectives of this paper are: (a) to identify the

Government of India has stressed the need of maintenance pavement distresses that are most prominent on the roads

and rehabilitation of rural pavements in the 12th ﬁve-year considered in this case study; and (b) to prioritize pavement

plan. Thus, there is a need to develop a pavement mainte- stretches for maintenance on the basis of pavement condi-

nance management system for PMGSY roads that could be tion so that a maintenance programme could be designed

used as a tool for allocation of funds at the local govern- within the budgetary constraints.

ment level. The present paper discusses about a case study

carried out in Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan state in 2. Literature review

India with an aim of prioritizing a few selected PMGSY

roads on the basis of their current conditions based on Physical isolation is one of the most important factors

extent and severity of visible distresses. The major chal- which hinders the growth of rural areas. The main aim of

lenge in pavement maintenance work is the allocation of government behind constructing the rural roads is to pro-

suﬃcient funds for these pavements on the basis of their vide physical accessibility to basic needs [3]. However,

factual conditions at appropriate time by the government many a time the inadequate maintenance of roads makes

[1]. The most practical and economical approach for the them unusable for the users. The pavements fail over a per-

maintenance of rural roads is to collect pavement condi- iod of time and thus timely maintenance would extend their

tions by visual inspection survey. Various distresses are lives with acceptable level of service.

recorded in terms of extent and severity and then prioritize A number of studies have been carried out by diﬀerent

the stretches depending on the overall condition. While researchers to assess the pavement condition on the basis

standard templates are available for rating diﬀerent dis- of their performance criteria. Although, quantiﬁcation of

tresses, still there are possibilities of variation in human pavement conditions is a diﬃcult task but a number of

judgements. The objective of this paper is to illustrate mathematical models have been available to assess and

how the fuzzy approach could be eﬀectively used to miti- analyse pavement conditions. The performance indicators

gate these variations and develop a tool that would priori- in assessing pavement condition are often subjective and

tize the road stretches on the basis of overall conditions hence fuzzy theory could be used to quantify subjectivity

and then help to take optimal funding allocation decisions. and model the ambiguity involved in the system [4]. A few

The pavement characteristics in this case study have been studies show that fuzzy approach proves to be one of the

quantiﬁed, by physical means, rather than by having simple best mathematical tools in assessing the pavement condition

qualitative assessments and utmost care has been taken to and helping the decision makers in taking decisions regard-

obtain precise data. Once the requisite data are collected, ing diﬀerent maintenance and rehabilitation works to be

they have been analysed using fuzzy approaches i.e. FAHP carried out. Sun et al. [5] have proposed the use of fuzzy

and FWA method. logic theory and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to

The road users are mainly concerned in the functional assess the pavement condition and prioritize projects of

performance of the pavement, which is expressed by rough- highway maintenance. A case study was done to rank eight

ness and surface friction. The implementing agencies on the road segments of highway using Maximum graded principle

other hand are focused on structural performance and dis- (MGP) and a defuzziﬁed weighted cumulative index

tress on the pavement surface. In Pavement Condition (DWCI). They concluded that in prioritizing projects of

Assessment (PCA) the main steps involved are to evaluate road maintenance, the road segments receiving higher eval-

the current pavement condition in terms of distresses, uation score will be ranked higher than other road segments

determine the rates of deterioration and project the future receiving lower evaluation [5]. Arliansyah et al. [6] have

conditions. The various indicators to deﬁne the current described how the fuzzy set theory approach can be used

condition of the pavement are determined on the basis of to assess the pavement condition under diﬀerent situations

structural, functional, safety performances. The structural analysing the data obtained from Horkiru region of pave-

performance is measured mainly by non-destructive tests ment management support system. Using fuzzy weighted

such as Benkelman Beam deﬂection measurement or falling average operation, it has been shown in their study that

weight and Light Weight deﬂectometers. The functional pavement condition assessment results change signiﬁcantly

performance is measured using Bump Integrator which is with the inclusion, omission, weight changes of pavement

then represented by International Roughness Index (IRI). parameters [6]. A number of approaches have also been for-

It can also be determined by manual inspection survey by mulated to perform comprehensive analysis. Some of them

observing the severity and extent of distresses such as are based on the concepts of fuzzy arithmetic as suggested

cracking, rutting, potholes, shoving, ravelling, bleeding, by Ross [7], fuzzy rule-based modelling or fuzzy ranking

edge cracking and other visible distresses. The safety per- applied by Phogat et al. and Singh et al. [8,9]. Buckley

formance is measured in terms of surface resistance and [10] proposed a technique of analysis of hierarchical struc-

skid resistance equipment is usually used to measure it. tures under fuzzy environment after performing pair-wise

However, all these pavement evaluation techniques may comparisons of opinions of various decision makers [10].

not be used in each study as it depends on the scope of A number of multi-criteria decision making problems are

the work, availability of time and resources [2]. also being solved by applying fuzzy analytical hierarchy

Please cite this article in press as: A.P. Singh et al., Pavement condition assessment using soft computing techniques, Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol.

(2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.12.006

A.P. Singh et al. / International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology xxx (2018) xxx–xxx 3

process (Boender et al. [11]; Chang, 1996). Boender et al. handled by means of probability theory or fuzzy set theory

[11] presented a modiﬁed version of the fuzzy multi- [4–5,15,18]. It is therefore important to use appropriate

criteria method by calculating the weights of the decision techniques to quantify subjective information. With the

criteria through minimization techniques of a logarithmic implementation of PMGSY scheme in a decade, almost

regression function [11]. There are several approaches to all villages throughout the India are connected by asphalt

solve a FAHP model. Each of them has some unique pavements to nearby cities or town [3]. In order to sustain

characteristics. Phogat et al. (2013) have applied ﬁve the beneﬁts of the investments made in improving village

multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) techniques to roads, transport infrastructure is needed to be maintained

select suitable equipment’s for road construction under six over time, and hence there is a need to provide adequate

diﬀerent criteria including environment impact considera- maintenance. Further the PCA also plays critical role in

tions. These ﬁve MCDM techniques viz., Analytical Hierar- deciding upgradation of existing rural roads particularly

chy Process (AHP), Simple Additive Weights Method that provide connectivity to rural growth centres and other

(SAW), Distance Based Method (DBM), Preference Rank- critical rural business hubs. In the past, most of the earlier

ing Organization Method (PROMETHEE) and Elimina- studies were focused on pavement condition assessment

tion et Choice Translating Reality (ELECTRE) methods and prioritization of stretches of highways [4–5,19] and

are proved as potential decision-aid tools to select the limited studies have been carried out focusing prioritization

appropriate management scheme [8]. of rural village roads. Most of the rural roads constructed

Soft computing solutions are unpredictable, uncertain in India have not received proper attention with regard to

and can be expressed in the form of membership function maintenance action plans, primarily because of less avail-

ranging between 0 and 1. Soft Computing became a formal ability of funds. As a result, sustainability of assets has

area of study in Computer Science in the early 1990s [7]. not been fortiﬁed. To avoid making a bad situation worse,

Soft computing techniques have also been used eﬀectively government has also stressed upon the maintenance and

when pavement condition indices are based on a variety rehabilitation (M&R) of rural pavement in its 12th ﬁve-

of parameters with diﬀerent characteristics. In such cases, year plan. In light of above, in this study, the fuzzy

these techniques have been primarily used to estimate func- approach allowing experts working on rural roads to use

tions from samples without requiring a mathematical for- linguistic variables is considered for prioritization by

mulation of the dependence of output on input values. applying and comparing the results from fuzzy AHP and

Fwa and Shanmugam (1998) have demonstrated an appli- fuzzy weighted average method.

cation of fuzzy systems for assessing pavement condition The main objective of this paper is twofold: (a) it

rating and maintenance needs [12]. Back propagation neu- attempts to identify the important indicators of pavement

ral networks have also been used to combine diﬀerent indi- condition assessment for rural roads under Indian condi-

cators representing status of pavement conditions into a tions and (b) it ﬁnally prioritizes pavement stretches for

condition index or pavement rating assignment by some the maintenance and rehabilitation (M&R) purposes tak-

of the researchers [13,14]. Moreover, since the last decade, ing selected parameters into consideration. The ﬁrst section

Analytic Hierarchy process (AHP) and FAHP are gaining of this study deals with the introduction and objectives of

popularity amongst the transportation and civil engineers. the study whereas subsequent sections of literature review,

Some of the recent studies are really worth appreciating. methodology accepted, analysis of data and ﬁnally a case

Singh et al. (2012) have done an optimal selection of a land- study has been taken to prioritize the pavement stretches

ﬁll disposal site using a modiﬁed fuzzy utility approach [15]. of rural roads using FAHP and FWA methods. The last

The applications of fuzzy logic based concepts have also part of the paper discusses results, conclusion and limita-

been applied by Juang et al., Kanuganti et al., and Singh tion of the study.

et al. [16–18]. Ahmed et al. (2017) proposed an objective

based AHP method wherein pairwise comparison values 3. Methodology

are assigned based on the collected ﬁeld data from a road

network in Mumbai city, consisting of 28 road sections. In this paper, a methodology has been proposed based

They demonstrated the evaluated results of priority ratings on a case study to assess the condition of rural road pave-

of objective based AHP method and compared them with ments using soft computing techniques. These techniques

the results of subjective based Road Condition Index aim to study the tolerance for uncertainty, approximation,

(RCI) method for the validation purpose [19]. Thus, there imprecision involved in data collection and their extraction

is a tremendous potential to apply fuzzy approach in the and come up with solutions to real world problem, which

ﬁeld of pavement condition assessment and management. are diﬃcult to model under uncertain environment. The

In PCA, the main job is to evaluate the current pave- study followed a three-step trade-oﬀ process as shown in

ment condition, determining the rates of deterioration Fig. 1.

and projecting the future conditions. Many factors in

PCA are subjectively determined i.e. based on or inﬂuenced Step 1, deals with the selection and identiﬁcation of

by personal feelings or opinions. In decision making pro- pavement stretches wherein a case study has been car-

cesses, uncertainty, imprecision, and subjectivity can be ried out on the ﬁve PMGSY roads selected in Jhunjhunu

Please cite this article in press as: A.P. Singh et al., Pavement condition assessment using soft computing techniques, Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol.

(2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.12.006

4 A.P. Singh et al. / International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology xxx (2018) xxx–xxx

Identification of pavement Investigation with the pavement stretches

Stretches Detailed Survey using FAHP and FWA

district of Rajasthan, India. As the focus of the present 3.1.1. Data extraction

study is the assessment of pavement condition and pri- 3.1.1.1. IRI data. Roughness data are collected using towed

oritization the pavement stretches of low volume rural ﬁfth wheel bump integrator running at a speed of 32 km/hr

roads, the roads constructed under PMGSY scheme on selected stretches. Usually, roughness/unevenness index

were taken as the study stretches from available core obtained from bump integrator is in mm/km. The towed

network map. The core network consists of the entire ﬁfth wheel bump integrator model V used in this study

rural road network required for providing the basic has the inbuilt facility to convert the roughness into stan-

access to all villages/habitations. The roads in Jhun- dard measurement of mm/km irrespective of distance mea-

jhunu district from core network are selected such that sured. However, it requires calibration using Machine for

these roads were constructed almost four to ﬁve years Evaluating Roughness using Low Cost Instrumentation

back and no maintenance measures have been taken till (MERLIN) prior to the collection of roughness data [20–

date. To have better insight each of these ﬁve PMGSY 21].

roads was divided into stretches of 100 m section each. Universally, the roughness data are expressed in terms

In step 2, continuous ﬁeld investigations were carried of IRI and expressed as m/km. Thus, the value obtained

out during January 2014 to April 2014 for the collection using bump integrator (i.e. BI) is converted into IRI values

of data on the selected stretches. The data pertaining to using Eq. (1) before analysing the pavement condition. The

structural performance, functional performance, safety same equation was used by the previous studies of one of

performance and distress survey were collected and the authors [20–21].

ﬁnally four important performance indicators were 0:89

IRI ¼ 0:0032 ðBIÞ ð1Þ

arrived at to assess pavement conditions. They are Inter-

national Roughness Index (IRI), surface modulus (Eo), All the IRI data corresponding to each site of ﬁve

rut depth (R) and friction coeﬃcient (f). stretches are given in Table 1.

In step 3, two soft computing techniques were used for

prioritizing the pavement stretches for maintenance 3.1.1.2. Surface modulus data. The light weight deﬂectome-

and rehabilitation (M&R) so that proper disbursement ter (LWD) is a non-destructive testing (NDT) device used

of funds available for these activities could be utilized for pavement evaluation to determine the strength and stiﬀ-

eﬃciently. ness of pavement material by measuring the material’s

response under the impact of a load with a known magni-

A general framework for pavement condition assess- tude and dropped from a known height [22]. The relevant

ment system is presented in Fig. 2. This framework builds code used for LWD is ASTM E2583 – 07(2011). The

upon the scheme presented in Fig. 1 and consists of mod- LWD used in this case study is the Dynatest 3031 available

ules that can be used for overall condition assessment of from Dynatest International as shown in Fig. 4(a).

the pavements. Light weight deﬂectometer (LWD) gained popularity as

portable and cost eﬀective tool for the determination of in-

3.1. Data collection and extraction situ responses like deﬂections and surface modulus.

Although Falling Weight Deﬂectometer (FWD) is widely

Data were collected from January 2014 to April 2014 so used in determining surface modulus, due to ﬁnancial con-

as to avoid extreme cold or hot weather conditions and straints, FWD may not be economical to use on rural vil-

also to avoid wet base conditions. The equipments used lage roads; given the rural roads network length very

in the present study are bump integrator for the roughness high. Furthermore, the upper layer of these roads is rela-

data (IRI), Light Weight Deﬂectometer (LWD) for surface tively thin (20 mm bituminous surface) and thus can obtain

modulus (Eo), skid resistor apparatus for friction coeﬃ- reliable results due to LWD lower load level as compared

cient (f) and rut depth (R) is measured using 1.2 m long to FWD. Although LWD induces a smaller impact load

straight scale. and shorter load pulse duration in comparison with the

In this study, ﬁve rural roads have been considered FWD, due to its lighter drop mass, this may be suitable

keeping in mind the site selection criteria described in the for the low volume roads. Since these roads generally do

ﬂowchart shown in Fig. 2. These roads are further divided not carry traﬃc of heavy commercial vehicles (Multiaxle

into stretches of 100 m. The details of all the ﬁve stretches trucks loading e.g. tridem axle), the dynamic load of

taken in this case study have been presented in Table 1. LWD could be used to produce load impulse that simulates

Please cite this article in press as: A.P. Singh et al., Pavement condition assessment using soft computing techniques, Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol.

(2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.12.006

A.P. Singh et al. / International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology xxx (2018) xxx–xxx 5

the real-world traﬃc on rural roads. Hence in view of of LWDmod software. Fig. 3 depicts a back-calculation

LWD is smaller, cheaper and easier to operate than the algorithm on which LWDmod software is based [27].

FWD, LWD is used in the present study. Many researchers One should be careful to deal diﬀerent layers of the pave-

have also found that the LWD is a reliable and repeatable ment while applying back calculation of sur modulus lay-

test that can be successfully used for quality control and ers using the results of LWD because the testing results

quality assurance of the projects even on a day to day basis of LWD generally provides the results of the entire pave-

[23–25]. ment layers and not individual layer. Thus, the details

In order to determine the surface modulus of pave- given in DPRs of the construction of these roads can pro-

ment on the selected stretches, a desired drop weight of vide the desired information of diﬀerent layers. The thick-

10 kg was dropped down through a guide shaft on to a nesses of the layers have been referred from the Detailed

stack of buﬀer pads at random locations on every 100 Project Report (DPRs) of the selected roads on the basis

m road stretch. The pavement deﬂection responses were of prescribed design standard as speciﬁed by the Indian

measured by geophones placed at certain distance and Road Congress (IRC). The crust thickness of these roads

transmitted to a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) using was of order 275–300 mm with a thin bituminous top of

Bluetooth technology. Then the LWDmod program was 20 mm premix carpet with the seal coat. The Surface

used for the analysis of test data. From the known deﬂec- Modulus data of pavement for all the ﬁve roads corre-

tion basin, the back-calculation analysis was done to spond to each 100 m stretch is presented in (Table 1).

obtain the surface modulus from using LWDmod soft- It may be noted that measurements with Light weight

ware. The back-calculation analysis provides surface deﬂectometer (LWD) depend upon the type of buﬀer used

modulus and an approximated composite modulus of as well as the drop height of the charge (contact pres-

the pavement structure at the test locations [26]. The sure). Soft buﬀers when used generate high pulse time

LWDmod software is based on the algorithm of back cal- which in turn gives higher surface modulus value,

culation scheme in which computed surface deﬂections whereas hard buﬀer generates little pulse time, due to

are compared with the measured deﬂections, to deduce high contact pressure and gives lower surface modulus

the most appropriate moduli for pavement structure. value. From Table 1, it can be inferred that the surface

The process was initiated by assuming seed values for modulus values vary between 100 and 225 (MPa). It is

elastic moduli of the pavement layers, Poisson’s ratio also observed that for all the stretches of Jherli to

taken as 0.5 and comparing the resulting deﬂections Gujaro ki Dhani (Chainage 0/0 to 1/800) the value of

obtained from forward calculation model with the mea- surface modulus varies between 168 and 225 (MPa),

sured ones. The iteration goes on until the diﬀerence which is high and represents compaction condition of

between two deﬂection proﬁles is within a given tolerance the road.

Please cite this article in press as: A.P. Singh et al., Pavement condition assessment using soft computing techniques, Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol.

(2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.12.006

6

(2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.12.006

Please cite this article in press as: A.P. Singh et al., Pavement condition assessment using soft computing techniques, Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol.

A.P. Singh et al. / International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology xxx (2018) xxx–xxx

Table 1

Field data of the study stretches.

Stretch Performance indicator 0–100 m 100–200 m 200–300 m 300–400 m 400–500 m 500–600 m 600–700 m 700–800 m

Road

Peepli to Ladunda (Chainage 0/100 to 1/100) IRI (m/km) 4.31 3.53 3.56 3.99 3.29 3.35 3.82 3.45

Surface Modulus (Eo) (in MPa) 168.0 154.5 153.5 140.0 150.0 135.0 155.0 136.0

Rut Depth (mm) RUL* 0 0 6 0 0 0 3 0

RUM* 0 7 0 0 0 0 9 0

Surface Friction (f) 0.45 0.38 0.43 0.41 0.40 0.43 0.46 0.4

Khudania (Chainage 0/100 to 1/100) IRI (m/km) 4.78 4.19 3.5 3.83 4.35 4.21 5.2 4.64

Surface Modulus (Eo) (in MPa) 170 200 220 177 176 189 200 206

Rut Depth (mm) RUL 4 0 4 3 0 6 4 0

RUM 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0

Surface Friction (f) 0.36 0.33 0.39 0.42 0.50 0.41 0.43 0.40

Tripali to Noolund (Chainage 0/500 to 1/350) IRI (m/km) 4.25 5.85 7.24 7.73 6.75 7.92 5.34 7.21

Surface Modulus (Eo) (in MPa) 165 117 110 108 112 110 109 117

Rut Depth (mm) RUL 0 6 0 4 0 5 0 0

RUM 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 12

Surface Friction (f) 0.40 0.34 0.36 0.32 0.38 0.40 0.30 0.39

Jherli to Gujaro ki Dhani (Chainage 0/0 to 1/800) IRI (m/km) 4.0 4.30 3.84 3.87 3.91 3.73 4.49 4.58

Surface Modulus (Eo) (in MPa) 169 166 200 182.5 175 220 223.5 200

Rut Depth (mm) RUL 0 0 0 0 5 0 4 0

RUM 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0

Surface Friction (f) 0.32 0.38 0.4 0.32 0.33 0.35 0.4 0.36

Ghardu to Ramanathpura (Chainage 0/100 to 1/100) IRI (m/km) 4.48 4.67 5.2 6.3 5.12 6.55 7.62 6.84

Surface Modulus (Eo) (in MPa) 100 108.5 104 98 102 104.6 97.6 103

Rut Depth (mm) RUL 0 0 4 0 0 0 5 0

RUM 0 0 8 9 0 10 0 7

Surface Friction (f) 0.47 0.38 0.34 0.42 0.35 0.50 0.44 0.44

*

RUL Rutting Low, RUM Rutting Medium.

A.P. Singh et al. / International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology xxx (2018) xxx–xxx 7

Basin (Calculated moduli)

Seed Moduli

Actual Eo

model Yes

Is error obtained

acceptable

Poisson’s ratio,

tyre pressure,

load

Adjust No

moduli

values

Fig. 4. (a) LWD-DYNATEST 3031 and (b) Wessex-Skid Resistor.

3.1.1.3. Rutting data. Rutting is the accumulation of per- 3.1.1.4. Skid friction data. The skid resistance is the retard-

manent deformation along the maximum travelled wheel ing force generated due to interaction between pavement

path. In the present study, the rut depth was measured in and locked tyre when the vehicle is moving. Such informa-

the ﬁeld by placing 1.2 m long straight scale along the tion is required for providing high riding quality to the

wheel path and measuring its depth by inserting a scale commuters. Skid resistance varies depending on a number

at every 10 m section. The measured data were then aver- of factors such as aggregate quality, binder and surface

aged out over a required section of 100 m. At some drainage [28–29].

stretches of pavement no rutting was seen during data col- In this case study portable skid tester, known as

lection. The extent of rutting depends on the traﬃc repeti- Cooper–Wessex skid resistor tester CRT-PENDULUM is

tions, densiﬁcation achieved during construction, and so used which is shown in Fig. 4(b). The Cooper-Wessex Pen-

on. It has been classiﬁed into further three sub-levels based dulum Skid Resistance Tester is the high quality skid resis-

on severity level: tance testing equipment in which BS EN 10978:2000 is used

as the testing code.

Rutting low (RUL): Barely noticeable, depth less than 6 The CRT-PENDULUM measures the frictional resis-

mm. tance between a rubber slider mounted on the end of a pen-

Rutting medium (RUM): Readily noticeable, depth dulum arm and the test surface. It is based on Izod

more than 6 mm but less than 25 mm. principle in which pendulum rotates about a spindle

Rutting high (RUH): Deﬁnite eﬀect on vehicle control, attached to a vertical pillar. At the end of the tubular

depth greater than 25 mm. arm, a head of known mass is ﬁtted with a rubber slider.

The pendulum is released from a horizontal position so

The Rut depth data corresponding to each stretch have that it strikes the sample surface with a constant velocity.

been presented in Table 1. The distance travelled by the head after striking the sample

Please cite this article in press as: A.P. Singh et al., Pavement condition assessment using soft computing techniques, Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol.

(2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.12.006

8 A.P. Singh et al. / International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology xxx (2018) xxx–xxx

is determined by the friction of the sample surface. A read- dure of the proposed methodology is explained in subse-

ing of skid resistance is obtained from the British Pendu- quent paragraphs.

lum Number (BPN) read from the drag pointer using Eq. The initial step in the development of the model is the

(2). generation of importance weight of each criterion. The

contribution of each indicator diﬀers from each other,

Skid Number ¼ 100 Coefficient of friction ð2Þ

which is reﬂected through a weight coeﬃcient. The determi-

Wessex skid resistor apparatus is used at every 50-m sec- nation of weight coeﬃcient corresponding to each perfor-

tion in longitudinal direction along the wheel path. At each mance indicator relies on the tradeoﬀs amongst

location point, ﬁve values were taken and ﬁnally these are performance indicators which are derived from pair wise

averaged over a stretch of 100 m. The friction coeﬃcient comparison matrix A ¼ ðaij Þmm in which m represents

data corresponding to all study stretches are presented in number of performance indicators and the entry ‘aij’ corre-

Table 1. spond to the ratio of relative importance of ‘ith’ perfor-

mance indicator to ‘jth’ performance indicator. The

comparison matrix is derived using Saaty’s 9-point scale

3.2. Methodological framework for prioritizing pavement as given in Eq. (3). The linguistic descriptions of 9-point

scales are explained in Table 2.

3.2.1. Development of fuzzy AHP (FAHP) approach

2 w1 3 2 3

The proposed methodology explores the concept of both w1

w1

w2

... w1

wm a11 a12 a1m

6 7 6

a2m 7

AHP and fuzzy logic theory in the ﬁeld of pavement prior- 6

w2 w2

w2

7 6 a21

6 w1 w2 wm

7 6 a22 7

.. 7

itization for maintenance purposes. AHP is a technique for A¼6 . ¼6 . ð3Þ

6 .. .. .. .. 7 . .. .. 7

organizing and analysing the complex decisions and com- 4 . . . 7

5 4 . . . . 5

ing up with the solution that best suit the needs of the deci- wm

w1

wm

w2

wm

wm

am1 am2 amm

sion makers [30–32]. In conventional AHP approach,

fuzziness and vagueness involved in decision making prob-

lems are not taken into consideration. However, FAHP In order to form a matrix, a questionnaire has been pre-

methodology oﬀers an optimistic approach to reliability pared to perform pairwise judgment between the criteria.

and accuracy issues in the data collection of pavement con- Each performance indicator is compared against each

dition [1,5]. The hierarchical architecture for PCA in which other, determining their relative importance on a scale of

the pavement conditions of diﬀerent road stretches (alter- 1–9. Saaty’s scale as speciﬁed in Table 2 has been used as

natives) is evaluated under diﬀerent parameters (criteria). the guiding factor to assess pairwise comparison of diﬀer-

These criteria refer to a deﬁning characteristic of pavement ent criteria. The importance weight in this study was

based on which sound decisions can be taken. In this study obtained by having an open discussion with 10 experts

four important pavement performance parameters are cho- working in this ﬁeld and keeping in mind the local condi-

sen and deﬁned as U = {IRI, surface modulus, rut depth, tions such that the resultant matrix is applicable to

friction coeﬃcient} as shown in Fig. 5 in order to prioritize PMGSY roads in Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan, India

stretches using fuzzy techniques. The step by step proce- during January 2014 to April 2014. As the survey data

GOAL:

PCA of each road segment

Roughness (IRI) Rut depth(R) Surface Modulus (Eo) Friction coefficient (f)

Please cite this article in press as: A.P. Singh et al., Pavement condition assessment using soft computing techniques, Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol.

(2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.12.006

A.P. Singh et al. / International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology xxx (2018) xxx–xxx 9

Saaty’s scale for pair wise comparison of Criteria. respective inspection result into corresponding membership

Saaty’s scale The relative importance of two sub elements functions as shown in Figs. 7–10. These membership func-

1 Equally important tions express belongingness of qualitative statement for the

3 Moderately important with one over the other evaluation of any criterion with respect to a given grade/

5 Strongly important class with the membership values varying between 0 and

7 Very strongly important

9 Extremely important

1. There exist various types of membership functions, viz.

2,4,6,8 Intermediate important triangular, trapezoidal, Gaussian, etc. Use of a particular

membership function depends upon actual application

(i.e. range of input and output parameters), classiﬁcation

are converted to fuzzy scale the uncertainty and ambigu- of diﬀerent grades of evaluation and its impact on chosen

ousness in the data are overcome and the ratings given criteria as well as on opinion of the experts. For example,

by these experts converge to a single integrated value. in case where system needs dynamic variations for shorter

Once the matrix A is built, the second step is to normal- range, triangular or trapezoidal membership functions are

ize the pair wise comparison matrix ‘A’ by making the sum being used.

of entries in each column equal to 1, i.e. each entry aij of The fuzzy evaluation set V = {v1, v2, v3,. . .,vn} corre-

the normalized matrix ‘Anorm’ is computed as: sponding to each performance indicator so obtained is nor-

aij malized by considering the above methodology. Let U =

aij ¼ Pm

ð4Þ {u1, u2, u3,. . ., um} be a criterion set composed of ‘m’ crite-

i¼1 aij

ria and V = {v1, v2, v3,. . .,vn} be an evaluation set com-

In the next step the criteria weight vector ‘w’ (that is m- posed of ‘n’ remarks. The fuzzy relation matrix,

dimensional column vector) is obtained by averaging the R ¼ ðrij Þmn can be expressed by deriving membership

entries on each row of ‘Anorm’ i.e. grade for each criterion with respect to a given evaluation

Pm class. Thus, any entry (i.e. rij) of fuzzy relation matrix

aij

wj ¼ i¼1 ð5Þ can be expressed as rij ¼ lR ðui ; vj Þ where, i ¼ 1; 2; . . . ; m

m

and j ¼ 1; 2; . . . ; n [5,30]. As diﬀerent criteria have diﬀerent

Once the weight vector W = (w1, w2,. . .,wm) is derived inﬂuences on the overall condition assessment of a road

from the paired comparison matrix thereafter, Eigen value segment, a weight vector W = (w1, w2,. . ., wm) represents

is obtained from the eigenvector algorithm originally pro- a fuzzy subset on U obtained from paired comparison

posed by Saaty as given by Eq. (6): matrix. The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method

AW ¼ kmax W ð6Þ assigns ﬁve membership function to fuzzy evaluation set

V such that Y 2 f ðV Þ, using the Eq. (7):

where, ‘kmax’ represents maximal Eigen value and ‘W’ rep-

Y ¼W R ð7Þ

resents corresponding Eigen vector. Since the importance

weight of each attribute is based purely on the perception where represents mapping operator from R to Y, and R

of decision maker so there is a need to check the consis- represents normalized fuzzy set. The following mapping

tency of matrix. The percentage of inconsistency comes operator is used to evaluate fuzzy weighted average that

within acceptable limit of 10% then calculated Eigen values takes all intermediate criteria into account as deﬁned by

represent the weight coeﬃcient of corresponding perfor- Sun et al. [5]:

mance indicators. !

The fourth step is an important component to apply this Xm

lY yj ¼ min 1; wi rij ð8Þ

methodology wherein membership functions are derived to

i¼1

evaluate the importance of each criterion so that selected

pavement stretches can be rated with respect to various After evaluating the ﬁnal fuzzy set of each stretch as

speciﬁed performance indicators. These membership func- mentioned above, the last step is to transform these sets

tions are derived on the basis of knowledge gained from lit- into crisp output through a defuzziﬁcation process. In this

erature [2,5–6,20] and perception of decision makers by study, two diﬀerent defuzziﬁcation approaches are used: (a)

transforming crisp values into ﬁve linguistic (fuzzy) vari- Maximum Graded Principle (MGP) and (b) Fuzzy Pave-

ables, viz. V = {Very Good, Good, Fair, Poor, Very Poor}. ment Condition Index (FPCI). The Maximum Graded

Review of the present data indicated that the triangular Principle (MGP) states that grade of membership with

and trapezoidal fuzzy membership functions are the most the highest value in Y is assigned as an entry in the evalu-

suitable for representing the ratings of every performance ation set V for overall evaluation [33]. Though road seg-

indicator in the criterion set U = {IRI, Surface modulus, ments receiving higher evaluations are ranked higher than

Rut depth, Friction coeﬃcient}. The membership functions other road segment receiving lower evaluations, it has been

corresponding to each criterion are shown in Figs. 7–10. observed that sometimes MGP results into identical lin-

The next step is the formulation of fuzzy evaluation set, guistic/vague rating while evaluating the pavement

in which grades of membership functions corresponding to stretches as shown in Table 4 col(3). For disbursing funds,

Please cite this article in press as: A.P. Singh et al., Pavement condition assessment using soft computing techniques, Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol.

(2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.12.006

10 A.P. Singh et al. / International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology xxx (2018) xxx–xxx

pavement, its deterioration rate and last M&R works taken

Computing Approaches FAHP and FWA

FAHP FWA

Formulation of pair wise comparison matrix on the Define Linguistic variables associated with the

basis of decision maker’s perception using Saaty’s rating and weights of pavement performance

scale parameters

Compute the importance weight of each criterion Expert’s opinion for deciding the range values of

linguistic rating terms of performance parameters

Formulate fuzzy linguistic variables for defining Normalize linguistic terms between 0 and 1 and find average

membership functions maximum value correspond to each

Derive separate membership functions correspond Construct Membership functions correspond to linguistic

to each criterion terms of rating and weights of performance parameters

Evaluate final fuzzy set correspond to each Formulate final fuzzy set using FWA model

pavement stretch

Defuzzification: Conversion of final fuzzy set into Defuzzification: Conversion of final fuzzy set into

linguistic rating or FPCI value linguistic rating or FPCI value

Define linguistic Calculate FPCI Value assigning Alpha cut distance Calculate FPCI

rating for each stretch quantifier weight correspond to approach for linguistic value on the basis of

using MGP each linguistic variable rating of stretches final fuzzy set

Ranking Pavement Stretches for fund Ranking Pavement Stretches for fund

allocation and M&R works allocation and M&R works

approaches and conclusion

it is necessary to make the priority ranking of pavement quantiﬁable weight vector (5, 4, 3, 2, 1) corresponding to

stretches. Thus, the second approach of evaluating FPCI evaluation set V = {Very Good, Good, Fair, Poor, Very

value is more realistic. FPCI value can be evaluated using Poor} respectively so that these ﬁve diﬀerent linguistic

Please cite this article in press as: A.P. Singh et al., Pavement condition assessment using soft computing techniques, Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol.

(2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.12.006

A.P. Singh et al. / International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology xxx (2018) xxx–xxx 11

FPCI ¼ ð0:333 0:267 0:200 0:133 0:067Þ lY y j

ð9Þ

Once, FPCI value is calculated for each stretch, the

lower evaluative segment needs to be assigned ﬁrst priority

for maintenance work. All steps of complete methodology

of FAHP approach have been shown in Fig. 6.

parison matrix ‘A’ has been deduced after interacting with

the experts working in the ﬁeld in the form of matrix as:

2 3

1 0:33 2:5 1:5

6 3 1:5 2 7

Fig. 7. Membership functions of IRI (m/km). 6 1 7

A¼6 7 ð10Þ

4 0:4 0:66 1 0:5 5

0:66 0:5 2 1

Using methodology explained above, the weight vectors

corresponding to the criterion set U = {IRI, Surface

Modulus, Rutting, Friction coeﬃcient) are

w ¼ 0:243 0:4114 0:143 0:200. Since, this matrix is

based purely on the perception of diﬀerent decision makers,

its consistency index has been evaluated as 9.8%, which is

found within the acceptable limit. It is to be noted that

the pavement characteristics in this case study have been

Fig. 8. Membership functions of Surface Modulus (MPa). quantiﬁed, by physical means, rather than by having simple

qualitative assessments. The road users are mainly con-

cerned about the functional performance of the pavement,

which is expressed by roughness and surface friction. The

implementing agencies on the other hand are focused on

structural performance and distress on the pavement sur-

face. The relative rating hence has been obtained by ques-

tionnaire survey amongst the practitioners particularly

working on rural roads. The reason rutting has been given

less importance might be due to the prevailing climatic con-

ditions and limited usage of rural roads by heavy vehicles

leading to subgrade failure. The Jhunjhunu district of

Rajasthan state receives less rainfall (annual rainfall 450–

500 mm). Further the soil quality in this area is generally

Fig. 9. Membership functions of Rut depth (mm).

good, having higher CBR values ranging from 9 to 12.

Moreover, in general, these rural roads hardly carry traﬃc

of more than 10–15 commercial vehicles (trucks) per day

having weight more than 3 ton which is considered for

design of pavement thickness that contributes to damage

of subgrade resulting in rutting failure. Given this, speciﬁc

to geographical and climatic conditions, the practitioners

might have observed less rutting failure on ﬁeld, resulting

rutting criteria with less importance weight as compared

to other parameters. This was also observed during data

collection on all ﬁve stretches, as it could be observed from

Table 1 wherein rutting high (RUH) more than 25 mm is

Fig. 10. Membership functions of Friction Coeﬃcient (f). not observed at all. Hence rutting has given less importance

weight.

As per the next step graphical shapes of membership

assessments can be distinguished, which after normaliza- function of each performance indicator obtained from

tion becomes as (0.333, 0.267, 0.200, 0.133, 0.067). On perception of decision makers are presented in Figs. 7–10.

the basis of FPCI values, diﬀerential ranking can be estab- In the third step, the fuzzy evaluation methodology

lished as shown in Eq. (9): has been described in detail by considering stretch 1 i.e.

Please cite this article in press as: A.P. Singh et al., Pavement condition assessment using soft computing techniques, Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol.

(2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.12.006

12 A.P. Singh et al. / International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology xxx (2018) xxx–xxx

Table 3

Performance indicator values and their corresponding fuzzy relation.

Stretch1 Field data Fuzzy set Normalized fuzzy set (R)

IRI 4.31 (0, 1, 0.437, 0, 0) (0, 0.696, 0.304, 0, 0)

Surface Modulus (Eo) 168 (0, 0.267, 0.73, 0, 0) (0, 0.268, 0.732, 0, 0)

Rut Depth (R) 0 (1, 0, 0, 0, 0) (1, 0, 0, 0, 0)

Surface Friction (f) 0.45 (0.2, 0.75, 0.5, 0, 0) (0.138, 0.52, 0.344, 0, 0)

Table 4

Fuzzy relation and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation result corresponding to all eight stretches of road 1: Peepli to Ladunda.

Road 1(Peepli to Ladunda) Fuzzy evaluation set Applying MGP Applying FPCI Ranking combining

both approach

Stretch 1 (0.1715, 0.3839, 0.44, 0, 0) Fair 0.248 1

Stretch 2 (0.044,0.243,0.631,0.0807,0) Fair 0.216 8

Stretch 3 (0.057,0.310,0.557,0.074,0) Fair 0.223 4

Stretch 4 (0.150,0.256,0.386,0.205,0) Fair 0.221 5

Stretch 5 (0.2118,0.223,0.4617,0.102,0) Fair 0.236 2

Stretch 6 (0.222,0.248,0.271,0.256,0) Fair 0.217 7

Stretch 7 (0.050,0.287,0.544,0.116,0) Fair 0.218 6

Stretch 8 (0.195,0.229,0.327,0.246,0) Fair 0.224 3

(0–100 m) of Peepli to Ladunda road. Using IRI (one of As already discussed in the methodology, this approach

the performance indicator) as an example, its value for this may result in similar linguistic ratings of stretches which

particular stretch is 4.31. The grade of membership func- can be perceived directly from column (3) of Table 4.

tion of IRI pertaining to fuzzy evaluation set V = {Very In second approach, FPCI value has been evaluated

Good, Good, Fair, Poor, Very Poor} can be written using quantiﬁable weight vector (5, 4, 3, 2, 1) respectively

directly from Fig. 7 as lY = (0, 1, 0.437, 0, 0). This fuzzy corresponding to evaluation set V = {Very Good, Good,

set is then normalized using relation Rlyyi = 1 resulting Fair, Poor, Very Poor} so that these ﬁve diﬀerent linguistic

in lYyj = (0, 0.609, 0.304, 0, 0). Similarly, the evaluation assessments can be distinguished, which after normaliza-

of this road segment has been done using other perfor- tion becomes as (0.333, 0.267, 0.200, 0.133, 0.067).

mance indicators also in which grades of membership func-

FPCI ¼ ð 0:333 0:267 0:200 0:133 0:067 Þ

tion are computed by substituting respective result of each 2 3

indicator into corresponding membership functions of 0:172

6 7

Figs. 7–10. The original and normalized fuzzy set of all 6 0:384 7

6 7

four performance indicators for stretch 1 of Peepli to 6 7

6 0:440 7 ¼ 0:248

Ladunda road is presented in Table 3. Each performance 6 7

parameter is assigned ﬁve membership numbers in terms 4 0 5

of fuzzy evaluation set V = {Very Good, Good, Fair, Poor, 0

Very Poor}.

Fuzzy pavement condition index (FPCI) value of all

The fourth step involves a transformation from fuzzy

eight stretches of Road 1 is computed in similar fashion

relation ‘R’ to fuzzy evaluation ‘V’ through a mapping

and presented in column(4) of Table 4. The segment getting

operator as per the relation deﬁned in Eq. (8). The ﬁnal

the lower ranking is in worst condition than others and

fuzzy evaluation set ‘V’ obtained corresponds to IRI is:

receives ﬁrst priority for maintenance purpose.

lY y j ¼ ð 0:243 0:4114 0:143 0:200 Þ

2 3 3.2.2. Development of fuzzy weighted average (FWA)

0 0:696 0:304 0 0

6 0 0:268 0:732 0 0 7

approach

6 7

6 7 The second approach used in this case study to assess

4 1 0 0 0 05 the pavement condition is Fuzzy weighted average

0:138 0:52 0:344 0 0 (FWA) method. The main perspective is to compare the

results obtained from FAHP and distinguishing the rank-

V = (0.1715, 0.3839, 0.44, 0, 0) ing sequences of the pavement stretches. The step by step

Final fuzzy evaluation set ‘V’ for all the eight stretches procedure of the proposed methodology is explained in

of road 1 is computed in similar fashion and presented in subsequent paragraphs. The ﬁrst and foremost important

column(1) of Table 4. Along with ﬁnal fuzzy evaluation step is to derive the membership functions that are true rep-

set ‘V’ the defuzziﬁcation results obtained using MGP resentative of linguistic rating terms and weights of param-

approach is also presented in the column(3) of Table 4. eter used. The linguistic variables used in this study for the

Please cite this article in press as: A.P. Singh et al., Pavement condition assessment using soft computing techniques, Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol.

(2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.12.006

A.P. Singh et al. / International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology xxx (2018) xxx–xxx 13

Table 5

Linguistic rating terms’ range values of diﬀerent performance indicators.

Linguistic description Range value

IRI (m/km) Surface modulus (Eo) (MPa) Rutting (R) (mm) Friction coeﬃcient (f)

Very Good (VG) 0–2.5 >210 0–2 >0.6

Good (G) 2.5–4 175–210 2–5 0.4–0.6

Fair (F) 4–6 135–175 5–11 0.35–0.4

Poor (P) 6–7.5 98–135 11–16 0.2–0.35

Very Poor (VP) >7.5 <98 >16 <0.2

Table 6

Linguistic description of performance indicators.

Performance indicator Linguistic description

IRI Very Important

Surface Modulus (Eo) Extremely Important

Rut depth (R) Important to some extent

Friction coeﬃcient (f) Important

Fair, Poor, Very Poor}. Similarly, the importance weights

of parameters are determined using the following linguistic

variables: {Extremely Important, Very Important, Impor- Fig. 12. Membership functions for rating of performance indicators.

tant, Moderately Important, Important to some extent}

and presented in Table 6.

The next step is to formulate a questionnaire to obtain

the expert’s opinion on the range values of linguistic rating

terms of performance parameters. The range values so

obtained after discussing with the experts are presented in

Tables 5. The corresponding linguistic terms are normal-

ized between 0 and 1 to decide the shape of membership

functions.

The third step is to construct the best membership func-

tions correspond to linguistic rating terms and weights of

pavement parameters used. The ﬁnal graphical shapes of

membership functions are expressed as triangular fuzzy Fig. 13. Membership functions for weightages of Performance Indicators.

numbers by taking opinion of experts working in the ﬁeld

and reviewing the literature. Use of particular membership triangular or trapezoidal membership functions are being

function depends upon actual application (i.e. range of used. The fuzzy weight of each parameter can be repre-

input and output parameters), classiﬁcation of diﬀerent sented in terms of triangular fuzzy number [(x1, ll(x1));

grades of evaluation and its impact on chosen criteria as (x2, l2(x2)); (x3, l3(x3))] as shown in Fig. 11, where li(x)

well as on opinion of the experts. For example, in case is membership value of any decision variable xi to represent

where system needs dynamic variations for shorter range, linguistic view of the decision maker mathematically.

The ﬁnal triangular membership functions are deﬁned

by three parameters (x1, x2, x3) and presented in Figs. 12,

13. The average maximum value corresponding to Very

μi(x) Good, Good, Fair, Poor and Very Poor is 1, 0.75, 0.5,

0.25 and 0 respectively. Similarly, the membership func-

tions of importance weights of pavement parameters have

also been derived.

The next step is to formulate the ﬁnal fuzzy set using

FWA operation based on the mathematical expression

deﬁned in Eq. (11) illustrating the condition of each pave-

ment stretch taking into consideration of all the perfor-

0 x1 x2 x3 xi mance parameters. [6,12,16].

Please cite this article in press as: A.P. Singh et al., Pavement condition assessment using soft computing techniques, Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol.

(2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.12.006

14 A.P. Singh et al. / International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology xxx (2018) xxx–xxx

Pn

W i Ri condition and AR: area enclosed to the right of the mem-

R ¼ Pi¼1

n ð11Þ

i¼1 W i

bership function that represents the ﬁnal assessment of

pavement condition.

where, R represents the resultant fuzzy set for the ﬁnal Based on the FPCI value each road segment is assigned

assessment of pavement condition; Ri corresponds to the a single numerical score, thereby making priority ranking

fuzzy set that represent the linguistic rating term of ‘ith’ of pavement conditions of diﬀerent road segments for dis-

pavement parameter; Wi corresponds to the fuzzy set that bursement of funds for M&R works. The results obtained

represent the weight of ‘ith’ pavement parameter and n rep- from both methodologies are coinciding well and support

resents number of pavement parameters considered. the same conclusion. The ﬂowchart presented in Fig. 6

The last step involves defuzziﬁcation process of the ﬁnal illustrates the complete methodology of FWA approach.

fuzzy set obtained using above methodology. Two diﬀerent

approaches are used for defuzziﬁcation, one is alpha-cut

distance approach and other is calculation of Fuzzy Pave- 3.2.2.1. Illustration of FWA approach. As explained in the

ment Condition Index (FPCI) value. In ﬁrst approach, i.e. methodology, ﬁrstly the linguistic variables associated with

alpha-cut distance method the ﬁnal fuzzy set representing both the rating and weights of performance parameters are

the condition of pavement stretch is translated into linguis- obtained. The range values of linguistic rating terms of

tic variable. This process involves the determination of dis- pavement performance are decided by taking opinion of

tance between the ﬁnal fuzzy set so obtained using Eq. (11) experts working in the ﬁeld of pavement management.

and fuzzy set representing each linguistic term expression is These range values of linguistic rating corresponding to

presented in Fig. 13. The distance between two fuzzy sets is four performance parameters along with linguistic weights

calculated using alpha level distance formula deﬁned in Eq. are given in Tables 5 and 6.

(12) corresponding to three alpha values i.e. 0, 0.5 and 1 The next step is to construct triangular membership

[6,12,16]. functions for ﬁve scales of linguistic statements, normalized

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ on a scale of 0–1 such that 0 corresponds to Very Poor and

PN 2 2 1 represents Very Good. The graphical shape of member-

a¼1 ðamin jmin Þ þ ðamax jmax Þ

dj ¼ ð12Þ ship functions correspond to ratings and weights of perfor-

N mance parameter are shown in Figs. 12 and 13. The

triangular fuzzy numbers (a, b, c) that represent the linguis-

where,

tic description for rating and weights of performance

parameters are presented in Tables 7 and 8.

dj: a-level distance between the output fuzzy number and

In the third step, the fuzzy weighted average (FWA) has

predeﬁned fuzzy number ‘j’.

been described in detail by considering stretch 1 i.e. (0–100 m)

amin: lower bound of a-cut interval of the output fuzzy

of Peepli to Ladunda road. On the basis of linguistic rat-

number.

ings and importance weights, the triplets of triangular

amax: upper bound of a-cut interval of the output fuzzy

membership function were derived with respect to all four

number.

important criteria for stretch 1 of Peepli to Ladunda road

jmin: lower bound of a-cut interval of the predeﬁned

as shown in Table 9.

fuzzy number ‘j’.

The FWA operation used to assess the pavement condi-

jmax: upper bound of a-cut interval of the predeﬁned

tion is deﬁned mathematically in Eq. (11). The resultant

fuzzy number ‘j’.

ﬁnal fuzzy set corresponding to segment 1 is (0.352, 0.63,

n: number of a-cut interval considered.

0.851).

The last step deals with defuzziﬁcation process of the

The fuzzy set which is having the least distance to the

ﬁnal fuzzy set using two diﬀerent approaches. The ﬁrst

ﬁnal fuzzy set gives the linguistic term expression of the

one is alpha cut distance method which involves the deter-

pavement condition. Just like MGP, here also linguistic

mination of distance between the ﬁnal fuzzy set and stan-

rating makes it diﬃcult to prioritize these stretches for

dard fuzzy set representing linguistic rating term

maintenance and rehabilitation (M&R) works. So, in order

expression. Alpha level distance formula deﬁned in Eq.

to have diﬀerential ranking of these stretches the fuzzy

(12) is used to translate the ﬁnal fuzzy set into linguistic

pavement condition index (FPCI) needs to be calculated

based on the ﬁnal fuzzy set result of FWA operation.

The model used in ﬁnding FPCI is deﬁned in mathematical Table 7

Rating of each performance parameter.

form as: [6,16]

Linguistic description Weights with triangular elements

A L AR þ 1 Very Good (VG) (0.75, 1, 1)

FPCI ¼ ð13Þ Good (G) (0.5, 0.75, 1)

2

Fair (F) (0.25, 0.5, 0.75)

where, AL: area enclosed to the left of the membership Poor (P) (0, 0.25, 0.5)

Very Poor (VP) (0, 0, 0.25)

function that represents the ﬁnal assessment of pavement

Please cite this article in press as: A.P. Singh et al., Pavement condition assessment using soft computing techniques, Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol.

(2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.12.006

A.P. Singh et al. / International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology xxx (2018) xxx–xxx 15

Important weight of each performance indicator. ilar linguistic rating of stretches. There is a need to have

Linguistic description Weights with triangular elements some more rational approach i.e. calculating FPCI value

Extremely Important (0.7, 0.9, 1) using Eq. (13) based on the ﬁnal fuzzy set result. Based

Very Important (0.5, 0.7, 0.9) on this FPCI value each road stretch is assigned a single

Important (0.3, 0.5, 0.7) numerical score, thereby making priority ranking for allo-

Important to some Extent (0.2, 0.4, 0.6)

Not Important (0, 0.1, 0.3)

cating the funds for maintenance works.

FPCI value of all the eight stretches of Road 1 is pre-

sented in Table 11. The segment getting the higher ranking

term corresponding to 0, 0.5 and 1 values of alpha. The lin- is in worst position and in great demand for maintenance

guistic rating of all the eight stretches of Peepli to Ladunda work.

road (Road 1) using alpha cut method is presented in

Table 10. As the smallest value obtained through alpha

cut distance method for stretch 1 is 0.145 which corre- 4. Results and conclusions

sponds to fair. Therefore stretch 1 has been ranked as ‘fair’

in the last column of Table 10. Similarly, stretch 4 has the 4.1. Results

smallest defuzziﬁed value equal to 0.082 which corresponds

to ‘good’. Similarly, the ranking of all stretches has been The results of FAHP and FWA approaches are com-

expressed in linguistic term as shown in Table 10. pared for all the ﬁve PMGSY roads and are presented in

As already discussed in the methodology of FWA Fig. 14. While prioritizing the pavement stretches for opti-

defuzziﬁcation that this approach makes it quite diﬃcult mum allocation of limited funds the following inferences

Table 9

Fuzzy numbers (a, b, c) that represent letter grades for weights and ratings Road 1–Peepli to Ladunda.

Stretch1 (100–200 m) Field Data LT Ratings of each criterion Weight of each criterion

a b c a b c

IRI (m/km) 4.31 F 0.25 0.5 0.75 0.5 0.7 0.9

Surface Modulus (Eo) (MPa) 168 F 0.25 0.5 0.75 0.7 0.9 1

Rutting (R) (mm) 0 VG 0.75 1 1 0.2 0.4 0.6

Coeﬃcient of friction (f) 0.45 G 0.5 0.75 1 0.3 0.5 0.7

*

LT = Linguistic term.

Table 10

Ranking of all the eight stretches of road 1 in linguistic term (LT) using alpha cut approach.

Stretch Final Fuzzy Set Alpha cut distance from Ranking in LT

VG G F P VP

Stretch 1 (0.352, 0.63, 0.851) 0.419 0.173 0.145 0.464 0.703 Fair

Stretch 2 (0.323, 0.57, 0.823) 0.472 0.1227 0.091 0.41 0.65 Fair

Stretch 3 (0.367, 0.62, 0.81) 0.415 0.167 0.151 0.47 0.71 Fair

Stretch 4 (0.426, 0.7, 0.92) 0.332 0.082 0.236 0.555 0.793 Good

Stretch 5 (0.426, 0.7, 0.92) 0.332 0.082 0.236 0.555 0.793 Good

Stretch 6 (0.326, 0.61, 0.843) 0.445 0.198 0.198 0.120 0.681 Poor

Stretch 7 (0.367, 0.62, 0.879) 0.412 0.163 0.163 0.1555 0.714 Poor

Stretch 8 (0.323, 0.61, 0.838) 0.446 0.199 0.199 0.43 0.681 Fair

*

LT = Linguistic term.

Table 11

Ranking of all the eight segments of road 1 on basis of FPCI value.

Stretch Final fuzzy set (R) Area to left of R (AL) Area to right of R (AR) FPCI Ranking on basis of FPCI

Stretch 1 (0.352, 0.63, 0.851) 0.491 0.259 0.616 5

Stretch 2 (0.323, 0.57, 0.823) 0.446 0.304 0.570 8

Stretch 3 (0.367, 0.62, 0.81) 0.493 0.2525 0.620 3

Stretch 4 (0.426, 0.7, 0.92) 0.563 0.189 0.687 1

Stretch 5 (0.426, 0.7, 0.92) 0.563 0.189 0.687 1

Stretch 6 (0.326, 0.61, 0.843) 0.466 0.275 0.595 6

Stretch 7 (0.367, 0.62, 0.879) 0.493 0.2525 0.620 3

Stretch 8 (0.323, 0.61, 0.838) 0.466 0.275 0.595 6

Please cite this article in press as: A.P. Singh et al., Pavement condition assessment using soft computing techniques, Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol.

(2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.12.006

16 A.P. Singh et al. / International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology xxx (2018) xxx–xxx

Stretch Approach Peepli to Khudania Tripali to Jherli to Ghardu

Ladunda road Noolund Gujarok i se

Dhani Ramnath

pura

Road 1 Road 2 Road 3 Road 4 Road 5

Stretch 1 FAHP 1 8 1 7 1

FWA 5 8 1 7 1

Stretch 2 FAHP 8 7 5 6 2

FWA 8 7 6 8 2

Stretch 3 FAHP 4 1 6 1 5

FWA 3 1 7 1 6

Stretch 4 FAHP 5 5 7 5 8

FWA 1 2 5 4 8

Stretch 5 FAHP 2 3 3 8 3

FWA 1 3 3 6 3

Stretch 6 FAHP 7 6 4 4 4

FWA 6 6 4 3 4

Stretch 7 FAHP 6 4 2 2 7

FWA 3 4 2 2 7

Stretch 8 FAHP 3 2 8 3 6

FWA 6 5 8 3 4

are made. For Peepli to Laduna (road 1), stretch 2 gets the However the variability in the results for Peepli to Ladunda

ﬁrst priority using both approaches however for other and Jherli to Ghujaro ki Dhani roads are mainly due to

stretches there is a slight variation in the ranking. From strict preference analysis used in FAHP. Since, member-

Fig. 14, it can be observed that using FWA approach ship functions are taken separately corresponding to each

stretches 3 and 7, 4 and 5, 6 and 8 are getting similar rank- performance parameter in FAHP resulting into diﬀerential

ings i.e. 3, 1 and 6 respectively. This is due to the range val- ranking of stretches. However, in FWA approach an

ues prescribed for each linguistic term for rating the appropriate range value is decided for each linguistic terms

performance indicators in FWA approach. Thus, when for rating the performance indicators that result in same

the variation in performance indicators of diﬀerent triangular fuzzy numbers to all those values falling in that

stretches is less, it results in same triangular fuzzy numbers particular range. Thus, for any two stretches of a pavement

to all those values falling in that particular range, and, with lesser variation in their performance parameter values

hence, gets the equivalent priority. While in FAHP get the equivalent priority which is not the situation in case

approach due to strict preference analysis and since the of FAHP.

membership functions are taken separately corresponding

to each performance parameter, it results in the diﬀerential 4.2. Conclusion

ranking of stretches. Therefore, there is possibility of diﬀer-

ential ranking even with less variation in performance indi- Most of the local government departments, responsible

cators in case of FAHP approach. Similarly, for Khudani, for the maintenance of rural roads, do not have systematic

Tripali to Noolund and Ghardu to Ramnathpura roads process for taking M&R decisions logically. The instru-

both these approaches are showing the same results in pri- ments used for getting the relevant data do not always pro-

oritizing the stretches except at two segments. As far as vide consistent data due to variation in ﬁeld conditions.

Jherli to Gujaro ki Dhani road is concerned, fuzzy AHP Thus the application of FAHP and FWA were found to

is giving higher priority to stretch 6 for maintenance pur- be appropriate methods for prioritizing the pavement

pose whereas in FWA this priority goes to stretch 2. stretches. This is expected to work as a tool for the local

While comparing the ﬁndings of FAHP using FWA level oﬃcials involved in maintenance of rural roads in

operation it has been deduced that at all the roads (except eﬀective decision making as adequate funds are not usually

Peepli to Ladunda and Jherli to Ghujaro ki Dhani), the available for road maintenance.

results of FAHP are coinciding well with FWA results.

Please cite this article in press as: A.P. Singh et al., Pavement condition assessment using soft computing techniques, Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol.

(2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.12.006

A.P. Singh et al. / International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology xxx (2018) xxx–xxx 17

The quantiﬁcation of subjective knowledge of various [7] T.J. Ross, Fuzzy Logic with Engineering Applications, second ed.,

performance indicators can easily be performed using John Wiley & Sons, New Delhi, 2008.

[8] V.S.M. Phogat, A.P. Singh, Selection of equipment for construction

appropriate techniques presented in this paper. The proce- of a hilly road using multi criteria approach, Proc. Soc. Behav. Sci.

dure presented in this paper can be applied to the condition 104 (2013) 282–291.

assessment of any pavement structure if hierarchy of multi- [9] A.P. Singh, A.K. Vidyarthi, Optimal allocation of landﬁll disposal

attributes and linguistic ratings can be formulated. How- site: a fuzzy multi-criteria approach, J. Environ. Health Sci. Eng. 5 (1)

ever, speciﬁc membership functions and weight coeﬃcients (2008) 25–34.

[10] J. James, Buckley, Fuzzy hierarchical analysis, Fuzzy Sets Syst. 17 (3)

need to be re-established as appropriate in accordance with (1985) 233–247.

the type of roads and climatic conditions. The analysis pre- [11] C.G.E. Boender, J.G. De Graan, F.A. Lootsma, Multi-criteria

sented herein has proven to be an eﬀective tool in discrim- decision analysis with fuzzy pairwise comparisons, Fuzzy Sets Syst.

inating condition of pavements. 29 (2) (1989) 133–143.

The collected data on the current status of a pavement [12] T.F. Fwa, R. Shanmugam, Fuzzy logic technique for pavement

condition rating and maintenance-needs assessment, in: Proc., 4th Int.

serve as a good estimator for prioritizing the pavement Conf. on Managing Pavements, 1998, pp. 465–476.

stretches. One can easily relate the results of PCA to [13] N.N. Eldin, A.B. Senouci, A pavement condition rating model using

the type and extent of M&R works require in overcoming backpropagation neural network, Comput.-Aided Civ. Infrastruct.

the deﬁciencies of a road section. However, type of M&R Eng. 10 (6) (1995) 433–441.

actions to be considered is beyond the scope of present [14] A. Van der Gryp, S.J. Bredenhann, M.G. Henderson, G.T. Rohde,

Determining the visual condition index of ﬂexible pavements using

study. There are typically ﬁve actions in M&R strategies: artiﬁcial neural networks, in: Proceedings 4th Int. Conf. on Managing

routine maintenance, preventive maintenance, deferred Pavements, 1998, pp. 115–129.

action, rehabilitation and reconstruction to be considered [15] A.P. Singh, S.K. Dubey, Optimal selection of a landﬁll disposal site

depending on the condition of a road section and avail- using a modiﬁed fuzzy utility approach, Int. J. Fuzzy Inform Eng. 4

ability of funds with implementing agency. In future stud- (3) (2012) 313–338.

[16] C.H. Juang, J.E. Clark, P. Ghosh, Representation, processing and

ies, life cycle cost analysis can be performed by integrated interpretation of fuzzy information in civil engineering, Transp. Res.

techniques presented herein with the commercially avail- Rec. 1399 (1993) 20–26.

able software such as Highway Development and Man- [17] S. Kanuganti, U. Subramanian, S.S. Arkatkar, A.P. Singh, A.K.

agement Tools (HDM-4) to select alternative M&R Sarkar, Quantiﬁcation of Level-Of-Service index for bus routes in

strategies for prioritized stretches. Each selected stretch developing countries: a case study in India, J. Eastern Asia Soc.

Transport. Stud. 10 (2013) 1347–1366.

can be considered as an alternative candidate for mainte- [18] A.P. Singh, R. Srinivas, S. Kumar, S. Chakrabarti, Water quality

nance and rehabilitation works under ﬁve possible treat- assessment of a river basin under fuzzy multi-criteria framework, Int.

ment types of M&R. However, depending on the J. Water 9 (3) (2015) 226–247.

severity condition, all treatment types may not be [19] S. Ahmed, P. Vedagiri, K.V.K. Rao, Prioritization of pavement

required for a given stretch. At government levels one maintenance sections using objective based analytic hierarchy pro-

cess, Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol. 10 (2017) 158–170.

can also consider the other parameters such as traﬃc vol- [20] A.K. Sandra, A.K. Sarkar, Development of a model for estimating

ume, traﬃc composition, use of more precise equipment’s, international roughness index from pavement distresses, Int. J.

performing sensitivity analysis, etc. in addition to those Pavement Eng. 14 (8) (2013) 715–724.

which are already taken to support the decision of alloca- [21] J.R. Prasad, S. Kanuganti, P.N. Bhanegaonkar, A.K. Sarkar, S.S.

tion of funds. Arkatkar, Development of relationship between roughness (IRI) and

visible surface distresses: a study on PMGSY roads, Proc. Soc. Behav.

Sci. 104 (2013) 322–331.

[22] Dynatest 3031 LWD. http://www.dynatest.com/media/4186/5_dynat-

References est_lwd3031.pdf. (accessed 27 March 2014).

[23] R. Kumar, V.K. Adigopula Jr, S.D. Guzzarlapudi, Stiﬀness-based

[1] A.K. Sandra, V.R. Vinayaka Rao, K.S. Raju, A.K. Sarkar, Prior- quality control evaluation of modiﬁed subgrade soil using lightweight

itization of Pavement Stretches using Fuzzy MCDM Approach – A deﬂectometer, J. Mater. Civil Eng. 29 (9) (2017), https://doi.org/

Case Study. In Soft Computing in Industrial Applications, Springer, 10.1061/%28ASCE%29MT.1943-5533.0001958.

Berlin Heidelberg, 2007, pp. 265–278. [24] B. Umashankar, C. Hariprasad, G.T. Kumar, Compaction quality

[2] Methods of measuring distress. http://www.civil.iitb.ac.in/~kvkrao/ control of pavement layers using LWD, J. Mater. Civil Eng. 28 (2)

uploads/5/9/3/7/59372049/measuring_distress.pdf. (accessed 20 (2015), https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0001379,

February 2015). 04015111-1(9).

[3] Guide on managing maintenance of rural roads in India, National [25] J.G. Grasmick, Using the Light Weight Deﬂectometer With Radial

Rural Roads Development Agency, New Delhi, October 2014. Oﬀset Sensors on Two-Layer System for Construction Quality

[4] Y.O. Ouma, J. Opudo, S. Nyambenya, Comparison of fuzzy AHP Control/Quality Assurance of Reclaimed and Stabilized Materials,

and fuzzy TOPSIS for road pavement maintenance prioritization: (Thesis), Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, 2013.

methodological exposition and case study, Adv. Civil Eng. 2015 [26] A.F. Elhakim, E. Khaled, I.A. Mohamed, The use of light weight

(2015). deﬂectometer for in situ evaluation of sand degree of compaction, J.

[5] L. Sun, W. Gu, Pavement condition assessment using fuzzy logic Housing Build. Natl. Res. Center (HBRC) 10 (3) (2014) 298–307.

theory and analytic hierarchy process, J. Transp. Eng. 137 (9) (2010) [27] P. Chakroborty, A. Das, Principles of transportation engineering,

648–655. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 2017, p. 468.

[6] J. Arliansyah, T. Maruyama, O. Takahashi, A development of fuzzy [28] D.A. Noyce, H.U. Bahia, J.M. Yambo, G. Kim, Incorporating Road

pavement condition assessment, Proc. JSCE 61 (746) (2003) 275–285. Safety Into Pavement Management: Maximizing Asphalt Pavement

Surface Friction For Road Safety Improvements. Draft Literature

Please cite this article in press as: A.P. Singh et al., Pavement condition assessment using soft computing techniques, Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol.

(2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.12.006

18 A.P. Singh et al. / International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology xxx (2018) xxx–xxx

Review and State Surveys, Midwest Regional University Transporta- [31] S. Kanuganti, R. Agarwala, B. Dutta, P.N. Bhanegaonkar, A.P.

tion Center (UMTRI), Madison, Wisconsin, 2005. Singh, A.K. Sarkar, Road safety analysis using multi criteria

[29] M.Y. Shahin, Pavement management for airports, roads and parking approach: a case study in India, Transp. Res. Procedia 25C (2017)

lots. 501, Springer, New York, 2005. 4653–4665, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2017.05.299.

[30] A.P. Singh, S. Chakrabarti, S. Kumar, A. Singh, Assessment of air [32] T.L. Saaty, The analytic hierarchical process, McGraw-Hill, New

quality in Haora river basin using fuzzy multiple-attribute decision York, 1980, p. 841.

making techniques, Environ. Monit. Assess. 189 (2017), https://doi. [33] K.J. Schumucker, Fuzzy Sets, Natural Language Computational and

org/10.1007/s10661-017-6075-3. Risk Analysis, Computer Science Press, Inc., Rock Ville, Maryland,

1984.

Please cite this article in press as: A.P. Singh et al., Pavement condition assessment using soft computing techniques, Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol.

(2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.12.006

- Sustainable Highway System PresentationDiunggah olehAfzal Waseem
- THESIS-EMPRESE Sustainable Rural RoadsDiunggah olehJanis Bibit
- Flexible Road PavementsDiunggah olehJose Luís Esparza
- Solar Pavement - A New Emerging TechnologyDiunggah olehMauricio Pertuz Parra
- Pavement Design SupplementDiunggah olehChristine Factores
- Flexible Pavement Manual March 152008Diunggah olehJonathan Paulino
- Subgrade Rutting Flexible PavementDiunggah olehPalak Shivhare
- IRJET-Experimental Studies on the Properties of Modified Bituminous Mixes using Crumb-RubberDiunggah olehIRJET Journal
- Mines Safety Bulletin112 Mine Road SafetyDiunggah olehBayu Aji S
- Fiker AlebachewDiunggah olehTeka Tesfaye
- 1.0 Introduction to Pavement Engineering CE 44 Highway Engineering (Philippines)Diunggah olehJeffjr Vallente
- VBPWI001 Safe Use of BRP Road PatchesDiunggah olehskelleyreskic
- Multi-criteria Decision-making Approach based on Multi-valued Neutrosophic Geometric Weighted Choquet Integral Heronian Mean OperatorDiunggah olehMia Amalia
- Metodos-Funcionales.pdfDiunggah olehlacimba
- Benkelman Beam Deflection Technique Transport Road - Diamond Point RoadDiunggah olehbambangtirtas_984017
- tds004Diunggah olehWilberto Mercado
- 10.1.1.109.6996Diunggah olehRia Singh
- 01KeraliHDM4Introduction08Diunggah olehJared Makori
- Basics of Good Road 0Diunggah olehmehdi
- Receive and File the 2013 Pavement Management Program Update Report 12-03-13Diunggah olehL. A. Paterson
- 06-09-07 PPR148 Surface Texture Measurement on Local RoadsDiunggah olehKew Mun Seng
- Technical Note TN 014 Geotextile Reinforced SealsDiunggah olehmojeebmashal
- online-adDiunggah oleheksuresh
- 47CRL78No.7-3Diunggah olehSajjad Ahmed
- MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION MAKING METHOD BASED ON SIMILARITY MEASURES UNDER SINGLE VALUED NEUTROSOPHIC REFINED AND INTERVAL NEUTROSOPHIC REFINED ENVIRONMENTSDiunggah olehMia Amalia
- 10.1016@j.ijpe.2017.03.008Diunggah olehkiran karthik
- Quant Reports 2009 New1Diunggah olehKenneth Karatunga
- 2014PCIReportCIP.pdfDiunggah olehAnonymous qBVCHx
- Roads Under Runways the Geotechnical InvDiunggah olehZAKROUN
- USE OF EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE IN ROAD EMBANKMENTSDiunggah olehmikaditu

- English Grammar SecretsDiunggah olehMbatutes
- qui trinh thiet ke SCCDiunggah olehsaranghee75
- A_SIMPLE_TOOL_FOR_SELF_COMPACTING_CONCRE.pdfDiunggah olehLuis Mogrovejo
- Concrete Construction Article PDF_ the Trouble With BubblesDiunggah olehdarshanpokar
- is.2386.1.1963Diunggah olehmssant
- Gabion Retaining Walls With Alternate Fill MateriaDiunggah olehdarshanpokar
- How Good Is Your Chess by Larry Evans.pdfDiunggah olehcrazydubai
- 1.pdfDiunggah olehdarshanpokar
- aging 1.pdfDiunggah olehdarshanpokar
- Improvement of Concrete Durability by NanomaterialsDiunggah olehdarshanpokar
- Influence of Nano Materials Addition as Partial Replacement of Cement in the Properties of Concrete PavementDiunggah olehdarshanpokar
- Safe, Quiet and Durable Pavement SurfacesDiunggah olehdarshanpokar

- Final Highway ProjectDiunggah olehnuh ali
- Civil IntroDiunggah olehmimahmoud
- Greater Vancouver Gateway Council Vision 2030Diunggah olehPaul
- Carriage of MaterialDiunggah olehravindrarao_m
- fdot_bb896_rpt.pdfDiunggah olehDEEPAK KUMAR MALLICK
- Shared Constr Esb759A1Diunggah olehkrcdewanew
- 322 Civil1Diunggah olehAmbuj Maurya
- Drainage Structures Design ReviewDiunggah olehsoleb
- Rural Road EngDiunggah olehRachmat Sofyan
- A Review on Performance Evaluation of Flexible Pavement-IJAERDV04I0277225Diunggah olehEditor IJAERD
- A PRACTICAL GUIDE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION & ENHANCEMENT WORKSDiunggah olehmakkhuinweng
- Moisture Susceptibility of Hot mix Asphalt Mixes: Identification of Problem and Recommended SolutionsDiunggah olehProf. Prithvi Singh Kandhal
- Petrol Filling Stations- Construction and Operation_2Diunggah olehم.ذكى فضل ذكى
- PavementDiunggah olehJelena
- Ch3 Crack SealingDiunggah olehWinengku
- MN_2016-04-05Diunggah olehmoorabool
- Marshall Test & Extraction & Stripping & Specific GravityDiunggah olehFarhad Skandary
- Mohan, Dinesh; Tiwari, Geetam Transport Planning and Traffic Safety Making Cities, Roads, And Vehicles SaferDiunggah olehGoji Pamungkas
- textbookonhighwa00blan.pdfDiunggah olehDeprizon Syamsunur
- cc & rcc qtyDiunggah olehanon-839706
- Friktionsmatningar Och Sambandet Mellan Vagfriktion Och TrafiksakerhetDiunggah olehMarijan Jakovljevic
- 2-3- stages for highway,bridge nuraini.pptDiunggah olehafiqimran
- Tech Spec for General Civil WorksDiunggah olehKrm Chari
- CV JUN REY M.Diunggah olehjunreymorales
- Session 3 - Programming Pavement Projects.pdfDiunggah olehJeff L Djambak
- 112.) Manabo - Luba Rd.Diunggah olehErnest Belmes
- Presentation Slide AISB Envirotac (UEM).pdfDiunggah olehMohd Syaril Mohd Ali
- Specification for Microtunnelling and Pipe JackingDiunggah olehganmoses
- Soil Mechanics in Pavement Engineering SF Brown 1996Diunggah olehSanjay Garg
- Industrial Planning v20910Diunggah olehmariaginelli