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International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology xxx (2018) xxx–xxx
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Pavement condition assessment using soft computing techniques


Ajit Pratap Singh ⇑, Antriksh Sharma, Raunak Mishra, Makrand Wagle, A.K. Sarkar
Civil Engineering Department, Birla Institute of Technology and Science Pilani, 333031, India

Received 14 June 2017; received in revised form 9 November 2017; accepted 19 December 2017

Abstract

Roads are the lifeline of a nation which provides a reliable and easy access to different areas across the country. Once the roads are
constructed, their condition goes on deteriorating with time. Therefore, implementing periodic pavement maintenance is equally impor-
tant as that of construction for the satisfactory performance throughout their design life. This study develops an approach for pavement
condition assessment and their prioritization which can be dealt with a variety of performance indicators for evaluating different aspects
of pavement performance. Pavement stretches with low ratings will have a high probability to be scheduled for maintenance and reha-
bilitation, depending on the availability of funds and the importance of roads.
This paper presents two approaches of fuzzy mathematical analysis to conceive strategic planning for maintenance and rehabilitation
of pavements. The pavement deterioration condition has been marked by four performance indicators: (a) International Roughness
Index (IRI) (b) Surface Modulus (Eo) (c) Rut depth (R) and (d) Friction Coefficient (f). A methodology has been framed to assess con-
dition of Pradhan Mantri Gramin Sadak Yojna (PMGSY) all weather roads located in Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan, India. These
stretches have been prioritized on the basis of their performance parameters using two soft computing techniques: (a) Fuzzy Analytical
Hierarchy Process (FAHP) and (b) Fuzzy Weighted Average (FWA) method.
The results clearly demonstrate that FAHP being more scientific approach can be considered as a base model for assessing the pave-
ment condition, however to have sound decisions, results so obtained are compared effectively from FWA method.
Ó 2017 Chinese Society of Pavement Engineering. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND
license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Keywords: Pavement condition assessment; Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP); Fuzzy Weighted Average (FWA) method; PMGSY roads;
Pavement maintenance, rehabilitation and management

1. Introduction roads was rather slow and the existing roads were also
not being maintained in the absence of adequate funding.
Accessibility in rural areas plays an important role in Thus, in year 2000, the Government of India (GoI)
poverty eradication and overall socio-economic develop- launched a nationwide fully centrally sponsored rural road
ment. Thus, the need for road connectivity has been con- development scheme, popularly known as Pradhan Mantri
sidered vital in the developing countries having vast rural Gramin Sadak Yojna (PMGSY). The main objective of
population. In India, traditionally the construction of rural this scheme was to provide connectivity through all-
roads has been the responsibility of the provincial govern- weather roads to rural areas so that overall development
ments and thus the progress of construction of quality can be ensured at local, regional and national levels. The
PMGSY scheme was designed so as to ensure that a new
road constructed would be maintained by the contractor
⇑ Corresponding author. Fax: +91 01596 244183. for the first five years. Most of the rural roads constructed
E-mail address: aps@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in (A.P. Singh). during the first few years after the inception of the project
Peer review under responsibility of Chinese Society of Pavement are quite old now and in the absence of proper mainte-
Engineering.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.12.006
1996-6814/Ó 2017 Chinese Society of Pavement Engineering. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Please cite this article in press as: A.P. Singh et al., Pavement condition assessment using soft computing techniques, Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol.
(2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.12.006
2 A.P. Singh et al. / International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology xxx (2018) xxx–xxx

nance are showing distresses of various magnitudes. The The main objectives of this paper are: (a) to identify the
Government of India has stressed the need of maintenance pavement distresses that are most prominent on the roads
and rehabilitation of rural pavements in the 12th five-year considered in this case study; and (b) to prioritize pavement
plan. Thus, there is a need to develop a pavement mainte- stretches for maintenance on the basis of pavement condi-
nance management system for PMGSY roads that could be tion so that a maintenance programme could be designed
used as a tool for allocation of funds at the local govern- within the budgetary constraints.
ment level. The present paper discusses about a case study
carried out in Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan state in 2. Literature review
India with an aim of prioritizing a few selected PMGSY
roads on the basis of their current conditions based on Physical isolation is one of the most important factors
extent and severity of visible distresses. The major chal- which hinders the growth of rural areas. The main aim of
lenge in pavement maintenance work is the allocation of government behind constructing the rural roads is to pro-
sufficient funds for these pavements on the basis of their vide physical accessibility to basic needs [3]. However,
factual conditions at appropriate time by the government many a time the inadequate maintenance of roads makes
[1]. The most practical and economical approach for the them unusable for the users. The pavements fail over a per-
maintenance of rural roads is to collect pavement condi- iod of time and thus timely maintenance would extend their
tions by visual inspection survey. Various distresses are lives with acceptable level of service.
recorded in terms of extent and severity and then prioritize A number of studies have been carried out by different
the stretches depending on the overall condition. While researchers to assess the pavement condition on the basis
standard templates are available for rating different dis- of their performance criteria. Although, quantification of
tresses, still there are possibilities of variation in human pavement conditions is a difficult task but a number of
judgements. The objective of this paper is to illustrate mathematical models have been available to assess and
how the fuzzy approach could be effectively used to miti- analyse pavement conditions. The performance indicators
gate these variations and develop a tool that would priori- in assessing pavement condition are often subjective and
tize the road stretches on the basis of overall conditions hence fuzzy theory could be used to quantify subjectivity
and then help to take optimal funding allocation decisions. and model the ambiguity involved in the system [4]. A few
The pavement characteristics in this case study have been studies show that fuzzy approach proves to be one of the
quantified, by physical means, rather than by having simple best mathematical tools in assessing the pavement condition
qualitative assessments and utmost care has been taken to and helping the decision makers in taking decisions regard-
obtain precise data. Once the requisite data are collected, ing different maintenance and rehabilitation works to be
they have been analysed using fuzzy approaches i.e. FAHP carried out. Sun et al. [5] have proposed the use of fuzzy
and FWA method. logic theory and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to
The road users are mainly concerned in the functional assess the pavement condition and prioritize projects of
performance of the pavement, which is expressed by rough- highway maintenance. A case study was done to rank eight
ness and surface friction. The implementing agencies on the road segments of highway using Maximum graded principle
other hand are focused on structural performance and dis- (MGP) and a defuzzified weighted cumulative index
tress on the pavement surface. In Pavement Condition (DWCI). They concluded that in prioritizing projects of
Assessment (PCA) the main steps involved are to evaluate road maintenance, the road segments receiving higher eval-
the current pavement condition in terms of distresses, uation score will be ranked higher than other road segments
determine the rates of deterioration and project the future receiving lower evaluation [5]. Arliansyah et al. [6] have
conditions. The various indicators to define the current described how the fuzzy set theory approach can be used
condition of the pavement are determined on the basis of to assess the pavement condition under different situations
structural, functional, safety performances. The structural analysing the data obtained from Horkiru region of pave-
performance is measured mainly by non-destructive tests ment management support system. Using fuzzy weighted
such as Benkelman Beam deflection measurement or falling average operation, it has been shown in their study that
weight and Light Weight deflectometers. The functional pavement condition assessment results change significantly
performance is measured using Bump Integrator which is with the inclusion, omission, weight changes of pavement
then represented by International Roughness Index (IRI). parameters [6]. A number of approaches have also been for-
It can also be determined by manual inspection survey by mulated to perform comprehensive analysis. Some of them
observing the severity and extent of distresses such as are based on the concepts of fuzzy arithmetic as suggested
cracking, rutting, potholes, shoving, ravelling, bleeding, by Ross [7], fuzzy rule-based modelling or fuzzy ranking
edge cracking and other visible distresses. The safety per- applied by Phogat et al. and Singh et al. [8,9]. Buckley
formance is measured in terms of surface resistance and [10] proposed a technique of analysis of hierarchical struc-
skid resistance equipment is usually used to measure it. tures under fuzzy environment after performing pair-wise
However, all these pavement evaluation techniques may comparisons of opinions of various decision makers [10].
not be used in each study as it depends on the scope of A number of multi-criteria decision making problems are
the work, availability of time and resources [2]. also being solved by applying fuzzy analytical hierarchy

Please cite this article in press as: A.P. Singh et al., Pavement condition assessment using soft computing techniques, Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol.
(2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.12.006
A.P. Singh et al. / International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology xxx (2018) xxx–xxx 3

process (Boender et al. [11]; Chang, 1996). Boender et al. handled by means of probability theory or fuzzy set theory
[11] presented a modified version of the fuzzy multi- [4–5,15,18]. It is therefore important to use appropriate
criteria method by calculating the weights of the decision techniques to quantify subjective information. With the
criteria through minimization techniques of a logarithmic implementation of PMGSY scheme in a decade, almost
regression function [11]. There are several approaches to all villages throughout the India are connected by asphalt
solve a FAHP model. Each of them has some unique pavements to nearby cities or town [3]. In order to sustain
characteristics. Phogat et al. (2013) have applied five the benefits of the investments made in improving village
multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) techniques to roads, transport infrastructure is needed to be maintained
select suitable equipment’s for road construction under six over time, and hence there is a need to provide adequate
different criteria including environment impact considera- maintenance. Further the PCA also plays critical role in
tions. These five MCDM techniques viz., Analytical Hierar- deciding upgradation of existing rural roads particularly
chy Process (AHP), Simple Additive Weights Method that provide connectivity to rural growth centres and other
(SAW), Distance Based Method (DBM), Preference Rank- critical rural business hubs. In the past, most of the earlier
ing Organization Method (PROMETHEE) and Elimina- studies were focused on pavement condition assessment
tion et Choice Translating Reality (ELECTRE) methods and prioritization of stretches of highways [4–5,19] and
are proved as potential decision-aid tools to select the limited studies have been carried out focusing prioritization
appropriate management scheme [8]. of rural village roads. Most of the rural roads constructed
Soft computing solutions are unpredictable, uncertain in India have not received proper attention with regard to
and can be expressed in the form of membership function maintenance action plans, primarily because of less avail-
ranging between 0 and 1. Soft Computing became a formal ability of funds. As a result, sustainability of assets has
area of study in Computer Science in the early 1990s [7]. not been fortified. To avoid making a bad situation worse,
Soft computing techniques have also been used effectively government has also stressed upon the maintenance and
when pavement condition indices are based on a variety rehabilitation (M&R) of rural pavement in its 12th five-
of parameters with different characteristics. In such cases, year plan. In light of above, in this study, the fuzzy
these techniques have been primarily used to estimate func- approach allowing experts working on rural roads to use
tions from samples without requiring a mathematical for- linguistic variables is considered for prioritization by
mulation of the dependence of output on input values. applying and comparing the results from fuzzy AHP and
Fwa and Shanmugam (1998) have demonstrated an appli- fuzzy weighted average method.
cation of fuzzy systems for assessing pavement condition The main objective of this paper is twofold: (a) it
rating and maintenance needs [12]. Back propagation neu- attempts to identify the important indicators of pavement
ral networks have also been used to combine different indi- condition assessment for rural roads under Indian condi-
cators representing status of pavement conditions into a tions and (b) it finally prioritizes pavement stretches for
condition index or pavement rating assignment by some the maintenance and rehabilitation (M&R) purposes tak-
of the researchers [13,14]. Moreover, since the last decade, ing selected parameters into consideration. The first section
Analytic Hierarchy process (AHP) and FAHP are gaining of this study deals with the introduction and objectives of
popularity amongst the transportation and civil engineers. the study whereas subsequent sections of literature review,
Some of the recent studies are really worth appreciating. methodology accepted, analysis of data and finally a case
Singh et al. (2012) have done an optimal selection of a land- study has been taken to prioritize the pavement stretches
fill disposal site using a modified fuzzy utility approach [15]. of rural roads using FAHP and FWA methods. The last
The applications of fuzzy logic based concepts have also part of the paper discusses results, conclusion and limita-
been applied by Juang et al., Kanuganti et al., and Singh tion of the study.
et al. [16–18]. Ahmed et al. (2017) proposed an objective
based AHP method wherein pairwise comparison values 3. Methodology
are assigned based on the collected field data from a road
network in Mumbai city, consisting of 28 road sections. In this paper, a methodology has been proposed based
They demonstrated the evaluated results of priority ratings on a case study to assess the condition of rural road pave-
of objective based AHP method and compared them with ments using soft computing techniques. These techniques
the results of subjective based Road Condition Index aim to study the tolerance for uncertainty, approximation,
(RCI) method for the validation purpose [19]. Thus, there imprecision involved in data collection and their extraction
is a tremendous potential to apply fuzzy approach in the and come up with solutions to real world problem, which
field of pavement condition assessment and management. are difficult to model under uncertain environment. The
In PCA, the main job is to evaluate the current pave- study followed a three-step trade-off process as shown in
ment condition, determining the rates of deterioration Fig. 1.
and projecting the future conditions. Many factors in
PCA are subjectively determined i.e. based on or influenced  Step 1, deals with the selection and identification of
by personal feelings or opinions. In decision making pro- pavement stretches wherein a case study has been car-
cesses, uncertainty, imprecision, and subjectivity can be ried out on the five PMGSY roads selected in Jhunjhunu

Please cite this article in press as: A.P. Singh et al., Pavement condition assessment using soft computing techniques, Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol.
(2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.12.006
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Step 1: Selection and Step 2: Field Step 3: Prioritization of


Identification of pavement Investigation with the pavement stretches
Stretches Detailed Survey using FAHP and FWA

Fig. 1. Steps involved in prioritizing the pavement stretches.

district of Rajasthan, India. As the focus of the present 3.1.1. Data extraction
study is the assessment of pavement condition and pri- 3.1.1.1. IRI data. Roughness data are collected using towed
oritization the pavement stretches of low volume rural fifth wheel bump integrator running at a speed of 32 km/hr
roads, the roads constructed under PMGSY scheme on selected stretches. Usually, roughness/unevenness index
were taken as the study stretches from available core obtained from bump integrator is in mm/km. The towed
network map. The core network consists of the entire fifth wheel bump integrator model V used in this study
rural road network required for providing the basic has the inbuilt facility to convert the roughness into stan-
access to all villages/habitations. The roads in Jhun- dard measurement of mm/km irrespective of distance mea-
jhunu district from core network are selected such that sured. However, it requires calibration using Machine for
these roads were constructed almost four to five years Evaluating Roughness using Low Cost Instrumentation
back and no maintenance measures have been taken till (MERLIN) prior to the collection of roughness data [20–
date. To have better insight each of these five PMGSY 21].
roads was divided into stretches of 100 m section each. Universally, the roughness data are expressed in terms
 In step 2, continuous field investigations were carried of IRI and expressed as m/km. Thus, the value obtained
out during January 2014 to April 2014 for the collection using bump integrator (i.e. BI) is converted into IRI values
of data on the selected stretches. The data pertaining to using Eq. (1) before analysing the pavement condition. The
structural performance, functional performance, safety same equation was used by the previous studies of one of
performance and distress survey were collected and the authors [20–21].
finally four important performance indicators were 0:89
IRI ¼ 0:0032  ðBIÞ ð1Þ
arrived at to assess pavement conditions. They are Inter-
national Roughness Index (IRI), surface modulus (Eo), All the IRI data corresponding to each site of five
rut depth (R) and friction coefficient (f). stretches are given in Table 1.
 In step 3, two soft computing techniques were used for
prioritizing the pavement stretches for maintenance 3.1.1.2. Surface modulus data. The light weight deflectome-
and rehabilitation (M&R) so that proper disbursement ter (LWD) is a non-destructive testing (NDT) device used
of funds available for these activities could be utilized for pavement evaluation to determine the strength and stiff-
efficiently. ness of pavement material by measuring the material’s
response under the impact of a load with a known magni-
A general framework for pavement condition assess- tude and dropped from a known height [22]. The relevant
ment system is presented in Fig. 2. This framework builds code used for LWD is ASTM E2583 – 07(2011). The
upon the scheme presented in Fig. 1 and consists of mod- LWD used in this case study is the Dynatest 3031 available
ules that can be used for overall condition assessment of from Dynatest International as shown in Fig. 4(a).
the pavements. Light weight deflectometer (LWD) gained popularity as
portable and cost effective tool for the determination of in-
3.1. Data collection and extraction situ responses like deflections and surface modulus.
Although Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) is widely
Data were collected from January 2014 to April 2014 so used in determining surface modulus, due to financial con-
as to avoid extreme cold or hot weather conditions and straints, FWD may not be economical to use on rural vil-
also to avoid wet base conditions. The equipments used lage roads; given the rural roads network length very
in the present study are bump integrator for the roughness high. Furthermore, the upper layer of these roads is rela-
data (IRI), Light Weight Deflectometer (LWD) for surface tively thin (20 mm bituminous surface) and thus can obtain
modulus (Eo), skid resistor apparatus for friction coeffi- reliable results due to LWD lower load level as compared
cient (f) and rut depth (R) is measured using 1.2 m long to FWD. Although LWD induces a smaller impact load
straight scale. and shorter load pulse duration in comparison with the
In this study, five rural roads have been considered FWD, due to its lighter drop mass, this may be suitable
keeping in mind the site selection criteria described in the for the low volume roads. Since these roads generally do
flowchart shown in Fig. 2. These roads are further divided not carry traffic of heavy commercial vehicles (Multiaxle
into stretches of 100 m. The details of all the five stretches trucks loading e.g. tridem axle), the dynamic load of
taken in this case study have been presented in Table 1. LWD could be used to produce load impulse that simulates

Please cite this article in press as: A.P. Singh et al., Pavement condition assessment using soft computing techniques, Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol.
(2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.12.006
A.P. Singh et al. / International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology xxx (2018) xxx–xxx 5

Fig. 2. Pavement condition assessment: Methodological framework.

the real-world traffic on rural roads. Hence in view of of LWDmod software. Fig. 3 depicts a back-calculation
LWD is smaller, cheaper and easier to operate than the algorithm on which LWDmod software is based [27].
FWD, LWD is used in the present study. Many researchers One should be careful to deal different layers of the pave-
have also found that the LWD is a reliable and repeatable ment while applying back calculation of sur modulus lay-
test that can be successfully used for quality control and ers using the results of LWD because the testing results
quality assurance of the projects even on a day to day basis of LWD generally provides the results of the entire pave-
[23–25]. ment layers and not individual layer. Thus, the details
In order to determine the surface modulus of pave- given in DPRs of the construction of these roads can pro-
ment on the selected stretches, a desired drop weight of vide the desired information of different layers. The thick-
10 kg was dropped down through a guide shaft on to a nesses of the layers have been referred from the Detailed
stack of buffer pads at random locations on every 100 Project Report (DPRs) of the selected roads on the basis
m road stretch. The pavement deflection responses were of prescribed design standard as specified by the Indian
measured by geophones placed at certain distance and Road Congress (IRC). The crust thickness of these roads
transmitted to a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) using was of order 275–300 mm with a thin bituminous top of
Bluetooth technology. Then the LWDmod program was 20 mm premix carpet with the seal coat. The Surface
used for the analysis of test data. From the known deflec- Modulus data of pavement for all the five roads corre-
tion basin, the back-calculation analysis was done to spond to each 100 m stretch is presented in (Table 1).
obtain the surface modulus from using LWDmod soft- It may be noted that measurements with Light weight
ware. The back-calculation analysis provides surface deflectometer (LWD) depend upon the type of buffer used
modulus and an approximated composite modulus of as well as the drop height of the charge (contact pres-
the pavement structure at the test locations [26]. The sure). Soft buffers when used generate high pulse time
LWDmod software is based on the algorithm of back cal- which in turn gives higher surface modulus value,
culation scheme in which computed surface deflections whereas hard buffer generates little pulse time, due to
are compared with the measured deflections, to deduce high contact pressure and gives lower surface modulus
the most appropriate moduli for pavement structure. value. From Table 1, it can be inferred that the surface
The process was initiated by assuming seed values for modulus values vary between 100 and 225 (MPa). It is
elastic moduli of the pavement layers, Poisson’s ratio also observed that for all the stretches of Jherli to
taken as 0.5 and comparing the resulting deflections Gujaro ki Dhani (Chainage 0/0 to 1/800) the value of
obtained from forward calculation model with the mea- surface modulus varies between 168 and 225 (MPa),
sured ones. The iteration goes on until the difference which is high and represents compaction condition of
between two deflection profiles is within a given tolerance the road.

Please cite this article in press as: A.P. Singh et al., Pavement condition assessment using soft computing techniques, Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol.
(2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.12.006
6
(2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.12.006
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A.P. Singh et al. / International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology xxx (2018) xxx–xxx
Table 1
Field data of the study stretches.
Stretch Performance indicator 0–100 m 100–200 m 200–300 m 300–400 m 400–500 m 500–600 m 600–700 m 700–800 m
Road
Peepli to Ladunda (Chainage 0/100 to 1/100) IRI (m/km) 4.31 3.53 3.56 3.99 3.29 3.35 3.82 3.45
Surface Modulus (Eo) (in MPa) 168.0 154.5 153.5 140.0 150.0 135.0 155.0 136.0
Rut Depth (mm) RUL* 0 0 6 0 0 0 3 0
RUM* 0 7 0 0 0 0 9 0
Surface Friction (f) 0.45 0.38 0.43 0.41 0.40 0.43 0.46 0.4
Khudania (Chainage 0/100 to 1/100) IRI (m/km) 4.78 4.19 3.5 3.83 4.35 4.21 5.2 4.64
Surface Modulus (Eo) (in MPa) 170 200 220 177 176 189 200 206
Rut Depth (mm) RUL 4 0 4 3 0 6 4 0
RUM 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0
Surface Friction (f) 0.36 0.33 0.39 0.42 0.50 0.41 0.43 0.40
Tripali to Noolund (Chainage 0/500 to 1/350) IRI (m/km) 4.25 5.85 7.24 7.73 6.75 7.92 5.34 7.21
Surface Modulus (Eo) (in MPa) 165 117 110 108 112 110 109 117
Rut Depth (mm) RUL 0 6 0 4 0 5 0 0
RUM 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 12
Surface Friction (f) 0.40 0.34 0.36 0.32 0.38 0.40 0.30 0.39
Jherli to Gujaro ki Dhani (Chainage 0/0 to 1/800) IRI (m/km) 4.0 4.30 3.84 3.87 3.91 3.73 4.49 4.58
Surface Modulus (Eo) (in MPa) 169 166 200 182.5 175 220 223.5 200
Rut Depth (mm) RUL 0 0 0 0 5 0 4 0
RUM 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0
Surface Friction (f) 0.32 0.38 0.4 0.32 0.33 0.35 0.4 0.36
Ghardu to Ramanathpura (Chainage 0/100 to 1/100) IRI (m/km) 4.48 4.67 5.2 6.3 5.12 6.55 7.62 6.84
Surface Modulus (Eo) (in MPa) 100 108.5 104 98 102 104.6 97.6 103
Rut Depth (mm) RUL 0 0 4 0 0 0 5 0
RUM 0 0 8 9 0 10 0 7
Surface Friction (f) 0.47 0.38 0.34 0.42 0.35 0.50 0.44 0.44
*
RUL Rutting Low, RUM Rutting Medium.
A.P. Singh et al. / International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology xxx (2018) xxx–xxx 7

Measured Deflection Error Check


Basin (Calculated moduli)

Seed Moduli

Thickness Forward Calculation


Actual Eo
model Yes
Is error obtained
acceptable
Poisson’s ratio,
tyre pressure,
load
Adjust No
moduli
values

Fig. 3. Back calculation algorithm of LWDmod software [25].

(a) LWD-DYNATEST 3031 (b) Wessex-Skid Resistor


Fig. 4. (a) LWD-DYNATEST 3031 and (b) Wessex-Skid Resistor.

3.1.1.3. Rutting data. Rutting is the accumulation of per- 3.1.1.4. Skid friction data. The skid resistance is the retard-
manent deformation along the maximum travelled wheel ing force generated due to interaction between pavement
path. In the present study, the rut depth was measured in and locked tyre when the vehicle is moving. Such informa-
the field by placing 1.2 m long straight scale along the tion is required for providing high riding quality to the
wheel path and measuring its depth by inserting a scale commuters. Skid resistance varies depending on a number
at every 10 m section. The measured data were then aver- of factors such as aggregate quality, binder and surface
aged out over a required section of 100 m. At some drainage [28–29].
stretches of pavement no rutting was seen during data col- In this case study portable skid tester, known as
lection. The extent of rutting depends on the traffic repeti- Cooper–Wessex skid resistor tester CRT-PENDULUM is
tions, densification achieved during construction, and so used which is shown in Fig. 4(b). The Cooper-Wessex Pen-
on. It has been classified into further three sub-levels based dulum Skid Resistance Tester is the high quality skid resis-
on severity level: tance testing equipment in which BS EN 10978:2000 is used
as the testing code.
 Rutting low (RUL): Barely noticeable, depth less than 6 The CRT-PENDULUM measures the frictional resis-
mm. tance between a rubber slider mounted on the end of a pen-
 Rutting medium (RUM): Readily noticeable, depth dulum arm and the test surface. It is based on Izod
more than 6 mm but less than 25 mm. principle in which pendulum rotates about a spindle
 Rutting high (RUH): Definite effect on vehicle control, attached to a vertical pillar. At the end of the tubular
depth greater than 25 mm. arm, a head of known mass is fitted with a rubber slider.
The pendulum is released from a horizontal position so
The Rut depth data corresponding to each stretch have that it strikes the sample surface with a constant velocity.
been presented in Table 1. The distance travelled by the head after striking the sample

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is determined by the friction of the sample surface. A read- dure of the proposed methodology is explained in subse-
ing of skid resistance is obtained from the British Pendu- quent paragraphs.
lum Number (BPN) read from the drag pointer using Eq. The initial step in the development of the model is the
(2). generation of importance weight of each criterion. The
contribution of each indicator differs from each other,
Skid Number ¼ 100  Coefficient of friction ð2Þ
which is reflected through a weight coefficient. The determi-
Wessex skid resistor apparatus is used at every 50-m sec- nation of weight coefficient corresponding to each perfor-
tion in longitudinal direction along the wheel path. At each mance indicator relies on the tradeoffs amongst
location point, five values were taken and finally these are performance indicators which are derived from pair wise
averaged over a stretch of 100 m. The friction coefficient comparison matrix A ¼ ðaij Þmm in which m represents
data corresponding to all study stretches are presented in number of performance indicators and the entry ‘aij’ corre-
Table 1. spond to the ratio of relative importance of ‘ith’ perfor-
mance indicator to ‘jth’ performance indicator. The
comparison matrix is derived using Saaty’s 9-point scale
3.2. Methodological framework for prioritizing pavement as given in Eq. (3). The linguistic descriptions of 9-point
scales are explained in Table 2.
3.2.1. Development of fuzzy AHP (FAHP) approach
2 w1 3 2 3
The proposed methodology explores the concept of both w1
w1
w2
... w1
wm a11 a12  a1m
6 7 6
a2m 7
AHP and fuzzy logic theory in the field of pavement prior- 6
w2 w2
 w2
7 6 a21
6 w1 w2 wm
7 6 a22  7
.. 7
itization for maintenance purposes. AHP is a technique for A¼6 . ¼6 . ð3Þ
6 .. .. .. .. 7 . .. .. 7
organizing and analysing the complex decisions and com- 4 . . . 7
5 4 . . . . 5
ing up with the solution that best suit the needs of the deci- wm
w1
wm
w2
 wm
wm
am1 am2  amm
sion makers [30–32]. In conventional AHP approach,
fuzziness and vagueness involved in decision making prob-
lems are not taken into consideration. However, FAHP In order to form a matrix, a questionnaire has been pre-
methodology offers an optimistic approach to reliability pared to perform pairwise judgment between the criteria.
and accuracy issues in the data collection of pavement con- Each performance indicator is compared against each
dition [1,5]. The hierarchical architecture for PCA in which other, determining their relative importance on a scale of
the pavement conditions of different road stretches (alter- 1–9. Saaty’s scale as specified in Table 2 has been used as
natives) is evaluated under different parameters (criteria). the guiding factor to assess pairwise comparison of differ-
These criteria refer to a defining characteristic of pavement ent criteria. The importance weight in this study was
based on which sound decisions can be taken. In this study obtained by having an open discussion with 10 experts
four important pavement performance parameters are cho- working in this field and keeping in mind the local condi-
sen and defined as U = {IRI, surface modulus, rut depth, tions such that the resultant matrix is applicable to
friction coefficient} as shown in Fig. 5 in order to prioritize PMGSY roads in Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan, India
stretches using fuzzy techniques. The step by step proce- during January 2014 to April 2014. As the survey data

GOAL:
PCA of each road segment

CRITERION 1: CRITERION 2: CRITERION 3: CRITERION 4:


Roughness (IRI) Rut depth(R) Surface Modulus (Eo) Friction coefficient (f)

ROAD 1 ROAD 2 ROAD 3 ROAD k

Segment (1, 2, ..., k)

Fig. 5. Hierarchal architecture of Criteria and Alternatives.

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Table 2 each performance indicator are computed by substituting


Saaty’s scale for pair wise comparison of Criteria. respective inspection result into corresponding membership
Saaty’s scale The relative importance of two sub elements functions as shown in Figs. 7–10. These membership func-
1 Equally important tions express belongingness of qualitative statement for the
3 Moderately important with one over the other evaluation of any criterion with respect to a given grade/
5 Strongly important class with the membership values varying between 0 and
7 Very strongly important
9 Extremely important
1. There exist various types of membership functions, viz.
2,4,6,8 Intermediate important triangular, trapezoidal, Gaussian, etc. Use of a particular
membership function depends upon actual application
(i.e. range of input and output parameters), classification
are converted to fuzzy scale the uncertainty and ambigu- of different grades of evaluation and its impact on chosen
ousness in the data are overcome and the ratings given criteria as well as on opinion of the experts. For example,
by these experts converge to a single integrated value. in case where system needs dynamic variations for shorter
Once the matrix A is built, the second step is to normal- range, triangular or trapezoidal membership functions are
ize the pair wise comparison matrix ‘A’ by making the sum being used.
of entries in each column equal to 1, i.e. each entry aij of The fuzzy evaluation set V = {v1, v2, v3,. . .,vn} corre-
the normalized matrix ‘Anorm’ is computed as: sponding to each performance indicator so obtained is nor-
aij malized by considering the above methodology. Let U =
aij ¼ Pm
 ð4Þ {u1, u2, u3,. . ., um} be a criterion set composed of ‘m’ crite-
i¼1 aij
ria and V = {v1, v2, v3,. . .,vn} be an evaluation set com-
In the next step the criteria weight vector ‘w’ (that is m- posed of ‘n’ remarks. The fuzzy relation matrix,
dimensional column vector) is obtained by averaging the R ¼ ðrij Þmn can be expressed by deriving membership
entries on each row of ‘Anorm’ i.e. grade for each criterion with respect to a given evaluation
Pm class. Thus, any entry (i.e. rij) of fuzzy relation matrix

aij
wj ¼ i¼1 ð5Þ can be expressed as rij ¼ lR ðui ; vj Þ where, i ¼ 1; 2; . . . ; m
m
and j ¼ 1; 2; . . . ; n [5,30]. As different criteria have different
Once the weight vector W = (w1, w2,. . .,wm) is derived influences on the overall condition assessment of a road
from the paired comparison matrix thereafter, Eigen value segment, a weight vector W = (w1, w2,. . ., wm) represents
is obtained from the eigenvector algorithm originally pro- a fuzzy subset on U obtained from paired comparison
posed by Saaty as given by Eq. (6): matrix. The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method
AW ¼ kmax W ð6Þ assigns five membership function to fuzzy evaluation set
V such that Y 2 f ðV Þ, using the Eq. (7):
where, ‘kmax’ represents maximal Eigen value and ‘W’ rep-
Y ¼W R ð7Þ
resents corresponding Eigen vector. Since the importance
weight of each attribute is based purely on the perception where  represents mapping operator from R to Y, and R
of decision maker so there is a need to check the consis- represents normalized fuzzy set. The following mapping
tency of matrix. The percentage of inconsistency comes operator is used to evaluate fuzzy weighted average that
within acceptable limit of 10% then calculated Eigen values takes all intermediate criteria into account as defined by
represent the weight coefficient of corresponding perfor- Sun et al. [5]:
mance indicators. !
The fourth step is an important component to apply this   Xm
lY yj ¼ min 1; wi rij ð8Þ
methodology wherein membership functions are derived to
i¼1
evaluate the importance of each criterion so that selected
pavement stretches can be rated with respect to various After evaluating the final fuzzy set of each stretch as
specified performance indicators. These membership func- mentioned above, the last step is to transform these sets
tions are derived on the basis of knowledge gained from lit- into crisp output through a defuzzification process. In this
erature [2,5–6,20] and perception of decision makers by study, two different defuzzification approaches are used: (a)
transforming crisp values into five linguistic (fuzzy) vari- Maximum Graded Principle (MGP) and (b) Fuzzy Pave-
ables, viz. V = {Very Good, Good, Fair, Poor, Very Poor}. ment Condition Index (FPCI). The Maximum Graded
Review of the present data indicated that the triangular Principle (MGP) states that grade of membership with
and trapezoidal fuzzy membership functions are the most the highest value in Y is assigned as an entry in the evalu-
suitable for representing the ratings of every performance ation set V for overall evaluation [33]. Though road seg-
indicator in the criterion set U = {IRI, Surface modulus, ments receiving higher evaluations are ranked higher than
Rut depth, Friction coefficient}. The membership functions other road segment receiving lower evaluations, it has been
corresponding to each criterion are shown in Figs. 7–10. observed that sometimes MGP results into identical lin-
The next step is the formulation of fuzzy evaluation set, guistic/vague rating while evaluating the pavement
in which grades of membership functions corresponding to stretches as shown in Table 4 col(3). For disbursing funds,

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Selection and Identification of Stretches considering age of


pavement, its deterioration rate and last M&R works taken

Detailed Field Investigation to have current status of pavement stretches

Ranking of Pavement Stretches based on two Soft


Computing Approaches FAHP and FWA

FAHP FWA

Formulation of pair wise comparison matrix on the Define Linguistic variables associated with the
basis of decision maker’s perception using Saaty’s rating and weights of pavement performance
scale parameters

Compute the importance weight of each criterion Expert’s opinion for deciding the range values of
linguistic rating terms of performance parameters

Formulate fuzzy linguistic variables for defining Normalize linguistic terms between 0 and 1 and find average
membership functions maximum value correspond to each

Derive separate membership functions correspond Construct Membership functions correspond to linguistic
to each criterion terms of rating and weights of performance parameters

Evaluate final fuzzy set correspond to each Formulate final fuzzy set using FWA model
pavement stretch

Defuzzification: Conversion of final fuzzy set into Defuzzification: Conversion of final fuzzy set into
linguistic rating or FPCI value linguistic rating or FPCI value

Define linguistic Calculate FPCI Value assigning Alpha cut distance Calculate FPCI
rating for each stretch quantifier weight correspond to approach for linguistic value on the basis of
using MGP each linguistic variable rating of stretches final fuzzy set

Ranking Pavement Stretches for fund Ranking Pavement Stretches for fund
allocation and M&R works allocation and M&R works

Comparison of ranking from both


approaches and conclusion

Fig. 6. Methodological framework of FAHP and FWA.

it is necessary to make the priority ranking of pavement quantifiable weight vector (5, 4, 3, 2, 1) corresponding to
stretches. Thus, the second approach of evaluating FPCI evaluation set V = {Very Good, Good, Fair, Poor, Very
value is more realistic. FPCI value can be evaluated using Poor} respectively so that these five different linguistic

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FPCI ¼ ð0:333 0:267 0:200 0:133 0:067Þ  lY y j
ð9Þ
Once, FPCI value is calculated for each stretch, the
lower evaluative segment needs to be assigned first priority
for maintenance work. All steps of complete methodology
of FAHP approach have been shown in Fig. 6.

3.2.1.1. Illustration of FAHP approach. The pair-wise com-


parison matrix ‘A’ has been deduced after interacting with
the experts working in the field in the form of matrix as:
2 3
1 0:33 2:5 1:5
6 3 1:5 2 7
Fig. 7. Membership functions of IRI (m/km). 6 1 7
A¼6 7 ð10Þ
4 0:4 0:66 1 0:5 5
0:66 0:5 2 1
Using methodology explained above, the weight vectors
corresponding to the criterion set U = {IRI, Surface
Modulus, Rutting, Friction coefficient) are
w ¼ 0:243 0:4114 0:143 0:200. Since, this matrix is
based purely on the perception of different decision makers,
its consistency index has been evaluated as 9.8%, which is
found within the acceptable limit. It is to be noted that
the pavement characteristics in this case study have been
Fig. 8. Membership functions of Surface Modulus (MPa). quantified, by physical means, rather than by having simple
qualitative assessments. The road users are mainly con-
cerned about the functional performance of the pavement,
which is expressed by roughness and surface friction. The
implementing agencies on the other hand are focused on
structural performance and distress on the pavement sur-
face. The relative rating hence has been obtained by ques-
tionnaire survey amongst the practitioners particularly
working on rural roads. The reason rutting has been given
less importance might be due to the prevailing climatic con-
ditions and limited usage of rural roads by heavy vehicles
leading to subgrade failure. The Jhunjhunu district of
Rajasthan state receives less rainfall (annual rainfall 450–
500 mm). Further the soil quality in this area is generally
Fig. 9. Membership functions of Rut depth (mm).
good, having higher CBR values ranging from 9 to 12.
Moreover, in general, these rural roads hardly carry traffic
of more than 10–15 commercial vehicles (trucks) per day
having weight more than 3 ton which is considered for
design of pavement thickness that contributes to damage
of subgrade resulting in rutting failure. Given this, specific
to geographical and climatic conditions, the practitioners
might have observed less rutting failure on field, resulting
rutting criteria with less importance weight as compared
to other parameters. This was also observed during data
collection on all five stretches, as it could be observed from
Table 1 wherein rutting high (RUH) more than 25 mm is
Fig. 10. Membership functions of Friction Coefficient (f). not observed at all. Hence rutting has given less importance
weight.
As per the next step graphical shapes of membership
assessments can be distinguished, which after normaliza- function of each performance indicator obtained from
tion becomes as (0.333, 0.267, 0.200, 0.133, 0.067). On perception of decision makers are presented in Figs. 7–10.
the basis of FPCI values, differential ranking can be estab- In the third step, the fuzzy evaluation methodology
lished as shown in Eq. (9): has been described in detail by considering stretch 1 i.e.

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Table 3
Performance indicator values and their corresponding fuzzy relation.
Stretch1 Field data Fuzzy set Normalized fuzzy set (R)
IRI 4.31 (0, 1, 0.437, 0, 0) (0, 0.696, 0.304, 0, 0)
Surface Modulus (Eo) 168 (0, 0.267, 0.73, 0, 0) (0, 0.268, 0.732, 0, 0)
Rut Depth (R) 0 (1, 0, 0, 0, 0) (1, 0, 0, 0, 0)
Surface Friction (f) 0.45 (0.2, 0.75, 0.5, 0, 0) (0.138, 0.52, 0.344, 0, 0)

Table 4
Fuzzy relation and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation result corresponding to all eight stretches of road 1: Peepli to Ladunda.
Road 1(Peepli to Ladunda) Fuzzy evaluation set Applying MGP Applying FPCI Ranking combining
both approach
Stretch 1 (0.1715, 0.3839, 0.44, 0, 0) Fair 0.248 1
Stretch 2 (0.044,0.243,0.631,0.0807,0) Fair 0.216 8
Stretch 3 (0.057,0.310,0.557,0.074,0) Fair 0.223 4
Stretch 4 (0.150,0.256,0.386,0.205,0) Fair 0.221 5
Stretch 5 (0.2118,0.223,0.4617,0.102,0) Fair 0.236 2
Stretch 6 (0.222,0.248,0.271,0.256,0) Fair 0.217 7
Stretch 7 (0.050,0.287,0.544,0.116,0) Fair 0.218 6
Stretch 8 (0.195,0.229,0.327,0.246,0) Fair 0.224 3

(0–100 m) of Peepli to Ladunda road. Using IRI (one of As already discussed in the methodology, this approach
the performance indicator) as an example, its value for this may result in similar linguistic ratings of stretches which
particular stretch is 4.31. The grade of membership func- can be perceived directly from column (3) of Table 4.
tion of IRI pertaining to fuzzy evaluation set V = {Very In second approach, FPCI value has been evaluated
Good, Good, Fair, Poor, Very Poor} can be written using quantifiable weight vector (5, 4, 3, 2, 1) respectively
directly from Fig. 7 as lY = (0, 1, 0.437, 0, 0). This fuzzy corresponding to evaluation set V = {Very Good, Good,
set is then normalized using relation Rlyyi = 1 resulting Fair, Poor, Very Poor} so that these five different linguistic
in lYyj = (0, 0.609, 0.304, 0, 0). Similarly, the evaluation assessments can be distinguished, which after normaliza-
of this road segment has been done using other perfor- tion becomes as (0.333, 0.267, 0.200, 0.133, 0.067).
mance indicators also in which grades of membership func-
FPCI ¼ ð 0:333 0:267 0:200 0:133 0:067 Þ
tion are computed by substituting respective result of each 2 3
indicator into corresponding membership functions of 0:172
6 7
Figs. 7–10. The original and normalized fuzzy set of all 6 0:384 7
6 7
four performance indicators for stretch 1 of Peepli to 6 7
6 0:440 7 ¼ 0:248
Ladunda road is presented in Table 3. Each performance 6 7
parameter is assigned five membership numbers in terms 4 0 5
of fuzzy evaluation set V = {Very Good, Good, Fair, Poor, 0
Very Poor}.
Fuzzy pavement condition index (FPCI) value of all
The fourth step involves a transformation from fuzzy
eight stretches of Road 1 is computed in similar fashion
relation ‘R’ to fuzzy evaluation ‘V’ through a mapping
and presented in column(4) of Table 4. The segment getting
operator as per the relation defined in Eq. (8). The final
the lower ranking is in worst condition than others and
fuzzy evaluation set ‘V’ obtained corresponds to IRI is:
receives first priority for maintenance purpose.
 
lY y j ¼ ð 0:243 0:4114 0:143 0:200 Þ
2 3 3.2.2. Development of fuzzy weighted average (FWA)
0 0:696 0:304 0 0
6 0 0:268 0:732 0 0 7
approach
6 7
6 7 The second approach used in this case study to assess
4 1 0 0 0 05 the pavement condition is Fuzzy weighted average
0:138 0:52 0:344 0 0 (FWA) method. The main perspective is to compare the
results obtained from FAHP and distinguishing the rank-
V = (0.1715, 0.3839, 0.44, 0, 0) ing sequences of the pavement stretches. The step by step
Final fuzzy evaluation set ‘V’ for all the eight stretches procedure of the proposed methodology is explained in
of road 1 is computed in similar fashion and presented in subsequent paragraphs. The first and foremost important
column(1) of Table 4. Along with final fuzzy evaluation step is to derive the membership functions that are true rep-
set ‘V’ the defuzzification results obtained using MGP resentative of linguistic rating terms and weights of param-
approach is also presented in the column(3) of Table 4. eter used. The linguistic variables used in this study for the

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Table 5
Linguistic rating terms’ range values of different performance indicators.
Linguistic description Range value
IRI (m/km) Surface modulus (Eo) (MPa) Rutting (R) (mm) Friction coefficient (f)
Very Good (VG) 0–2.5 >210 0–2 >0.6
Good (G) 2.5–4 175–210 2–5 0.4–0.6
Fair (F) 4–6 135–175 5–11 0.35–0.4
Poor (P) 6–7.5 98–135 11–16 0.2–0.35
Very Poor (VP) >7.5 <98 >16 <0.2

Table 6
Linguistic description of performance indicators.
Performance indicator Linguistic description
IRI Very Important
Surface Modulus (Eo) Extremely Important
Rut depth (R) Important to some extent
Friction coefficient (f) Important

rating of pavement parameters are: {Very Good, Good,


Fair, Poor, Very Poor}. Similarly, the importance weights
of parameters are determined using the following linguistic
variables: {Extremely Important, Very Important, Impor- Fig. 12. Membership functions for rating of performance indicators.
tant, Moderately Important, Important to some extent}
and presented in Table 6.
The next step is to formulate a questionnaire to obtain
the expert’s opinion on the range values of linguistic rating
terms of performance parameters. The range values so
obtained after discussing with the experts are presented in
Tables 5. The corresponding linguistic terms are normal-
ized between 0 and 1 to decide the shape of membership
functions.
The third step is to construct the best membership func-
tions correspond to linguistic rating terms and weights of
pavement parameters used. The final graphical shapes of
membership functions are expressed as triangular fuzzy Fig. 13. Membership functions for weightages of Performance Indicators.
numbers by taking opinion of experts working in the field
and reviewing the literature. Use of particular membership triangular or trapezoidal membership functions are being
function depends upon actual application (i.e. range of used. The fuzzy weight of each parameter can be repre-
input and output parameters), classification of different sented in terms of triangular fuzzy number [(x1, ll(x1));
grades of evaluation and its impact on chosen criteria as (x2, l2(x2)); (x3, l3(x3))] as shown in Fig. 11, where li(x)
well as on opinion of the experts. For example, in case is membership value of any decision variable xi to represent
where system needs dynamic variations for shorter range, linguistic view of the decision maker mathematically.
The final triangular membership functions are defined
by three parameters (x1, x2, x3) and presented in Figs. 12,
13. The average maximum value corresponding to Very
μi(x) Good, Good, Fair, Poor and Very Poor is 1, 0.75, 0.5,
0.25 and 0 respectively. Similarly, the membership func-
tions of importance weights of pavement parameters have
also been derived.
The next step is to formulate the final fuzzy set using
FWA operation based on the mathematical expression
defined in Eq. (11) illustrating the condition of each pave-
ment stretch taking into consideration of all the perfor-
0 x1 x2 x3 xi mance parameters. [6,12,16].

Fig. 11. Triangular fuzzy membership function.

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Pn
W i Ri condition and AR: area enclosed to the right of the mem-
R ¼ Pi¼1
n ð11Þ
i¼1 W i
bership function that represents the final assessment of
pavement condition.
where, R represents the resultant fuzzy set for the final Based on the FPCI value each road segment is assigned
assessment of pavement condition; Ri corresponds to the a single numerical score, thereby making priority ranking
fuzzy set that represent the linguistic rating term of ‘ith’ of pavement conditions of different road segments for dis-
pavement parameter; Wi corresponds to the fuzzy set that bursement of funds for M&R works. The results obtained
represent the weight of ‘ith’ pavement parameter and n rep- from both methodologies are coinciding well and support
resents number of pavement parameters considered. the same conclusion. The flowchart presented in Fig. 6
The last step involves defuzzification process of the final illustrates the complete methodology of FWA approach.
fuzzy set obtained using above methodology. Two different
approaches are used for defuzzification, one is alpha-cut
distance approach and other is calculation of Fuzzy Pave- 3.2.2.1. Illustration of FWA approach. As explained in the
ment Condition Index (FPCI) value. In first approach, i.e. methodology, firstly the linguistic variables associated with
alpha-cut distance method the final fuzzy set representing both the rating and weights of performance parameters are
the condition of pavement stretch is translated into linguis- obtained. The range values of linguistic rating terms of
tic variable. This process involves the determination of dis- pavement performance are decided by taking opinion of
tance between the final fuzzy set so obtained using Eq. (11) experts working in the field of pavement management.
and fuzzy set representing each linguistic term expression is These range values of linguistic rating corresponding to
presented in Fig. 13. The distance between two fuzzy sets is four performance parameters along with linguistic weights
calculated using alpha level distance formula defined in Eq. are given in Tables 5 and 6.
(12) corresponding to three alpha values i.e. 0, 0.5 and 1 The next step is to construct triangular membership
[6,12,16]. functions for five scales of linguistic statements, normalized
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi on a scale of 0–1 such that 0 corresponds to Very Poor and
PN 2 2 1 represents Very Good. The graphical shape of member-
a¼1 ðamin  jmin Þ þ ðamax  jmax Þ
dj ¼ ð12Þ ship functions correspond to ratings and weights of perfor-
N mance parameter are shown in Figs. 12 and 13. The
triangular fuzzy numbers (a, b, c) that represent the linguis-
where,
tic description for rating and weights of performance
parameters are presented in Tables 7 and 8.
dj: a-level distance between the output fuzzy number and
In the third step, the fuzzy weighted average (FWA) has
predefined fuzzy number ‘j’.
been described in detail by considering stretch 1 i.e. (0–100 m)
amin: lower bound of a-cut interval of the output fuzzy
of Peepli to Ladunda road. On the basis of linguistic rat-
number.
ings and importance weights, the triplets of triangular
amax: upper bound of a-cut interval of the output fuzzy
membership function were derived with respect to all four
number.
important criteria for stretch 1 of Peepli to Ladunda road
jmin: lower bound of a-cut interval of the predefined
as shown in Table 9.
fuzzy number ‘j’.
The FWA operation used to assess the pavement condi-
jmax: upper bound of a-cut interval of the predefined
tion is defined mathematically in Eq. (11). The resultant
fuzzy number ‘j’.
final fuzzy set corresponding to segment 1 is (0.352, 0.63,
n: number of a-cut interval considered.
0.851).
The last step deals with defuzzification process of the
The fuzzy set which is having the least distance to the
final fuzzy set using two different approaches. The first
final fuzzy set gives the linguistic term expression of the
one is alpha cut distance method which involves the deter-
pavement condition. Just like MGP, here also linguistic
mination of distance between the final fuzzy set and stan-
rating makes it difficult to prioritize these stretches for
dard fuzzy set representing linguistic rating term
maintenance and rehabilitation (M&R) works. So, in order
expression. Alpha level distance formula defined in Eq.
to have differential ranking of these stretches the fuzzy
(12) is used to translate the final fuzzy set into linguistic
pavement condition index (FPCI) needs to be calculated
based on the final fuzzy set result of FWA operation.
The model used in finding FPCI is defined in mathematical Table 7
Rating of each performance parameter.
form as: [6,16]
Linguistic description Weights with triangular elements
A L  AR þ 1 Very Good (VG) (0.75, 1, 1)
FPCI ¼ ð13Þ Good (G) (0.5, 0.75, 1)
2
Fair (F) (0.25, 0.5, 0.75)
where, AL: area enclosed to the left of the membership Poor (P) (0, 0.25, 0.5)
Very Poor (VP) (0, 0, 0.25)
function that represents the final assessment of pavement

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Table 8 to decide which stretch needs prior funding because of sim-


Important weight of each performance indicator. ilar linguistic rating of stretches. There is a need to have
Linguistic description Weights with triangular elements some more rational approach i.e. calculating FPCI value
Extremely Important (0.7, 0.9, 1) using Eq. (13) based on the final fuzzy set result. Based
Very Important (0.5, 0.7, 0.9) on this FPCI value each road stretch is assigned a single
Important (0.3, 0.5, 0.7) numerical score, thereby making priority ranking for allo-
Important to some Extent (0.2, 0.4, 0.6)
Not Important (0, 0.1, 0.3)
cating the funds for maintenance works.
FPCI value of all the eight stretches of Road 1 is pre-
sented in Table 11. The segment getting the higher ranking
term corresponding to 0, 0.5 and 1 values of alpha. The lin- is in worst position and in great demand for maintenance
guistic rating of all the eight stretches of Peepli to Ladunda work.
road (Road 1) using alpha cut method is presented in
Table 10. As the smallest value obtained through alpha
cut distance method for stretch 1 is 0.145 which corre- 4. Results and conclusions
sponds to fair. Therefore stretch 1 has been ranked as ‘fair’
in the last column of Table 10. Similarly, stretch 4 has the 4.1. Results
smallest defuzzified value equal to 0.082 which corresponds
to ‘good’. Similarly, the ranking of all stretches has been The results of FAHP and FWA approaches are com-
expressed in linguistic term as shown in Table 10. pared for all the five PMGSY roads and are presented in
As already discussed in the methodology of FWA Fig. 14. While prioritizing the pavement stretches for opti-
defuzzification that this approach makes it quite difficult mum allocation of limited funds the following inferences

Table 9
Fuzzy numbers (a, b, c) that represent letter grades for weights and ratings Road 1–Peepli to Ladunda.
Stretch1 (100–200 m) Field Data LT Ratings of each criterion Weight of each criterion
a b c a b c
IRI (m/km) 4.31 F 0.25 0.5 0.75 0.5 0.7 0.9
Surface Modulus (Eo) (MPa) 168 F 0.25 0.5 0.75 0.7 0.9 1
Rutting (R) (mm) 0 VG 0.75 1 1 0.2 0.4 0.6
Coefficient of friction (f) 0.45 G 0.5 0.75 1 0.3 0.5 0.7
*
LT = Linguistic term.

Table 10
Ranking of all the eight stretches of road 1 in linguistic term (LT) using alpha cut approach.
Stretch Final Fuzzy Set Alpha cut distance from Ranking in LT
VG G F P VP
Stretch 1 (0.352, 0.63, 0.851) 0.419 0.173 0.145 0.464 0.703 Fair
Stretch 2 (0.323, 0.57, 0.823) 0.472 0.1227 0.091 0.41 0.65 Fair
Stretch 3 (0.367, 0.62, 0.81) 0.415 0.167 0.151 0.47 0.71 Fair
Stretch 4 (0.426, 0.7, 0.92) 0.332 0.082 0.236 0.555 0.793 Good
Stretch 5 (0.426, 0.7, 0.92) 0.332 0.082 0.236 0.555 0.793 Good
Stretch 6 (0.326, 0.61, 0.843) 0.445 0.198 0.198 0.120 0.681 Poor
Stretch 7 (0.367, 0.62, 0.879) 0.412 0.163 0.163 0.1555 0.714 Poor
Stretch 8 (0.323, 0.61, 0.838) 0.446 0.199 0.199 0.43 0.681 Fair
*
LT = Linguistic term.

Table 11
Ranking of all the eight segments of road 1 on basis of FPCI value.
Stretch Final fuzzy set (R) Area to left of R (AL) Area to right of R (AR) FPCI Ranking on basis of FPCI
Stretch 1 (0.352, 0.63, 0.851) 0.491 0.259 0.616 5
Stretch 2 (0.323, 0.57, 0.823) 0.446 0.304 0.570 8
Stretch 3 (0.367, 0.62, 0.81) 0.493 0.2525 0.620 3
Stretch 4 (0.426, 0.7, 0.92) 0.563 0.189 0.687 1
Stretch 5 (0.426, 0.7, 0.92) 0.563 0.189 0.687 1
Stretch 6 (0.326, 0.61, 0.843) 0.466 0.275 0.595 6
Stretch 7 (0.367, 0.62, 0.879) 0.493 0.2525 0.620 3
Stretch 8 (0.323, 0.61, 0.838) 0.466 0.275 0.595 6

Please cite this article in press as: A.P. Singh et al., Pavement condition assessment using soft computing techniques, Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol.
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16 A.P. Singh et al. / International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology xxx (2018) xxx–xxx

Road Fuzzy Rank ing by FAHP and FWA approach


Stretch Approach Peepli to Khudania Tripali to Jherli to Ghardu
Ladunda road Noolund Gujarok i se
Dhani Ramnath
pura
Road 1 Road 2 Road 3 Road 4 Road 5
Stretch 1 FAHP 1 8 1 7 1
FWA 5 8 1 7 1
Stretch 2 FAHP 8 7 5 6 2
FWA 8 7 6 8 2
Stretch 3 FAHP 4 1 6 1 5
FWA 3 1 7 1 6
Stretch 4 FAHP 5 5 7 5 8
FWA 1 2 5 4 8
Stretch 5 FAHP 2 3 3 8 3
FWA 1 3 3 6 3
Stretch 6 FAHP 7 6 4 4 4
FWA 6 6 4 3 4
Stretch 7 FAHP 6 4 2 2 7
FWA 3 4 2 2 7
Stretch 8 FAHP 3 2 8 3 6
FWA 6 5 8 3 4

Fig. 14. Comparison of results for selected roads.

are made. For Peepli to Laduna (road 1), stretch 2 gets the However the variability in the results for Peepli to Ladunda
first priority using both approaches however for other and Jherli to Ghujaro ki Dhani roads are mainly due to
stretches there is a slight variation in the ranking. From strict preference analysis used in FAHP. Since, member-
Fig. 14, it can be observed that using FWA approach ship functions are taken separately corresponding to each
stretches 3 and 7, 4 and 5, 6 and 8 are getting similar rank- performance parameter in FAHP resulting into differential
ings i.e. 3, 1 and 6 respectively. This is due to the range val- ranking of stretches. However, in FWA approach an
ues prescribed for each linguistic term for rating the appropriate range value is decided for each linguistic terms
performance indicators in FWA approach. Thus, when for rating the performance indicators that result in same
the variation in performance indicators of different triangular fuzzy numbers to all those values falling in that
stretches is less, it results in same triangular fuzzy numbers particular range. Thus, for any two stretches of a pavement
to all those values falling in that particular range, and, with lesser variation in their performance parameter values
hence, gets the equivalent priority. While in FAHP get the equivalent priority which is not the situation in case
approach due to strict preference analysis and since the of FAHP.
membership functions are taken separately corresponding
to each performance parameter, it results in the differential 4.2. Conclusion
ranking of stretches. Therefore, there is possibility of differ-
ential ranking even with less variation in performance indi- Most of the local government departments, responsible
cators in case of FAHP approach. Similarly, for Khudani, for the maintenance of rural roads, do not have systematic
Tripali to Noolund and Ghardu to Ramnathpura roads process for taking M&R decisions logically. The instru-
both these approaches are showing the same results in pri- ments used for getting the relevant data do not always pro-
oritizing the stretches except at two segments. As far as vide consistent data due to variation in field conditions.
Jherli to Gujaro ki Dhani road is concerned, fuzzy AHP Thus the application of FAHP and FWA were found to
is giving higher priority to stretch 6 for maintenance pur- be appropriate methods for prioritizing the pavement
pose whereas in FWA this priority goes to stretch 2. stretches. This is expected to work as a tool for the local
While comparing the findings of FAHP using FWA level officials involved in maintenance of rural roads in
operation it has been deduced that at all the roads (except effective decision making as adequate funds are not usually
Peepli to Ladunda and Jherli to Ghujaro ki Dhani), the available for road maintenance.
results of FAHP are coinciding well with FWA results.

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Please cite this article in press as: A.P. Singh et al., Pavement condition assessment using soft computing techniques, Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol.
(2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijprt.2017.12.006