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CEE 243B – RESPONSE AND DESIGN OF RC STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS

4b. Nonlinear Structural Analysis


for Seismic Design

Lumped Plasticity models


➢ Main Features - Advantages – Limitations (Lecture 4a)

➢ Implementation in PERFORM-3D
➢ Applications of lumped plasticity models for RC components
NIST GCR 10-917-5

CEE 243B - Spring 2018


Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design
Model Types

Idealized structural component models

PEER ATC 72-1

Continuum (Finite Element) Model: Nonlinear elements explicitly model the underlying physics
of the material response, and do not enforce any predefined component behavioral modes.
Lumped Plasticity (Concentrated Hinge) Model: Nonlinear elements represent nonlinear
behavior in a phenomenological way, with inelastic deformation rules that are associated with
force-deformation behavior and hysteretic response of components observed in tests.
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Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design
Model Types

Macro-scale phenomenological models (concentrated plasticity models)


… simplified representation of overall force-deformation component response
… based on observed behavior / test data

Advantages :
➢ conceptually simple, easily parameterized
➢ easily calibrated to test data
➢ uniaxial phenomenological hysteretic hinge models have been a mainstay approach in
seismic response analysis for many years, and have been developed to the point of
capturing cyclic strength and stiffness degradation fairly well
➢ less computationally demanding than fiber and finite element models, relatively robust.
Limitations:
➢ Although such models are able to capture nonlinear cyclic degradation well, it is difficult
to extend their rule-based formulations to multi-axial response.
➢ P-My-Mz and P-M-V interaction with cyclic degradation difficult to capture.
➢ Limitations associated with ASCE 41 force-displacement relationships commonly used
in definition of concentrated hinge models.

NIST GCR 14-917-27 3


Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design
Model Types

Lumped Plasticity models

➢ Main Features - Advantages – Limitations (Lecture 4a)

➢ Implementation in PERFORM-3D

➢ Applications of lumped plasticity models for RC components

4
Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design
Model Types

PERFORM-3D: General action-deformation (F-Δ) relationship


Almost all of PERFORM’s nonlinear components use the same F-Δ relationship:

The intent of the PERFORM action-


deformation relationship, with points
Y, U, L and R, is to capture the main
aspects of the behavior, namely the
initial stiffness, strain hardening,
ultimate strength and strength loss, as
shown in the figure.
The main intent of the PERFORM
hysteresis loop is to capture the
"backbone YULRX curve” dissipated energy (the area of the
loop). This area is affected by stiffness
degradation under cyclic loading.

“Cyclic degradation” in PERFORM is essentially energy (stiffness) degradation..


If cyclic degradation is included, PERFORM adjusts the unloading and reloading stiffness to
reduce the area under the loop..
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Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design
Model Types
PERFORM-3D: General action-deformation (F-Δ) relationship
Modeling Components
Phase

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Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design
Model Types
PERFORM-3D: General action-deformation (F-Δ) relationship
Modeling Components
Phase

Note: K0 (initial stiffness)


not defined with the hinge
properties 7
Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design
Model Types
PERFORM-3D: Rigid-plastic rotation hinge concept

The hinge is initially rigid, and


begins to rotate at the yield
moment.
Rotations DU, DL, DR are
plastic rotations.
From
“Perform -3D Components and Elements Manual”
Computers and Structures, Inc.

Compound Component
The stiffness of the elastic
beam segment defines the
initial stiffness of the
compound frame component.
Total deformation =
elastic + plastic deformations

K0 8
Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design
Model Types

PERFORM-3D: General action-deformation (F-Δ) relationship


Non-degrading Degraded Loop
Loop for E-P-P 1 for E-P-P
Behavior Behavior

Non-Degrading
Loop for Tri-linear
Degraded Loop
Behavior 1 for Tri-linear
Behavior

From
“Perform -3D Components and Elements 9
Manual”
Computers and Structures, Inc.
Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design
Model Types

PERFORM-3D: General action-deformation (F-Δ) relationship


Degraded Loop
for E-P-P
The area of the loop is affected by stiffness Behavior
degradation under cyclic loading.

“Cyclic degradation” in PERFORM is


essentially energy (stiffness) degradation.. Need to define energy factors in
the cyclic “degradation tab”..
If cyclic degradation is included (i.e., if the The energy factors control how
component properties include energy much smaller the area of the
degraded loop is..
degradation factors), PERFORM adjusts the
unloading and reloading stiffness to reduce
the area under the loop..

The method is simple for EPP case, and


rather more complicated for the tri-linear Degraded Loop
case. for Tri-linear
Behavior

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Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design
Model Types

PERFORM-3D: General action-deformation (F-Δ) relationship


Defining cyclic degradation parameters

Could de
different for
Area of
different
degraded
deformations
hysteresis loop
(Y, U, L, R, X)
divided by the
Could be
area of the
different for
non-degraded
pos. / neg.
loop
deformations

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Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design
Model Types

PERFORM-3D: General action-deformation (F-Δ) relationship

Non-Degrading Loop after


1
Strength Loss

Strength loss in one


direction does not
affect strength in the
other direction

Strength loss in one


direction causes
strength loss in the
other direction
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Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design
Model Types

PERFORM-3D: General action-deformation (F-Δ) relationship

 In Summary, when defining a moment-rotation hinge in PERFORM, we have control over:


-General shape of backbone curve: E-P-P or tri-linear.
-Strength loss: Include or not include; if included strength loss in one direction may or may
not affect strength in opposite direction (strength loss interaction).
-Shape/area of hysteresis loops: energy factors can be defined in the “cyclic degradation”
tab to control area of the degraded loop with respect to area of non-degraded loop. 13
Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design
Model Types

Lumped Plasticity models

➢ Main Features - Advantages – Limitations (Lecture 4a)

➢ Implementation in PERFORM-3D

➢ Applications of lumped plasticity models for RC components


- RC beams in moment frames (HW2…)
- RC coupling beams
- RC columns
- RC Slab-wall and Slab-column connections

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Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design
Model Types

HW2: Defining modeling parameters for RC beam in PERFORM-3D


Elevation

Cross-Section at End Span

b =24”
Longitudinal reinforcement:
1”

8#10 top bars


8#10 6#10 bottom bars
Clear cover (to ties)= 1.5”
h =28” Clear distance between layers = 1.0”

hslab = 12” Transverse reinforcement:


6#10 6#4@6”

Cross-Section at Mid Span

b =24”
Show steps that you would use to model the RC beam in PERFORM-3D. Include
Longitudinal reinforcement:
(i) screenshots from PERFORM-3D with all appropriate input values ,6#10
and top bars
6#10 bottom bars
6#10
(ii) calculations to justify ALL input values. h =28”
Clear cover (to ties)= 1.5”

Transverse reinforcement:
ASCE 41 hslab = 12” PERFORM-3D 6#4@12”
6#10

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Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design
ASCE/SEI 41 Generalized Force-Deformation Curves

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Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design
Model Types

Lumped Plasticity models

➢ Main Features - Advantages – Limitations (Lecture 4a)

➢ Implementation in PERFORM-3D

➢ Applications of lumped plasticity models for RC components


- RC beams in moment frames (HW2…)
- RC coupling beams
- RC columns
- RC Slab-wall and Slab-column connections

17
Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design
Model Types

PERFORM-3D: Plastic hinge models 


Application in nonlinear modeling of RC coupling beams

Elevation
A-A

Plan
(gravity columns not shown)

Conventionally Reinforced RC
Coupling Beams

Diagonally Reinforced 18
RC Coupling Beams
Design of Coupling Beams (ACI 318-14)

Coupling Beam

Coupling Beams

- In many cases, geometric limits result in


coupling beams that are deep in relation to
their clear span.
- Deep coupling beams may be controlled by
shear and may be susceptible to strength and
stiffness deterioration under earthquake
loading.
-Test results have shown that confined
diagonal reinforcement provides adequate
resistance in deep coupling beams.
(ACI 318-14) 19
Design of Coupling Beams (ACI 318-14)

• S18.10.7.1:
Coupling beams with (ln /h)  4 shall satisfy S18.6 (Beams of special moment
frames)
• S18.10.7.2:
Coupling beams with (ln /h) < 2 and with Vu  4 f c Acw shall be reinforced with
'

two intersecting groups of diagonally placed bars symmetrical about the midspan.
• S18.10.7.3:
Coupling beams not governed by S18.10.7.1 or S18.10.7.2 shall be permitted to be
reinforced either with two intersecting groups of diagonally placed bars
symmetrical about the midspan or according to S18.6.3 through S18.6.5.

Experiments show that diagonally oriented


reinforcement is effective only if the bars are placed
with a large inclination.
Therefore, diagonally reinforced coupling beams are
restricted to beams having aspect ratio ln/h < 4.
20
Design of Coupling Beams (ACI 318-14)

• Coupling beams with diagonally oriented reinforcement (S18.10.7.4):

Confinement option 1
Each group of diagonal bars enclosed by rectilinear transverse reinforcement 21
Design of Coupling Beams (ACI 318-14)

• Coupling beams with diagonally oriented reinforcement (S18.10.7.4):

Confinement option 2
Transverse reinforcement provided for the entire beam cross section 22
Design of Coupling Beams (ACI 318-14)

• Coupling beams with diagonally oriented reinforcement (S18.10.7.4):

Nominal shear capacity of coupling beam:

where  = angle between the diagonal bars and the longitudinal axis of
the coupling beam
Avd = total area of reinforcement in each group of diagonal bars
Acw = area of concrete section of the coupling beam

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Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design
Model Types

PERFORM-3D: Plastic hinge models 


Application in nonlinear modeling of RC coupling beams

Test Setup

12

Rotation [%]
4

-4

-8

-12

Loading Protocol
2 or 3 cycles at each rotation
Naish & Wallace (/ln = θ) 24
Research on RC Coupling Beams at UCLA (Naish & Wallace)
CB24F - Rotation = 0.04

CB24F - Rotation = 0.04

25
Research on RC Coupling Beams at UCLA (Naish & Wallace)
CB24F - Rotation = 0.06

Rotation = 0.06

26
Research on RC Coupling Beams at UCLA (Naish & Wallace)
CB24F - Rotation = 0.08

Rotation = 0.08

27
Research on RC Coupling Beams at UCLA (Naish & Wallace)
CB24F - Rotation = 0.10

Rotation = 0.10

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Research on RC Coupling Beams at UCLA (Naish & Wallace)
CB24D - Rotation = 0.04

Rotation = 0.04

29
Research on RC Coupling Beams at UCLA (Naish & Wallace)
CB24D - Rotation = 0.06

Rotation = 0.06

30
Research on RC Coupling Beams at UCLA (Naish & Wallace)
CB24D - Rotation = 0.08

Rotation = 0.08

31
Research on RC Coupling Beams at UCLA (Naish & Wallace)
CB24D - Rotation = 0.10

Rotation = 0.10

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Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design
Model Types

PERFORM-3D: Plastic hinge models 


Application in nonlinear modeling of RC coupling beams
Test results

Naish & Wallace


1.6
PT Slab
1.4 RC Slab
1.2 No Slab
ASCE 41-06

V/Vncode
1
0.8
Relative Contribution of
flexure, slip, shear/ext.

½-scale
0.6
(test)
0.4
0.2 Full scale
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Beam Chord Rotation [%]
Cyclic envelope curves 33
Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design
Model Types

PERFORM-3D: Plastic hinge models 


Application in nonlinear modeling of RC coupling beams

Naish &
Wallace

Test Test
PERFORM PERFORM

Moment Hinge Model in PERFORM-3D Shear Hinge Model in PERFORM-3D


- Elastic concrete beam cross-section (with EIeff) - Elastic concrete beam cross-section (with EIeff)
- Concentrated plastic Mn-θ hinges - Concentrated plastic Vn-δ hinges
(with cyclic degradation parameters) (with cyclic degradation parameters)

34
Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design
Model Types

PERFORM-3D: Plastic hinge models 


Application in nonlinear modeling of RC coupling beams

Moment Hinge Model in PERFORM-3D


- Elastic beam concrete cross-section (with EIeff)
- Concentrated plastic Mn-θ hinges
(with cyclic degradation parameters)

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Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design
Model Types
Modeling of coupling beams using moment hinges in PERFORM-3D:

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Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design
Model Types

PERFORM-3D: Plastic hinge models 


Application in nonlinear modeling of RC coupling beams

Vn-δ hinge

Shear Hinge Model in PERFORM-3D


- Elastic beam concrete cross-section (with EIeff)
- Concentrated plastic Vn-δ hinges
(with cyclic degradation parameters)

37
Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design
Model Types
Modeling of coupling beams using shear hinges in PERFORM-3D:

38
Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design
Model Types

39
Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design
Model Types

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Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design
Model Types

Connecting a Beam Element to a Shear Wall Element in PERFORM-3D:

Wall
Element
Coupling
Beam

Horizontal Imbedded
beam

• Slender RC coupling beams can be modeled using beam elements with moment or shear
hinges and horizontal imbedded beams.
• The coupling beam element must be connected to the walls by “imbedded” beam
elements since shear wall elements have no in-plane rotational stiffness. If this is not
done, the coupling beam will be effectively pin-connected to the wall.
• The imbedded beams must be stiff in bending, but should have very small axial and
torsional stiffness. 41
Nonlinear Structural Analysis for Seismic Design
Model Types

Connecting a Beam Element to a Shear Wall Element in PERFORM-3D:


Slender RC
coupling Wall
beam Horizontal Element
Coupling
Beam

Coupling
Beam
Deep RC coupling beam

By using vertical imbedded elements, the beam moment Vertical


is transferred to the wall as a tension-compression couple
with a lever arm equal to the beam depth.

• Deep RC coupling beams can be modeled using beam elements with shear hinges and
vertical imbedded beams.
• Alternatively model deep RC beams with wall elements: 42