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Noble Eightfold Path

right speech, right
right view and
action, and right
right intention

right effort,
right mindfulness, and
right concentration

Noble Eightfold Path : 8th Factor
Ekaggatã or One-pointedness of Mind

 Unification of the mind (consciousness+associated

mental concomitants) on its object (field of experience)
 Functions to focus or fix the mind on its object and
prevents its associated constituents from dissipating
 Like water that binds its substances into a solid mass
 An ethically variable mental factor, present in
wholesome or unwholesome mind
 Ekaggatã as jhana factor=samãdhi in wholesome mind
collects and centres the mind and its concomitants
evenly on the object
Mind &Samãdhi

 Mind untrained in concentration is deluded,

subject to influences of hindrances; scattered and
restless; worries; not easily controlled
 Mind trained in concentration (samãdhi)
 Shows unbroken focus or attention on the object

 Shows tranquil mental functions

 Free from hindrances or distractions

mind with samãdhi is clear, soft or malleable and

tranquil or serene, suitable instrument for
1. Samatha bhãvanã (Tranquility meditation)
2. Vipassana bhãvanã (Insight meditation)

1. Moral discipline purified
2. Impediments dispensed with
3. Meditation instruction/instructor
path of serenity or
tranquility meditation

1. Samatha bhāvanā
 Kamma55hãna = place of work = working
samatha meditation

(meditation) ground = subjects of

 Object of meditation = an object for the
mind to be trained on or to focus its
concentration on
 40 meditation subjects to choose from
• Subject assigned by teacher according to
personal one’s temperament; or
• Select one that suits one in the absence
of a teacher
10: ten
1-10: kasi7as
samath meditation

20: ten unattractive objects (dasa asubh
30: ten recollections (dasa anussatiyo
34: four sublime states (catt
brahmavih ãrã))
38: four immaterial states (catt
ãro ãrupp
39: one perception (ekãekã saññ
40: one analysis (eka vava55hãna) –
contemplation of the four primary elements.
Ten Kasi7as
10 kasinas of solid objects representing
primordial qualities
 1-4: primary elements – pathavĩ (earth),
ãpo (water), tejo (heat), and vãyo (wind)
 5-8: four colours - blue, yellow, red, and
white kasinas
kasinas;; circular disks placed on wall
 9: light (light projected onto the wall
through a circular wall)
10: space (looking at the sky through
circular hole in wall)
 kasina = whole, complete; to be observed
in whole in meditation
 Kasinas are generally circular and about a
foot in diameter
 Earth kasina = circular disk made or filled
with clay
 In meditating with the earth kasina as
subject to develop concentration, the
meditator fixes the gaze on the earth
kasina that is placed in front, and
contemplates, ‘earth, earth’
Ten Asubhas (Unattractive Objects)
 Corpses in different stages of
decomposition (color change; bloating;
gnawed by animals, rotting, etc)
 In developing one-
one-pointed concentration
on the corpse as subject, the technique is
one--pointed mental fixation on the corpse
without reflective thinking (cf
mindfulness cultivation stresses on
reflective thought – impermanence of
Ten Recollections (dasa
(dasa anussatiyo
1-3: devotional meditations on the qualities of the
Triple Gem — the Buddha, the Dhamma
Dhamma,, and the
4-6: on morality, generosity, and the potential for
divine--like qualities (wisdom, etc) in oneself.
7. mindfulness of death, ((egeg ‘my death is certain;
my continuing to be alive is uncertain’.)
8. contemplation of the unattractive nature of the
body (32
(32 parts of the body),
9. mindfulness of breathing,
10. recollection of peace, Nibbãna
Four Sublime States
outwardly directed social attitudes —
1. loving
2. compassion,
(cattãro brahmavihãrã)

3. sympathetic joy, and

4. equanimity
— developed into universal radiations which
are gradually extended in range until they
encompass all living beings.
Four Immaterial States
Immaterial states, objective bases of
absorption for those already trained in
(cattãro brahmavihãrã)

1. base of infinite space,

2. the base of infinite consciousness,
3. the base of nothingness, and
4. the base of neither-
‘One Perception (ek
(ekãã saññã
= ãhãre
pa55ikūla saññ
ã = perception of the
repulsiveness of food,
 intended to reduce attachment to the
pleasures of the palate.
 Contemplate the actions involved in
preparing, chewing, digesting and the
body’s processing of the food to wastes
(excreta, etc)
Choice of Meditation Subject
personality types & the subject of meditation:
 Lustful types: parts of body or unattractive
parts as subject of meditation
 Hateful type: metta meditation
 Devotional types: qualities or virtues pf Triple
 For practical purposes, start with a simple or
neutral subject that helps reduce discursive
 Ãnãpãnasati is suitable for both beginners and
experienced meditators
Choice of Meditation Subject
 Use a simple method like Ãnãpãnasati to help
settle and still the mind or thought process
 With a settled mind, the meditator may change the
subject of meditation to counter specific problems,
 Asubha meditation to counter sensual lust
 Metta meditation to counter anger
 Recollection of Triple Gem to strengthen faith
 Meditation on death to arouse a sense of urgency
(to arouse right effort)
 Skill needed for choosing subject appropriate to
Stages of Concentration

by way of Samatha
Path of Tranquility/Serenity Meditaion
Concentration develops in stages
1st Stage: Preliminary Concentration

1. Obtain a suitable subject of meditation; retire to

a quiet place; correct meditation posture
2. Breathe naturally through nostrils
3. Focus or fix the mind on the object, stay alert.
4. If the mind strays, note and bring it back to the
object, keep and sustain the focus on it.
= preparatory stage with the object as the
parikkamma-nimitta to develop the preliminary
concentration, parikkamma-samãdhi
Hindrances (bumps on the road)

As excitement subsides, hindrances will arise causing

the mind to be unsettled, wandering and scattered
• Images, thoughts, emotions , etc may surge – anger,
sadness, dullness of mind, agitation, doubt etc
• Hindrances can be overcome – skillful/adroit
• Keep bringing the mind back to the object of
concentration again and again
• When a particular hindrance becomes too strong,
adopt another subject of meditation to counter it
Jhãna∫ga - Jhãna Factors (aids)

Five jhã
jhãna factors 3. Pīti – rapture, delight or
activated during enthusiasm (cf
(cf:: sighting of
meditation , link up & water in a desert)
steer the mind towards 4. Sukha – happiness
ãdhi:: (concentrated mind) (cf (cf::
1. Vitakka – initial mind drinking the water)
into the object 5. Ek
Ekapplication, directs and
2. Vicãra – sustained drives the aggatã – one
application, anchors pointedness of mind, unifies
the mind on the object, the mind (consciousness &
examining it mental factors) on the object
Jhãna Factors Suppress Hindrances

When concentration is 3. Pīti,

Pīti, rapture counters ill
developed, the five jh jhããna 4. Sukha
Sukha,, counters restlessness
factors counteract the five and worry
hindrances 5. Ekaggatã
Ekaggatã,, one-
1. Vitakka
Vitakka,, in lifting the of mind, counters sensual
mind up to the object, desire
drives sloth & torpor jhãna factors suppress the
(dullness & drowsiness) hindrances and enable the
2. Vicãra
Vicãra,, in examining concentration to continue
the object, drives out developing
Progress in Absorption concentration (stable)
Samatha (appanã-samãdhi)
Meditation pa†ibhãga-nimitta

Jhãna factors strengthening

Clear, bright & Access
unblemished pa†ibhãga-nimitta concentration
Hindrances suppressed

image of the counterpart sign (still unsteady)

object upacãra-
Gross reflective Uggaha-nimitta
image of the
object learning sign

Parikamma- Preliminary
nimitta concentration
Object of preliminary or
meditation parikkamma-
preparatory sign samãdhi
Levels of meditative absorption attained
1. Rūpa jhãna (material): 4 levels (according to
Suttanta; 5 levels according to Abhidhamma),
attained by working on mental factors
2. Arūpa jhãna: 4 levels , attained by
surmounting objects.
what, monks, is right concentration?
Herein, secluded from sense pleasures,
secluded from unwholesome states, a
monk enters and dwells in the first
jhãna, …… second jhãna……….third
jhãna …… fourth jhãna…….. This,
monks, is right concentration.
Fourth Jhãna Purity of mindfulness
Ekaggatã, uppekha

Third Jhãna Sati, clear comprehension

sukha, ekaggatã and equanimity strengthened

Second Jhãna Saddhã (faith/confidence)

pīti, sukha, ekaggatã strengthened
The grosser jhãna factors are
First Jhãna progressively abandoned to get
Vitakka, vicãra, pīti, into higher jhãna as mastery
sukha, ekaggatã over each lower jhãna is gained
Fourth Jhãna sukha is abandoned as
Ekaggatã, uppekha mastery over 3rd jhana is
Third Jhãna Pīti is abandoned as mastery
sukha, ekaggatã over 2nd jhana is gained

Vitakka, vicãra considered

Second Jhãna
gross, abandoned as mastery
pīti, sukha, ekaggatã
over 1st jhana is gained
The grosser jhãna factors are
First Jhãna progressively overcome and
Vitakka, vicãra, pīti, abandoned as mastery over
sukha, ekaggatã each lower jhãna is gained
base of neither- Absolute maximum unification
perception-nor-non- of the mind (still lack wisdom)

base of nothingness,
Level of concentration is
increasing finer and subtler
base of infinite as each object is surmounted
Immaterial states are attained
by refining the object of
base of infinite space meditation, replacing the gross
ones with subtler ones
developed in vipassanã meditation
KhaÙika (Momentary) Concentration
 No fixed subject of meditation
 Subject of meditation = the multiplicity of phenomena that arise
moment by moment.
 simply direct mindfulness and note the changing in states of mind and
body, any phenomenon that presents itself;
 maintain a continuous awareness of whatever enters the range of
perception, clinging to nothing.
 concentration becomes stronger moment after moment until it becomes
established one-pointedly on the constantly changing stream of event
 mental unification remains steady, and in time develops to a level
equal to that of access concentration  khanika samādhi/momentary
concentration, sufficient to suppress hindrances.
 Cultivate through practice of satipaţţhãnã, by way of vipassana, lead
to arising of wisdom