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Held at

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the deegre of



Under the supervision of

Internal Supervisor: External supervisor:


Asst. Prof. (ME) (Production manager)





Maruti Kunj,Bhondsi-122103


I here by certify that the work which is being presented in the report entitled ASSEMBLY &
PRODUTION” by PARVEEN in partial fulfilment of requirements for the award of deegre
deegre of Bachelor of Technology submitted to Department of Mechanical Engineering of KIIT
Gurugram , is an authentic record of my own work carried out during a period from 29 th January,
2018 to 29th May, 2017 under supervision of Mr. RAJCHARAN.

Signature of Student

Report to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct of the best of my/our

Signature of the Supervisor

Signature of HOD


S.No. Text Page No.

1 Company profile 5-15

1.1 Company introduction 5
1.2 Company history 6
1.3 Company vision 8
1.4 Company clients 9
1.5 Company products 10

 Training Report 16-31

2 Process of production of lamp 16
2.1 Molding machine 16
2.2 Silo 17
2.3 Surface treatment 17
2.4 Assembly 19
2.5 Quality control 19

3 Errors in molding 22-31

4 Shop floor management 32-36

4.1 Assembly line 32

5 5 (s) approaches 37-58

5.1 Kaizen 37
5.2 Kanban 40
5.3 Product study 43
5.4 JIT (just in time) 44
5.5 OEE(overall equipment effectiveness) 52

I 6 Conclusion 60


Industrial training is an indispensable part of any curriculum. It provides the students with an
opportunity to gain experience on the practical application of our knowledge. I express my
gratitude to all the people at Lumax industries Private Limited who helped me during the 4
months. The exposure and experience gained at Lumax has been unique. I would like to thank
Mr. Rajcharan Singh (production. manager) from production department, for giving me the

to work in their department and guiding me through the projects for his constant guidance
and support. I would also like to express my sincere gratitude to the training incharge in
production planning for their able guidance and keen interest in my training. I am extremely
grateful to all the technical staff of Lumax Industries Private limited for their co–operation and
guidance that helped me a lot during the course of training. I have learnt a lot working under them
and I will always be indebted of them for this value addition in me.




1.1:-Introduction to Lumax industries Pvt. Ltd.:-

As the most experienced automotive lighting solutions company in South Asia, LUMAX
,enjoys a history of more than half a century of innovation, Technology, Manufacturing
and Market Leadership. Today, Lumax Industries Limited is a full-capability provider of
high quality automotive lighting solutions for Four wheelers and Two wheeler applications,
serving automobile manufacturing in India as-well-as worldwide. Lumax strives for continual
improvement of manufacturing processes with emphasis on consistent quality and cost
effectiveness. Lumax signifies LUMINOSITY MAXIMA for today's demanding automobile

Lumax has come a long way since its inception as a trading company in the year 1945, under the
aegis of its founder Late Sh. S.C.Jai. Today Lumax accounts for over 60% market share in Indian
Automobile Lighting Business, fueled in no small measure by its more than two decade
of technical and financial old collaboration with STANLEY , Japan , a world leader in Vehicle
Lighting and illumination products for Automobiles.Lumax has nine ultra-modern manufacturing
plants in India. Of these, three are located incities of Gurgaon , Dharuhera and Bawal in the

state of Haryana, near New Delhi and two plantsin Pune , near Mumbai in Maharashtra, two plants
in Uttarakhand - Pantnagar, Haridwar, one inSanand in the state of Gujarat and one is located in
Bidadi in the state of Karnataka. These facilities have been laid out to match world's best plant
engineering standards and as you hearth is, our plants are busy producing automotive lighting
products in large quantities to our customer's exacting standards. Lumax has a futuristic vision
with an experienced and customer focused management team. This is clearly evident from our
financial growth which has seen a steady upward trend right since our inception. Lumax posted a
growth of 36% for the financial year 2010-11.Lumax facilities are manned by over a 2073 (31-03-
2013) highly skilled and specialized personnel composed of associates, executives
andmanagers.Lumax is listed on major stockexchanges in India and depicts a shareholding of 35%
by Indian Promoters, 35% is held by STANLEY and 30% by Public and Corporate Bodies. (As
per the agreement and understanding between Lumax Industries and Stanley).

1.2:-Company history

1945 Late Sh. S.C. Jain, Chairman, establishes a trading


1956-66 Manufacturing Units set up for automotive lighting

equipment and other

1975 Manufacturing unit set up for automotive filters.

Manufacturing units became functional at

1977-79 Faridabad-Haryana and Pune Maharashtra.

Private Ltd. Company to Public Limited Company.

1984 Technical assistance agreement with M/s STANLEY,
Japan for lighting equipment.

Dedicated manufacturing unit for M/s Maruti-

1985-87 Suzuki at Gurgaon -Haryana.

Manufacturing unit for auto bulbs with assistance

1990 concern of STANLEY, Japan.

Financial participation of collaborator M/s
1994 STANLEY, Japan .Manufacturing unit at

1995 ISO 9002 Certification to Gurgaon unit by TUV


1998 QS-9000 Certification to Gurgaon unit by DNV

Netherlands .Production begins at Lumax

1999 QS-9000 Certification to Dharuhera unit by DNV


ISO/TS 16949 : 2002 Certification for GURGAON

2003 and DHARUHERA
Plants by DNV, USA.

ISO 14001 Certification for Gurgaon, Dharuhera and

2004 Chennai Plants byDNV. De-merger - Core Lighting

2005 Manufacturing unit became functional at Chakan

(Near Pune).

Plant setup in Pantnagar, Uttarakhand for Tata

2008 motors and Extension ofDharuhera and Chakan

2010 Setup a new Plant in Haridwar, Uttarakhand for

Hero Honda.

2011 Setup new Plants in Bawal, Sanand and Bidadi.

2014 Lumax Industries Ltd. successfully completed 25

years of listing with Bombay Stock Exchange on
November 28, 2014.

2015 Lumax Industries Ltd, Pantnagar Plant awarded

with the prestigious JIPM-TPM Excellence Award in
Category - "A ".

1.3:-Company vision
LUMAX has grown from success to success since its foundation in the year 1945. The company
went Public in the Year 1984 , and thus in the same year embarked on its highly successful
technical collaboration with STANLEY, Japan .Ten years of highly rewarding partnership
resulted in STANLEY picking up financial stake in Lumax in the year 1994 .Lumax became an
ISO 9002 certified company in 1995, attained its QS 9000 certification in theyear 1998 and
achieved the ISO/TS 16949:2002 and ISO 14001 in 2003. In the same year Lumax Industries Ltd
de-merged from its Mirror and Filter Division, there-by focusing on its core competency of
producing stellar Automotive Lighting Products. Lumax has a futuristic vision with an experienced
and customer focused management team. This is clearly evident from our financial growth which
has seen a steady upward trend right since our inception. Lumax posted a growth of 36% for the
financial year 2010-11.Lumax strives for continual improvement of manufacturing processes with
emphasis on consistent quality and cost effectiveness. Lumax signifies LUMINOSITY MAXIMA
for today's demanding automobile users. We at Lumax in the new millennium are committed to
retain excellence in quality of our products and services, with focus on customer satisfaction and
market leadership. We vow to remain a responsible corporate citizen, contributing to the lives of
our people and the preservations of our Planet's eco-balance. We extend ourselves as your partner
in growth. We proud members of the Lumax family, shall strive vigorously to delight our
customers and stakeholders who are our very purpose , by pursuing excellence and
innovation through committed team work. To this end we shall promote continuous learning,
achievement orientation and ethical business practices, which will make us, shine as a global

1.4:-Company clients
Domestic clients:-10

Company foreign clients:-

1.5:-Company products

1. Head lamp four wheeler

2. Head lamp two wheeler

3. Tail lamp four wheeler

4.Tail lamp two wheeler

Sundry lamp

Auxiliary lamp

Four Wheeler

Two Wheeler




 Plastic injection molding, PVC extrusion type machinery are


used in plastics industry. PE pellets, PP pellets, H DPE pellets, PVC

powders, calcium carbonate, plastic compounds, regrinds can be

 transferred between different equipments within the production site.

Powder, granular, flake, regrind or pellet type bulk solids are handled

by conveying, mixing and dosing systems.

2.1:-Molding machine
Injection molding uses a ram or screw-type plunger to force

 molten plastic material into a mould cavity; this solidifies into a

shape that has conformed to the contour of the mould. It is most
commonly used to process both thermoplastic and thermosetting
polymers, with the volume used of the former being considerably

 higher. Thermoplastics are prevalent due to characteristics which
 make them highly suitable for injection molding, such as the ease
with which they may be recycled, their versatility allowing them
to be used in a wide variety of applications, and their ability to
soften and flow upon heating.

2.2:-Surface Treatment/silo

Lens: Lens is the covering of the headlamp that protects the reflector,

and also passes the light at best angle to the road for the
 comfort ability of the driver.
 The lens is treated with IPA(Iso-Propyl Alcohol) which has a flash point of 12.5°C , it
is typically hard to handle and work. A robotic arm has been setup and a chamber lwhich
is maintained below
 1 1°C to spray it on the lens.
 IRA provides a dynamic strength to the lens which can withstand the sunlight (UV),
Rain and even the extreme temperatures.
This provides a good strength to the headlight.

 Reflector is a component of headlight which is of Concorde shape and provides a parallel
direction to the light emitted from the source at the centre . The reflector is metallized with
aluminium on its surface PVC (physical vapour Deposition)PECVD (PLASMA
ENHANCED CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION) Setup are used for the coaching of

The reflector passes the light in parallel direction from a concave structure

The parts that complete the assembly are:

 Lens
 Housing
 Bulbs & Harness

 Reflector


 Current Measurement
 Positioning and
 measuring positions of LED sources
 A constant source of light
 Detection of correct ignition curve during Xenon start-up
Measurement of current to the coil aperture shuttering
the main beam
 The placement of LEDs on the base of the robot-guided camera
 Measuring position of LED sources with a precision
positioning accuracy of 0.01 mm and an angle of 0.1
 Measuring the Luminance of LEDs (comparative)


 Measuring the intensity of light
 Measuring and adjusting the volume in a vertical position

 Scanning the projected beam of the camera and
comparing the reference sample. Finding the
homogeneity and intensity of the tight at selected points
or areas.
 Scanning the projected beam of the camera and comparing
the reference sample. Finding the angle of the central bundle and
its settings using positioning mechanisms in the headlight.


 High beam
 Sharpness of the border as the intensity gradient between Lit
and unlit parts of the screen on which the beam is projected.
 Measuring of the intensity of the center portion of the beam by camera and
comparing the reference sample. Position of the center of the projected beam as
the focus area to which the intensity is higher than the set value, e.g. 85% of the
maximum intensity
 Low beam
 Location of the kink point between the light and dark parts of the
projected beam, including the ability to automatically a just the
beam position along the horizontal and vertical axes.
 Measuring the angle of the Lines between the Light and dark parts of
the projected beam.
 Measurement of beam intensity at selected points and areas
compared to the reference sample.
 Daily parking, designer light fixtures
 Measuring and adjusting sharpness and color between the Light and
dark parts of the projected beam.
 The camera test Looks directly at the camera Light source. Detection of the
presence of Light sources, waveguides and the homogeneity of the Light emitted.

 Protective layer
 Detection of the protective layer of varnish and its
features on the glass covered complete automobile

 Stepper Motors

 Lights VAC system

(Vertical Aim Control)
 Checking of the vertical position of the beam controlled by a
stepper motor tracking the projected beam on a screen.

 Lights of AF (Adaptive Front-light System)

 Checking of the dipped beam break point angle in the
horizontal and vertical axis at several points. Control of the
stepper motor light using LIN, CAN, RS-232 port.

 The Quality Of Other Parts Of Lights

 Assembly errors using cameras
 The presence of parts, screws, stickers, seals
 Communication
 Verifying communication with the light via LIN, CAN, RS-
232 port.



Flow Lines

 Description: Flow lines are streaks, patterns, or lines - commonly
off-toned in color - that show up on the prototype part as a

consequence of the physical path and cooling profile of the molten

plastic as it flows into the injection mold tooling cavity. Injection
molded plastic begins its journey through the part
tooling via an entry section called a "gate." It then flows through the
tool cavity and cools (eventually hardening into a solid).

Causes: Flow line defects are caused by the varying speed at which the
 molten plastic flows as it changes direction through the contours
and bends inside the mold tool. They also occur when the plastic
flows through sections with varying wall thickness, or when the
injection speed is too low causing the plastic to solidify at different


 2. Round corners and locations where the wall thickness changes to avoid
sudden changes in direction and flow rate.

 Locate the gate at a spot in the tool cavity with thin walls

Sink Marks

 Description: Sink marks are small craters or depressions that develop in
thicker areas of the injection molded prototype when shrinkage occurs in the inner
portions of the finished product. The effect is somewhat similar to
sinkholes in topography, but caused by shrinkage rather than erosion.

 1. Mold temperatures should be lowered, holding pressure increased, and
holding time prolonged to allow for more adequate cooling and curing.
 2. Reducing the thickness of the thickest wail sections will also ensure
faster cooling and help reduce the likelihood of sink marks.

Vacuum Voids

 Description: Vacuum voids are pockets of air trapped within or
close to the surface of an injection molded prototype.

 causes: Vacuum voids are often caused by uneven

solidification between the surface and the in inner sections of
the prototype. This can be aggravated when the holding pressure
is insufficient to condense the molten plastic in the mold (and
thereby force out air that would otherwise get trapped). Voids
can also develop from a part that is cast from with two halvesth
at are not correctly aligned.

 Locate the gate at the thickest part of the molding.

 Switch to a less viscous plastic. This will ensure that less gas is trapped
as air is able to escape more rapidly.

 Increase holding pressure as well as holding time.

 Ensure that mold parts are perfectly aligned.

Surface Delarnination

Description: Surface delamination is a condition where thin surface layers appear on

the part due to a contaminant material. These layers appear like coatings and can
usually be peeled off (i.e. "delaminate").

 Causes: Foreign materials that find their way into the molten
plastic separate from the finished product because the contaminant
and the plastic cannot
bond. The fact that they cannot bond not only has an effect on the
appearance of the prototype, but also on its strength. The
contaminant acts as a localized fault trapped within the plastic. An
over-dependence on mold
release agents can also cause delamination.


 Pre-dry the plastic properly before molding.

 Increase the mold temperature.
 Smooth out the corners and sharp turns in the mold design to avoid
Sudden changes in melt flow.
 Focus more on the ejection mechanism in the mold design to reduce or
elliminate the dependence on mold release agents.

 Weld Lines

Causes: Weld lines are caused by the inadequate bonding of two or more flow fronts
when there is partial solidification of the molten plastic.

 Raise the temperature of the mold or molten plastic
 Adjust the design for the flow pattern to be a single source flow.
 Switch to a less viscous plastic or one with a lower melting temperature

Short Shot

Description: As the term implies, short shots can be described as a

situation where a molding shot falls short. This means that the molten
plastic for some reason does not fully occupy the mold cavity or

cavities, resulting in a portion where there is no plastic. The finished
product becomes deficient because it is incomplete.


 Increase mold or melt temperature so as to increase flowability.

 Account for gas generation by designing the mold so that gas is not trapped
within the mold and is properly vented.
 Increase the material feed in the molding machine or switch to a
machine that has a higher material feed in the event that
maximum material feed has been reached.


 Description: Warping (or warpage) is the deformation that occurs

when there is uneven shrinkage in the different parts of the molded
component. The result is a twisted, uneven, or bent shape where one
was not intended.

 twisted, uneven, or bent shape where one was not intended.


 Warping is usually caused by non-uniform cooling of the mold

 Different cooling rates in different parts of the mold cause the
plastic to cool differently and thus create internal stresses. These
stresses, when released, lead to warping.


 Design the mold with uniform wall thickness and so that the plastic flows
in a singte direction.

 Select plastic materials that are less likely to shrink and deform.
Semi-crystalline materials are generally more prone to warping.

Burn Marks

 Description: Burn marks are discolorations, usually rust colored, that appear on

the surface of the injection molded.


 Reduce injection speeds.

 Optimize gas venting and degassing.
 Reduce mold and melt temperatures


Description: Jetting refers to a situation where molten plastic fails to

stick to the mold surface due to the speed of injection. Being fluid, the
molten plastic solidifies in a state that shows the wavy folds of the jet
stream on the surface of the injection molded part.

Causes: Jetting occurs mostly when the melt temperature is too low
and the viscosity of the molten plastic becomes too high, thereby
increasing the resistance of its flow through the mold. When the plastic
comes in contact with the mold walls, it is rapidly cooled and the
viscosity is increased. The material that flows through behind that
viscous plastic pushes the viscous plastic further, leaving scrape
marks on the surface of the finished product.

 Increase mold and melt temperatures.
 Increase the size of the gate so that the injection speed becomes

 Optimize gate design to ensure adequate contact between the molten
plastic and the mold.


Description: Flash is a molding defect that occurs when some molten

plastic escapes from the mold cavity. Typical routes for escape are
through the
parting line or ejector pin locations. This extrusion cools and remains
attached to the finished product.

 Increase the clamp pressure to ensure that the mold parts remain
shut during shots.
 Ensure that the mold is properly maintained and cleaned(or
replaced when it has reached the end of its useful life pan).



Topic Involve In Shop Floor Management Are:-

 Assembly line

 5S (Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu, Shitsuke)

 Seiri

 Seiton

 Seiso

 Seiketsu

 Shitsuke

4.1:-Assembly line
An assembly line is a manufacturing process (most of the time called a progressive assembly)
in which parts (usually interchangeable parts) are added as the semi- finished assembly
moves from work station to work station where the parts are added in sequence until the final
assembly is produced. By mechanically moving the parts to the assembly work and moving the
semi finished assembly from work station to work station, a finished product can be assembled
faster and with less labor than by having workers carry parts to a stationary piece for assembly.

Assembly lines are the common method of assembling complex items such as automobiles and
other transportation equipment, household appliances and electronic goods.

Many assembly plants are adopting the 5S organizational and housekeeping methodology as part
of their continuous improvement and lean manufacturing processes.5S is a system to reduce waste

and optimize productivity by maintaining an orderly workplace and providing visual cues to
assemblers. The term refers to five steps —sort, set in order, shine, standardize and sustain—which
are also known as the five pillars of a visual workplace.

―A place for everything and everything in its place‖ is the mantra of 5S. Well-designed storage
and workspace systems improve organization and maximize use of space. Benefits include raising
quality, lowering costs, promoting safety, building customer confidence, increasing uptime,
and lowering repair costs.

The concept is especially attractive for older assembly plants, where parts and equipment tend to
pile up over the years and getting organized is often a lower priority than getting product out the

Implementing 5S typically results in significant reductions in the space needed for existing
operations. Tools and materials are organized into labeled and color-coded storage locations, as
well as kits that contain just what is needed to perform a task.

5S also supports other manufacturing improvements, such as just-in-time production, cellular

manufacturing, total quality management and Six Sigma. It’s also a great way to make the plant
floor a better a better work environment.

The 5(s)
Implementing 5S means cleaning up and organizing the workplace. It is typically the first lean
method that organizations implement. The methodology encourages assemblers to improve their
working conditions and helps them to reduce waste, downtime and in-process inventory.

The first S—sort—requires assemblers to remove all items not needed for current production
operations. Only the bare essentials should be left. When in doubt, throw it out.

The next S—set in order—means to arrange items so they are easy to use. Items should be labeled
so anyone ca n easily find them or put them away. This saves time and energy spent looking for

The third S—shines-involves keeping everything neat and clean every day. The workplace should
returned into a clean, bright place where everyone will enjoy working. Tools and equipment should
be kept in working order so they’re ready to be used when needed.

The remaining steps—standardize and sustain—are aimed at maintaining the benefits provided by
the first three. 5S should be the plant’s standard operating procedure. It is not a one-and-done
methodology. To be effective, 5S must become part of the daily routine of an assembly plant.

5S is implemented in a three-step process. The first step is to assess the current state of the plant.
Management should establish a cross-functional implementation team, including employees who
work in the areas targeted for improvement. The team should tour those areas and brainstorm on
ways to improve organization and reduce waste.

There are five 5S phases: They can be translated from the Japanese as "sort", "straighten", "shine",
"standardize", and "sustain". They all are used in Lumax industries in such a way:-


 Remove unnecessary items and dispose of them properly.

 Make work easier by eliminating obstacles.
 Reduce chance of being disturbed with unnecessary items
 Prevent accumulation of unnecessary items
 Evaluate necessary items with regard to cost or other factors
 Remove all parts not in use
 Segregate unwanted material from the workplace
 Need fully skilled supervisor for checking on regular basis

(Systematic Arrangement)

 Can also be translated as "set in order" , "straighten" or "streamline"

 Arrange all necessary items so they can be easily selected for use
 Prevent loss and waste of time
 Make it easy to find and pick up necessary items
 Ensure first-come-first-served basis
 Make workflow smooth and easy
 All above work should be on regular base


 Can also be translated as "sweep", "sanitize", "shine", or "scrub"

 Clean your workplace completely
 Use cleaning as inspection
 Prevent machinery and equipment deterioration
 Keep workplace safe and easy to work
 keep work place clean


 Standardize the best practices in the work area.

 Maintain high standards of housekeeping and workplace organization at all times.
 Maintain orderliness. Maintain everything in order and according to its standard.
 Everything in its right place.(Chilled totes in chilled area, Dry totes in dry area.)
 Every process has a standard



 To keep in working order

 Also translates as "do without being told" (though this doesn't begin with S)
 Perform regular audits
 Training and Discipline
 Training is goal oriented process. its result feedback is necessary monthly




The phase "Safety" is sometimes added. There is debate over whether including this sixth
"S" promotes safety by stating this value explicitly, or if a comprehensive safety program
is undermined when it is relegated to a single item in an efficiency-focused business


The phase "Security" can also be added. To leverage security as an investment rather than an
expense, the seventh "S" identifies and addresses risks to key business categories including fixed
assets (PP&E), material, human capital, brand equity, intellectual property, information
technology, assets-in-transit and the extended supply chain. Techniques are adapted from those
detailed in Total security management (TSM) or the business practice of developing and
implementing comprehensive risk management and security practices for a firm’s entire value

The origin of 5S

5S was developed in Japan and was identified as one of the techniques that enabled Just in Time
manufacturing. Two major frameworks for understanding and applying 5S to business
environments have arisen, one proposed by Osada, the other by Hirano. Hirano provided a
structure for improvement programs with a series of identifiable steps, each building on its
predecessor. As noted by JohnBicheno, Toyota's adoption of the Hirano approach was '4S', with
Seiton and Seiso combined.

5.1:- Kaizen

Kaizen, Chinese and Japanese for "change for better". When used in the business sense and
applied to the workplace, kaizen refers to activities that continually improve all functions and
involve all employees from the CEO to the assembly line workers. It also applies to processes,
such as purchasing and logistics, that cross organizational boundaries into the supply chain.
It has been applied in healthcare, psychotherapy, life-coaching, government, banking, and
other industries.

By improving standardized activities and processes, kaizen aims to eliminate waste (see
lean manufacturing). Kaizen was first implemented in several Japanese businesses after the
Second World War, influenced in part by American business and quality management
teachers who visited the country. It has since spread throughout the world and is now being
implemented in environments outside of business and productivity.


Kaizen is a daily process, the purpose of which goes beyond simple productivity improvement. It
is also a process that, when done correctly, humanizes the workplace, eliminates overly hard
work ("muri"), and teaches people how to perform experiments on their work using the scientific
method and how to learn to spot and eliminate waste in business processes. In all, the process
suggests a humanized approach to workers and to increasing productivity: "The idea is to nurture
the company's people as much as it is to praise and encourage participation in kaizen activities."
Successful implementation requires "the participation of workers in the improvement." People at
all levels of an organization participate in kaizen, from the CEO down to janitorial staff, as well
as external stakeholders when applicable. Kaizen is most commonly associated with
manufacturing operations, as at Toyota, but has also been used in non manufacturing
environments. The format for kaizen can be individual, suggestion system, small group, or large
group. At Toyota, it is usually a local improvement within a workstation or local area and involves
a small group in improving their own work environment and productivity. This group is often
guided through the kaizen process by a line supervisor; sometimes this is the line supervisor's key
role. Kaizen on a broad, cross -departmental scale in companies, generates total quality
management, and frees human efforts through improving productivity using machines and
computing power.

While kaizen usually delivers small improvements, the culture of continual aligned small
improvements and standardization yields large results in terms of overall improvement in
productivity. This philosophy differs from the "command and control" improvement programs (eg
Business Process Improvement) of the mid-twentieth century. Kaizen methodology includes
making changes and monitoring results, then adjusting. Large-scale pre-planning and extensive
project scheduling are replaced by smaller experiments, which can be rapidly adapted as new
improvements are suggested.

Manufacturing objective


The Toyota Production System is known for kaizen, where all line personnel are expected to stop
their moving production line in case of any abnormality and, along with their supervisor, suggest
an improvement to resolve the abnormality which may initiate a kaizen. In Lumax industry kaizen
is used in such a way:-24

The PDCA cycles

 The cycle of kaizen activity can be defined as:

 Standardize an operation and activities,
 Measure the operation (find cycle time and amount of in-process inventory).Gauge
measurements against requirements.
 Innovate to meet requirements and increase productivity.
 Standardize the new, improved operations.
 Continue cycle ad infinitum.

This is also known as the She what cycle, Deming cycle, or PDCA.

Another technique used in conjunction with PDCA is the 5 Whys, which is a form of root cause
analysis in which the user asks a series of 5 "why" questions about a failure that has occurred,
basing each subsequent question on the answer to the previous. There are normally a series of
causes stemming from one root cause, and they can be visualized using fishbone diagrams or
tables. The Five Whys can be used as a foundational tool in personal improvement, or as a means
to create wealth.

Kanban (literally signboard or billboard in Japanese) is a scheduling system for lean and just –in
time (JIT) production. Kanban is a system to control the logistical chain from a production point
of view, and is not an inventory control system. Kanban was developed by Taiichi Ohno,at Toyota,
as a system to improve and maintain a high level of production. Kanban is one methodto achieve

Kanban became an effective tool to support running a production system as a whole, and an
excellent way to promote improvement. Problem areas are highlighted by reducing the number of
Kanban in circulation. One of the main benefits of Kanban is to establish an upper limit to the
work in progress inventory, avoiding overloading of the manufacturing system. Other systems
with similar effect are for example CONWIP. A systematic study of via configurations of Kanban


In the late 1940s, Toyota started studying supermarkets with the idea of applying shelf-stocking
techniques to the factory floor. In a supermarket, customers generally retrieve what they need at
the required time—no more, no less. Furthermore, the supermarket stocks only what it expects to
sell in a given time, and customers take only what they need, since future supply is assured. This
observation led Toyota to view a process as being a customer of one or more preceding processes,
and to view the preceding processes as a kind of store. The "customer" process goes to the store to
get required components, which in turn causes the store to restock. Originally, as in supermarkets,
signboards guided "shopping" processes to specific shopping locations within the store.

Kanban aligns inventory levels with actual consumption. A signal tells a supplier to produce and
deliver a new shipment when material is consumed. These signals are tracked through the
replenishment cycle, bringing visibility to the supplier, consumer, and buyer.

Kanban uses the rate of demand to control the rate of production, passing demand from the end
customer up through the chain of customer-store processes. In 1953, Toyota applied this logic in
their main plant machine shop.


Kanban Six Rules

 Later process picks up the number of items indicated by the Kanban at the earlier process.
 Earlier process produces items in the quantity and sequence indicated by the Kanban.

No items are made or transported without a Kanban

 Always attach a Kanban to the goods.

 Defective products are not sent on to the subsequent process. The result is 100% defect-
free goods.
 Reducing the number of Kanban increases the sensitivity.

As all these Kanban six rules are also implemented in Lumax industries for best production.

Kanban cards
Kanban cards are a key component of Kanban and they signal the need to move materials within
a production facility or to move materials from an outside supplier into the production facility.

The Kanban card is, in effect, a message that signals depletion of product, parts, or inventory.
When received, the Kanban triggers replenishment of that product, part, or inventory.
Consumption, therefore, drives demand for more production, and the Kanban card signals
demand for more products-so Kanban cards help create a demand-driven system.

It is widely held by proponents of lean production and manufacturing that demand-driven

systems lead to faster turnarounds in production and lower inventory levels, helping companies
implementing such systems be more competitive.

Electronic Kanban
Many manufacturers have implemented Electronic Kanban (sometimes referred to as E-
Kanban)systems. These help to eliminate common problems such as manual entry errors
and lost cards. E-Kanban systems can be integrated into enterprise resource planning (ERP)
systems, enabling real-time demand signaling across the supply chain and improved visibility.
Data pulled from e-Kanban systems can be used to optimize inventory levels by better tracking
supplier lead and replenishment times.

E-Kanban is a signaling system that uses a mix of technology to trigger the movement of materials
within a manufacturing or production facility. Electronic Kanban differs from traditional Kanban
in that it uses technology to replace traditional elements such as Kanban cards with barcodes and
electronic messages.

A typical electronic Kanban system marks inventory with barcodes, which workers scan at
various stages of the manufacturing process to signal usage. The scans relay messages to
internal/external stores to ensure restocking of products. Electronic Kanban often uses the
internet as a method of routing messages to external suppliers and as a means to allow a real time
view of inventory, via a portal, throughout the supply chain.

Organizations such as the Ford Motor Company and Bombardier Aerospace have used electronic
kanban systems to improve processes. Systems are now widespread from single solutions or bolt
on modules to ERP systems. Lumax industry are also used electronic Kanban on their products.

Types of Kanban systems

 Production (P) Kanban: A P-Kanban, when received, authorizes the workstation to produce
a fixed amount of products. The P-Kanban is carried on the containers that are associated
with it.
 Transportation (T) Kanban: A T-Kanban authorizes the transportation of the full container
to the downstream workstation. The T-Kanban is also carried on the containers that are
associated with the transportation to move through the loop again.

5.3:-Product study



FIRST STEP / CYCLE (bulb fitment)

Gear fit 2 sec

Bagel fit 6 to 8 sec

RTV lance fit 5 sec

SECOND STEP/ CYCLE (leak testing)

Generation time 10 sec

Hold time 5 sec

Testing time 5 sec

Punching time 0.3 sec

THIRD STEP / CYCLE (light check)

Light testing time 12 sec

Total time taken for assemble the one FFL unit = 47 sec (approx)

FFL Production per day in single assembly line = 440 units per shift (approx

Total shift in a day = 3 shift

Total production of FFL in a day in single assembly line= 440*3 = 1320 units

Total assembly line for FFL in a company = 3

Total production of FFL in a company in 3 assembly line in a day = 1320*3 =3960 units

Total scheduled per month for FFL = 3960*25 days = 99000 unit (approx)

= 3960*26 days = 102960 unit (approx)

= 3960*27 days = 106920 unit (approx)

5.4:-Just-in-time (JIT)

Just-in-time manufacturing was a concept introduced to the United States by the Ford motor
company. It works on a demand-pull basis, contrary to hitherto used techniques, which worked
ona production-push basis.

To elaborate further, under just-in-time manufacturing (colloquially referred to as JIT

production systems), actual orders dictate what should be manufactured, so that the exact quantity
is produced at the exact time that is required.

Just-in-time manufacturing goes hand in hand with concepts such as Kanban, continuous
improvement and total quality management (TQM).

Just-in-time production requires intricate planning in terms of procurement policies and the
manufacturing process if its implementation is to be a success.

Advantages Just-In-Time Systems

Following are the advantages of Adopting Just-In-Time Manufacturing Systems

 Just-in-time manufacturing keeps stock holding costs to a bare minimum. The release of
storage space results in better utilization of space and thereby bears a favorable impact on
the rent paid and on any insurance premiums that would otherwise need to be made.
 Just-in-time manufacturing eliminates waste, as out-of-date or expired products; do not
enter into this equation at all.
 As under this technique, only essential stocks are obtained, less working capital is required
to finance procurement. Here, a minimum re -order level is set, and only once that mark is
reached, fresh stocks are ordered making this a boon to inventory management too.
 Due to the aforementioned low level of stocks held, the organizations return on investment
(referred to as ROI, in management parlance) would generally be high.
 Just-in-time manufacturing encourages the 'right first time' concept, so that inspection costs
and cost of rework is minimized.
 High quality products and greater efficiency can be derived from following a just-in-time
production system.
 Close relationships are fostered along the production chain under a just-in-time
manufacturing system.
 Constant communication with the customer results in high customer satisfaction.
 Overproduction is eliminated when just-in-time manufacturing is adopted.


Following are the disadvantages of Adopting Just-In-Time Manufacturing Systems

 Just-in-time manufacturing provides zero tolerance for mistakes, as it makes re –working

very difficult in practice, as inventory is kept to a bare minimum.
 There is a high reliance on suppliers, whose performance is generally outside the purview
of the manufacturer.
 The organization would not be able to meet an unexpected increase in orders due to the
fact that there are no excess finish goods.
 Transaction costs would be relatively high as frequent transactions would be made.
 Just-in-time manufacturing may have certain detrimental effects on the environment due
to the frequent deliveries that would result in increased use of transportation, which in turn
would consume more fossil fuels.


Following are the things to remember When Implementing a Just-In-Time Manufacturing


 Management buy-in and support at all levels of the organization are required; if a just –in
time manufacturing system is to be successfully adopted.
 Adequate resources should be allocated, so as to obtain technologically advanced software
that is generally required if a just-in-time system is to be a success.
 Building a close, trusting relationship with reputed and time -tested suppliers will minimize
unexpected delays in the receipt of inventory.
 The design flow process needs to be redesigned and layouts need to be re-formatted, so as
to incorporate just-in-time manufacturing.
 Lot sizes need to be minimized.
 Workstation capacity should be balanced whenever possible.
 Preventive maintenance should be carried out, so as to minimize machine breakdowns.
 Set-up times should be reduced wherever possible.
 Quality enhancement programs should be adopted, so that total quality control practices
can be adopted.
 Reduction in lead times and frequent deliveries should be incorporated. Motion waste
should be minimized, so the incorporation of conveyor belts might prove to be a good idea
when implementing a just-in-time manufacturing system.


Just-in-time manufacturing is a philosophy that has been successfully implemented in many

manufacturing organizations.

It is an optimal system that reduces inventory whilst being increasingly responsive to customer
needs; this is not to say that it is not without its pitfalls.

QC (quality control) Tools

Most organizations use quality tools for various purposes related to controlling and assuring

Although a good number of quality tools specific are available for certain domains, fields and
practices, some of the quality tools can be used across such domains. These quality tools are quite
generic and can be applied to any condition.

There are seven basic quality tools used in organizations. These tools can provide much
information about problems in the organization assisting to derive solutions for the same.

A number of these quality tools come with a price tag. A brief training, mostly a self-training, is
sufficient for someone to start using the tools.

Let us have a look at the seven basic quality tools in brief.

1. Flow Charts

This is one of the basic quality tools that can be used for analyzing a sequence of events.

The tool maps out a sequence of events that take place sequentially or in parallel. The flow chart
can be used to understand a complex process in order to find the relationships and dependencies
between events.

You can also get a brief idea about the critical path of the process and the events involved in the
critical path.

Flow charts can be used for any field to illustrate complex processes in a simple way. There is
specific software tools developed for drawing flow charts, such as MS Visio.

2. Histogram

Histogram is used for illustrating the frequency and the extent in the context of two variables.

Histogram is a chart with columns. This represents the distribution by mean. If the histogram is
normal, the graph takes the shape of a bell curve.

If it is not normal, it may take different shapes based on the condition of the distribution.

Histogram can be used to measure something against another thing. Always, it should be two

Consider the following example: The following histogram shows morning attendance of a class.

The X-axis is the number of students and the Y-axis the time of the day.

3. Cause and Effect Diagram

Cause and effect diagrams (Ishikawa Diagram) are used for understanding organizational
or business problem causes.

Organizations face problems everyday and it is required to understand the causes of these problems
in order to solve them effectively. Cause and effect diagrams exercise is usually teamwork.

A brainstorming session is required in order to come up with an effective cause and effect diagram.

All the main components of a problem area are listed and possible causes from each area is listed.

Then, most likely causes of the problems are identified to carry out further analysis.

4. Check Sheet

A check sheet can be introduced as the most basic tool for quality.

A check sheet is basically used for gathering and organizing data.

When this is done with the help of software packages such as Microsoft Excel, you can derive
further analysis graphs and automate through macros available.

Therefore, it is always a good idea to use a software check sheet for information gathering and
organizing needs.

One can always use a paper-based check sheet when the information gathered is only used for
backup or storing purposes other than further processing.

5. Scatter Diagram

When it comes to the values of two variables, scatter diagrams are the best way to present.

Scatter diagrams present the relationship between two variables and illustrate the results on a
Cartesian plane.

Then, further analysis, such as trend analysis can be performed on the values.

In these diagrams, one variable denotes one axis and another variable denotes the other axis.

6. Control Charts

 Control chart is the best tool for monitoring the performance of a process. These types of
charts can be used for monitoring any processes related to function of the organization.
 These charts allow you to identify the following conditions related to the process that has
been monitored.
 Stability of the process
 Predictability of the process
 Identification of common cause of variation
 Special conditions where the monitoring party needs to react

7. Pareto Charts

Pareto charts are used for identifying a set of priorities. You can chart any number of
issues/variables related to a specific concern and record the number of occurrences.

This way you can figure out the parameters that have the highest impact on the specific concern.

This helps you to work on the propriety issues in order to get the condition under control.


Above seven basic quality tools help you to address different concerns in an organization.

Therefore, use of such tools should be a basic practice in the organization in order to enhance the

Trainings on these tools should be included in the organizational orientation program, so all the
staff members get to learn these basic tools.

5.5:-Overall equipment effectiveness

Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) is a hierarchy of metrics developed by Seiichi Nakajima
in the 1960s to evaluate how effectively a manufacturing operation is utilized. It is based
on the Harrington Emerson way of thinking regarding labor efficiency. The results are

stated in a generic form which allows comparison between manufacturing units in differing
industries. It is not however an absolute measure and is best used to identify scope for process
performance improvement, and how to get the improvement. If for example the cycle time is
reduced, the OEE will increase i.e. more product is produced for less resource. Another example
is if one enterprise serves a high volume, low variety market, and another enterprise serves a low
volume, high variety market. More changeovers (set-ups) will lower the OEE in comparison, but
if the product is sold at a premium, there could be more margins with a lower OEE.

OEE measurement is also commonly used as a key performance indicator (KPI) in conjunction
with lean manufacturing efforts to provide an indicator of success. OEE can be illustrated by a
brief discussion of the six metrics that comprise the system. The hierarchy consists of two top level
measures and four underlying measures.

Top-level metrics

 Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) and total effective equipment performance (TEEP)
are two closely related measurements that report the overall utilization of facilities, time
and material for manufacturing operations. These top view metrics directly indicate the gap
between actual and ideal performance.
 Overall equipment effectiveness quantifies how well a manufacturing unit performs
relative to its designed capacity, during the periods when it is scheduled to run.
 Total effective equipment performance (TEEP) measures OEE against calendar hours,
i.e.:24 hours per day, 365 days per year.

Underlying metrics

 In addition to the above measures, there are four underlying metrics that provide
understanding as to why and where the OEE and TEEP gaps exist.
 The measurements are described below:
 Loading: The portion of the TEEP Metric that represents the percentage of total calendar
time that is actually scheduled for operation.
 Availability: The portion of the OEE Metric that represents the percentage of scheduled
time that the operation is available to operate. Often referred to as Uptime.
 Performance: The portion of the OEE Metric that represents the speed at which the Work
Center runs as a percentage of its designed speed.
 Quality: The portion of the OEE Metric that represents the Good Units produced as a
percentage of the Total Units Started. Commonly referred to as First Pass Yield FPY.

Calculation formula for OEE and TEEP

OEE breaks the performance of a manufacturing unit into three separate but measurable
components: Availability, Performance, and Quality. Each component points to an aspect of the
process that can be targeted for improvement. OEE may be applied to any individual Work Center,
or rolled up to Department or Plant levels. This tool also allows for drilling down for very specific
analysis, such as a particular Part Number, Shift, or any of several other parameters. It is unlikely
that any manufacturing process can run at 100% OEE. Many manufacturers benchmark their
industry to set a challenging target; 85% is not uncommon.

Formula for Overall equipment effectiveness

 OEE is calculated with the formula (Availability)*(Performance)*(Quality)


(Availability= 86.6%)*(Performance=88.2%)*(Quality=95.4%) = OEE=72.86%

Total effective equipment performance (TEEP)

Where OEE measures effectiveness based on scheduled hours, TEEP measures effectiveness
against calendar hours, i.e.: 24 hours per day, 365 days per year.

TEEP, therefore, reports the 'bottom line' utilization of assets.


The Loading portion of the TEEP Metric represents the percentage of time that an operation is
scheduled to operate compared to the total Calendar Time that is available. The Loading Metrics
a pure measurement of Schedule Effectiveness and is designed to exclude the effects how well that
operation may perform.

Calculation: Loading = Scheduled Time / Calendar Time

Example: A given Work Center is scheduled to run 5 Days per Week, 24 Hours per Day.

For a given week, the Total Calendar Time is 7 Days at 24 Hours.

Loading = (6 days x 24 hours) / (7 days x 24 hours) = 85.7%


The Availability portion of the OEE Metric represents the percentage of scheduled time that the
operation is available to operate. The Availability Metric is a pure measurement o f Uptime that is
designed to exclude the effects of Quality, Performance, and Unscheduled Downtime Events. The
losses due to wasted availability are called availability losses.

Calculation: Availability = uptime/ available time

Example: A given Work Center is scheduled to run for an 8-hour (480 minute) shift with a 30-
minute scheduled break.

Operating Time = 450 Min Scheduled - 60 Min Unscheduled Downtime = 390 Minutes

Availability 390 minutes / 450 minutes = 86.6%

Performance and productivity

Also known as "process rate", the Performance portion of the OEE Metric (also known as process
rate) represents the speed at which the Work Center runs as a percentage of its designed speed.
The Performance Metric is a pure measurement of speed that is designed to exclude the effects of
Quality and Availability. The losses due to wasted performance are also often called speed losses.
In practice it is often difficult to determine speed losses, and a common approach is to merely
assign the remaining unknown losses as speed loses.

Calculation: Performance (Productivity) = (Parts Produced * Ideal Cycle Time) /Operating


Example: A given Work Center is scheduled to run for an 8-hour (480 minute) shift with a 30-
minutescheduled break.

Operating Time = 450 Min Scheduled - 60 Min Unscheduled Downtime = 390 Minutes

The Standard Rate for the part being produced is 76 Units/Hour or 47 second/Unit

The Work Center produces 440 Total Units during the shift. Note: The basis is Total Units, not
Good Units. The Performance metric does not penalize for Quality. Time to Produce Parts = 440
Units * 47 second/Unit = 344 Minutes Performance (Productivity) = 344 Minutes / 390 Minutes =


The Quality portion of the OEE Metric represents the Good Units produced as a percentage ofthe
Total Units Started. The Quality Metric is a pure measurement of Process Yield that is designed

to exclude the effects of Availability and Performance. The losses due to defects and rework are
called quality losses.

Calculation: Quality = (Units produced - defective units) / (Units produced)

Example:440 Units are produced. 20 are defective.

(440 units produced - 20 defective units) = 419 units

420 good units / 440 total units produced = 95.4%

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)

Topic Involve In total productive maintenance Are:-

 Introduction
 History
 Objective of TPM
 Result
 Conclusion


The total productive maintenance (TPM) is a concept for maintenance activities. In the structure,
total productive maintenance resembles many aspects of Total Quality Management
(TQM),such as employee empowerment, management's commitment, long-term goal settings, etc.
In addition, changes in the staff mindset towards their assignments and responsibilities are one of
the other similarities between the two. Maintenance is one of the key aspects of any organization.
When it comes to maintenance, it could represent many domains and areas within a business

In order for an organization to function properly, every running process, activity and resource
should be properly maintained for their quality, effectiveness and other productivity factors.

TPM is the process which brings the maintenance aspect of the organization under the spotlight.
Although maintenance was regarded as a non-profit activity by the traditional management
methodologies, TPM puts a brake on it. With the emphasis on TPM, downtime for maintenance
has become an integral part of the manufacturing or production process itself. Now, the
maintenance events are properly scheduled and executed with organized plans. Maintenance
events are no longer squeezed in when there is low production requirements or low material flow
in the production lines.

By practicing TPM, the organizations can avoid unexpected interrupts to the production and avoid
unscheduled maintenance.


The parent of TPM is TQM. TQM was evolved after the quality concerns the Japan had after the
Second World War. As a part of TQM, the plant maintenance was examined. Although TQM is
one of the best quality methodologies for organizations, some of the TQM concepts did not fit or
work properly in the area of maintenance.

Therefore, there was a need to develop a separate branch of practices in order to address unique
conditions and issues related maintenance. This is how TPM was introduced as a child of TQM.

Although there is a story behind the origin on TPM, the origin itself is disputed by many parties.
Some believe that the concepts of TPM were introduced by American manufacturers about forty
years ago and other believe TPM been introduced by the Japanese manufacturers of automotive
electrical devices. Regardless of the origin, TPM can now be used across the globe.


Before start implementing TPM concepts for the organization, the employees of the organization
should be convinced about the upper management's commitment towards TPM. This is the first
step towards establishing good TPM practices in the organization as shown below.

To emphasize the upper management's commitment, the organization can appoint a TPM
coordinator. , Then it is coordinator's responsibility to educate the staff on TPM concepts.

For this, the TPM coordinator can come up with an education program designed in -house or hired
from outside of the organization. Usually, in order to establish TPM concepts in an organization,
it takes a long time.

Once the coordinator is convinced about the staff readiness, 'study and action' team are
performed. These action teams usually include the people, who directly interface with the
maintenance problems.

Machine operators, shift supervisors, mechanics and representatives from the upper management
can also be included in these teams. Usually, the coordinator should head each team until the team
leads are chosen.

Then, the 'study and action' teams are given the responsibilities of the respective areas. The teams
are supposed to analyze the problem areas and come up with a set of suggestions and possible

When it comes to studying the problems at hand, there is a benchmarking process going on in
parallel. In benchmarking, the organization identifies certain productivity thresholds defined for
certain machinery and processes in the industry.

Once the suitable measure for rectifying the issues are identifies, it is time to apply them in
practice. As a safety measure, these measures are only applied to one area or one machine in the
production line.

This serves as a pilot program and the TPM team can measure the outcome without jeopardizing
the productivity of the entire company. If the outcome is successful, then the same measures are
applied to the next set of machines or areas. By following an incremental process, TPM minimizes
any potential risks.


 The variations in the temperature for the molding machine,

resulted in flaw less molding.

 Also, At Surface Treatment maintaining low temperature, is bit

hard as it

 Has ovens, and moulding machines working at high temperatures

 So, a proper insulation at the I PA Spray cabin insures better spray

and good finish of the lens.

 At the assembly line Introduction of Ferris wheel for the process

after the application of lens on housing and kept to dry. After a

span till the sealant cools and reaches its adhesive strength the

line is further processed forward. This gave a pause for their

person standing next. Ferris wheel reduces the total time

consumption of assembly after the application of sealant.


The project aims at reducing the errors induced in the molding

process of headlights.

 The project undertaken is a very long term project requiring both

practical and analytical reasoning, proofs and conclusions.
 In my short term involvement of the project I helped the team to
collect the floor data.
 In the continuing stage the data and the observations will be
checked on various prototypes and results would be drawn.
 If the phase succeeds the data will be examined
analytically and mathematically where the charts, graphs and
further calculations would be out.
 If the project goes through the plan it would be tested economically
and on success it would be implemented in the production line.