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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A FUELLESS POWER GENERATOR

ABSTRACT

This project is on "DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF FUELLESS POWER GENERATOR". It

is designed to meet up with the power demand in the offices and in homes in the absence

of power supply from the national supply authority, NEPA. In order words the device /

item serves as a substitute for NEPA (PHCN) which almost monopolises the power supply

to people and also our conventional generator. These devices have overcome the need for

conventional generator because it uses no fuel to generate power supply and it is also

noiseless. It makes no noise during operation and no hazardous carbon monoxide is

generated in the surrounding. This is a feature that makes it safe to use any where when

compared to generator. The programme of work done described in this project work

represents an exploration of the working principles of a generator without making use of

fuel or any type of liquid, hence “fuelless generator’’ which was invented by Nikola Tesla

after patenting a successful method for producing alternating current. He claimed the

invention of an electric generator that would not ‘’consume any fuel’’

However, the system design comprises of its method of construction, principles of

operation, experiment, test and results.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Power generation and distribution has been an indispensable factor in the progress of an

economy, ranging from manufacturing, banking, media, health care, aviation, etc.

Environmental pollution which leads to degradation or depletion of ozone layer is one of

the major problem caused by the use of generator with fossil fuels. Increase in the cost

of fossil fuel which has been one of the major prime movers in the internal combustion

engine (ICE) has been noticed. This can be accounted for based on the rapid decrease in
the level of oil well. Hence, there is need for development of a power generating set that

will not make use fuel to produce voltage. This study deals with the design and

construction of a fuelless power generating set to serve as an alternative source of

energy.

This device converts DC power (also known as direct current), to standard AC power

(alternating current). Fuelless generator are used to operate electrical equipment from

the power produced by a car or boat battery or renewable energy sources, like solar

panels or wind turbines. DC power is what batteries store, while AC power is what most

electrical appliances need to run so generator is necessary to convert the power into a

usable form.

The wave form of the generator is pure sine wave. In pure sine-wave, the output voltage

of a sine-wave generator has a sine wave-form like the sine wave-form of the mains /

utility voltage. In a sine wave, the voltage rises and falls smoothly with a smoothly

changing phase angle and also changes its polarity instantly when it crosses 0 Volts.

Fuelless generators are used to operate sensitive electronic devices that require high

quality waveform with little harmonic distortion. In addition, they have high surge

capacity which means they are able to exceed their rated wattage for a limited time. This

enables power motors to start easily which can draw up to seven times their rated

wattage during start up. Virtually any electronic device will operate with the output from

a pure sine fuelless generator. Sine wave fuelless generator has the following

characteristics:

High efficiency

Low standby losses

High surge capacity


Low harmonic distortion

All fuelless generators are pure sine (true sine), hence the grid, by nature, is a pure sine

wave electricity source. The importance of pure sine wave generator may be apparent

especially for off grid applications such as RV, boat or cabins. They are used for

connecting a battery source or a solar PV system to an AC load such as a home

applicance, a laptop charger, a TV.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT

Nigeria’s public power company-Power Holding Company of Nigeria has an installed

generating capacity of about 6GW but actual available output is less than 2.5GW. Power

black-out is frequent.

Presently power generation is mainly from thermal plants (about 61%) while hydro power

generation is about 31%. Most of the generating assets in the public power sector are

old, between 18 and 43 years. Lack of timely routine maintenance had caused significant

deterioration in plant output and is a key explanatory factor in the lingering electric

power crisis. According to industry watchers more than two decades of poor planning and

underinvestment had left a huge supply deficit. There was no new infrastructure in over a

decade despite rapid population growth and rising demand for power. (Nigeria: Electric

Power Sector Report 2008)

Engineers in most of their design looks at nature for inspiration when it comes to

designing objects examples of products from such inspired designs abound everywhere

this includes but not limited to flying objects such as aeroplanes which looks much like a

soaring bird in the sky. In this case we look towards nature once again for example water

cycle as illustrated below is a natural phenomenon.

Rainfall, evaporation, condensation, rainfall; the cycle repeats itself over and over again.

Now the same principle can be applied to electricity generation leading to electricity
cycle, bringing what I call electricity revolution in Nigeria. Ordinarily conventional

electricity generators make use of fuel or solar/wind or nuclear energy etc. In the case of

fuel (in this analysis fuel can be petrol, diesel, steam, charcoal, kerosene etc.), an

internal combustion engine is involved. This engine uses the chemical energy in the fuel

converts it into mechanical energy that will be used to drive the alternator thereby

generating electricity based on the principle of electromagnetic induction. The efficiency

of the process is very low and only about 30% or less of the fuel will be converted

successfully from chemical energy to mechanical energy by the internal combustion

engine. The remaining 70% is wasted and the inefficiency increases as the engine ages

(Roland, 2008).

1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT

The objective of this work is to:

a). design a power generating set that will not make use fuel to produce voltage. This

study deals with the design and construction of a fuelless power generating set to serve

as an alternative source of energy.

b). to evaluate the generator for performance;

c) to carry out tests on the fuel less generator to establish some physical characteristics;

d) To carry out tests on the fuel less generator to determine its performance.

1.3 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

In the case of fuel less generator, the internal combustion engine is not needed because

it does not have to convert the chemical energy in the fuel to mechanical energy that will

be used to drive the alternator in other to generate electricity. This fuel less generator

works in such a way that the electricity generated by the alternator is recycled back into

the system.
This project covers the design and construction of the fuel less generator for use in

residential use and small businesses such as supermarkets, and shops.

1.4 PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT

The purpose of this work is to build a power generating that does requires fossil fuel to

generate electricity. This device transforms direct current (DC) generated by a battery

into alternating current (AC), which can be sent into AC appliances.

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT

Solar inverter is useful in making appliances work at residential and industrial levels,

such as:

Fuelless generator has always helped in reducing global warming and green house

effect.

Also use of fuelless generator helps in saving money that would have used for

buying fuel for conventional generator

A fuelless generator helps in converting the Direct current in batteries into

alternative current. This helps people who use limited amount of electricity.

fuelless generator helps small homeowners and power companies as they are large

in size.

Then there is this multifunction fuelless generator which is the best among all and

works efficiently. It converts the DC power to AC very carefully which is perfect for

commercial establishments.

1.6 PROBLEM OF THE PROJECT

Initially you need to shell out a lot of money for buying a fuelless generator

It will work effectively and produce direct current only when the battery is fully

charged

Maintenance and replacement may require more effort. In the event of a problem, a
technician will need to access the roof to make repairs. Depending on your

maintenance plan and warranty, this may cost you money.

1.7 LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT

This device is can be damaged when the load exceeds or equal to the rated power of

the device.

The inverter frequency is rated at 50hz

Iron casing and good heat sink is been used for heat absorption

BENEFIT OF THE PROJECT

The fuel less generator is a self-sustained generator which produces electric energy for

consumption. That is to say it powers itself and simultaneously supplies power. In a way

it can be also looked at as a form of renewable energy system. The benefits this machine

gives include;

1) The fuel less generator can be operated for hours at a time without the use of fuel.

2) It is environmentally friendly as it produces no noise (noiseless operation), smokeless.

Infact, it is possible for the machine to be kept indoors.

3) Very low maintenance.

4) It is also a possibility that an existing fuel generator can be converted into a fuel less

generator by replacing the engine with the electromechanical device.

1.9 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL GENERATOR AND FUELLESS

GENERATOR

CONVENTIONAL GENERATOR FUELLESS GENERATOR

Conventional generators have been

around for quite a while, and the basic


concept behind them has remained

essentially unchanged. They consist of an

energy source, usually a fossil fuel such

as diesel, propane or gasoline, which

powers a motor attached to an alternator

that produces electricity. The motor must

run at a constant speed (usually 3600

rpm) to produce the standard current that

most household uses require (in Nigeria,

typically 220 Volts AC @ 50 Hertz). If the

engine’s rpm fluctuates, so will the

frequency (Hertz) of electrical output.

Fuelless generators are a relatively recent

development, made possible by advanced

electronic circuitry. It inverter draws power

from a fixed DC source (typically a

comparatively fixed source like a car battery

or a solar panel), and uses electronic circuitry

to “invert” the DC power into the AC power.

The converted AC can be at any required

voltage and frequency with the use of

appropriate equipment, but for consumer-level

applications in Nigeria, the most common

combination is probably taking the 12V DC

power from car, boat or RV batteries and


making it into the 220V AC power required for

most everyday uses.

Conventional generators always bigger

and heavier than inverter

The compact size, relatively light weight and

resulting portability of inverter generators

make them the clear winner in this category.

Conventional generators always noisy Fuelless generators are often designed from

the ground up to be comparatively quiet

Conventional generators are often

designed simply to get a certain amount

of power where it is needed, and to keep

the power on. Factors like the size of the

unit have not been a major consideration.

This has meant that conventional designs

Fuelless generator draws power from DC

source, either from battery or solar panel.

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can often accommodate sizeable fuel

tanks, with the obvious result being

relatively long run times. This means that

it uses fuel for it to operate.

Conventional generators emit smoke

smoke which causes pollution


Fuelless generator produces no smoke

A conventional generator is nothing more

than an engine connected to an alternator

and run at a speed that produces the

desired AC frequency, regardless of the

load on it (as the load increases the

engine throttles up to keep the engine

speed the same). The output of the

alternator is connected directly to the

load, without any processing.

With an Fuelless generator, a rectifier is used

to convert the AC power to DC and capacitors

are used to smooth it out to a certain degree.

The DC power is then “inverted” back into

clean AC power of the desired frequency and

voltage

Many inverters can be paired with another

identical unit to double your power

capacity. This type of parallel capability

means you can use two smaller, lighter

generators to provide the same wattage

and amperage of one much larger

generator – without sacrificing all the

benefits of the smaller, lighter, quieter,

more portable inverter units.


Conventional units simply can’t offer this

feature. Note that you will need a special

cable to connect your generators, which is

generally not

1.10 PROJECT JUSTIFICATION

The need to switch from the use of synthetic fuels due to the effect of global warming

caused by the use of fossil fuels among other reasons has necessitated exploration of

other means of energy generation. Although several attempts have been made to come

up with a means of energy generation like this, these fuel less generators are easy to

build and operate, and are likely to be one of the most appropriate for developing

countries as a source of decentralized power supply to rural communities and industries

(FAO, 1986). Hence, the experimental scale fuel less generator is needed for studies into

how its efficiency can be improved and adapted to meet the local requirement of

developing countries. This small scale fuel less generator should serve as a model for the

development of industrial scale fuel less generators. Nigeria, whose dependence rests

exclusively on the fossil fuels (crude oil), would undoubtedly benefit from this project as

it explores the use of basic electrical and mechanical components in the country. Also,

the large energy need or demand in the country can be met by employing the technology

of this fuel less generator.

1.11 ORGANISATION OF THE PROJECT

This work is organized in such a way that every reader of this work will understand how

solar power inverter is been made. Starting from the chapter one to chapter five focused

fully on the topic at hand.

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Chapter one of this work is on the introduction to fuelless generator. In this chapter, the

background, significance, objective limitation and problem of fuelless generator were

discussed.

Chapter two is on literature review of fuelless generator. In this chapter, all the literature

pertaining to this work was reviewed.

Chapter three is on design methodology. In this chapter all the method involved during

the design and construction were discussed.

Chapter four is on testing analysis. All testing that result accurate functionality was

analyzed.

Chapter five is on conclusion, recommendation and references.

REFERENCES

[1] The Authoritative Dictionary of IEEE Standards Terms, Seventh Edition, IEEE

Press, 2000,ISBN 0-7381-2601-2, page 588

[2]. James, Hahn. "Modifi ed Sine-Wave Inverter Enhanced". Power Electronics.

[3]. Barnes, Malcolm (2003). Practical variable speed drives and power electronics.

Oxford: Newnes. p. 97. ISBN 0080473911.

[4]. Rodriguez, Jose; et al. (August 2002). "Multilevel Inverters: A Survey of

Topologies, Controls, and Applications". IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics (IEEE)

49 (4): 724–738. doi:10.1109/TIE.2002.801052.

[5]. Owen, Edward L. (January–February 1996). "Origins of the Inverter". IEEE

Industry Applications Magazine: History Department (IEEE) 2 (1): 64–66.

doi:10.1109/2943.476602.

[7] http://michaelogolor.blogspot.com.ng/2010/02/fuelless-generatorintroduction.html

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