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FOUNDATION ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

FOUNDATION
ENGINEERING
HANDBOOK
Second Edition

Edited by

HSAI-VANG FANG Ph.D.


Professor of Civil Engineering and Director, Geotechnical
Engineering Division, Fritz Engineering Laboratory, Lehigh University

~ Springer Science+Business Media, LLC


ISBN 978-1-4757-5273-1 ISBN 978-1-4757-5271-7 (eBook)
DOI 10.1007/978-1-4757-5271-7

Copyright © 1991 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Originally published by Van Nostrand Reinhold in 1991
Softcover reprint ofthe hardcover Ist edition 1991

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 89-70490


ISBN 978-1-4757-5273-1

AII rights reserved. No part of this work covered by


the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any
form or by any means-graphic, electronic, or
mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping,
or information storage and retrieval systems-without
written permission of the publisher.

16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Foundation engineering handbook / edited by Hsai-Yang Fang. - 2nd ed.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references.
ISBN 978-1-4757-5273-1
1. Foundations-Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Soil mechanics-
-Handbooks, manuals, etc. 1. Fang, Hsai-Yang.
TA775.F675 1990 89-70490
624.1 '5-dc20 CIP
To

G. M. Cornfield
H. Bolton Seed
Aleksandar S. Vesil:
Hans F. Winterkorn

for their pioneering work


CONTENTS

Preface xv
List of Contributors xvii

1 SUBSURFACE EXPLORATIONS AND SAMPLING


John Lowe III and Philip F. Zaccheo

1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Planning an Exploration Program
1.3 Reconnaissance Investigations 2
1.4 Explorations for Preliminary Design 6
1.5 Explorations for Detailed Design 8
1.6 Geophysical Explorations 8
1.7 Soundings and Probings 12
1.8 Boring Methods 14
1.9 Excavation Methods for Exploration 29
1.10 Groundwater Investigations 30
1.11 Test Grouting 37
1.12 Representative but Disturbed Samples 37
1.13 Undisturbed Samples 43
1.14 In Situ Soil Testing in Boreholes 51
1.15 Rock Coring 53
1.16 Miscellaneous Exploratory Techniques 59
1.17 Preservation, Shipment. and Storage of Samples 61
1.18 Logs of Subsurface Explorations 64
1.19 Contracting and Supervising Exploratory Programs 68
1.20 Subsurface Explorations Reports 69

2 SAMPLING AND PREPARATION OF MARINE SEDIMENTS


Ronald C. Chaney

2.1 Introduction 72
2.2 Offshore/Nearshore Soil Samples 75
2.3 Handling, Wrapping, and Labeling 80
2.4 Storage 82
2.5 Preparation of Soil Samples 83
2.6 Laboratory versus In-Situ Properties 84

3 SOIL TECHNOLOGY AND ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF SOILS


Hans F. Winterkorn and Hsai-Yang Fang

3.1 Definition of Soil 88


3.2 Description and Identification of Soils 88
3.3 Rocks and Their Classification 92
3.4 Physical Properties Employed in Engineering Classifications of Soil Materials 99
3.5 Soil Classification Systems 102
3.6 Soil Types by Deposition or Other Special Features 109

vii
viii Contents

3.7 The Structure of Noncohesive Soil Systems 115


3.8 The Structure of Cohesive Soils 119
3.9 Capillarity and Conduction Phenomena 125
3.10 Effect of Temperature on Engineering Properties of Soils 129
3.11 Densification (Compaction) 131
3.12 Consolidation 132
3.13 Shear Strength 134
3.14 In-Situ Measurements of Soil Properties 138

4 BEARING CAPACITY OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS


Wai-Fah Chen and William O. McCarron

4.1 Introduction 144


4.2 Methods of Analysis 144
4.3 Soil Governing Parameters 145
4.4 Bearing Capacity by the Upper-Bound Method 145
4.5 Bearing Capacity by the Lower-Bound Method 150
4.6 Footing Depth and Shape and Inclined and Eccentric Loads 152
4.7 Footing Shape, Depth, and Inclination Effects 154
4.8 Nonhomogeneous Foundations and Anisotropic Strength 154
4.9 Influence of Groundwater Table 156
4.10 Comments on Bearing Capacity Solutions 157
4.11 Sliding Stability of Gravity Structures 157
4.12 Choice of Safety Factor 158
4.13 Example Problems 159
4.14 Numerical Evaluation of Bearing Capacity 161

5 STRESS DISTRIBUTION AND SETTLEMENT OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS


Robert D. Holtz

5.1 Introduction 166


5.2 Settlement of Shallow Foundations 167
5.3 Applicability of the Theory of Elasticity to Calculation of Stresses and Displacements in Earth Masses 169
5.4 Calculation of Initial Distortion Settlements 170
5.5 Distortion Settlement of Granular Soils 177
5.6 Calculation of Stress Distributions 185
5.7 Consolidation Settlements 192
5.8 Secondary Compression Settlements 209
5.9 Tolerable Criteria 212
5.10 Foundation Treatment Alternates 216

6 EARTH PRESSURES
G. W. Clough and J. M. Duncan

6.1 At- Rest Lateral Pressures 224


6.2 Active and Passive Lateral Earth Pressures 224
6.3 Soil-Structure Interaction for Unmoving Walls 228
6.4 Earth Pressures due to Surface Loads 229
6.5 Earth Pressures due to Compaction 230
6.6 Relation Between Earth Pressures and Wall Movements 232
6.7 Earth Pressures for Design 234

7 DEWATERING AND GROUNDWATER CONTROL


J. Patrick Powers

7.1 Impact of Groundwater on Construction 236


7.2 Design of Structures Below the Water Table 236
Contents ix

7.3 Methods of Groundwater Control 236


7.4 Field Pumping Tests 239
7.5 Design of Predrainage Systems 241
7.6 Managing Groundwater Control 244
7.7 Disputes over Groundwater Control 245
7.8 Cost of Groundwater Control 245
7.9 Undesirable Side-Effects of Dewatering 246
7.10 Permanent Dewatering Systems 246
7.11 Ground Freezing 247

8 COMPACTED FILL
Jack W. Hilf

8.1 Introduction 249


8.2 Soil Compaction 249
8.3 Compaction Equipment 273
8.4 Control of Compaction 294
8.5 Miscellaneous Problems in Compaction 309

9 SOIL STABILIZATION AND GROUTING


Hans F. Winterkorn and Sibel Pamukcu

9.1 Introduction 317


9.2 Principle of Soil Stabilization 317
9.3 Methods of Soil Stabilization 318
9.4 Stabilization of Soils with Granular Skeleton 319
9.5 Chemical Stabilization 324
9.6 Cement Stabilization 328
9.7 Lime Stabilization 337
9.8 Ash and Slag Stabilization 344
9.9 Bituminous Stabilization 346
9.10 Thermal and Electrokinetic Stabilization 349
9.11 Construction 351
9.12 Grouting Principles 353
9.13 Grouting Techniques 354
9.14 Planning of the Grouting Project 358
9.15 The Grouting Process 363
9.16 Control of Grouts and Grouting Operations 368
9.17 Examples of Applications of Grouting 369

10 STABILITY OF EARTH SLOPES


Hsai-Yang Fang and George K. Mikroudis

10.1 Introduction 379


10.2 Factors Affecting Slope Stability Analysis 379
10.3 Factor of Safety 380
10.4 Slope Stability Analysis Procedure: Limit Equilibrium Methods 381
10.5 Slope Stability Analysis Procedure: Limit Analysis Methods 395
10.6 Methods Considering Seismic Effects 399
10.7 Slope Stability in Soils Presenting Special Problems 404
10.8 Computer-Aided and Expert Systems for Slope Stability Analysis 406

11 LANDSLIDES
Bengt B. Broms and Kai S. Wong

11.1 Introduction 410


11.2 Causes of Landslides 411
11.3 Consequences of Landslides 415
x Contents

11.4 Slope Movements Preceding Landslides 415


11.5 Classification 417
11.6 Investigations for Landslides 425
11.7 Analysis of Landslides 427
11.8 Instrumentation 432
11.9 Methods of Correcting Landslides 435

12 RETAINING STRUCTURES AND EXCAVATIONS


Thomas D. Dismuke

12.1 Introduction 447


12.2 Restrained Retaining Structures 447
12.3 Gravity Structures 478
12.4 Cantilever Retaining Walls 503
12.5 Special Structures 504
12.6 Sheet Piling and H-Piles 507

13 PILE FOUNDATIONS
Bengt H. Fellenius

13.1 Introduction and Background 511


13.2 Aspects for General Consideration 512
13.3 The Shaft Resistance 513
13.4 Toe Resistance 516
13.5 Capacity Determined from In-Situ Field Testing 517
13.6 Installation Considerations 517
13.7 Residual Compression 517
13.8 The Neutral Plane 518
13.9 Capacity of a Pile Group 520
13.10 Summary of Design Procedure for Capacity and Strength 520
13.11 Settlement of Pile Foundations 521
13.12 Static Testing of Piles 524
13.13 Pile Dynamics 529
13.14 Horizontally Loaded Piles 531
13.15 Seismic Design of Lateral Pile Behavior 533
13.16 Design Example 533

14 DRILLED SHAFT FOUNDATIONS


Fred H. Kulhawy

14.1 Introduction 537


14.2 General Behavior Patterns 537
14.3 Axial Compression Capacity 538
14.4 Drained Axial Compression Capacity 539
14.5 Undrained Axial Compression Capacity 545
14.6 Axial Uplift Capacity 548
14.7 Belled Shafts 549
14.8 Compression and Uplift Displacements 549
14.9 Other Site and Loading Conditions 550
14.10 Closing Comments on Design 551
14.11 Pertinent Standards and Specifications 551

15 FOUNDATION VIBRATIONS
George Gazetas

15.1 Introduction 553


15.2 Machine Foundation Vibrations: Statement of the Problem 553
Contents xi

15.3 Soil Moduli and Damping-Field and Laboratory Testing Procedures 555
15.4 Harmonic Vibration of Block Foundations: Definition and Use of Impedances (Dynamic "Springs" and
"Dashpots") 564
15.5 Computing Dynamic Impedances: Tables and Charts for Dynamic "Springs" and "Dashpots" 569

16 EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS ON SOIL-FOUNDATION SYSTEMS


Part I: Prior to 1975
H. Bolton Seed

16.1 Introduction 594


16.2 Influence of Soil Conditions on Shaking Intensity and Associated Structural Damage 597
16.3 I nfluence of Soil Conditions on Ground Settlement 614
16.4 Influence of Soil Conditions on Liquefaction Potential 614
16.5 Influence of Soil Conditions on Landslides 619

Part II: From 1975 to 1989


Ronald C. Chaney and Sibel Pamukcu

16.6 Introduction 623


16.7 Influence of Soil Conditions on Ground Settlement 624
16.8 Influence of Soil Conditions on Liquefaction Potential 628
16.9 Influence of Soil Conditions on Landslides 635
16.10 Behavior of Clays and Silts During Cyclic Loading 653
16.11 Remedy of Earthquake Damage on Soil-Foundation Systems 661

17 FOUNDATION PROBLEMS IN EARTHQUAKE REGIONS


Leonardo Zeevaert

17.1 Introduction 673


17.2 Irrotational Seismic Waves 673
17.3 Shear Seismic Waves 675
17.4 Case History 677

18 OFFSHORE STRUCTURE FOUNDATIONS


Ronald C. Chaney and Kenneth R. Demars

18.1 Introduction 679


18.2 Loading on Foundations 684
18.3 Pile Structures in Marine Environment 684
18.4 Gravity Platforms 702
18.5 Anchor Uplift Capacity 712
18.6 Pipelines 716
18.7 Jack-Up Platforms 723
18.8 Hydraulic Filled Islands 727

19 FOUNDATIONS IN COLD REGIONS


Arvind Phukan

19.1 Introduction 735


19.2 Frozen Soils: Phases and Temperature Profile 735
19.3 Design Approach 737
19.4 Design Considerations 738
19.5 Shallow Foundations 742
19.6 Pile Foundations 745
xii Contents

20 GEOTECHNICS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE CONTROL SYSTEMS


Jeffrey C. Evans

20.1 Introduction 750


20.2 Soil-Waste Interactions 750
20.3 Permeability and Compatibility Testing 752
20.4 Hazardous Waste Control Systems 760
20.5 Covers and Liners 762
20.6 Vertical Barrier Systems and Cutoff Walls 765
20.7 General Guidance 775

21 REINFORCED EARTH
F. Schlosser and M. Bastick

21.1 Introduction 778


21.2 Principle and Advantages of Reinforced Earth 778
21.3 History and Development 779
21.4 Behavior of Reinforced Earth 780
21.5 Design Methods 786
21.6 Material Specifications 790
21.7 Effects of Water and Dynamic Loading 791
21.8 Applications 792

22 GEOSYNTHETICS IN GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING


Robert M. Koerner

22.1 Introduction 796


22.2 Geotextiles 796
22.3 Geogrids 800
22.4 Geonets 802
22.5 Geomembranes 804
22.6 Geocomposites 810

23 DEEP COMPACTION OF GRANULAR SOILS


Bengt B. Broms

23.1 Introduction 814


23.2 Vibration Methods 815
23.3 Displacement Methods 821
23.4 Loading Methods 827
23.5 Control Methods 828
23.6 Cost Comparisons 829

24 STABILIZATION OF SOIL WITH LIME COLUMNS


Bengt B. Broms

24.1 Introduction 833


24.2 Principle of the Lime Column Method 837
24.3 Applications of the Lime Column Method 847
24.4 Laboratory and Field Investigations 850
24.5 Control Methods 852
24.6 Schedule for Design and Construction 853

25 DURABILITY AND PROTECTION OF FOUNDATIONS


Thomas D. Dismuke

25.1 Introduction 856


25.2 Facility Function and Failure Criteria 857
Contents xiii

25.3 Properties of Construction Materials, Soil, and Water 857


25.4 Site Data 861
25.5 Behavior of Materials in Soil and Water 863
25.6 Evaluation of Site Data 864
25.7 Protection of Foundations 865

26 GROUND ANCHORS AND SOIL NAILS IN RETAINING STRUCTURES


lIan Juran and Victor Elias

26.1 Introduction 868


26.2 Principles, Historical Development, and Fields of Application 868
26.3 Technology, Construction Process, and Structural Elements 871
26.4 Soil-Inclusion Interaction: Pull-Out Capacity Estimates 877
26.5 Application Criteria: Advantages and Limitations 883
26.6 Feasibility Evaluation 884
26.7 Short- and Long-Term Performance of Anchors and Nails 884
26.8 Durability Considerations 889
26.9 Design of Anchored Walls and Nailed Soil-Retaining Structures 890
26.10 Technological Development and Research Needs 902

APPENDIX 907

INDEX 911
PREFACE

More than ten years have passed since the first edition was published. During that period
there have been a substantial number of changes in geotechnical engineering, especially in the
applications of foundation engineering.
As the world population increases, more land is needed and many soil deposits previously
deemed unsuitable for residential housing or other construction projects are now being used.
Such areas include problematic soil regions, mining subsidence areas, and sanitary landfills.
To overcome the problems associated with these natural or man-made soil deposits, new and
improved methods of analysis, design, and implementation are needed in foundation construction.
As society develops and living standards rise, tall buildings, transportation facilities, and
industrial complexes are increasingly being built. Because of the heavy design loads and the
complicated environments, the traditional design concepts, construction materials, methods,
and equipment also need improvement. Further, recent energy and material shortages have
caused additional burdens on the engineering profession and brought about the need to seek
alternative or cost-saving methods for foundation design and construction.
Rapid and extensive developments in techniques of foundation analysis and design continue
to occur. Some of the major developments that have already significantly influenced the
instruction and design practice in the foundation engineering profession include the extensive
work on computer-aided design techniques for analyzing the stress distribution of soil
foundation-structure systems, a new understanding of the behavior and strength of soil under
various loads, and improved understanding of the response of various types of superstructures
to time-dependent loading and to foundation structures. New knowledge of the interaction
between foundations and their environments, such as erosion, subsidence, hazardous and toxic
wastes, and earthquakes has also been developed.
The second edition attempts to update the material in view of the developments cited
above. The applications will also be expanded to cover such subjects as landfills, cold
regions, and offshore foundations, and foundation techniques which include reinforced earth,
nails / anchors, and geosynthetics.
In the framework of the second edition, the authors present concisely the basic principles
and material parameters pertinent to each subject and illustrate with practical examples the
engineering application ofthese principles within the limitations set by the material parameters.
The original style and philosophy of the individual authors has been retained as much as
possible.
The primary purpose of this handbook is to serve the practicing engineer. It can also be
used as a textbook in applied geotechnical engineering. With the updating of some chapters
and the addition of new chapters, this book will also be useful in conjunction with design
in other areas, such as offshore/nearshore structures, hazardous waste control systems,
transportation facilities, and structural engineering, to name just a few.
The editor expresses his thanks to all those who have generously given advice and
encouragement in the preparation of this handbook. Thanks are also due to Ms. Eleanor
Nothelfer for her general aid in preparing the manuscript.

Hsai-Yang Fang

xv
LIST OF CONTRI BUTORS

Bastick, M. Terre Armee International, Paris, France


Broms, Bengt B. Professor of Civil Engineering, Nanyang Technological Institute,
Singapore
Chaney, Ronald C. Professor and Director, Fred Telonicher Marine Laboratory, Humboldt
State University, Trinidad, CA
Chen, Wai-Fah Professor and Head, Structural Engineering Department, School of Civil
Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
Clough, G. W. Professor and Head, Department of Civil Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic
Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA
Demars, Kenneth R. Associate Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Connecticut,
Storrs, CT
Dismuke, Thomas D. Senior Consultant, Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Bethlehem, PA
Duncan, J. M. University Distinguished Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA
Elias, Victor V. Elias and Associates, P. A. Consulting Engineers
Evans, Jeffrey C. Associate Professor of Civil Engineering, Bucknell University, Lewisburg,
PA
Fang, Hsai-Yang Professor and Director, Geotechnical Engineering Division, Lehigh
University, Bethlehem, PA
Fellenius, Bengt H. Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada
Gazetas, George Professor of Soil Mechanics, National Technical University of Greece,
Athens, Greece and State University of New York, Buffalo, NY
Hilf, Jack W. Consulting Engineer, Aurora, CO
Holtz, Robert D. Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA
Juran, IIan Professor and Head, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
Brooklyn Polytechnic University, NY
Koerner, Robert M. Bowman Professor of Civil Engineering and Director, Geosynthetic
Research Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA
Ku I hawy, Fred H. Professor of Geotechnical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
Lowe, John'" Consulting Engineer, Yonkers, NY
McCarron, William O. Senior Research Engineer, Amoco Production Co., Tulsa, OK
Mikroudis, George K. President, AVANSE Ltd., Athens, Greece
Pamukcu, Sibel Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA
Phukan, Arvind Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Alaska at Anchorage,
Anchorage, AL
Powers, J. Patrick Consultant, AQUON Ground Water Engineering, Hackettstown, NJ
Schlosser, F. Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees, Paris, France
Seed, H. Bolton Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA
Winterkorn, Hans F. Professor of Civil Engineering and Geophysics-Emeritus, Princeton
University, NJ
Wong, Kai S. Associate Professor, Nanyang Technological Institute, Singapore
Zaccheo, Philip F. Consultant, Ebasco Services Inc., New York, NY
Zeevaert, Leonardo Professor of Civil Engineering, Emeritus, Universidad Nacional
Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F.
xvii