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# Fan Power, Energy, and Temperature

Nomenclature
2547 = Conversion factor for Btu/h to hp
Cp = Specific heat of air, Btu/lb-oF

D = Duct diameter, in
Ef = Fan energy consumption, kWh

## f = Friction factor, dimensionless

gc = Gravitational constant, 32.2 lbmft/lbf-s2

## Δtb = Blade temperature rise, oF

Δtf = Temperature rise across the fan, oF

## ηs = Fan static efficiency, decimal

ρ = Air density, lb/ft3

θ = Time of operation, h

## Fan Power Output

Fan power output is the power delivered to the air by the fan. It is a function of the fan air
volume flow rate and the fan total pressure.
In IP units,
Wf(hp) = QΔPt/(6350ηf)
In SI units,
Wf(W) = QΔPt/ηf

## Fan Power Input

Fan power input is the power supplied to the shaft of the fan.

## Fan Mechanical (Total) Efficiency

This is the ratio of the fan power output to the fan power input.

## Fan Air Temperature Rise

From the energy equation,
Wf(Btu/h) = maΔhf
When there is no moisture transfer,
Wf(Btu/h) = maCpΔtf
Or,
Wf(hp) = (60Qρ/2547)CpΔtf
Hence,
(60Qρ/2547)CpΔtf = QΔPt/(6350ηf)
Or,
Δtf (oF) = ΔPt/(150ρCpηf)
For air at Standard Conditions,
Δtf (oF) = ΔPt/(150 × 0.075 × 0.244 × ηf)
Or,
Δtf (oF) = 0.364ΔPt/ηf
This relationship for Δtf applies when the fan motor is outside the airstream. If the motor is
within the airstream, as in a direct drive fan, then ηf is replaced by (ηf × ηm).

## Fan Motor Temperature Rise

The motor temperature rise is given by:
Δtm (oF) = Δtf (1-ηm)

The fan blade temperature rise is given by:
Δtb (oF) = Δtfηm(1-ηf)

## Fan Friction Temperature Rise

The fan friction temperature rise is given by:
Δtff (oF) = Δtfηmηf

## Fan Heat Gain

The fan heat gain is given by:
qf(Btu/h) = 60ρQCpΔtf

## Fan Static Efficiency

The fan static efficiency is given by:
ηs = (ηfPs)/Pt
Fan Energy Consumption
Energy consumption (kWh) = (Fan power output × time, h)/Motor Efficiency
Ef(kWh) = [QΔPt/(6350ηfηm)] × 0.746 × θ
Or,
Ef(kWh) = QΔPtθ/(8512ηfηm)
Note that 0.746 is the number of kW in an hp.

## Pressure Losses in Fan and Duct Systems

In a duct network, the fan total pressure comprises:

##  Pressure losses across equipment, and

 Friction losses in the straight ducts and fittings in the air distribution system.

## Friction loss in straight duct is given by the Darcy-Weisbach Equation:

ΔPf (in. wg) = 6fLV2/(Dgc)
Pressure loss in fittings is given by the equation:
ΔPk (in. wg) = KPv