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Fan Power, Energy, and Temperature

Table of Contents

Nomenclature
2547 = Conversion factor for Btu/h to hp
Cp = Specific heat of air, Btu/lb-oF

D = Duct diameter, in
Ef = Fan energy consumption, kWh

f = Friction factor, dimensionless


gc = Gravitational constant, 32.2 lbmft/lbf-s2

K = Loss coefficient of fitting, dimensionless

L = Length of straight duct, ft

ma= Mass flow rate, lb/h

Ps = Fan static pressure, in. wg or Pa

Pt = Fan total pressure, in. wg or Pa

Pv = Velocity pressure, in. wg

Q = Volume flow rate, cfm or m3/s

qf = Fan heat gain, Btu/h

V = Average velocity of air in duct, ft/s

Wf = Fan power output, hp or Watt

Δhf = Specific enthalpy change across the fan, Btu/lb

ΔPf = Friction loss, in. wg

ΔPk = Total pressure loss in fitting, in. wg

ΔPt = Fan total pressure rise, in. wg or Pa

Δtb = Blade temperature rise, oF


Δtf = Temperature rise across the fan, oF

Δtff = Fan friction temperature rise, oF

Δtm = Motor temperature rise, oF

ηf = Fan total efficiency, decimal

ηm = Motor efficiency, decimal

ηs = Fan static efficiency, decimal


ρ = Air density, lb/ft3

θ = Time of operation, h

Fan Power Output


Fan power output is the power delivered to the air by the fan. It is a function of the fan air
volume flow rate and the fan total pressure.
In IP units,
Wf(hp) = QΔPt/(6350ηf)
In SI units,
Wf(W) = QΔPt/ηf

Fan Power Input


Fan power input is the power supplied to the shaft of the fan.

Fan Mechanical (Total) Efficiency


This is the ratio of the fan power output to the fan power input.

Fan Air Temperature Rise


From the energy equation,
Wf(Btu/h) = maΔhf
When there is no moisture transfer,
Wf(Btu/h) = maCpΔtf
Or,
Wf(hp) = (60Qρ/2547)CpΔtf
Hence,
(60Qρ/2547)CpΔtf = QΔPt/(6350ηf)
Or,
Δtf (oF) = ΔPt/(150ρCpηf)
For air at Standard Conditions,
Δtf (oF) = ΔPt/(150 × 0.075 × 0.244 × ηf)
Or,
Δtf (oF) = 0.364ΔPt/ηf
This relationship for Δtf applies when the fan motor is outside the airstream. If the motor is
within the airstream, as in a direct drive fan, then ηf is replaced by (ηf × ηm).

Fan Motor Temperature Rise


The motor temperature rise is given by:
Δtm (oF) = Δtf (1-ηm)

Fan Blade Temperature Rise


The fan blade temperature rise is given by:
Δtb (oF) = Δtfηm(1-ηf)

Fan Friction Temperature Rise


The fan friction temperature rise is given by:
Δtff (oF) = Δtfηmηf

Fan Heat Gain


The fan heat gain is given by:
qf(Btu/h) = 60ρQCpΔtf

Fan Static Efficiency


The fan static efficiency is given by:
ηs = (ηfPs)/Pt
Fan Energy Consumption
Energy consumption (kWh) = (Fan power output × time, h)/Motor Efficiency
Ef(kWh) = [QΔPt/(6350ηfηm)] × 0.746 × θ
Or,
Ef(kWh) = QΔPtθ/(8512ηfηm)
Note that 0.746 is the number of kW in an hp.

Pressure Losses in Fan and Duct Systems


In a duct network, the fan total pressure comprises:

 Pressure losses across equipment, and


 Friction losses in the straight ducts and fittings in the air distribution system.

Friction loss in straight duct is given by the Darcy-Weisbach Equation:


ΔPf (in. wg) = 6fLV2/(Dgc)
Pressure loss in fittings is given by the equation:
ΔPk (in. wg) = KPv