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Mochammad Roviq

Plant
Evolution
Plant evolution
• Proterozoic – Green algal evolution
• Mid paleozoic – First land plants
• Late paleozoic – Coal forests: early vascular plants
• Latest paleozoic – seed plants, early Gymnosperms
• Mesozoic – Gymnosperms (and reptiles) dominant
• Late mesozoic – first flowering plants
• Cenozoic – coevolution of flowering plants and insect
pollinators
Evolutionary Sequence
• Green Algae (Charophyceans) gave rise to:
• Mosses (475 MYA) and liverworts, which gave rise to:
• Ferns (420 MYA) and related plant groups which gave rise
to:
• Gymnosperms (360 MYA) Conifers and related plant
groups which gave rise to:
• Angiosperms (140 MYA) (flowering plants) which have
form two groups:
– Monocots
– Eudicots
Switch to sporophyte dominance
The Evolution of Plant

Green algae (charophytes) are the ancestors of plants

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Plants have adaptations for life on land

• Lebih dari 500 juta tahun yang lalu, nenek


moyang alga mungkin telah berada pada
tepian daratan yang lembab atau danau atau
tepi pantai
• Plants and green algae called charophytes
– are thought to have evolved from a common
ancestor,
– have complex multicellular bodies, and
– are photosynthetic eukaryotes.
– Algae do not have tissues like plants

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Plants have adaptations for life on land

• Hidup di darat memberikan banyak kesem-


patan bagi tumbuhan untuk beradaptasi
dengan memanfaatkan keuntungan dari
– unlimited sunlight,
– abundant CO2, and
– initially, few pathogens or herbivores.

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Plants have adaptations for life on land

• But life on land had disadvantages too. On


land, plants must
– maintain moisture inside their cells, to keep from
drying out,
– support their body in a non buoyant medium
(tidak mengapung),
– reproduce and disperse offspring without water,
and
– obtain resources from soil and air.

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Plants have adaptations for life on land

• Unlike land plants, algae


– generally have no rigid tissues,
– are supported by surrounding water,
– obtain CO2 and minerals directly from the water
surrounding the entire algal body,
– receive light and perform photosynthesis over
most of their body,
– use flagellated sperm that swim to fertilize an
egg, and
– disperse offspring by water.

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Figure 17.1C

Key
Vascular Spores Pollen
tissue
Leaf

Spores
Flagellated
Seed
sperm
Alga Flagellated
Surrounding sperm
water supports
alga. Whole alga Leaf Stem
performs photo- Leaf
synthesis; absorbs Stem
water, CO2, and Roots
minerals from Fern
the water. Stem
Roots Stomata; roots anchor
plants, absorb water; Roots
Moss lignified cell walls;
Stomata only on sporophytes; vascular tissue;
primitive roots anchor plants; fertilization requires Pine tree
Flagellated
no lignin; no vascular tissue; moisture Stomata;
sperm
fertilization requires moisture roots anchor plants, absorb water;
lignified cell walls; vascular tissue;
Holdfast fertilization does not require moisture
(anchors alga)
Plants have adaptations for life on land

• Land plants maintain moisture in their cells


using
– a waxy cuticle and
– cells that regulate the opening and closing of
stomata.
• Land plants obtain
– water and minerals from roots in the soil and
– CO2 from the air and sunlight through leaves.
• Growth-producing regions of cell division,
called apical meristems, are found near the
tips of stems and roots.

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Plants have adaptations for life on land

• In many land plants, water and minerals move


up from roots to stems and leaves using
vascular tissues.
– Xylem
• consists of dead cells and
• conveys water and minerals.
– Phloem
• consists of living cells and
• conveys sugars.

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Plants have adaptations for life on land

• In all plants, the


– gametes and embryos must be kept moist,
– fertilized egg (zygote) develops into an embryo while
attached to and nourished by the parent plant, and
– life cycle involves an alternation of a
• haploid generation, which produces eggs and sperm, and
• diploid generation, which produces spores within
protective structures called sporangia.

• Pines and flowering plants have pollen grains,


structures that contain the sperm-producing
cells.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Plant diversity reflects the evolutionary history of the
plant kingdom

Land plants
(bryophytes)
plants
Nonvascular
Liverworts
Origin of land plants
Ancestral (about 475 mya)
green 1 Hornworts
alga

Mosses

plants
vascular
Seedless
Vascular plants
Lycophytes (club mosses,
Origin of vascular plants spike mosses, quillworts)
(about 425 mya) Pterophytes or
2
Monilophytes (ferns,
horsetails, whisk ferns)

plants
Seed
Gymnosperms
Origin of seed plants
3
(about 360 mya)
Angiosperms

500 450 400 350 300 0


Millions of years ago (mya)
Plant diversity reflects the evolutionary history of the
plant kingdom

• Early diversification of plants gave rise to


seedless, nonvascular plants called
bryophytes (lumut), including
– Liverworts (lumut hati), and
– Hornworts (lumut tanduk)
– Lumut daun.

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Plant diversity reflects the evolutionary history of the
plant kingdom

• Tanaman ini menyerupai tanaman lain dalam


hal memiliki meristem apikal dan embrio,
tetapi mereka tidak memiliki:
– true roots,
– leaves, and
– stems.

© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.


Figure 17.2B
Bryophytes

_____ Liverwort
Hornwort
Plant diversity reflects the evolutionary history of the
plant kingdom

• About 425 million years ago, vascular plants


evolved with lignin-hardened vascular tissues.
• The seedless vascular plants include
– lycophytes (including club mosses) and
– Pterophytes or monilophytes (ferns and their
relatives).

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Figure 17.2C
Seedless vascular plants

Club moss (a lycophyte).


Spores are produced in the
fern (a pterophyte or upright tan-colored structures.
monilophyte), spores under leaves
Plant diversity reflects the evolutionary history of the
plant kingdom

• The first vascular plants with seeds evolved


about 360 million years ago.
• A seed consists of an embryo packaged with
a food supply within a protective covering.

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Plant diversity reflects the evolutionary history of the
plant kingdom

• Vascular plants with seeds include


– gymnosperms (including ginkgo, cycad, and
conifer species) and
– angiosperms (such as flowering trees and
grasses).

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Plant diversity reflects the evolutionary history of the
plant kingdom

• Gymnosperms
– have naked seeds that are not produced in fruits
and
– include ginkgo, cycad, and conifer species.

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Figure 17.2D

Gymnosperms

Cycad Ephedra A conifer


(Mormon tea)
Ginkgo
Plant diversity reflects the evolutionary history of the
plant kingdom

• Angiosperms
– are flowering plants and
– include flowering trees and grasses.

© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.


Figure 17.2E
Angiosperms

A tropical jacaranda tree Green foxtail, a grass


ALTERNATION
OF GENERATIONS
AND PLANT LIFE CYCLES

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Haploid and diploid generations alternate in plant
life cycles

• Plants have an alternation of generations


in which the haploid and diploid stages are
distinct, multicellular bodies.
– The haploid gametophyte produces gametes
(eggs or sperm) by mitosis.
– Fertilization results in a diploid zygote.
– The zygote develops into the diploid
sporophyte, which produces haploid spores by
meiosis.
– Spores grow into gametophytes.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 17.3

THE PLANT LIFE CYCLE Key Haploid (n) Diploid (2n)

Gametophyte
plant (n) Sperm (n)

Egg (n)
Spores (n)

Meiosis Fertilization

Zygote (2n)

Sporophyte
plant (2n)
Haploid and diploid generations alternate in plant
life cycles

• Gametophytes make up a bed of moss.


– Gametes develop in male and female
gametangia.
– Sperm swim through water to the egg in the
female gametangium.

© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.


Haploid and diploid generations alternate in plant
life cycles
• The zygote
– develops within the gametangium into a mature
sporophyte,
– which remains attached to the gametophyte.
• Meiosis occurs in sporangia at the tips of the
sporophyte stalks.
• Haploid spores are released from the
sporangium and develop into gametophyte
plants.

© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.


Figure 17.3

A Moss Life Cycle Key Haploid (n)


Diploid (2n)

Male
gametangium

Sperm

Female Egg
Gametophyte plants (n)
Spores (n) gametangium
Sporangium

Sporophyte Fertilization

Zygote
Meiosis Gametophyte
Gametophyte or sporophyte?
Gametophyte or sporophyte?
Haploid and diploid generations alternate in plant
life cycles
• Fern gametophytes are small and
inconspicuous.
• Gametophytes produce flagellated sperm
that swim to the egg and fertilize it to
produce a zygote.
• The zygote initially develops within the
female gametangia but eventually develops
into an independent sporophyte.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Haploid and diploid generations alternate in plant
life cycles

• Sporangia develop on the underside of the


leaves of the sporophyte.
• Within the sporangia, cells undergo meiosis
to produce haploid spores.
• Spores are released and develop into
gametophytes.

© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.


Figure 17.3
A Fern Life Cycle Gametophyte Key Haploid (n)
plant (n) Diploid (2n)

Male
gametangium
Spores Sperm
Female
gametangium
Egg

Mature
Meiosis sporophyte Fertilization

Zygote
New sporophyte
growing from the
gametophyte
Seedless vascular plants dominated vast “coal forests”

• Two groups of seedless plants formed vast


ancient forests in low-lying wetlands during
the Carboniferous period (360–299 million
years ago):
– lycophytes (such as club mosses) and
– Pterophytes or monilophytes (such as ferns).
• When these plants died, they formed peat
deposits that eventually formed coal.

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Figure 17.4
Seedless vascular plants dominated vast “coal forests”

• As temperatures dropped during the late


Carboniferous,
– glaciers formed,
– the climate turned drier,
– the vast swamps and forests began to
disappear, and
– wind-dispersed pollen and protective seeds
gave seed plants a competitive advantage.

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Pollen and seeds are key adaptations to life on land

• A pine tree is a sporophyte.


• Tiny gametophytes grow in sporophyte
cones.
• The ovule is a key adaptation, a protective
device for all the female stages in the life
cycle, as well as the site of
– pollination,
– fertilization, and
– embryonic development.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pollen and seeds are key adaptations to life on land

• A sperm from a pollen grain fertilizes an egg in


the female gametophyte.
• The zygote develops into a sporophyte embryo.
• The ovule becomes the seed with
– stored food and
– a protective seed coat.

• The seed is a key adaptation for life on land and


a major factor in the success of seed plants.

© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.


Figure 17.5

Longitudinal
section of Sporangia
ovulate cone

Longitudinal
section of
pollen cone
Figure 17.5B

Seed coat
Spore wall Female
gametophyte (n) Spore
Sporangium (2n) wall
Egg nucleus (n)
(produces spore)
Ovulate cone
Discharged Food
Male gametophyte
Spore (n) sperm nucleus (n) supply
(within a germinated
pollen grain) (n) Pollen tube
Pollen grain (n) Embryo (2n)
(new sporophyte)
17.6 The flower is the centerpiece of angiosperm
reproduction

• Flowers house separate male and female


sporangia and gametophytes.
• Flowers are the sites of
– pollination and
– fertilization.

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17.6 The flower is the centerpiece of angiosperm
reproduction

• Flowers usually consist of


– sepals, which enclose the flower before it
opens,
– petals, which attract animal pollinators,
– stamens, which include a filament and anther,
a sac at the top of each filament that contains
male sporangia and releases pollen, and
– Carpels or pistils, the female reproductive
structure, which produce eggs.

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17.8 The flower is the centerpiece of angiosperm
reproduction

• Ovules develop into seeds.


• Ovaries mature into fruit.

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Figure 17.6B

Stigma
Style _____
Ovary

Anther
_____
Filament
_____
_____

Ovule
Receptacle
The angiosperm plant is a sporophyte with
gametophytes in its flowers

• Key events in a typical angiosperm life cycle


1. Meiosis in the anthers produces haploid spores
that form the male gametophyte (pollen grains).
2. Meiosis in the ovule produces a haploid spore
that forms the few cells of the female
gametophyte, one of which becomes the egg.
3. Pollination occurs when a pollen grain lands on
the stigma. A pollen tube grows from the pollen
grain to the ovule.
4. The tube carries a sperm that fertilizes the egg
to form a zygote.

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The angiosperm plant is a sporophyte with
gametophytes in its flowers

• Key events in a typical angiosperm life cycle,


continued
5. Each ovule develops into a seed, consisting of
• an embryo (a new sporophyte) surrounded by a food
supply and
• a seed coat derived from the integuments.
6. While the seeds develop, the ovary’s wall
thickens, forming the fruit that encloses the
seeds.
7. When conditions are favorable, a seed
germinates.

© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.


Figure 17.7

Pollen grains (n)


Anther
1 (male gametophytes)
Meiosis
3

Stigma
Egg within
a female Pollen grain
2 gametophyte (n) Pollen tube
Meiosis

Ovary
Sporophyte Ovule Ovule
(2n) containing
female sporangium
(2n) Sperm

Germination
7

Seeds
Food
6 supply
Fertilization
Fruit Seed coat
4
(mature ovary) Key
Zygote
5 Haploid (n)
(2n)
Embryo (2n) Diploid (2n)
Seed
The structure of a fruit reflects its function in seed
dispersal

• Fruits are
– ripened ovaries of flowers and
– adaptations that disperse seeds.
• Seed dispersal mechanisms include relying on
– wind,
– hitching a ride on animals, or
– fleshy, edible fruits that attract animals, which then
deposit the seed in a supply of natural fertilizer at
some distance from the parent plant.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 17.8A-C

Fruit

Seed
dispersal
Angiosperms sustain us—and add spice to our diets

 Most human food is provided by the fruits and


seeds of angiosperms.
– Corn, rice, wheat, and other grains are dry fruits.
– Apples, cherries, tomatoes, and squash are fleshy
fruits.
– Spices like pepper (Piper nigrum)
and cumin are also angiosperm
fruits.

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EVOLUTION CONNECTION: Pollination by animals
has influenced angiosperm evolution

• About 90% of angiosperms use animals to


transfer their pollen.
– Birds are usually attracted by colorful flowers,
often red, but without scent.
– Most beetles are attracted by fruity odors, but
are indifferent to color.
– Night-flying bats and moths are usually
attracted by large, highly scented flowers that
are often white.
– Wind-pollinated flowers typically produce large
amounts of pollen.

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Figure 17.10B
CONNECTION: Plant diversity is vital to the
future of the world’s food supply
• Some new crops may come from the
hundreds of species of nutritious fruits,
nuts, and grains that people gather and
use locally.
Figure 17.11a-0 Sugar plums (left) and African plums (right), two wild fruits that may be ripe for domestication
Coevolution of Flower and Pollinator

• Coevolution is the evolution of interacting species in


response to changes in each other
• Many flowering plants have coevolved with specific
pollinators
• The shapes and sizes of flowers often correspond to
the pollen transporting parts of their animal pollinators
– For example, Darwin correctly predicted a moth with a
28 cm long tongue based on the morphology of a
particular flower
Coevolution
Pollinator-plant relationships are partly
responsible for the diversity of flowers.
Coevolution 1

• Occurs when two different organisms


(flowering plants and their animal pollinators)
form such an interdependent relationship that
they affect the course of each other’s
evolution
Coevolution 2

• While plants were coevolving specialized


features (petals, scent, nectar) to attract
pollinators, animal pollinators coevolved
specialized body parts and behaviors that
enabled them to aid pollination and obtain
nectar and pollen grains as a reward
Coevolution 3
• Coevolution is responsible for long, curved
beaks of honeycreepers, which insert their
beaks into tubular flowers to obtain nectar

• Long, tubular corollas of flowers that


honeycreepers visit also developed through
coevolution
Figure 38.4a
Abiotic Pollination by Wind Pollination by Bees

Common dandelion
under normal light

Hazel staminate flowers


(stamens only)
Hazel carpellate
flower (carpels only)

Common dandelion
under ultraviolet light
Figure 38.4b
Pollination by Moths
and Butterflies Pollination by Flies Pollination by Bats

Anther
Moth

Fly egg

Stigma
Blowfly on carrion Long-nosed bat feeding
Moth on yucca flower flower on cactus flower at night

Pollination by Birds

Hummingbird
drinking nectar of
columbine flower
Figure 38.5
Flowers Pollinated by Insects

• Often yellow
or blue
– have a scent
Nectar Guides
Carrion Flower
Bird-Pollinated Flowers
• Often yellow, orange, or red
– do not have a strong scent
Bat-Pollinated Flowers

• Often have
dusky white
petals
– are scented
Ekologi Populasi
Mochammad Roviq
• Populasi adalah suatu kelompok
individu yang spesiesnya sama dan
menempati dalam suatu habitat yang
cukup kecil sehingga memungkinkan
terjadinya interbreding diantara
anggota semua kelompoknya.
• Beberapa populasi tidak
berinterbreding namun melakukan
penyerbukan sendiri (self polination)
atau bereproduksi secara seksual.
• Luas wilayah yang ditempati
memungkinkan potensi terjadinya
pertukaran gen melalui penyerbukan
sendiri ataupun tetangga.
Penggolongan species dalam populasi
• Secara taksonomi, yaitu species ditentukan
berdasarkan hubungan kekeluargaan baik
secara evolusi, maupun sejarah nenek
moyangnya.
• Berdasarkan peran atau fungsi, yaitu
penentuan species didasarkan pada kesamaan
perannya di dalam lingkungan
Ciri-ciri populasi
1. Densitas atau kerapatan atau kepadatan; ukuran
besarnya populasi dalam satuan ruang atau volume,
yang pada umumnya ukuran besarnya populasi
digambarkan dengan cacah individu, atau biomas
populasi per satuan ruang atau volume.

The effect of density-dependent


factors are highly dependent on
population size. Competition
occurs when more than one
population uses the same
resource (example, nesting sites,
water, food, etc.).
Ciri-ciri populasi
1. Angka kelahiran (natalitas) : reproduksi
individu-individu baru di dalam populasi
melalui kelahiran, germinasi/pembelahan.
2. Angka kematian (mortalitas): jumlah individu
dalam populasi yang mati selama periode
waktu tertentu misalnya akibat serangan OPT
3. Genetik
• Struktur Umur: sifat populasi yang penting mempengaruhi
baik natalitas maupun mortalitas. Motalitas biasanya
berbeda menurut umur dan kemampuan berkembangbiak
sangat kering terbatas pada kelompok umur tertentu.
• Potensi biotik : potensi mengenai jumlah populasi dalam
suatu wilayah/ekosistem yang dipengaruhi faktor hidup,
meliputi semua makhluk hidup di bumi, baik tumbuhan
maupun hewan.
• Penyebaran/perpindahan populasi yaitu pergerakan
individu-individu atau alat-alat pembiakannya masuk atau
keluar suatu populasi atau daerah populasi, turut
mempengaruhi bentuk pertumbuhan serta kepadatan
populasi bersangkutan bersama-sama dengan natalitas dan
mortalitas.
• Bentuk pertumbuhan;
Perpindahan
populasi
• Ada tiga
penyebaran/perpindahan
populasi yaitu
– Emigrasi pergerakan
keluar,
– Imigrasi pergerakan ke
dalam dan
– migrasi yaitu pergi (keluar)
dan kembali (masuk secara
periodic).
• Pertumbuhan populasi merupakan proses sentral
di dalam ekologi.
• Karena tidak ada populasi yang tumbuh secara
terus menerus maka kita mengetahui adanya
pengaturan populasi.
• Interaksi spesies seperti tumbuhan parasit,
alelopati, kompetisi, herbivory dan penyakit
berdampak terhadap pertumbuhan populasi
menghasilkan perubahan dalam struktur
komunitas oleh karena itu sangat penting untuk
mengetahui bagaimana suatu populasi tumbuh
Parasitic Roots
• Some plants, including dodders,
broomrapes, and pinedrops, have no
chlorophyll (necessary for
photosynthesis) and have become
dependent on chlorophyll-bearing
plants for their nutrition.
• They parasitize their host plants via
peglike projections called haustoria
(singular: haustorium), which
develop along the stem in contact
with the host
Model Pertumbuhan Populasi
• Continuous Time
• Matriks
• Stadia Versus Umur
Model Continuous Time
• Model yang digunakan untuk menentukan jumlah
tumbuhan yang ada dalam beberapa waktu
mendatang.
• Individu berkembang tidak dibatasi oleh lingkungan
seperti kompetisi dan keterbatasan akan suplai
makanan.
• Laju perubahan populasi dapat dihitung jika banyaknya
kelahiran, kematian dan migrasi diketahui.
• Prediksi bahwa jumlah populasi akan tumbuh secara
kontinu pertama kali dicetuskan oleh Malthus (1798).
• Dinamika populasi dapat di aproksimasi dengan model
ini hanya untuk periode waktu yang pendek saja
Model Kontinu dapat diakumulasikan menggunakan
persamaan :

Nt+Dt=Nt+B+I-D-E

Nt : jumlah populasi tumbuhan yang ada dalam


waktu t.
B : jumlah kelahiran per satuan waktu
I : jumlah kedatangan per satuan waktu
D : jumlah kematian persatuan waktu
E : jumlah populasi yang keluar per satuan waktu.
Nt+Dt : jumlah populasi pada waktu t+Dt.
Model Matriks

• Sering digunakan oleh para ahli demografi adalah


model matriks Leslie, yang dikembangkan pada
tahun 1940-an.
• Model ini menjelaskan pertumbuhan reproduksi
pada populasi tumbuhan.
• Dalam model ini reproduksi tumbuhan dibagi
menjadi kelas-kelas atau secara matematis,
• Dengan demikian jika kita mengetahui distribusi
awal x(0) dan matriks Leslie (L), maka kita dapat
menentukan distribusi umur reproduksi tanaman
pada sembarang waktu di masa mendatang.
Stadia Versus Umur
• Teori demografi klasik memakai umur sebagai
dasar untuk perkiraan kesuburan dan
survivorship, namun umur tidak dapat menjadi
indikator status reproduktif dalam tumbuhan.
Ada 2 alaan pokok untuk ini, yaitu :
a. Ukuran tidak perlu berkolerasi dengan umur
b. Banyak tumbuhan akan berbunga bila mereka
mencapai ukuran tertentu tanpa memandang
umurnya.
Tabel Hidup
• Ada dua macam tabel hidup tergantung lama
hidup individu dalam populasi :
• Suatu tabel dinamis. Digunakan pengamat untuk
mengikuti pertumbuhan perkecambahan pada
waktu tertentu sampai semua individu mati
• Tabel hidup statis. Tabel yang mengukur struktur
umur suatu populasi untuk memperkirakan pola
survival berbagai grup umur pada suatu populasi
Kurva Survivorship
• Yaitu adalah jumlah survivor pada tiap interval umur
terhadap waktu akan menghasilkan suatu kurva
survivorship.
• Ada 3 tipe kurva survivorship yang menyajikan tanggapan
populasi ekstrem :
1. Tipe 1: kurva survivorship adalah karakteristik organisme
dengan mortalitas rendah dalam stadia muda dan
mortalitas cepat dalam umur tua.
2. Tipe 2 : garis lurus, dimana probabilitas kematian pada
pokoknya sama pada sembarang umur.
3. Tipe 3 : tipikal organisme yang mempunyai laju mortalitas
muda tinggi, diikuti dengan mortalitas biji karena adanya
pemakan buah dan pemakan biji.
Fekunditas
• Fekunditas secara umum berarti kemampuan untuk
bereproduksi.
• Dalam biologi, fekunditas adalah laju reproduksi aktual
suatu organisme atau populasi yang diukur berdasarkan
jumlah gamet, biji, ataupun propagula aseksual.
• Dalam bidang demografi, fekunditas adalah kapasitas
reproduksi potensial suatu individu ataupun populasi.
• Fekunditas berada di bawah kontrol genetik maupun
lingkungan dan merupakan ukuran utama kebugaran
biologi suatu spesies.
• Biasa juga disebut umur spesifik laju kelahiran individu atau
natalitas yang diukur dengan menhitung jumlah total biji
yang dihasilkan selama tiap interval umur dan dibagi
dengan jumlah individu yang hidup.
Daya Dukung
• Dengan adanya berbagai pembatasan yang
ada, kita dapat memperkirakan bahwa
lingkungan mempunyai daya dukung, yaitu
jumlah individual spesies yang dapat ditunjang
oleh lingkungan.
• Daya dukung dapat ditentukan tidak hanya
oleh jumlah individu dalam populasi,tetapi
juga oleh ukuran dan laju pertumbuhan
individu dalam populasi.
DENSITY DEPENDENT (KERAPATAN)
• Peraturan Populasi Dependen Densitas.
• Dependen densitas adalah jumlah individu per
satuan area tertentu yang keberadaannya
dipengaruhi oleh keadaan2 yang
mempengaruhinya.
DENSITY DEPENDENT (KERAPATAN)
• Populasi tergantung pada kerapatan adalah ukuran
populasi yang selalu bertambah seperti yang diramal
oleh kebanyakan model pertumbuhan populasi,
populasi ini bergantung pada dependen densitas yang
berubah dalam survival atau laju produksi karena
jumlah populasi menjadi lebih besar.
• Respon kerapatan tumbuhan tidak hanya dipengaruhi
oleh densitas tetapi juga terhadap individu.
• Populasi tumbuhan lebih bersifat tergantung pada
indivisu daripada dependen densitas.