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(For Grade 7)

Dear Teacher, GREETINGS! At the outset, it is my fervent hope that you are
healthy every day, happy and enjoy teaching your students. I wish to share with you
ideas that I think would lessen the burden you are experiencing each time you are
teaching Chemistry. I have drawn practical and actual situations as examples many
of which you won’t find in reference materials but which I believe are useful and
effective tools of teaching. I modestly hope I could be of help to you.
Since it is summer vacation, I deemed it an opportunity to post this very humble
article for you and for all chemistry teachers in high school to spare time to read
and evaluate the contents of this humble work with the ultimate expectation that
you find its worth and value in expanding your preparedness for the opening of classes
this year, and an alternative reference material as classes is in progress for the
duration of the first quarter.
The preparation of this article is based on the sequencing of subject areas
contained in your textbook excluding unit and module designation/s, centered on how
the Periodic Table can be used effectively in teaching chemistry for both teaching
and learning processes to be easily attainable, reducing, if not totally eliminating
failures among students in the subject. Supplied At the end of each subject area
are supplementary test questionnaires which I believe is a minus factor to the heavy
load you are tasked to do in school.
Utilizing these material as an aid to your daily teaching of chemistry is
discretionary. Nothing is mandatory. Select parts of this article that would be of
help if you may, disregard, even discard those that you think are not. Should you
be able to consolidate the intangible benefits derived from this humble work, I will
be very grateful if you can share your copy to your colleagues and friends who are
similarly involved in teaching this subject. Versions of this kind for Grades 9,8 and
10 will come out in time for the start of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th quarters respectively
of the school year.
Happy summer vacation.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Preparation of Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Karat and Proof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Factors Affecting Rate of Solubility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Separation of Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Chemical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

The Periodic Table of Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Role of the Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Abundance of the Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

The Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Methods of Identifying Acids, Bases and Salts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

More about the Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Classification of Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Properties of the Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Reactions of Oxygen with Metals and Nonmetals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

This Writer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
MIXTURES
Mixtures are combinations of two or more different materials. Stones, concrete, soil, crude oil, air, seawater
and many more are mixtures. For enlightenment, the compositions of the mixtures cited above as examples are
summarized as follows:
1. Stones (common) - sand, silicates, minerals, metals …more
2. Concrete- sand, cement, gravel
3. Soil- clay, decayed organic materials, sand, water…more
4. Crude oil- gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, methane, butane …more
5. Air- oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, dust particles ...more
6. Seawater- salt, water, magnesium, calcium…more
In Chemistry lingo however, mixtures involves more often with very small, oftentimes invisible
components. In fact one of the basis for classifying them has something to do with the apparent sizes of
the materials it is made of. Mixtures are classified as solutions, suspensions and colloids. Solutions and
colloids are homogenous chemical systems while colloids are heterogeneous. Homogenous refers to the
appearance of a material to be made of only one kind even if it actually consists of two or more different
kinds of materials. Heterogeneous is the opposite; its composition is often visible to the naked eye. Again,
for purposes of clarification, examples for each mixture are summarized below:
1. Solutions- ammonia water, rubbing alcohol, soft drink, wine, hydrogen peroxide. . .more
2. Colloids- bathing soap, margarine, gel, fog, smoke, clouds... more
3. Suspensions- oil and water, dust in air, milk of magnesia, sand in water . . . more

Illustrations:

Fig. 1a. Wine is an example Fig.1b. Bathing soap is an Fig.1c. Some oral rehydrates
of a solution example of a colloid are examples of suspension

At this stage in Grade 7, discussion of mixtures in detail will be centralized on solutions. Details may
be done of the other two in another year level.

SOLUTIONS
A solution is a mixture consisting of a solute and a solvent. A solute is the substance being added to
the solvent. The property of an amount of solute to be dissolved in an amount of solvent is called solubility.
When solubility takes place, the atoms, ions or molecules of solute and the solvent intermingle equally
with each other making solutions a homogenous chemical system; one phase, one color, one odor, and
one taste. Most liquid solutions are transparent. To facilitate a speedy and thorough mixing of the solute
and solvent, stirring, swirling and shaking of the mixture is commonly performed. Quantitatively, the solute
is usually lesser in amount than the solvent. Solutions are classified as solid, gas and liquid solutions.

1. SOLID SOLUTION
A solution consisting of a solid solute and a solid solvent is called solid solution. Alloys, brass, steel and
some jewelries are examples of this type of solution.

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2. GAS SOLUTION
Gas solution consists of gases as solute and solvent. Air is a natural gas solution. It consists of about 78%
Nitrogen and 21% Oxygen. Since the composition of Nitrogen is larger than Oxygen, it follows that Nitrogen
is the solvent and Oxygen the solute. Other gases are dissolved in Nitrogen such as Carbon Dioxide and
some Noble or Inert gases.

3. LIQUID SOLUTION
A liquid solution consist of a liquid solvent, usually water, and either solid, liquid or gas as solute. Water
is sometimes called universal solvent because of its capacity to dissolve most substances. Liquid solutions
is the most popular type of solution among the three, owing to the fact that majority of solutions are in
the liquid phase. In addition, many consumer products used at home are liquid solutions giving the
impression to household owners and members that all solutions are liquid. Consequently, when the term
solution is mentioned, it is often meant to connote a liquid mixture. Students could be of help to correct
this notion among members of the family.
Solutions are further classified based on the phase used of the solute. A solid dissolved in water is called
solid in liquid solution, a liquid dissolved in water is called a liquid in liquid solution and a gas dissolved in
water is classified as gas in liquid solution.

PREPARATION OF SOLUTIONS
Chemistry laboratory activities usually need the use of different solutions. The standard preparation of
solutions in the laboratory is 1 liter (1 m3) but this can be reduced depending on the need specified in the
activity. Unless otherwise indicated, the solvent used in preparing solutions is water (distilled). A solution
prepared with water as solvent are called aqueous solutions. Using solutions without particular or specific
concentrations can be done as follows:

1. DILUTE Solution
A dilute solution contains a small amount of solute in an amount of solvent. For instance a pinch of salt
is added to a glass of water, the process results to a dilute solution of salt. Similarly if a few grams of Copper
Sulfate is added to 1000 ml. of water, then a dilute solution of Copper Sulfate is made.

2. CONCENTRATED Solution
Adding more solute to a dilute solution will increase its concentration. A solution that has more solute a
solvent can dissolve is a concentrated solution.

3. UNSATURATED Solution
A solution that contains less solute an amount of solvent can dissolve. This is quite similar to a dilute
solution. If additional solute is added to a solution and is dissolved, then the solution is Unsaturated. If the
solute is a colored substance, a pale color of the solution can be observed.

4. SATURATED Solution
A solution which has more solute than the amount a solvent can dissolve. Addition of more solute to an
unsaturated solution will make a saturated solution. A darker color is observed in a saturated solution.

5. SUPERSATURATED Solution
A solution is supersatured if addition of solute to a saturated solution remains undissolved at normal
temperatures. Increasing the temperature will enhance solubility of the undissolved solute but will return
to its original state upon cooling. A supersaturated solution contains excess solute the amount a solvent
can dissolve. Supersaturated solutions has the most prominent color of the three.
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Illustrations:

Fig.2a. Unsaturated Copper Fig.2b. Saturated Copper Fig.2c. Supersaturated Copper


Sulfate solution Sulfate solution Sulfate solution

The next methods of preparing solutions require specific amounts of solute and solvent.

6. PERCENT BY MASS
Percent by mass solution is the mass of solute (in grams, usually a solid) per liter of solution. To prepare
this type of solution, we consider the desired percentage composition of the solution and change it to
decimal number multiplied by 1000. The product obtained is the corresponding mass of solute to be used
in the preparation of the solution. Measure the mass in a balance and pour it to a marked container such
as a beaker, volumetric flask or erlenmeyer flask. Add a partial amount of water (distilled) and shake mildly
or swirl; stir with a stirring rod if the container used is a beaker, until all the solid sample completely
dissolves. Add enough water to the 1000 ml mark.

Illustrations:

Stirring Rod

2000 ml
1000 ml
1000 ml

Fig.3a. A solution in a Fig.3b. A solution in a


volumetric Flask. Swirling Beaker. Dissolving of
enhances the dissolving solute is faster when
process. stirred.

Example:
1. To prepare a 1% Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) Solution
Mass of solute (NaOH) = 1% /100 = 0.01 x 1000 = 10 g. NaOH
Mass of solvent H2O = 1000g. – 10g. = 990g, H2O (Density of H2O is 1g/ml therefore 1 ml H2O = 1g H2O)
Dissolving 10 g. NaOH in water totaling 1000 ml will make a 1% NaOH solution

As stated earlier, the standard preparation of solutions is to 1 liter. This, however, may be reduced
depending on the needed quantity. For example you need only 50 ml of a 5% Potassium Permanganate
(KMnO4) solution:

2. To prepare 50 ml 5% KMnO4 solution:


Mass of solute KMnO4 = 5%/ 100 = 0.05 x 50 = 2.5 g. KMnO4
Mass of solvent H2O = 50 ml – 2.5g. = 47.5g. H2O
Dissolving 2.5g. KmnO4 in 47.5 ml water will make a 50 ml 5% KMnO4 solution.
Alternate solutions:

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Since the density of water (H2O) is 1g. /ml, adding the mass in gram of solute to the mass of solvent
water will probably validate the desired percent composition by mass of the solution.

For sample problem 1 above:


Mass of solute NaOH = 1%/100 = 0.01 x 1000 = 10 g. NaOH
Mass of solvent H2O = Total mass of solution – mass of solute
= 1000 g. - 10 g = 990g. (ml) mass (volume) of solvent H2O
Mass of 1% NaOH solution = mass of solute + mass (volume) of solvent
= 10g. NaOH + 990g. (ml) H2O = 1000g. (ml) 1% NaOH solution

For sample problem 2:


Mass of solute KMnO4 = 5% /100 x 50 = 0.05 x 50 = 2.5 g. KMnO4
Mass of solvent water = Total mass of solution – mass of solute
= 50 g. – 2.5 g. = 47.5 g. (ml) mass (volume) of solvent H2O
Mass of 5% KMnO4 solution = mass of solute + mass (volume) of solvent
= 2.5 g. KMnO4 + 47.5 g. (ml) H2O = 50 g. (ml) 5% KmnO4 solution

Note: Volumes of solids slightly changes when dissolved in a liquid. For this reason, discrepancy in the
total volume of solution can be expected should preparation is done following this method.

7. PERCENT BY VOLUME
Measuring volume of liquid solutes instead of mass is more comfortable to do. Consequently, preparing
solutions using liquid solute is often done in percentage composition by volume. Percent by volume refers
to the volume of solute dissolved to a liter of solution. To prepare the solution, change the percent number
to decimal and multiply it by 1000. The product obtained is the volume of the solute. Measure the volume
in a graduated cylinder. To obtain the volume of solvent, subtract the total volume of solution by the
volume of solute. The difference obtained corresponds to the volume of solvent needed for the solution.
Measure the volume of solvent in another cylinder. Mix the two in an appropriate container such as beaker,
volumetric or erlenmeyer flask. Stir the mixture (if in a beaker) or mildly swirl the flask containing the
mixture. Reminder: When preparing acid solutions always add acid to water.

Examples:

1. To prepare a 20% Ethyl Alcohol (C2H5OH) solution:


Volume of solute = 20%/ 100 = 0.2 x 1000 = 200 ml Ethyl Alcohol
Volume of solvent H20 = Total volume of solution – volume of solute
= 1000 ml – 200 ml = 800 ml volume of solvent
Total volume of 20% Ethyl Alcohol = 800 ml H2O + 200 ml C2H5OH
= 1000 ml 20% Ethyl Alcohol solution

2. To prepare 20 ml 4% Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) solution:


Volume of solute HCl = 4%/ 100 = 0.04 x 20 = 1.8 ml HCl
Volume of solvent H2O = Total volume of solution – volume of solute
= 20 ml – 1.8 ml = 18.8 ml volume of solvent H2O
Total volume of 20% HCl solution = 18.2 ml H2O + 1.8 ml HCl = 20 ml 4% HCl solution

Problems on % by Mass and % by Volume Solutions:

1. What percentage composition is 12 grams Potassium Hydroxide prepared to 30ml solution?

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Formula: % composition (by mass) = mass of solute / mass (volume) of solution x 100
= 12g. /30g. x 100 = 0.4 x 100 = 40 % Ans.

2. How many milliliters of acetic acid will you use to prepare a 500 ml 3% acetic acid solution?
Formula: Volume of solute = % composition x volume of solution
= 3%/ 100 x 500 ml
= 0.03 x 500 ml = 15 ml Acetic Acid Ans.

3. A solution of 5% salt was prepared using 20 grams of the solute. What is the volume of the solution?
Formula: Volume of solution = mass of solute / % composition
= 20g/ 5%/100
= 20/ 0.05 = 400 ml 5% salt solution Ans.
Other methods of preparation of solutions include Molar (M), molal (m) and normal (N) solutions. These
will be discussed to students as they go to the higher levels.

KARAT AND PROOF


A common unit of solution involving composition of Gold in jewelries is the Karat (K). Pure gold is 24K.
It is soft as is common to many pure forms of metals. To make it sturdy, other metals such as Copper, Zinc,
and Nickel including Silver are mixed with it. In effect it is made into a solution called alloy. Karat indicates
the percentage composition of Gold in the solid solution of alloy. 24K is 99.99% Gold, 22K is 91.6%, 18K is
75%, 14K 58.5%, and 8K is 35.7% etc. The higher the Karat value, the more expensive is the commodity. To
find the percentage composition of gold in items such as jewelries, simply divide the indicated Karat value
of the jewel by 24 multiplied by 100.
Proof is an indicator of the strength of alcohol contained in alcoholic beverages. However, the indicated
proof could be misleading because it actually is twice the actual percentage composition of alcohol in the
alcoholic solution. 160 proof would mean 80% alcohol, 100 proof is 50%, 80 proof indicates 40% alcohol
content etc.

FACTORS AFFECTING RATES OF SOLLUBILITY


Solubility refers to the amount of solute that can be dissolved in an amount of solvent. Crystals of salt
dropped in water will dissolve. If the same crystals of salt are dropped in kerosene, the same will not happen
as it did in water. This illustrates one factor that affects solubility. There are several factors involved as to
why a solute may dissolve or not in a solvent and why it does so.

1. NATURE OF SOLUTE AND SOLVENT


In the example cited above, salt will not dissolve in kerosene because it is an inorganic compound while
kerosene is organic. There is an adage in chemistry which states that ‘like dissolves like’ which implicitly
means organic solvents dissolves organic solute and inorganic solute dissolves in inorganic solvent.

2. TEMPERATURE
Increasing temperature increases the kinetic energy of the atoms, ions or molecules of the solute and
solvent cutting the time of the dissolving process to take place. With increased kinetic energy, particles
of the solute makes it easier to break away from each other and mingle with the particles of the solvent.
Increase in temperature is only advantageous to solid solvents. The reverse is true when the solute is a
gas.

3. SURFACE AREA or PARTICLE SIZE


It will take a longer time for a lump of a solute to dissolve than one that is broken or cut into pieces. This

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Is because more sides and therefore more particles of the solute are exposed directly to the solvent.
4. STIRRING AND SWIRLING
To a large extent, stirring and swirling increases the capacity of the particles of solute and solvent to break
away from its component particles which reaches to the point that all of the particulates are detached from
one another.

5. PRESSURE
Because of the mobility of the particles of gases, its solubility is often not attainable at normal
conditions. To effect dissolving of gases, increased pressure and lowering of temperature is applied such as
dissolving of carbon dioxide in the production of bottled or canned beverages which rushes out indicated
by a popping or hissing sound when the container is opened.

Supplementary test questionnaires.


1. Which makes Alcohol a solvent?
a. 10% Alcohol solution b. 70% Alcohol solution c. 20% Alcohol solution d. 40% Alcohol solution
2. What type of solution will be made in dissolving a pinch of sugar in a cup of water?
a. dilute b. saturated c. concentrated d. supersaturated
3. Which of the following mixture is a colloid?
a. sand b. halo-halo d. beer d. paste
4. Find the mass of Sodium Chloride needed to prepare a 1000 ml. 20% salt solution. 200 g. Ans.
5. What percentage composition is 15 ml of HCl in a 50 ml. solution? 30% Ans.

SEPARATION OF MIXTURES
Several activities and needs demands for mixtures to be separated. For example in salt making,
components of saline or seawater is separated by evaporation through the action of heat from sunlight.
Oxygen and Nitrogen contained in air is separated by fractional distillation as well as components of crude
oil such as gasoline, diesel oil, kerosene, and many others.

IMPORTANCE OF SEPARATING MIXTURES


Most of the materials found on the earths’ crust are in the form of mixtures which cannot be directly
beneficial to satisfy human needs. Citing the examples given above, salt water is only useful when salt is
separated from water. Crude oil is useless if gasoline, kerosene, diesel oil etc. are not separated from each
other. Production of consumer goods in industries performs a wide range of separating final products from
its byproducts. In the laboratory, mixtures are separated to separate and collect the substance of utmost
importance needed in an activity. To put it bluntly, separating mixtures leads us to be able to collect
materials in its purest and useful forms.
Listed below are the common methods of separating mixtures.

1. DISTILLATION-
Distillation is the process of separating liquid mixtures by heating it to a boiling. The component with
lower boiling temperature separates as a pure substance in the form of vapor which can be collected as it
condenses apart from the other component/s with higher boiling temperature. When a mixture is
composed of several materials, boiling temperature is maintained and gradually increased to sustain boiling
of the next component with a low boiling temperature. The pure substance collected from distillation is
called distillate. An improvised simple distillation set-up can be prepared in the laboratory as shown below.

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Illustration:

Iron Stand
Stopper

Iron Clamp
Test Tube
Sample Mixture

Delivery Tube

Receiver

Alcohol lamp (substitute in


Filtrate
the absence of Terrill or
Bunsen Burners)
Fig. 4- An improvised
Distillation set-up

2. FILTRATION-
The process of separating fine solid (such as precipitate) and liquid mixture by letting it pass through a
porous material. Filter Paper is commonly used as filtering material in the laboratory. The liquid called
filtrate passes through the filter paper while the solid portion called residue is left in the sides and surface
of the filtering material.

Illustration:

Iron Stand

Filter Paper
Sample Mixture
Iron Ring
Evaporating Dish
Glass Funnel
Wire Gauze

Receiver Tripod

Filtrate Alcohol Lamp

Fig.5- An improvised Fig.6- An improvised


Filtration set-up Evaporation set-up

3. EVAPORATION-
The preferred method of separating solutions consisting of a solid and liquid is by evaporation. In the
laboratory, the mixture is heated to boiling (See Fig.6 above) causing the liquid component of the mixture
to evaporate as a vapor leaving only the solid part called residue in the container (evaporating dish).

4. DECANTATION-
This method of separating mixtures is quite common because several household activities adopts this
method typically such as rinsing of rice where the liquid is separated by pouring it out after washing the
grains, or pouring of used cooking oil to another container to separate it from solid particulates. In a
broader sense, this refers to the separation of solid-liquid mixtures by allowing solid particles to settle
down and transfer the liquid to another container. Other practical methods include picking, sieving, and
scooping.
Mixtures, as had been dealt with in the foregoing discussions gives a clear information that despite of
its composition being made of different materials, they can be separated by simple physical means. This is

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a clear indication that only the physical properties of the material making up a mixture is/are changed but
not its composition or chemical properties.

SUBSTANCES
Substances are the purest form of matter. As such, all substances are homogeneous; one phase, one
color etc. and has constant melting, boiling and freezing temperatures as opposed to mixtures which are
made of two or more different materials, many of which are heterogeneous with fluctuating boiling,
melting and freezing temperatures.
There are two kinds of substances; elements and compounds. An element is the simplest form of matter
which consists of only one kind of atom, while a compound consists of two or more different kinds of
atoms. Being pure that they are, difficulties in differentiating elements and compounds are often
encountered which in some instances requires laboratory works for these two forms of matter to be
identified from one another. It extends to the simplest task of recognizing among students the chemical
names whether it denotes a name of an element or a compound. A simple approach can be used that will
generate interest to the subject and a feeling of ease to pursue more ideas about chemistry, following
methods sensible enough in introducing the differences of elements and compounds.

1. BASED ON CHEMICAL NAMES


All elements have only one chemical name. Compounds have two (or more) chemical names. With this
in mind, students will easily identify an element and a compound every time you mention a chemical name
even without elaborating, and anytime the learners encounter chemical names while reading their
textbook and other materials even without your guidance. Giving this idea to the learners will readily make
them understand the difference of elements and compounds. Asking them to look at the chemical names
of the elements in their Periodic Table will support this concept.
Note: The Periodic Table referred hereto is the one prepared by this writer. Considering the numerous similar works in
circulation by different authors or publishers, using the material from different source will be to the disadvantage to both of
you and your students. To cite an example, the atomic numbers as shown in the copy presented here is found on the left upper
corner of the frame where all other data of the elements are contained. In other works it is found on the right upper corner
and still in others it is located below and in either side of the chemical symbol of the element which, needless to say, entails
explanation how each kind could be used effectively. As much as possible it is suggested that students be advised to use a
Periodic Table from one source/of the same author.

Illustration:

Chemical Names
Elements Compounds
Sodium Sodium Chloride
Iron Iron Oxide
Calcium Calcium Carbonate
Magnesium MagnesiumSulfide
Hydrogen Hydrogen Peroxide
Table 1. Elements and Compounds

2. COMPARING CHEMICAL NAMES TO NAMES OF PERSONS


The chemical names of the elements may be compared to a person’s maiden name while those of
compounds can be compared to a person’s full name which consists of a maiden (first) name and a family
name. The illustration above will enlighten this principle.

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Students should be reminded though that some compounds have only one name while some others
have more than two chemical names which they will encounter in detail when they take up higher
chemistry or in the college level. A few examples are shown below:

Illustration:

Compounds Having Only Compounds Having More Than Two


One Name Names
Acetone Potassium Acid Phthalate
Naphthalene Benzene Sulfonyl Chloride
Formalin Dihloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane
Chloroform Aluminum Potassium Sulfate
Kerosene Lead Hydrogen Arsenate
Table 2. Chemical names of compounds

3. BASED ON THE CHEMICAL SYMBOL AND CHEMICAL FORMULA


Elements differ from Compounds in that the first is represented with only one chemical symbol while the
latter may consist of two or more chemical symbols which is called a chemical formula. It should be explained
that chemical symbols consists no more than two letters wherein the first is in capital letter followed by a
small letter. Others consists of only one letter written in the upper case. Representations consisting of two
or more capital letters would therefore indicate a compound. With the Periodic Table on hand, learners has
access to scrutinize the chemical symbols of the elements.

Illustration:

Chemical Symbols & Chemical Chemical Formulas & Chemical


Names Names
Al- Aluminum NaCl- Sodium Chloride
Na- Sodium KMnO4- Potassium Permanganate
C- Carbon C2H5OH- Ethyl Alcohol
Mg- Magnesium H2SO4- Sulfuric Acid
Pb- Lead CaCO3- Calcium Carbonate
Table 3. Chemical names, Chemical Symbols of Elements and Chemical Formulas of Compounds

CHEMICAL SYMBOLS
A chemical symbol is a representation of the chemical name of an element, atom or ion.

Example:
Fig.7a-Element Manganese Fig.7b-Manganese atom Fig.7c- Manganese ion

The example shows that the symbol for Manganese ion differ from that of the symbol of the Element
and of the atom because it has a charge. This should be made clear to the students. There are three ways
how scientists created the chemical symbols of the elements:

1. CHEMICAL SYMBOLS DERIVED FROM THE CHEMICAL NAMES OF THE ELEMENTS

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Referring to the Periodic Table, most of the chemical symbols consists of two letters which are based
on the chemical names of the elements. The first letter is the first letter of the chemical name of the
element written in capital, followed by a small letter taken from any of the letters in the chemical name of
the same element.

Illustration:

Chemical Chemical Chemical Chemical


Names Symbols Names Symbols
Arsenic As Roentgenium Rg
Cesium Cs Manganese Mn
Platinum Pt Nickel Ni
Zirconium Zr Helium He
Gadolinium Gd Strontium Sr
Table 4. Chemical Symbols of Elements based on its chemical name

2. CHEMICAL SYMBOLS ORIGINATING FROM THE ANCIENT OR LATIN NAME OF THE ELEMENT
Symbols of some elements seem to defy the logic of using the letters from its names. But not really; it is
because these symbols are derived from the Latin names of the element which suggests its early discovery.
Basically, they follow the same pattern as shown in Table 4 above except that it is based on the Latin names
of the element.

Illustration:

Latin Names Chemical Symbols Common Names


Stibium Sb Antimony
Cuprum Cu Copper
Aurum Au Gold
Ferrum Fe Iron
Plumbum Pb Lead
Hydrargyrum Hg Mercury
Kalium K Potassium
Argentum Ag Silver
Natrium Na Sodium
Stannum Sn Tin
Wolfram W Tungsten
Table 5. Chemical Symbols of Elements based on its Latin name

3. ONE LETTER CHEMICAL SYMBOLS


Elements with only one letter consist of the first letter of its chemical name written in capital such as
Sulfur (S), Oxygen (O), Hydrogen (H), Boron (B) etc., with the exception of Potassium (K) and Tungsten (W)
which are derived from their Latin names Kalium and Wolfram respectively. Locating these one lettered
chemical symbol of elements in the Periodic Table is quite easy because they appear to be bolder than the
rest.
10
THE PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS
The Periodic Table of Elements is a very useful material in the study of chemistry. It is a product of the
effort and ideas of many prominent scientists of different generations, developed for centuries in their
desire for future generations to better understand the complicated aspects of the surroundings in this
world we live. Skilfully and systematically arranged in rows and columns, it helps the user better
understand the chemical and physical properties of the elements and matter in general. A copy of a
Periodic Table is shown below. The Periodic Table can be compared to a compact book or reference
material in the study of matter sans definitions, descriptions, illustrations and other features of a textbook
which can otherwise be remedied through classroom lectures and discussions. It is not simply a listing of
things intended to be discarded afterwards but a property on whose position is worth a treasure.
Initially, it would be of help if students are given a standing assignment (an assignment given long
before a particular topic or activity is discussed/performed), to study the features of the Periodic Table.
They should be guided by referring to the Legend (or Key) of the chart. With this approach, it is expected
that this will instill in them awareness of the importance of the material leading to familiarity of the
features which identifies the properties and other information of the elements in the chart.
Among the contents of the Periodic Table students in grade 7 should be particular with are the following:

1. ARRANGEMENT AND GROUPINGS OF THE ELEMENTS


The elements in the Periodic Table are arranged horizontally called Group or Family. Each Group are
numbered consecutively from 1-18 in the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry)
system, while Groupings as designed by the CAS (Chemical Abstract Service) are assigned Roman Numerals
from I-VIII paired with capital letters A for the main group and B for the subgroups called Transition Metals.
The vertical arrangement of the elements is called Period; there are 7 of them (Image shown below).

Fig.7. A copy of the Periodic Table

11
To improve visibility, a sketch of the Periodic Table is reproduced below limiting the features to those
that are relevant to the topics being discussed here.

IUPAC Groupings
1 2 16 17 18
PERIODS

IA CAS Groupings VIIIA


ALKALI METALS NOBLE GASES

2 4.00
1 1.00 Atomic Number Helium
Hydrogen
1
IIA
ALKALINE EARTH VIA VIIA
METALS GROUPS or FAMILY CHALCOGENS HALOGENS

3 6.94 4 9.01 8 16.00 9 18.9 10 20.16


Lithium
2 Beryllium Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Transition Metals

Fig.8-A sketch of the Periodic Table pictured above.


87 (223) 118 (294)
Francium Oganesson
7

2. CHEMICAL NAMES AND CHEMICAL SYMBOLS


As can be seen in the Periodic Table, all elements have chemical names and chemical symbols both of
which are contained in only one frame or box. A simple inspection of the chart show that no two elements
have the same chemical name and symbol. This should give an idea to the learner that one element is
distinct from all the others. A notable trend that can elicit examining the relationships of the elements is
the consecutive numbering of the Atomic Numbers going across the Periods.

3. ATOMIC NUMBERS
The Atomic Numbers of the Elements are found at the upper left corner of the rectangular frames. The
Atomic Numbers are definite for each Element. No two elements have the same atomic numbers.

4. CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS
The classification of the Elements can easily be recognized by referring to the color of the chemical
symbol of the Element in the Periodic Table. Below is an illustration of the Color Indicators.

Illustration:
Metal Nonmetal Metalloid
Fig.9- Color Indicators of the Chemical
Symbols of the Elements

5. LOCATION OF THE ELEMENTS


Learners should be oriented involving the significance of the zigzag line in the Periodic Table that it can
be used as a guide in locating the metals, nonmetals and metalloids.

ROLE OF THE ELEMENTS

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So much had been said of all forms of matter as made up of elements. From air above to soil below,
from rocky and woody mountains high, oceans and rivers below, food to waste; even in life and death the
Elements plays a great role in all of them.

1. IN THE HUMAN BODY AND OTHER ORGANISMS


There are 11 Elements vital to the human body. Oxygen is the substance that supports life of living
things. In humans, breathing collects Oxygen from air which is used to burn or oxidize food, transported
by the red blood cells to all parts of the body which is used to produce energy. Plants need oxygen for
respiration at night and photosynthesis to make food at day. Lack of oxygen in air will weaken the human
body and its absence will eliminate all forms of life. Hydrogen is contained as a component of water that
helps dissolve minerals, distribute nutrients and control body temperature among others. Lack of water
will result to dehydration and weaken bodily functions. Carbon is the building block of the cells in our body.
It is contained as component of sugars and carbohydrates. Our skeletal system and teeth is made durable
by the element Calcium. Organisms like seashells and surfaces of the oceans like corals, rocks and sand are
abundant in Calcium containing compounds. Nitrogen is contained in the amino acids and is a component
of the DNA. Potassium helps maintain the proper functions of the human cells, tissues and organs. Sodium
keeps the body fluids at a balance. It is the element that regulates blood pressure, functions of muscles
and nerves. Sulfur strengthens the body’s resistance to bacteria, clean the blood, and is instrumental in the
reactions of enzymes and synthesis of proteins. Chlorine controls the acid-base balance in the body. This
element is readily absorbed and excreted according to body requirements. Magnesium helps maintain the
normal heartbeat, a healthy immune system, and regulates glucose levels. Phosphorous, along with
calcium helps in the formation of strong bones and teeth. It is also involved in the maintenance of body
cells and tissues.
Other elements needed in the body are the metals Iron, Zinc, lead, copper, Aluminum, Barium, Tin,
Nickel, Manganese etc., including the nonmetals Iodine and Fluorine. These list is only a part of what is
believed to be 60 an adult human body contains.
Let it not be mistaken that the elements are directly ingested in its pure form to the human body. Far
from it; these are obtained from the foods and food supplements that we eat.

2. IN THE ATMOSPHERE
It is of knowledge by this time to the learners that the atmosphere consists of an ocean of gases notably
of air which is composed of Oxygen and Nitrogen. Traces of the Noble Gases such as Helium, Argon etc. as
well as gaseous compounds Water Vapor, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxide, and Sulfur Dioxide etc. are
contained in the atmosphere. Some gaseous compounds are better known to be contaminants or
pollutants in air.

3. IN THE HYDROSPHERE
The Hydrosphere consists of large bodies of water. Elements such as Hydrogen, Oxygen, Calcium,
Magnesium, Bromine, Iodine, Sodium and Chlorine are found in sea water. Sodium and Chlorine are the
elements contained in table salt. A compound of Calcium called Calcium Carbonate forms the corals of the
sea. Traces of elements Gold, Silver, Copper and other metallic elements can be found in rivers and lakes.

3. IN THE LITHOSPHERE
In the sprawling ranges of the Earth’s crust can be found almost all of the Elements in varying
abundance. Metallic Elements are collected by extracting them from rocks called mineral ores. They are
separated from its impurities and processed to its pure form. Mining firms are involved in extracting
voluminous Elements from the earth’s crust such as Iron, Copper, Aluminum, Zinc, Gold and Silver. Other
elements are obtained by methods depending on their reactivity.

13
Many of these Elements are used in varying activities and in varying amounts to produce goods,
improve services, and maintain health and all forms of human needs generally directed towards an
enjoyable, comfortable and sustainable existence of human life.

ABUNDANCE OF THE ELEMENTS


The abundance of the elements can readily be appreciated by the students by citing its role to
themselves, the organisms and the environment aside from giving them the percentages composition in
the earth’s crust such as follows:

1. OXYGEN
Referring to the Periodic Table, Oxygen is element number 8. It belongs to Group VIA (CAS) or 16
(IUPAC). Oxygen is the most abundant element on earth because it is found or contained in all three phases
of matter. Air, a gas, consist of oxygen (about 21%). 88.89% of oxygen is contained in the compound water,
a liquid. In solids it combines with other elements forming silicates, salts, metallic and nonmetallic oxides.
Considering the vast number of living things on earth that are dependent and are sufficiently supplied with
oxygen provides an idea to the students how great the amount it is contained on earth.

2. SILICON
Next in abundance is Silicon. It is usually contained in sand, rocks, stones and clay. Sand, rocks and
cement which contains Silicon Dioxide (SiO2) are essentially needed in constructing buildings, roads,
bridges and many other infrastructure projects as well as in the production of concrete products. We can
see the abundance of element Silicon based on the observation from the surrounding that among the most
visible objects with which we are closely associated to are the materials mentioned above. Silicon is a
metalloid which belongs to Group IVA (CAS)) or Group 14 (IUPAC). A common use of Silicon in technology
is in the manufacture of semiconductors.

3. ALUMINUM
Looking at the Periodic Table, Aluminum is the second element going down Group IIIA (CAS) or Group 13
(IUPAC). Aluminum is the most abundant of all metals in the earth’s crust. Its shiny appearance and
resistance to corrosion makes it ideal for aerospace and transportation industries. A large amount of this
metal is also used in constructing building facades, making door and window frames, roofing, container
cans and utensils. We see alloys of aluminum at home in the form of cooking vessels. As its name suggests,
a wrapper known as Aluminum foil is made of Aluminum.

4. IRON
Iron is one of the earliest elements discovered by man. Used as implements in the early ages, it is
currently one of the most in demand metals which is used in the production of steel marketed as
reinforcement in the construction of buildings, roads, bridges and other infrastructure projects. Citing the
length of highways and the proliferation of concrete structures in urban areas will give a hint to the learners
the relative abundance of this element. Iron is a member of the Transition Metals that belongs to Group
VIIIB (CAS) or Group 8 (IUPAC).

5. CALCIUM
Calcium belongs to Group IIA (CAS) or 2 (IUPAC) in the Periodic Table. It is an important component in
the skeletal frame of the human body. Being a highly reactive metal, it is never found free in nature but in
the form of compounds. Calcium Carbonate is the most abundant compound of Calcium. Stalactites and
stalagmites found in caves, corals, shells of shellfish, mollusks and snails are made of this compound. Most

14
common to the students that contain compounds of Calcium is chalk, tiles, porcelains and marble among
others.

Evaluation: (Open Periodic Table)


Identify the following (Answers are encircled):
1. What is the importance of separating mixtures?
a. to clean the mixture from its impurities c. to obtain the purest and useful components of a
b. to minimize time in identifying the mixture
parts of a mixture d. to be able to classify the mixture
2. Which statement clearly identifies a substance?
a. a substance is unique c. a substance consists of two different materials
b. a substance has a constant boiling point d. a substance is heterogeneous
3. All of the following are compounds except:
a. H2O b. CHCl3 c. NaCl d. Sn
4. How are the elements in the Periodic Table arranged?
a. horizontal b. vertical c. increasing atomic number d. all of them
5. What element is considered most abundant in the earth’s crust?
a. oxygen b. hydrogen c. chlorine d. nitrogen
6. Which of the following would correctly represent a chemical symbol of an assumed element?
a. i b. xL c. RF d. Pc
7. If a chemical symbol consists of the letters ab, how will it be correctly written?
a. ab b. AB c. Ab d. aB
8. What method is appropriate to separate a mixture consisting of a liquid solute and a liquid solvent?
a. filtration b. decantation c. evaporation d. distillation
9. Where in the Periodic Table can you find elements that are electrical conductors?
a. above b. left side c. below d. right side
10. Which statement correctly differentiate a metal from a nonmetal?
a. metals are pure form of matter nonmetals are not
b. metals combine with oxygen nonmetals does not
c. metals are shiny nonmetals are dull
d. metals conduct electricity nonmetals conducts heat

THE COMPOUNDS
A compound is a substance made of two or more different elements. Compounds are generally classified
as Organic and Inorganic compounds with both reclassified as Acid, Base and Salt.

Illustration: Compounds

Organic Inorganic

Acid Base Salt


Fig. 10 Classification of Compounds

Organic compounds refers to compounds containing the element Carbon except those consisting of
Carbonates (CO3) Cyanide (CN) and Cyannate (CNS) ions. Examples of this compounds are Calcium
Carbonate (CaCO3) Sodium Cyanide (NaCN) and Potassium Thiocyannte (KCNS). Learners will have the time

15
to learn more about organic compounds in the higher levels. What we will be dealing for the rest of the
topics that will be discussed here involves inorganic compounds.
Inorganic compounds are those compounds containing or made up of elements other than carbon. Such
compounds as Sodium Chloride (NaCl), Magnesium Sulfate (MgSO4), Barium Oxide (BaO) and many more
are examples of inorganic compounds.
ACIDS
An acid is a compound containing a Hydrogen (H+) ion. Hydronium is the name used for Hydrogen atom
specifically in relation to its function in acid compounds which is often given a moniker of acid former. A
common identity of Acids can be seen in its chemical formula which starts with the element Hydrogen (H).
Among the many acids that are used at home and in industries are listed in the table below.

Chemical Formulas Chemical Names Common Uses


HCl Hydrochloric Acid Cleansing agent, refining ores, battery making

HC2H3O2* Acetic Acid Vinegar, food seasoning, preservative

HNO3 Nitric Acid Manufacture of fertilizers, explosives, aqua regia

H2SO4 Sulfuric Acid Production of drugs, pigments, explosives, batteries

H3PO4 Phosphoric Acid Production of detergents, stain remover, dispersant

*An Organic Acid, inclusion is due to its popularity in household use


Table 6. List of common Acids

BASES
A base is a compound containing a Hydroxide ion (OH-) usually written at the end of its chemical formula.
Bases should not be confused with alcohols and acids in organic chemistry which have endings or contains
the –OH and –OOH ions respectively. Bases are otherwise known as alkaline compounds. In solutions, they
are called alkaline solutions. Some of the common bases are given in the table below.

Chemical Formulas Chemical Names Common Uses


NH4OH Ammonium Hydroxide Production of fertilizers, rubber, plastics, anti-fainting

NaOH Sodium Hydroxide Preparation of soap, nylon, rayon and paper industries

Ca(OH)2 Calcium Hydroxide Control acid level of soil, food preparations,

Mg(OH)2 Magnesium Hydroxide Manufacture of laxatives, antacids, relief for indigestion

Al(OH)3 Aluminum Hydroxide Production of laxatives, antacids

KOH PotassiumHydroxide Manufacture of cosmetics, soap, shampoo, cleaners

Table 7. List of common Bases


SALTS
The reaction between an acid and a base results to the formation of salt and water which is known as
Neutralization Reaction, hence salts are otherwise called neutral compounds.

Examples:

1. 2.
Acid Base Salt Water Acid Base salt Water
Learners should be clarified that salt does not strictly refer to the common table salt. Although there
are varieties of salts that comes in different colors and also used in the same way as the common salt,
there are more that can be formed in chemical reactions such as shown in example 2 aside from salts that
are formed in the earth’s crust. A few is listed in the table below.

16
Chemical Formulas Chemical Names Common Uses
(NH4)2Cr2O7 Ammonium Dichromate Photography
NaHCO3 Sodium Bicarbonate Baking
MgSO4.7H2O Magnesium Sulfate Heptahydrate Laxatives
CuSO4 Copper Sulfate Fungicide
Table 8- List of common Salts

METHODS OF IDENTIFYING ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS


1. BASED ON TASTE
Acids has a sour taste which are corrosive that damages the skin or clothes upon contact. Bases has a
bitter taste and are slippery to the skin. Salts are salty others are tasteless or bland. Warning!Tasting
anything in the laboratory is dangerous. Learners should be adequately warned against tasting anything
without your consent including eating during laboratory works to keep them safe from harm such as
chemical contamination they might have obtained somewhere in handling of some of the materials.
Acids, bases and salts are contained in the foods that we eat including fruits and vegetables. Listed below
are some fruits and vegetables with acidic and alkaline properties.

Acidic Fruits Basic Fruits Acidic Vegetables Basic Vegetables


Lemons Avocado Mushrooms Okra
Mangoes Banana Cabbage Mustard
Pears Papaya Beets Asparagus
Oranges Coconut Eggplants Squash
Apples Watermelon Carrots Spinach
Pineapple Kiwi Tomatoes Broccoli
Grapes Cashew Taro root Potatoes
Peaches Peanuts Cucumbers
Strawberries Ampalaya
Table 9- List of some acidic and basic fruits and vegetables

2. BASED ON THE REACTIONS WITH INDICATORS


Finding out as to whether a compound is an acid or a base is done using indicators. An indicator is a
material which contains pigments of plants that changes in color when in contact with an acid or a base.
The indicators commonly used in the laboratory are the litmus paper, methyl orange, phenolphthalein,
and pH paper. Salts are otherwise called neutral compounds indicating that no change can be observed in
any of the indicators used. It is for this reason that the table given below involves only reactions of acids
and bases with indicators.

REACTIONS OF COMPOUNDS WITH INDICATORS


Indicators Acids Bases
Litmus Paper Changes blue litmus paper to red Changes red litmus paper to blue
Methyl Orange Changes methyl orange to red Changes methyl orange to yellow
Phenolphthalein No change Changes phenolphthalein to pink
pH Paper Ranges from yellow to red Color ranges from dark green to purple
Table 10- Color change of Indicators in Acid and Base Compounds
17
Depending on the strength or concentration of the samples being tested, color reactions may vary from
one sample to another. For example if a blue litmus paper is used to test a dilute acid solution, the color
may be observed to be pinkish while in another of higher concentration may appear perfectly red. The first
compound tested may be classified as a weak acid and the second a strong acid.
Using a pH paper is similar to how a litmus paper is used (i.e. dipping the indicator in the solution) but
the acidity or alkalinity is determined through the change in color of the indicator which is referred to a
color chart which looks similar to the illustration below.

Illustration:

pH Color Indicators

pH Values 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Base
Acids Neutral (Salts) Bases
Base
Fig. 11- pH Color Indicators and pH Values

3. BASED ON pH SCALE
A pH scale is obtained from an instrument called pH Meter. The scale ranges from 0- 14 with acids having
a pH range of 0-6, while bases has a pH range of 8-14. The smaller the pH value of an acid, the stronger is
its acidity while in bases, the larger pH value of a base, the stronger is its alkalinity. Salts or the neutral
compounds has a pH of 7.
A portable type of a pH meter is easy to use even to young learners as Grade 7.

IMPORTANCE OF pH
When we use pH in relation to the human body it means balance in the acid-base content of our system
necessary for the organs to perform its normal functions. Our body consists of both acidic and basic
materials. Our digestive system for example has a high acid content in the form of Hydrochloric Acid which
helps in the digestion of the foods that we eat. Uric Acid is another compound contained in; (you can guess
it right), urines. In previous science classes, learners had probably often heard from their teachers the
terms nutrients, minerals, proteins, DNA, RNA, in addition to ( this may sound strange to them) fatty, amino
and lactic acids. Bases plays a major role in our body. Blood, which is one major lifeline of the functions of
the human body is alkaline with a pH of 7.4. Common bases that are contained in the body are Sodium
Hydroxide, Magnesium Sulfate, Aluminum Hydroxide, and Sodium Bicarbonate that neutralizes acid
content when our body tends to acquire increasing alkalinity. In its entirety, the human body is slightly
basic with a pH range of 7.3-7.5.
Growth of plants are influenced by the acid- base content of the soil; some plants are grown in alkaline
soil while others thrive in acidic soil. Overly acidic soil is neutralized by treating it with lime water and other
non-threatening basic solutions such as Aluminum and Iron Sulfates but the best neutralizer of soil is the
granular type of Sulfur. Conversely, if the soil is too alkaline, compounds such as Ammonium Sulfate, Urea,
Ammonium Nitrate and other acidifying fertilizers will increase acidity ideal for plant growth. The ideal pH
level of soil for plants is 5.5-7.5
In the production of consumer goods such as preserved foods, beverages and canned products, the pH
value of the commodities are maintained both in the pre-production stage to prevent growth and
accumulation of microorganisms that may degrade it’s quality, and post- production stages to ensure the
commodity reaches the consumers at its maximum level of quality and usability the product is intended
for. Of the indicators considered above, pH values leads as the most reliable based on the fact that they

18
are indicated by numerical values which can be detected by a pH meter to as much as the thousandth
significant figure, making it possible to pinpoint the slightest difference in acidity and alkalinity strengths
of compounds. pH values are logarithmic functions which translates to tenfold the acidity or basicity of the
preceding number. For example if a compound has a pH of 2, it means it is 10 times more acidic than one
that has a pH of 3.

MORE ABOUT THE ELEMENTS


So much had been said of the elements in the previous parts of this articles but there are more about it
to be learned by the students. In fact, at these stage of their studies, they should know that they are still
at the primary level of studies in chemistry. More information about the elements had to be considered
for the students to acquire a strong foundation of preparedness to face the many and higher challenges in
chemistry that lies ahead.
An Element is the simplest form of matter made up of only one kind of atom. It is the building block of
all forms of matter whether it is a solid liquid or gas. The Elements itself exists in all three phases of matter;
some are solids, others liquid and still others are gasses. There are 118 Elements known to date and
scientists expects to find some more. Of these number, 5 are liquids, 12 are gases with the remaining 101
consisting of the solid elements (please refer to your copy of the Periodic Table). These numbers however
vary depending on the conditions (temperature and pressure) affecting the elements. For example Cesium
(Cs) is a solid at room temperature (room temperature differs from region to region or country to country
on a wider scale), but liquefies at a little above room temperature. At Standard Temperature and Pressure
(STP, where T = 0oC or 273 oK and P = 1 atm or 760 mm. Hg), only the elements Mercury and Bromine are
liquids. There are varying information regarding the number of liquid elements which ranges from 2-14
which can be attributed to differences in climatic conditions worldwide. The phases of the elements can
easily be found by referring to the Color Indicators of the Periodic Table reproduced below:

Illustration: Color Indicators

Solid Liquid Gas Artificially


Prepared
Elements

Fig. 12- Color Indicators of the Phases of the Elements

CLASSIFICATION OF THE ELEMENTS


The elements are classified into three; the metals, nonmetals and metalloids. Of the 118 elements, 94
are metals, 17 are nonmetals and metalloids 7. The classification of the elements can easily be found in the
Periodic Table through the color of the chemical symbols (See Fig. 9 Color Indicators of the Chemical
Symbols of the Elements, p.12) or through its location in the Periodic Table (refer to the diagram below).
On the left side are located the metals except Hydrogen, right side are found the nonmetals and metalloids
are alongside the zigzag line. Nonmetals

Zigzag Line

Metals

Fig. 13- Sketch of the location of metals, nonmetals and metalloids in the Periodic Table

19
Ironically, the high number of metallic elements pales in comparison to its percentage composition in
the earth’s crust which is composed mostly of nonmetals. Oxygen alone accounts for almost 50%, followed
by Silicon at 28%.

PROPERTIES OF THE ELEMENTS


The properties of the elements is classified as Physical and Chemical properties. The Physical properties
of the elements can be identified based on the following observable characteristics:

1. APPEARANCE

Metals Nonmetals Metalloids


Metals are shiny, ductile, and malleable. When Dull and brittle. Some are Several are shiny but are
metals appear to be tarnished due to corrosion, solids, others are gases, brittle that easily breaks.
its luster reappear when the stain is scraped or one is a liquid (Br).Solid All metalloids are solids
removed. Most metals are heavy for its size, nonmetals appear to be at normal conditions.
firm and strong. Except for the 5 liquids powdery, flaky or
mentioned above, all metals are solids. crystalline.

2. ELECTRICAL CONDDUCTIVITY

Metals Nonmetals Metalloids


Metals are good electrical conductors. Silver is Only Carbon in the form Silicon, Boron and
the best but Copper is the most commonly used of Graphite is an Germanium are sometimes
for electrical wires followed by Aluminum. Gold electrical conductor. called semiconductors
is also good but may not be worth the price; it is Others are poor or non- because they can be
better known as a commodity in the form of electrical conductors at electrical conductors at the
jewelries. Iron, Zinc, Tin and Lead are good all. right conditions. Others are
electrical conductors but not good enough for non-electrical conductors.
electrical purposes

3. HEAT OR THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY

Metals Nonmetals Metalloids


Metals are good heat conductors. Aluminum, Diamond and Graphite Thermal conductivity of
Copper, Zinc and Iron are commonly used to which are allotropes of metalloids are identical to
produce alloys that can withstand melting in Carbon, are good thermal their electrical
making sturdier cooking vessels without losing conductors. All others are conductivity.
or degrading the thermal property of the poor or non-thermal
material. conductors at all.

REACTIONS OF OXYGEN WITH METALS AND NONMETALS


Oxygen is one of the most reactive elements capable of combining with other elements be it solid, liquid
or gas. Zinc, a solid, combines with Oxygen forming Zinc Oxide. Mercury, a liquid reacts with Oxygen

20
forming Mercuric Oxide and Hydrogen, a gas forms water with Oxygen. The reaction of Oxygen with an
element is called oxidation. Oxidation may be slow or rapid. In slow oxidation the reaction of a material
with oxygen takes place rather slow such as the fading of clothes and rusting of iron. A faster oxidation
can be observed when a material is exposed to oxygen in air resulting to change in color to some parts of
the object such as the peeling of santol where the white inner peel turns to brown, cutting of camote where
some parts becomes black others brown and slicing of eggplant where the exposed white meat of the
vegetable becomes slightly brown. Rapid oxidation is usually accompanied with fire, explosion and smoke
such as burning of paper, wood etc., explosions of firecracker, dynamite and gunpowder.
The reaction of metals and nonmetals with oxygen form a product called oxide. Metallic elements that
combine with Oxygen are called metallic oxide, while a nonmetallic element reacting with Oxygen is known
as nonmetallic oxide. The term oxidation should be kept with reservation because in higher chemistry it
has a broader meaning which refers to change in oxidation state of an element/s in chemical reactions.
An important aspect involving the metallic and nonmetallic oxides is their property to combine with
water forming acidic and basic compounds. Metallic oxides reacts with water to form basic or alkaline
compounds while nonmetallic oxides forms acidic compounds in the presence of water.

Examples:
A. Reactions of nonmetallic oxides with water
1. SO2 + H2O H2SO3 2. CO2 + H2 O H2CO3
Sulfur Dioxide (a Water Sulfurous Acid Carbon Dioxide (a Water Carbonic Acid
nonmetallic oxide) nonmetallic oxide)

B. Reactions of metallic oxides with water

1. MgO + H2O Mg(OH)2 2. FeO + H2 O Fe(OH)2


Magnesium Oxide (a Water Magnesium Hydroxide Iron Oxide (a Water Iron (II) Hydroxide
Metallic oxide) (a base) Metallic oxide) (a base)

Supplementary test questionnaires:


Select the correct answer. Open Periodic Table (answers are encircled):

1. Which best describes a compound?


a. a compound consists of two substances
b. a compound consists of two or more substances
c. a compound consists of two different elements
d. a compound consists of two or more different elements
2. Based on the chemical formulas given below which is an acid compound?
a. ZnS b. CaSO4 c. H3PO4 d. KOH
3. Which pair is a product from the reaction of an acid and a base (Neutralization reaction)?
a. water and salt b. oxide and oxygen c. salt and acid d. element and compound
4. The following are properties of metals except:
a. luster b. brittleness c. ductility d. malleability
5. How do you classify a compound which changes neither red nor blue litmus paper?
a. acid b. base c. salt d. inorganic
6. A material has a pH of 3.5. How it is best identified?
a. weak base c. strong base
b. weak acid d strong acid.
7. How will you locate the metals in the Periodic Table?
a. at the top b. below c. right side d. left side
21
8. A substance is shiny but can easily be crushed into pieces when pressed by the fingers. If the material
is an element, how will you classify it?
a. metal b. nonmetal c. metalloid d. none of them
9. The reaction of an element with oxygen is known as:
a. oxide b. metallic oxide c. nonmetallic oxide d. oxidation
10. Acid rain is formed when sulfur dioxide combines with water vapor in the atmosphere. What
property of oxides of the elements is indicated by this?
a. metallic oxides forms alkaline compounds with water
b. nonmetallic oxides forms acidic compounds with water
c. metallic oxides forms organic compounds with water
d. nonmetallic oxide forms salts with water

THIS WRITER

Yolando A. Alura is a former chemistry and mathematics teacher at the High School Department of FEATI University in
Sta. Cruz, Manila where he obtained his B.S.E. degree majoring in Chemistry with units in M. A. Ed. majoring in
Administration and Supervision. He transferred to Parañaque National High School where he taught mathematics but was
reassigned to handle chemistry which would be his assignment for the duration of his teaching career. For several years he
was stationed at Dr. Arcadio Santos National High School also in Parañaque.
He is a Jaime N. Ferrer Foundation awardee for outstanding achievement for his work entitled Periodic Table of the
Elements (A Visual Aid for Chemistry Students). A co-writer of a reference book entitled Chemistry for Philippine High
Schools, he also prepared science manuals titled Laboratory Workbook in Science and Technology I and III. Current editions
are titled Science Activities for Grades 7, 8 and 10, the latter in collaboration with Ma. Teresa B. de los Santos. He retired
from the teaching service in 2007.

Images of the of this writers current version (K-12) of science workbooks, Science Activities for
Grades 7, 8 and 10. To ensure its usability, a complete set of ready to use chemicals needed in the activities
is supplied to school users. For inquiries, please contact 0923-6712-343.
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