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Unit 4

Paper 3 May/June 2002


Section A : Families and Households
1. (a) Explain the difference between a family and a
household. (9)

(b) Evaluate the claim that the nuclear family is a universal


feature of societies. (16)

2. (a) Describe with examples, the types of conjugal relationships


that may be found in societies.
(9)

(b) Assess the claim that conjugal roles have become more
equal in recent years. (16)

Paper 3 May/June 2003


Section A : Families and households
1. (a) Describe, with examples, the variety of households that may
be found in societies. (9)

(b) Evaluate the claim that the nuclear family is of declining


importance in modern industrial societies
(16)

2. (a) Describe,with examples, the major trends in marriage and


divorce over the last 100years
(9)

(b) Assess the extent to which the changes that you have
outlined in (a) reflect the changing status of women in society
(16)

Paper 3 May/June 2004


Section A : Families and Households
1. (a) Descibe, with examples from the family, what is meant by
life cycle. (9)

(b) Evaluate the extent to which the state may influence


family life. (16)

2. (a) Describe, with examples, how the status of children has


changed in families over the last 10 years.
(9)

(b) Evaluate the view that in modern industrial societies there is


equality between all famiy members
(16)

Paper 3 May/June 2006


Section A : families and Households

1. (a) Describe, with examples, what is meant by a matrifocal


family. (9)

(b) Evaluate the claim that the nuclear family is universal in


modern industrial societies.(16)

2. (a) Describe, with examples, how the status of the elderly has
changed in modern industrial societies.
(9)

(b) Evaluate the statement that ‘the rising divorce rate is


evidence of the increasing unpopularity of marriage’.
(16)

Paper 3 May/June 2007


Section A : Families and Households
1. (a) (i) Define the term kinship
(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of kinship.
(6)

(b) Evaluate the claim that in modern societies social class


determines the type of family structure people adopt.
(16)

2. (a) (i) Define the term conjugal roles.


(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of conjugal
roles (6)

(b) Evaluate the claim that the family oppresses its less
powerful members. (16)

Paper 3 Oct/Nov 2008


Section A : Families and Households
1. (a) (i) Define the term patriarchy.
(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of
patriarchal family structures.(6)

(b) Evaluate the clam that families in modern industrial


societies are increasingly democratic
(16)

2. (a) (i) Define the term cohabitation.


(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of socially
approved living arrangements between adults, other than
cohabitation. (6)

(b) Evaluate the claim that industrialization has resulted in the


formation of nuclear family structures.
(16)
Paper 3 May/June 2002
Section B : Education
1. (a) Explain, with examples, the meaning of self-fulfilling
prophecy in relation to educational achievement
(9)

(b) Assess the view that education continues to be dominated


by patriarchal ideology. (16)

2. (a) Explain, with examples, the meaning of meritrocacy.


(9)
(b) Assess the extent to which education is linked to social
mobility. (16)

Paper 3 May/June 2003


Section B : Education
3. (a) Describe, with examples, the patterns of educational
achievements of ethnic minorities.(9)

(b) Assess the factors that may explain differences in the


educational achievements of ethnic minorities.
(16)

4. (a) Describe the process of labeling in education.


(9)

(b) Assess the Functionalist view that education in modern


industrialized societies is based on meritocratic principles
(16)

Paper 3 May/June 2004


Section B : Education
1. (a) Describe, with examples, inequalities that may exist within
schools. (9)

(b) Evaluate the extent to which factors outside school influence


educational achievement.(16)

2. (a) Describe, with examples, the nature of the hidden


curriculum. (9)

(b) Evaluate the extent to which pupil attitudes may affect the
outcome of their education. (16)
Paper 3 May/June 2006
Section B : Education
3. (a) Describe, with examples, two sociological theories that
explain the role of education.(9)

(b) Evaluate the contribution of feminist theories in


understanding the educational achievement of school pupils.
(16)

4. (a) Describe, with examples, the influence of peer groups on


educational achievement. (9)

(b) Evaluate the view that in modern industrial societies


education systems are meritocratic.
(16)

Paper 3 May/June 2007


Section B : Education
1. (a) (i) Define the term material deprivation.
(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of the way
in which material deprivation can affect education.
(6)

(b) Evaluate the claim that in modern industrial societies


state education systems act as a means of social control.

2. (a) (i) Define the term gender stereotyping.


(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of gender
stereotyping takenfromeducation.
(6)

(b) Evaluate the contribution of interactionists to an


understanding of the educational process as experienced by pupils.
(16)
Paper 3 Oct/Nov 2008
Section B : Education
3. (a) (i) Define the term meritocracy.
(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly two examples of meritocratic
education systems. (6)

(b) Evaluate the claim that education is the key to social


advancement (16)

4. (a) (i) Define the term hidden curriculum.


(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of the way
in which the hidden curriculum operates.
(6)

(b) Evaluate the claim that those who control the curriculum
determine who will achieve educational success.
(16)

Paper 3 May/June 2002


Section C : Religion
1. (a) Describe, with examples, the process whereby a sect may
become a denomination.(9)

(b) ‘Religion is the belief of marginalised’. Evaluate this view.


(16)

2. (a) Describe two sociological theories of the role of religion in


society. (9)

(b) ‘Religion has little influence in modern industrial societies’.


Assess this view. (16)
Paper 3 May/June 2003
Section C : Religion
1. (a) Describe two sociological explanations for the continuing
existence or religious observance in society.
(9)

(b) How valid is Weber’s claim that “scientific rationality will


replace religious ideology in modern industrial societies?”
(16)

2. (a) Describe the changing nature of religious power in societies.


(9)

(b) Assess the validity of the secularisation thesis.


(16)

Paper 3 May/June 2004


Section C : Religion
1. (a) Describe the ways in which ethnicity may influence patterns
of worship. (9)

(b) Assess the extent to which religious practices are shaped by


economic factors (16)

2. (a) Describe, with examples, the differences between sects,


denominations and churches(9)

(b) Assess the extent to which religion continues to influence


societies today (16)

Paper 3 May/June 2006


Section C : Religion
1. (a) Describe, with examples, the role that religion may have in
promoting social change.(9)
(b) Assess the view that religion helps to maintain social order.
(16)

2. (a) Describe, with examples, the meaning of denomination with


regard to religion.(9)

(b) ‘The existence of fundamentalism in many societies means


securalisation has failed to take place.’ Assess this view.
(16)

Paper 3 May/June 2007


Section C : Religion
1. (a) (i) Define the term social function.
(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of the social
function of religion.(6)

(b) ‘Far from maintaining social order, religion is often an


initiator of social change.’ Assess this claim.
(16)

2. (a) (i) Define the term religious movements.


(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of new
religious movements. (6)

(b) Evaluate the post-modernist view that there is no role for


traditional religious organizations such as churches in modern
industrial societies. (16)

Paper 3 May/June 2002


Section D : crime and Deviance
1. (a) Explain, with examples, the relative nature of crime and
deviance (9)
(b) Evaluate the way in which studies has contributed to a
sociological understanding of deviance.
(16)

2. (a) Explain how the level of official crime statistics may be


affected by the activities of law enforcement agencies.
(9)

(b) Assess the view that crime is an activity largely undertaken


by young working class males.
(16)

Paper 3 May/June 2003


Section D : Crime and Deviance
1. (a) Describe the influence of ‘moral panics’ on levels of crime.
(9)

(b) ‘Levels of crime reflect levels of deviance’. Evaluate this


proposition. (16)

2. (a) Explain why females appear to commit fewer crimes than


males. (9)

(b) Assess the view that working class males are more likely to
commit deviant acts than others.
(16)

Paper3 May/June 2004


Section D : Crime and Deviance
1. (a) Describe, with examples, the way in which some behaviour is
labeled as deviant. (9)

(b) ‘High levels of crime among some groups in society can be


explained in terms of deviancy amplification.’ Evaluate this view.
(16)

2. (a) Describe, with examples, the differences between


sociological and biological theories of deviance.
(9)
(b) Evaluate the view that crime is a result of the activities of
law enforcement agents.(16)

Paper2 May/June 2006


Section D : Crime and Deviance
1. (a) Describe, with examples, how societal reaction can play a
part in creating deviant behaviour.
(9)

(b) ‘Society’s responses to crime and deviance serve to reinforce


social solidarity.’ Assess this view.
(16)

2. (a) Describe, with examples, the patterns of recorded crime


amongst young males. (9)

(b) Assess the view that crime in society is a consequence of


ideological denomination(16)

Paper3 May/June 2007


Section D : Crime and Deviance
1. (a) (i) Define the term moral panic.
(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of moral
panic. (6)

(b) Evaluate the view that most crime in modern industrial


societies is carried out by young working class men.
(16)

2. (a) (i) Define the term social order.


(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of social
order in relation of crime and deviance.
(6)

(b) ‘There is no such things as deviance in society other than in


the mind of the observer.’ Assess this claim.
(16)
Paper3 May/June 2002
Section E : work and leisure
1. (a) Describe, with examples, the nature and consequences of
the dual labour market. (9)

(b) Assess interactionist explainations of the nature of


organizations (16)

2. (a) explain, with examples, the meaning of alienation.


(9)

(b) Evaluate sociological research which argues that worker


satisfaction can be improved.(16)

Paper3 May/June 2003


Section E : Work and Leisure
1. (a) Describe, with examples, how the position of ethnic
minorities in paid employment has changed in the last 100 years
(9)

(b) Assess the social consequences of the changes in


employment for ethnic minorities over the last 100 years.
(16)

2. (a) Explain the nature of work and what differentiates it from


other activities. (9)

(b) Assess the extent to which satisfaction from work is gained in


modern industrial societies.
(16)

Paper3 May/June 2004


Section E : Work and Leisure
1. (a) Describe, with examples, the consequences of ageism in
work. (9)

(b) Assess the consequences for employment of a global


economy (16)

2. (a) Describe, with examples, the meaning of professionalisation.


(9)

(b) Assess the usefulness of the concept of social closure in


explaining the privileges enjoyed by professional groups.
(16)

Paper3 May/June 2006


Section E : Work and Leisure
1. (a) Describe, with examples, the patterns of inequality in
employment. (9)

(b) ‘Bureaucracy remains the most efficient type of


organization.’ Assess this view. (16)

2. (a) describe, with examples, the difficulties involved in


measuring unemployment (9)

(b) ‘Alienation is the result of dissatisfaction at work.’ Assess this


view. (16)

Paper3 May/June 2007


Section E : Work and Leisure
1. (a) (i) define the term scientific management.
(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of scientific
management in relation to studies of work.
(6)

(b) Evaluate the view that in modern industrial societies


women no longer face sexual inequality in the workplace.
(16)

2. (a) (i) Define the term professionalisation in relation to work.


(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples of
professionalisation in relation to studies of work.
(6)

(b) Evaluate the view that in modern industrial societies social


identity is shaped primarily by employment.
(16)

Paper3 May/June 2002


Section F : Mass Media
1. (a) Describe how the roles of agenda setters or gatekeepers can
influence media content.(9)

(b) ‘The owners of the mass media have complete control over
what is published and broadcast’. Assess this view.
(16)

2. (a) Describe, with examples, the process of deviance


amplification. (9)

(b) Assess the view that the mass media are a major source of
stereotypes of young people.
(16)

Paper3 May/June 2003


Section F : Mass Media
1. (a) Describe how the processes or selection and presentation of
the content of the mass media can influence audiences.
(9)

(b) Assess the view that the mass media is used as a means of
ideological control. (16)

2. (a) Describe, with examples, how the mass media stereotypes


and labels different groups of people.
(9)

(b) Assess the view that the mass media is partly responsible for
the level of violence in modern industrial societies.
(16)
Paper3 May/June 2004
Section F : Mass Media
1. (a) Describe how patterns of ownership of the mass media have
changed in the last 100 years.
(9)

(b) Evaluate pluralist theories of the role of the mass media in


modern industrial societies.(16)

2. (a) Describe the ways in which different audiences may use the
mass media. (9)

(b) Evaluate the view that the mass media is a major source of
ideological control in modern industrial societies.
(16)

Paper3 May/June 2006


Section F : Mass Media
1. (a) Describe, with examples, the ways in which the mass media
create representations of powerless groups.
(9)

(b) Assess the view that the mass media is a part of the
ideological state apparatus. (16)

2. (a) Describe, with examples, the process of deviancy


amplification. (9)

(b) ‘Media representations produce violent behaviour.’ Assess


this claim. (16)

Paper3 May/June 2007


Section F : Mass Media
1. (a) (i) Define the term ideological control.
(3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two ways in which the mass
media may act as a means of ideological control.
(6)

(b) ‘The growth of conglomerates that control the global media


is undermining local cultures.’ Assess this claim.
(16)

2. (a) (i) Define the term operational control in relation to the mass
media. (3)
(ii) Identify and briefly describe two examples o
operational control in the context of the mass media.
(6)

(b) Evaluate the view that the mass media has a direct effect
on the attitudes and behaviour of its audience.
(16)