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Language and Language Yeaching Journals

Vol. 6, No. 2, November 2013 ISSN 1979-8903

Editor in Chief
Rr. Dewi Wahyu Mustikasari

Editors
Hanung Triyoko
Ari Setiawan
Setia Rini
Ruwandi
Faizal Risdianto

Distributor
Mudjianto

Publisher
English Department of Educational Faculty
State Institute for Islamic Studies (STAIN) Salatiga

Address
Jl. Tentara Pelajar No. 02 Salatiga 50721 Central Java, Indonesia
Phone (0298) 323706, 323433, Fax (0298) 323433

Website
journalregister.stainsalatiga.ac.id

The first issuance


June 2008

Issuance
Twice a year
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Language and Language Yeaching Journals

Vol. 6, No. 2, November 2013 ISSN 1979-8903

Table of Content

Psychological Structural Analysis to “A Child Called It” by Dave Pelzer


Endang Susilowati................................................................................103

Students‘ Perceptions on a Good Tertiary Foreign Language Teacher


Siti Tarwiyah & Nadiah Ma’mun ......................................................117

The Impact of Structural Competence Towards Speaking Competence of


The Fourth Semester Students of English Department of Tarbiyah
Faculty IAIN Walisongo Semarang in the Academic Year of 2010/2011
Muhammad Nafi Annury ....................................................................153

The Influence of Digital Games Based Learning on Students‘ Learning


Outcomes and Motivation
Rahmat Yusny & Sarah Fitri..............................................................175

Autonomous Learning Writing Promoted by the Use of Facebook Group


Khairil Razali & Husnul Khatimah ...................................................199

Grammatical Interference from English into Indonesian Language Made


by English Native Speakers in Salatiga
Ratih Asti Supriyanto ..........................................................................221

Index ......................................................................................................239

Submission Guidelines .........................................................................241


Reviewer

KC Lee
Centre for English Language Communication, National University
of Singapore

Prof. Dr. Gusti Astika


Satya Wacana Christian University

Handoyo
Politeknik Negeri Jember

T. Ruanni F. Tupas
Centre for English Language Communication, National University
of Singapore

Dr. A. Gumawang Jati, M.A


UPT Pusat Bahasa Institut Teknologi Bandung

Drs. Ahmad Sofyan, Ph.D


Universitas Negeri Semarang

Dr. H. Sa‘adi
Sekolah Tinggi Agama Islam Negeri (STAIN) Salatiga
Endang Susilowati

Psychological Structural Analysis to “A Child Called It” by


Dave Pelzer

Endang Susilowati
Ngudi Waluyo Nursing Academy
Jl. Gedong Songo Candi Rejo Ungaran
endsus2@yahoo.co.id

Abstract

This paper attempts to explore a child abuse, the reason and the effect of
the character‘s psychological development using the theory of
psychological development and structural analysis. Two approaches are
used in this paper. Those are structural approach and psychology,
especially developmental psychology approach. The first approach focuses
on literary intrinsic elements. The second approach focuses on the
character‘s psychological development based on the developmental stages
and tasks. Those are integrated into a psychological structural analysis. The
result shows that child abuse that experienced by David is physical and
psychological. He got the first stage of abuse commited by his mother
who didn‘t give him food and the last stage evidenced by some physical
abuses when he lived with his mother. The primary reasons of David
abuses are disciplinary patterns and he was regarded as a trouble maker.

Keywords: Psychological structural analysis, child abuse and


psychological development.

Abstrak

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengungkapkan kekerasan pada anak,


alasan dan dampak dari kekerasan tersebut terhadap perkembangan
psikologis tokoh dengan menggunakan teori perkembangan psikologis dan
analisis struktural. Ada dua pendekatan yang digunakan dalam penelitian
ini. Pendekatan tersebut adalah pendekatan struktural dan psikologi,
khususnya psikologi perkembangan. Pendekatan pertama berfokus pada
unsur intrinsik sastra. Pendekatan kedua berfokus pada perkembangan
psikologis tokoh berdasarkan tahap dan tugas perkembangan. Kedua
pendekatan tersebut diintegrasikan ke dalam analisis struktur psikologis.
Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa kekerasan terhadap anak yang dialami oleh

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Psychological Structural Analysis to “A Child Called It” by Dave Pelzer

David adalah kekerasan yang berupa fisik dan psikologis. Dia mendapat
tahap pertama kekerasan yang dibuktikan dengan ibunya yang tidak
memberinya makanan dan tahap terakhir dari kekerasan yang dibuktikan
dengan beberapa hukuman secara fisik ketika ia tinggal dengan ibunya.
Alasan utama David mendapatkan penyiksaan adalah pola pendisiplinan
dan ia dianggap sebagai anak yang menjadi sumber masalah.

Kata kunci: Analisis struktur psikologis, Kekerasan pada anak dan


Perkembangan psikologis

Introduction
Novel as a genre of literary work has intrinsic elements such as
character and characterization, plot and plotting, setting and point of view.
Those transfer the writer‘s ideas to readers. Some novels are personal,
seeking to explore human relationships, conflicts, desires and fears. This
novel seems to appeal to readers in the way that described the writer‘s idea.
For example, Dave Plezer, the writer of novel trilogy A Child Called it,
The Lost Boy and A Man Named Dave tells his idea about child abuse in
his novels. This paper only focuses on his first novel, A Child Called It.
David Plezer through Dave—tells about a child who tried to
survive from his mother‘s cruelty. His father only watched without ability
to help him. Even when he was legally taken by his country, his effort to
be freed from his mother‘s shadow couldn‘t be stopped. Until at last he can
prove that he can become a famous writer.
This paper tries to explore the kind of child abuse and its effect to a
child by analyzing its character and characterization, plot and the writer‘s
point of view. Because the problem is the psychological development of a
child so it needs developmental psychology. Those theories will be
integrated.
Wellek and Warren (1976:81) state ‗by psychology of literature‘,

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we may mean the psychological study of the writer as type and as


individual, or the study of the creative process, or the study of
psychological types and laws present within works of literature, or , finally,
the effect of literature upon its readers (audience psychology). It is known
that psychology can be used to analyze the writer‘s soul, his creative
process, psychological types and the concept of psychology in literature
and the effect of literature works upon its readers. It can be said that there
is a significant relationship between psychology and literature. Psychology
helps to clarify the problems in literature and literature presents insight to
psychology.

Developmental psychology
Monks, et.al (2004:1) say that the object of developmental
psychology is the human development as an individual. Development
refers to a process leading to bring out capabilities and cannot be repeated.
Some psychologists differ in their opinion about growth and development.
Growth refers to the adding of body weight and physical‘s function,
whereas development refers to distinctive nature of psychological
condition.
Erikson approach in discussing the process of child development is
to outline the stages of psychosocial development. Those are trust versus
distrust (0-1 year), autonomy versus shyness and doubtful (1-3 years),
initiative versus guilty (3-6 years), ability feeling versus low self esteem
(6-12 years), identity and role disoriented (12-18 years), intimacy versus
isolation (21-40 years/early adult), generative versus stagnation (40-
65/middle adult) and ego integrity versus desperate (65-die). Those phases
have their own developmental task.
Meanwhile Piaget in his theory about cognitive development

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Psychological Structural Analysis to “A Child Called It” by Dave Pelzer

explains that cognitive development is discussed based on the phase of


sensoric-motoric, preoperational, concrete operational and formal
operational states (Piaget, 1952:18,42,153). At every process of
development there is a combination of self-encouragement to maintain and
develop the self-encouragement. This means that what have been achieved
will be maintained and used as a basic moral for further development. As a
result of the defense, one will store all the useful experience. This
experience will make the person more intelligent and mature.
Kartono (1995:40) states that the combination of self-defense and
encouragement of self-development is a process of new synthesis
integration, namely the impulse of self realization and self-transcendence
efforts. The developmental psychology also mentions that the principle of
development, the main motive of life is to negate and break away from all
obstacles, sense of tension, and inner disequilibrium to reach and satisfy
state of inner equilibrium. This balance would be achieved if all the
requirements are met so all tension and mental disorders are lost.

Discussion
By using the first person point of view (I), the narrator seemed to
make the reader able to feel all feelings experienced by the character.
David as the main character and is a complex figure as can be seen from
the dynamics of his life. It can be seen from his efforts to survive in the
face of violence committed by his mother. The character in this novel is
figured in dramatic ways. The reader will know the character and his
attitude from several measures taken by him to survive. In the process of
reading the novel, the reader will soon be brought with the dynamism of
the character who never gave up in his quest to survive the abuse.

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“I act timid, nodding to her threats. „Please, „I say to myself, „just


let me to eat. Hit me again, but I have to have food. „Another blow
pushed my head against the tile counter top. I let the tears of mock
defeat stream down my face as storms out the kitchen, seemingly
satisfied with herself. After I count her steps, making sure she‟s
gone, I breathe a sigh of relief. The act worked. Mother can beat
me all she wants. I haven‟t let her take away my will to somehow
survive.
I finish the dishes, then my other chores. For my reward I receive
breakfast-leftover from one of my brother‟s cereal bowls.” (4)

In his very young age (6-12 years), David has known that he had to
get food if he wanted to live. His effort is not only having food but also
stealing, slacking off when his mother would torture him, being very
obedient and others. Based on the plot of time analysis, this novel uses
flash back. The first chapter of the novel is Rescue. It tells about David‘s
life at the end he got abuse from his mother, as cited in the first chapter of
this novel:‖ 5 March 1973, Daly City, California-I‟m late I‟ve got to finish
the dishes on time, otherwise no breakfast; since I didn‟t have dinner last
night, I have to make sure I get something to eat” (3). From this note, it
can be seen that at the first narration, the narrator at this case is David who
brings the reader to the situation when he had to finish his task if he
wanted to get a plate of rice. In this chapter, David also tells about the
rescue that was done by his school teacher and ends the abuse from his
mother. Then he was brought to foster house by a police officer.
“I run to the administration office, and I‟m there in a flash. My
throat is raw and still burns from yesterday‟s „game‟ Mother
played against me. The secretary leads me into the teacher‟s
lounge. After she opens the door, it takes a moment for my eyes to
adjust. In front of me, sitting around a table, are my homeroom
teacher Mr. Ziegler, my match teacher Miss Woods, the school
nurse, Mr. Hansen and a police officer… I have no idea that they
are about to risk their jobs to save me” (9)

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Then, the story is back to the situation when he was happy with his
family and when his mother still loved him:‖In the years before I was
abused, my family was „Brady Bunch‟ of the 1960s. My two brothers and I
were blessed with the perfect parents. Our every whim was fulfilled with
love and care‖ (17). In this step through the chapter of Good Times, David
tries to explore his mother‘s closeness with her children and David‘s
admiration of his mother. ―My Mother, Catherine Roerva, was a woman of
average size and appearance. I never could remember the color of her hair
or eyes, but Mom was a woman who glared with love for her children…”
(18). David also told that her mother was a perfect woman for him.
―When it came to house keeping, Mom was an absolute clean fiend.
After feeding my two brohters, Ronald and Stand, and I breakfast.
She would dust disinfect, scour and vacuum everything. No room in
our house was left untouched. As we grew older, Mom made sure
we did our part by keeping our room neat. Outside, she
meticulously attended a small flower garden, which was the envy of
the neighborhood, with Mom, everything she touched turned into
gold. She didn‟t believe in doing anything halfway. Mom often told
us that we must always do the best could, in whatever we did” (18-
19).

From David‘s story readers can know that David admired and loved
her mother so much. Her mother really cared of her sons and her house.
Even her neighbors were also jealous with the way she managed her house.
It is told by David when he was four (4) years. According to Kohlberg
moral developmental psychology (1968:12) a child in this age is on the
sensoric-motoric and preoperational phase by interpreting a thing or an
event. David also uses his sensoric-motoric by starting to evaluate his
house condition and his mother which makes him comfortable. This
comfortable state can be seen from his happiness when he lived with his
parents and his brothers. At Halloween and Christmas celebrations his

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mother always gave the best things to him. Because his father was a fire
man who worked for 24 hours, he and his brothers spent most of the time
with his mother. Base on the Erikson psychosocial development, David
didn‘t get bias of development when he was in 0-11 months or in the phase
of trust versus un trust and when he was in one (1) until three (3) years old
or in phase of autonomy versus shyness and doubtful. Because of that,
David had really trust on his mother. His mother‘s love in giving his daily
needs when he was hungry or thirsty made him feels comfortable. He was
never scared of his mother and it also made his mother close to her
children. At that time, he was the youngest children in his house. He could
play with his brothers well.
The story develops with his mother changing and to ill treat David
as the conflict in this story emerges. In the chapter of Bad Boys, David told
that his mother‘s treatment to him changed dramatically because of
disciplinary reasons. His mother often gave punishment to him. It made
him afraid of his mother. His fear is the conflict source in this story and
makes the story more developed.
“About this time, Mom‟s behavior began to change radically. At
times while father was away, she would spend the entire day lying
on the couch, dressed only in her bathrobe, watching television.
Mom got up only to go to the bathroom, get another drink or heat
leftover food. When she yelled at us, her voice changed from
nurturing mother to the wicked witch. Soon, the sound of Mother‟s
voice began to send tremors down on my spine. Even when she
barked at one of my brothers, I‟d run to hide in our room, hoping
she would soon return to the couch, her drink and her tv show”
(30).

It can be seen from the quote that the abused happened when
David‘s father was not at home. His mother‘s attitude changed and this
changing made David‘s afraid. His mother who was initially described as
an ideal mother for her children, day by day her character changes. The

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problem between David and his mother developed more as when his
mother often gave David punishment. The punishment started from
standing at the corner of the bed to smashing and pinching.
“SMACK!” Mother hits me in the face, and I topple to the floor. I
know better than to stand there and take hit, I learned hard way
that she takes that as an act of defiance, which means more hits, or
worst of all, no food”(37)
“Mother claimed that she had seen me that very day playing on the
grass, which was absolutely forbidden by her rules. I quickly
answered that I never played on the grass. I knew Mother had
somehow made a mistake. My reward for observing Mother‟s rules
and telling the truth was a hard pinch in the face” (40-41)

In the chapters The Fight for Food and While Father is Away,
David tells his mother abused to him. In exploring those abuses, the
narrator brings the reader to the phase of the end of the character‘s
torturing. Plot of the story presented the existing conflict between David
and his mother and makes it interesting. The worst punishment that David
got from his mother was when she didn‘t allow David going out with his
father and his brothers when they went out.
“….Once in the cabin, I was scolded for making too much noise.
For my punishment, I was not allowed to go with father and my
brothers to the super slide. I sat on a chair in a corner, shivering,
hoping that something would happen so three of them wouldn‟t
leave. I know mother had something hideous on her mind. As soon
as they left, she brought out of Russell‟s diapers. She smeared the
Diaper on my face. I tried to sit perfectly still. I knew if I moved, it
would only be worse. I didn‟t look up. I couldn‟t see Mother
standing over me; but I could hear her heavy beating.”(53)

David gets abused when he was four (4) years old. According to
Erikson (1963:19) a child in this age is on the initiative versus guilty phase
(3-6 years). In this phase the child started to develop his independency by
his effort to wear his own cloth, to take his own food and to go to the toilet.
David didn‘t get development problem in this phase because at the

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beginning of his life, he felt comfortable living with his family. He had
been able to control himself. The abuses continuously happened to David.
David hoped that his father could help him but he never got it. His father
only saw what his mother had done to him. It made David hates his father
so much.‖...when I open them, I stared at Father who turned away to avoid
my pain. At that moment I hated Mother to the end, but I hated father even
more”. (64). According to Kohlberg moral development (1968:15),
David‘s feeling to his father emerged because David was in pre-
conventional phase. He had learned about good and bad and he had known
that what his mother had done to him was not good but he didn‘t get
support from his father. He came to hate his father as the result of his
disappointment.
After David was pushed to eat his own vomit, his punishment was
changed to the ammoniac. Because he couldn‘t eat, his mother forced him
to drink that liquid. As the child who didn‘t know the dangers of the
ammoniac, David thought that his punishment was too easy for him. He
only needed to open his mouth and his problem would be finished.
According to Piaget cognitive development (1952:42), the child 7 until 11
years old, his thinking is more rationale, imaginative, and can explore more
object or situation to solve his problem. But his thinking ability isn‘t
completed. It also happened to David. His knowledge about the dangerous
of the ammoniac wasn‘t sufficient.
“Without hesitation I opened my mouth, and mother rammed the
cold spoon deep into my throat. Again I told myself this was all too
easy, but moment later I couldn‟t breathe. My throat seized. I stood
wobbling in front of Mother, feeling as if my eyes were going to pop
out of my skull…” (75)

As a result of that punishment, David nearly died.. He couldn‘t


breathe, his throat was burned and his body seized. But it didn‘t make his

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mother stop to punish him. His mother stabbed her knife into David‘s
stomach accidentally.
“She tried to regain her balance, snapping at Russell to let go of
her leg, while she continued to scream at me. By then, her upper
body looked like rocking chair that was out of control. Forgetting
about her useless threats, I imagined that the old drunk was going
to fall flat on her face. I focused all my attention on Mother‟s face.
Out of the corner of my eye I saw blurred object fly from her hand.
A sharp pain erupted from just above my stomach. I tried to remain
standing, but my legs gave out, and my world turned black” (87)

David thought with this accident his punishment would be over, but
he was wrong. His mother still asked him to finish his food and wash all
the dishes in thirty minutes. With his body still weak and in very severe
pain, David followed his mother‘s instructions. This condition is like the
climax of the story, but the tensions of the story still continued. His mother
dunks David‘s face in the bathroom sink. Those abuses made David were
very scared of his mother. According to Hurlock psychological
development (1991:131) about the changing relationship between children
and their parents, it can happen because of the concept of a good child. If
the child doesn‘t fulfill what his parents needed, his parents often become
critical and punished. It also happened into David‘s mother who thought
that David isn‘t a good boy because he always breaks her rules and always
be able to have tactics to face each of her punishment and it makes her
annoyed and made her give more and even worse punishment. ―…This will
teach The Boy to quit stealing food!‖ (76). Her mother‘s reason giving hard
punishments to stop David‘s habit stealing food in his school.
As 4-6 years child or in initiative versus guilty phase in Piaget
(1952) cognitive development phase, David started his initiative by
planning and trying new things. In his development phase he thought that it
may not give a chance to him for fighting and he didn‘t have another

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choice to be freed from his torturing. The climax of this story is in chapter
The Lord Prayer as the end of the chapter of A Child Called It. This
chapter told about David‘s abuse when he was a proud of his writing was
the best in his school and his teacher was very a proud of him. He hoped
his mother would do the same but his mother never appreciated his works.
His mother thought he was only it that had meaningless. His mother amuck
made him had no spirit to survive. ―….There is nothing you can do to
impress me! Do you understand me? You are nobody! An it! You are
nonexistent! You are a bastard child! I hate you and I wish you were dead!
Dead! Do you hear me? Dead! (140).
Views of psychosocial development suggested by Erickson
(1963:42), when David got abused from his mother, he was at the phase of
feeling ability versus low self esteem (6-12 years). In this phase the child
will begin to learn to work together to compete through academic
activities. As well as David, he felt very happy when he succeeded in
writing and it made his teacher proud of him.. He hoped her mother would
also be nice to him when she knew that he was doing well in his school,
but he was wrong. His mother did not appreciate and reward for all that
was done by him. As a result David felt that he was useless and he
becomes low self-esteem. All his efforts to prove to his mother that he
doesn‘t like what his mother‘s thought was gone. David finally found that
he was only it just like what his mother said and his presence was only
making a problem in his family. He did not have a passion for life. He
resigned to that done by her mother until she eventually rescued by the
teachers at his school.
David was in 5th grade when he was rescued. He started to get
abused when he was in kindergarten, which was the age of 3-4 years.
Refers to Kohlberg's moral development (1968:20) at that time child is in

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preconvention at the second phase. It can be seen from David's-oriented


attitude to punishment and obedience; he was very obedient to all that was
done by his mother. The obedience to his mother made him more afraid of
his mother. As a child he only felt fear when her mother suddenly punished
him when his brother also did the same thing.
“As a small child, I probably had a voice that carried farther than
others. I also had the unfortunate luck of getting caught at mischief,
even though my brothers and I were often committing the same
„crime‟. In the beginning, I was put in a corner of our bedroom. By
this time, I had become more afraid of Mom. Very afraid. I never
asked her to let me come out. I would sit and wait for one of my
brothers to come into our bedroom, and have him ask if David
could come out now and play” (29).

According to Kohlberg moral development (1963:20) at the


preconvention phase, the child should get strong motivation from his
family. This motivation is to make the child able to differentiate between
good and bad in his attitude. But if the task of child‘s development isn‘t
fulfilled, the child will not understand about good and bad label and he will
be scared. Then it‘s happened to David. He doesn‘t understand what his
mistake was. He only knew that he got a lot of punishment from his
mother.
With these experiences David became more mature than his age.
He suffered early aspiration level; the level of struggle leads a higher level.
With his attitudes, he was able to find a way to survive. He realizes, crying
is not a settlement. He must be able to think quickly and act correctly when
faced his mother. It is in line with the thinking of the Monks who said that
by the encouragement to survive, someone will save all his useful
experiences (2004:178). Then, with those experiences, someone will be
cleverer and mature and have deeper appreciation of life. Every stage of
life has just achieved a form of temporary equilibrium point of departure

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for the effort and new activities. David, with his experiences, began to look
for ways to be able to withstand his mother‘s abuse. ―Standing alone in
that damp, dark garage, I knew, for the first time, that I could survive. I
decided that I would use any tactic. I could think of defeat Mother or delay
her from her grisly obsession” (43).
In term of cognitive development, Piaget (1962), David‘s
capabilities in addressing the abuses because when he was in 6-11 years
old he is in concrete phase, he has been able to form his knowledge. David
has been able to analyze the events in his life. He thought if he wanted to
survive he had to have a tactics to face his mother.

Conclusion
Based on the analysis above, it can be seen that the writer uses flash
back of the plot in telling his story. The writer made the story interesting
and complex by revealing the tensions of the problem. The writer wants
the reader to feel what has been experienced by the character with using ‗I
‗as the point of view of his narration.
By analyzing the structural point of the literature along with
psychological development approach, it can be seen that David gets from
the first to the last stages of the child abuse. The sign of the first stage is
that he didn‘t get food from his mother and the sign of the last stage is
physical abuse such as slap in his face, pinch etc.
The primary reason of the abuse that David received is disciplinary.
His mother thought that David wasn‘t a good son so he should be
disciplined by giving a lot of punishment that were very heavy for David.
His mother also was annoyed with David because he was always able to
face her punishment.

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The effect of the abuse was that David became scared of his
mother. He also feels disappointed with his father because he couldn‘t help
him. David didn‘t understand why he got a lot of abuse from his mother
because he was still a kid when he got those abuses.

References
Erikson EH; 1963. Childhood and society. New York: Norton
Hurlock, Elizabeth B. 1991. Psikologi Perkembangan: Suatu Pendekatan
Sepanjang Rentang Kehidupan (terjemahan Istiwadayanti dan
Soedjarwo). Jakarta Erlangga.
Kartono, Kartini. 1995. Psikologi Anak (Psikologi Perkembangan).
Bandung: Penerbit Mandar Maju.
Kolberg. L. 1968. The Child as Moral. Cambridge: MA Harvard
University
Monks, et al. 2004. Psikologi Perkembangan. Yogjakarta: Gadjah Mada
University Press
Piaget, J. 1952. The Origin of Intelegence in Children. New York:
International University Press
Plezer, David. 2004. A Child Called It (thirty third impression). London:
Orion Books Ltd.
Wellek, Rene and Warren, Austin. 1976. Theory of Literature. Great
Britain: Cox and Wayman Ltd

116 REGISTER, Vol. 6, No. 2, November 2013


Siti Tarwiyah and Nadiah Ma’mun

Students’ Perceptions on a Good Tertiary Foreign


Language Teacher

Siti Tarwiyah
IAIN Walisongo Semarang
Jl. Walisongo 3-5 Semarang
nashidadear@yahoo.co.id

Nadiah Ma’mun
IAIN Walisongo Semarang
Jl. Walisongo 3-5 Semarang
nadiah.mamun@facebook.com

Abstract

This paper investigates students‘ perception of tertiary teachers‘ attitude,


method of teaching and classroom management in the teaching and
learning of (professional, pedagogic, social and personality competence)
English and Arabic Language at IAIN Walisongo Semarang. This study is
designed quantitavely and qualitatively using closed and open-ended
questionnaire for collecting data. The subject of this research is the second
semester students of the two faculties at IAIN Walisongo who, in that
semester, take Arabic or English language course. The subject is chosen
because based on 2012 course distribution, English and Arabic are
distributed in the first and the second semester. The findings revealed that
it is clearly seen that KPI (Islamic Communication & Broadcasting)
department students have better perception to their English language
teachers. Meanwhile, students who have better perception to their Arabic
Language Teachers are those from Islamic Counseling Departments (BPI)
of Dakwah faculty. Data of Tarbiyah Faculty shows Arabic language
teachers are dominating. Arabic language teachers win 0.5 over English
language teachers in almost all characteristics. This implies that expected
performance of students in English Language is based on the teachers‘
attitude, method of teaching the subject and classroom management. Based
on the above-findings, recommendations were made.

Keywords: Perception, Tertiary Teachers, Personality Social and


Pedagogic Competence, English Language, Teaching/
Learning

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Students’ Perceptions on a Good Tertiary Foreign Language Teacher

Abstrak
Makalah ini mengkaji persepsi mahasiswa terhadap kompetensi sikap,
metode pembelajaran, dan manajemen kelas dosen mata kuliah Bahasa
Inggris dan Bahasa Arab di IAIN Walisongo Semarang. Kajian ini didesain
secara kuantitatif dan kualitatif, dengan menggunakan kuesioner tertutup dan
terbuka sebagai teknik pengumpulan data. Subyek penelitian ini adalah
mahasiswa IAIN Walisongo semester dua dari dua fakultas, yaitu Fakultas
Dakwah dan Fakultas Tarbiyah. Subyek ini diambil karena pada semester
tersebut mereka sudah mengambil Bahasa Arab dan Bahasa Inggris. Hasil
kajian menunjukkan bahwa mahasiswa Komunikasi dan Penyiaran Islam
(KPI) mempunyai persepsi yang lebih baik terhadap dosen Bahasa Inggris,
sedangkan mahasiswa Bimbingan Islam (BPI) memandang dosen Bahasa
Arab mereka yang lebih baik. Data dari Fakultas Tarbiyah menunjukkkan
bahwa dosen Bahasa Arab lebih mendapat tempat dalam hampir seluruh
karakterisrik yang dikaji.

Kata kunci: Persepsi, Kompetensi Sikap, Sosial dan Pengajaran, Bahasa


Inggris, Pembelajaran

Introduction
Teaching a foreign language is considered to be one of the most
challenging teaching practices. In Indonesia, students are usually afraid of
joining foreign language classes. They may feel unmotivated, discouraged
easily. Their minds say foreign language is difficult to learn because most
of them know little thing or even nothing from the start. These phenomena
should be taken into account by English and Arabic language teachers both
at schools and at universities. .
In the teaching and learning process, teachers of English and Arabic
Language as foreign/second language (FL/SL) have an important role in
helping learners to learn. English and Arabic Language teachers must be
able to create good atmosphere of language class and engage students‘
motivation in learning them so that they can enjoy learning. This situation

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will automatically facilitate students‘ understanding and support the


realization of learning aims.
It is believed that personal, pedagogical, intellectual/professional,
and social capacity support teachers in conducting their teaching. A foreign
language teacher with good competency will be able to cope with the
following compelling factors:
1. Insufficient foreign language competence
2. The lack of knowledge and skill about the latest concept of
foreign language teaching.
3. The use of new books which the teachers must familiarize
themselves and manage to master the contents.
4. Monotonous teaching style results from insufficient knowledge
about various media and method.
5. Poor personality which will impact students‘ attitude to the
language classes.
6. Poor classroom management which will influence the classroom
atmosphere.
Good foreign language teachers manage to conduct teaching
learning process based on language teaching principles. To make sure
whether the process is done appropriately, supervision is demanded.
Supervision of teaching learning process becomes an art of the
work of the quality assurance board of a school. It is done by Lembaga
Penjamin Mutu Pendidikan, school supervisor, headmaster, and teachers of
the same subjects. The results of the supervision are, then, brought into the
focus-group discussion among the elements involved. The discussion
results in some recommendation for the future improvement of the
teaching learning process.

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Students’ Perceptions on a Good Tertiary Foreign Language Teacher

In another way it may be said that teaching learning needs


preparation or plan which covers identification of learning aims, materials,
methods, sources, and assessment. The implemented plan is then learnt to
identify the strength and the weaknesses. The weaknesses becomes the
room for improvement in the next teaching, especially when the teacher
teaches the same materials.
On the other hand, it is still perceived that many English language
teachers in Indonesia are not effective teachers. They do not have adequate
teaching skills and knowledge of subject matters, which are indicators of
effective teachers (Hay McBer, 2000). The same case tend also to happend
in Arabic language class.
The second semester students of all faculties at IAIN Walisongo
attend English or Arabic language class, since both courses are offered in
the first and the second semester. Students as the subject of teaching, in a
learner-centred class, must be aware of the importance of good lecturer,
must be critical of their teachers‘ competence. A class with a good lecturer
will be a class with good output. On the other hands 60% of Arabic (35)
and English language teachers (28) at IAIN Walisongo, where the study
was conducted, do not have either English or Arabic Education
background. This condition may influence teaching capacity of the
teachers.
On the base of that notion, this research is considered to be
important input for Centre for Language and Culture as the coordinator of
foreign language teacher and teaching at IAIN Walisongo especially in the
effort of having English and Arabic language teachers that meet the
demands of good teachers as proposed by students and concepts of teacher
competences. After being aware of the importance of having the
characteristics of good language teacher, the researcher hopes that the

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centre will upgrade its foreign language teachers‘ competence and the
teachers will also try to equip themselves with those characteristics.

Perception
Some studies on perception on teaching learning processes had
been conducted cited for this study. Among all of them are ―Good
Language Teachers‖, Whose Perception?, done by Ani Purjayanti (2007)
at Bogor Agricultural University, What Is a Good Language Teacher?:
Students‘ and Teachers‘ Reflection, conducted by listyani at satya Wacana
Christion University Salatiga, and Conceptions of a Good Tertiary EFL
Teachers in China, studied by Qunying Zhang and David Watkins (2007)
at University of Hongkong.
Hoffman said that perception aims at estimating true properties of
the world. Perception usually results in cathegorization, which is in fact the
classification of the world itself. ... perceptions usually hide the complexity
of the world and guides adaptive behaviour (Hoffman, 2013:1). The way a
person conceives and perceives something are usually influenced by the
background knowledge of thing being highlighted and the person‘s needs
and interest. The wider knowledge s/he has the more comprehensive she/he
will see the target. Nevertheless her/his view may be made blurred because
of her/his needs and interest.

Good language teacher


The perception of good teacher comprises personal and teaching
characteristics. Directorate General of Higher Education (2006) had done a
survey about students‘ expectation towards toward their teachers. It
indicates that a teacher should be clever/knowledgeable (pintar),
knowledgeable in their subjects (menguasai ilmu-ilmu yang diajarkan),

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explain difficult points in an easy way (menjelaskan hal-hal yang sulit


dengan cara yang mudah, patient and not cynical (sabar dan tidak sinis),
have broad experiences/minded (mempunyai pengalaman yang luas),
active in academic society (terkenal di masyarakat ilmiah), have a sense of
humour (humoris), not to test students‘ weaknesses in their lesson (bukan
menguji ketidaktahuan mahasiswa), show positive attitudes to their
students (bersikap positif terhadap mahasiswa)
The law on lecturers and teachers (undang-undang Guru dan
Dosen) has also explained that teachers must equip themselves with
professional, pedagogic, personal, and social competences. A teacher who
has these competences can create a classroom atmospheree, make the
lesson easy which boost students‘ motivation and good attitude to the
class/subject.
The change of curriculum from 2006 or KTSP curriculum to 2013
curriculum, which emphasizes on character education represented in its
core competence demands teacher creativity in arranging learning activities
highly. It is hoped that through learning activities students will not only get
knowledge, but also attitude and action (pengetahuan, sikap, ketrampilan).
This is explisitly mentioned and explained in the enclosure of the
regulation of minister of education (Permendikbud) no. 54/2013 about
graduation competence standard.
The 2013 curriculum also require teachers to implement scientific
approach. Through this approach teachers are demanded to design
learning activities which give more learning experience to students in their
effort to understand the materials. Through this approach teachers are also
required to integrate three domains of learning aims, i.e. cognitive,
affective, and psychomotoric, which are in line with knowledge, attitude,
and action.

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Tomlinson (2003) is among experts who explain some


characteristics of good language teachers. The characteristics are:
1. is patient and supportive
2. has a good sense of humor
3. is enthusiastic, positive, and confident
4. is interesting, stimulating, and creative
5. is a good communicator
6. is flexible and takes initiative
7. is sensitive to the needs and wants of her learners and teaches
responsively
8. is critically aware of current theoretical and methodological
developments
9. has a large and varied repertoire of pedagogical procedures
10. is proficient user of the target language
11. has awareness of the realities of the target language and of the
L1 and L2 cultures
Criteria 1, 2, 3 can be classified as personal competence and criteria
4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 belong to pedagogic competence, and 10, 11 deal with
professional competence.
In term of material development, as a part of pedagogical
competence which also supports a language teacher to be a good language
teacher, Tomlinson (1998) states the following principals of material
development:
1. provide rich and varied experience
2. provide variety of context specific beliefs
3. set achievable challenges
4. encourage cooperative learning
5. encourage peer monitoring and feedback

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Students’ Perceptions on a Good Tertiary Foreign Language Teacher

6. encourage reflection and self evaluation


7. provide constructive feedbacks
Other criteria of good language teacher can be mentioned here are
(1) he must have good mastery of teaching materials, (2) have positive
attitudes toward the target language, (3) must be patient, fair, and friendly,
(4) know how to motivate students, (5) know how to deal with modern
technology, (6) be able to activate students (I Gusti, 2007).
In a nutcell, a good teacher is a teacher who can become a good
partner for his or her students in one side and become an information
resource as well as a classroom manager in another side.

The roles of teachers in foreign language teaching


Teachers is not a person who can do anything she or he wants in her
or his class. Nevertheless it is still frequently said that a teacher is a ruler of
the class. The following roles are those which should actually be played:
1. as an observer
2. as an assessor
3. as an organizer
4. as a facilitator
5. as a participant
6. as a source
(Harmer, 1983).
Like teachers in general, a good language teacher has to play his
roles in line with his classroom situation or activity. If he is aware of all
those roles he will create a logical sequence of activities in which he can
change his role in one activity to another activity. The harmonious
activities will make the class enjoyable for the students.

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Research method
This research was quantitavely and qualitatively designed. It
employed questionnaire as the main data collection techniques. That
technique comprised closed and open-ended ones. The open ended
questionnaire was functioned as triangulation of data collection technique.
Meanwhile, the closed ended questionnaire was basically the main data
collection technique aimed at getting the same data. Students were given
enough time to express their judgment on their English and Arabic
language teacher through both open and closed ended questionnaire.
This study was carried out at IAIN Walisongo. Data of this study
were taken from students of all faculties, i.e. Education and Teacher
Training and Dakwah and Communication, who had taken English or
Arabic Language in their previous semesters. Their conceptions and
perception are the representation of their judgment made based on their
learning experience.

Discussion
Perception of students of education and teacher training faculty
Perception toward english language teachers
To gain information about students‘ perception toward English
language teachers, researchers distributed questionnaire to the students
from four departments, i.e. biology, chemistry, physics, and Islamic
Elementary School Teacher Training.

Professional competence
In terms of characteristics relating to professional competence the
data show that having good mastery of teaching materials gains the highest
score. It is 2.7. Other characteristics representing professional competence

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are proficient user of the target language, has awareness of the realities of
the target language, and doesn‟t see L1 and L2 as the different materials.
Each of them gets 2.5, 1.5, 2.3. Those scores are summarized in tabel 1
below:
Table 1
The Score of Professional Competence
of English Language Teachers
at Education and Teacher Training Faculty

No. Characteristics Score


of Professional Competence
1. has good mastery of teaching 2.7
materials
2. is proficient user of the target 2.5
language
3. doesn‘t see L1 and L2 as the 1.5
different ones
4. has awareness of the realities of 2.3
the target language
Mean 2.25

If it is seen from the ranks of 4 (strongly agree), 3 (agree), 2


(disagree), and 1 (strongly disagree), which also mean 4 (very good), 3
(good), 2 (good enough), 1 (bad) the score of 2.25 (mean) is categorized as
good enough, which does not mean good. To gain this cathegory, it still
needs 0.75 or nearly 1. The score of 2.7 does not show that the English
teachers teaching English 1, 2, and 3 at Education and Teacher Training
Faculty have good mastery of the materials. If we trace back to the
prerequisite of being English Teacher at this institution, such an impression

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or perception may not be given by the students. As can be seen, they are all
have passed their graduate program, either from home or foreign
universities. This perception may be influenced by their pedagogic
competence. A teacher with good mastery of the materials without the
support of good pedagogic competence will give unclear explanation of the
materials and result in misunderstanding. More over, if the teachers look
confused of making students understand, the perception that the materials
is difficult, that the teachers do not master the materials well may be born.
It is also shown that the teachers are also not proficient users of the
target language, with the score of 2.5. In fact speaking is still hard for most
of students and some teachers are also still hard to familiarize students with
the oral use of the target language. To use the target language is actually
not a problem for most of the English language teachers. But, it becomes a
problem when the teachers fail to grade the language to students‘ levels.
Moreover, if the class is too heterogeneous. This fact often results in the
desicion to use English less than Indonesian language when explaining the
materials. Students may see that case as the teachers‘ lack of competence
in using oral English.
Most of the teachers has less awareness of the realities of the target
language, and L1 and L2 as the different one as can be seen from the score
of 1.5 and 2.3. It may be true since not all English language teachers have
background of English Education. Some of them teach the language
because they are considered as good language users either oral or written
regardless their educational background. Cultural intgration and
personalization is importan when we teach a foreign language. But any
information about the target language is commonly interesting for the
students. Moreover, information about the target language in context.

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Students should also know in what way the native language and the
target language are different. By comparing between both of them the area
of learning difficulties may be predicted. Hence, based on this prediction,
teachers set a strategic plan in the form of teaching learning activities
which focus on that area. In a nut cell, identifying the difference between
native and target language is highly demanded in teaching a foreign
language.
One thing wonder the researcher is the data from open-ended
questionnaire. Mosts students said that their English teachers were good.
Only little of the did not say so. Some of the prooves may be listed are: ...
jelas, menguasai ‗clear, master the materials‘ (FIS/I14-L), ... sabar, cakap,
motivator yang baik ‗patient, skillfull, good motivator‘ (FIS/I15-MR), ...
tidak pernah berbahasa Inggris dan lebih mengajar tentang bahasa, bukan
ketrampilan berbahasanya ‗never speaks English and teach more about
English, not language skill‘ (FIS/I14-AR), ... sabar, berbahasa Inggris
dengan baik ‗patient, speaks English well‘ (FIS/I20-SL), menguasai materi
.... ‗master the materials‘ (PGMI/I4-MH) dan (PGMI/I6-RW), Berbahasa
Inggris dengan baik dan lancar ‗speaks English well and fluently‘
(BIO/I19-a).

Pedagogic and social competence


The scores of teachers‘ pedagogic competence are listed in the
following table:
Table 2
The Score of Pedagogic and Sosial Competence
of English Language Teachers
at Education and Teacher Training Faculty

No. Characteristics Score


1. doesn‘t believe in students‘ ability 2.7

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2. is interesting, stimulating 2.8


3. Is creative 2.7
4. is a good communicator 3.0
5. always teaches based on students‘ 2.0
request
6. is sensitive to the needs and wants 2.2
of her learners
7. teaches responsively 2.6
8. sometimes aware of current 2.7
theoretical and methodological
developments
9. has a large and varied repertoire of 2.3
pedagogical procedures
10. set hard challenges 2.3
11. Encourage cooperative learning 2.4
12. Encourage peer monitoring and 2.2
feedback
13. Encourage reflection and self 2.3
evaluation
14. provide constructive feedbacks 2.2
15 is flexible and takes initiative 2.3
Mean 2.3

Data above ensure the previous prediction that the low score of
teachers‘ professional competence may be tightly influenced by the
teachers‘ pedagogic and sosial competence. It is shown by the mean of the
competences which reaches only 2.3, which is in fact less than ideal.
Teachers‘ inability to convey the lesson clearly often result in the
perception that the teachers do not master the materials well.
The lowest score is 2.0 representing teachers‘ frequency in
accommodating students‘ request which says always teaches based on
students‟ request. Although the score seems low but it is in fact the ideal
score. When we teach, we are requested to consider students‘ request. But,
we must note not to always hear their voice.

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Before teaching teachers prepare syllabus and lesson plan. when


they implement them, they are required to involve them in terms of choice
of themes, activities learning sources. But we do that in line with our
teaching learning plan.
The frequency of monitor, feedback, reflection and evaluation is
also still low, from 2.2 to 2.3. teachers who seldom monitor students‘
activity will not be able to provide appropriate feedback. It‘s also
impossible for the to conduct reflection and class evaluation.
Monitoring is one of crucial items in teaching learning process. It in
fact needs energy and consumes time. When monitoring students‘ activity,
teachers do not have time to do their ―side busnisses‖ while students are
working out their instruction. More over, if it is followed by correcting
students‘ work. Although it‘s time consuming teachers should spend their
portion of time to monitor and correct students‘ activities and work. This is
they way how they will learn from their mistakes.
Referring to these competences, some of the data from open-ended
questionnaire also say differently. Most students said that their teachers
were good, professional who implemented varied methodes, taught for
skills, knew students‘ condition, had fun class. They said, ... menggunakan
metode bervariasi dan kelas yang menyenangkan ‗uses varied methods and
has fun class‘ (BIO/I12-a), ... kreatif, menarik, jelas, disiplin ‗creative,
interesting, clear, descipline‘ (BIO/I13-a), ... menarik, antusias, jelas,
pembelajaran berbasis tugas ‗interesting, enthusistic, clear, task-based
learning‘ (BIO/15-AP), ... sangat baik, bisa menghidupkan kelas ‗very
good, capable of enlivening class‘ (KIM/I13-ST), Mengimplementasikan
cooperative learning ‗Implementing cooperative learning‘ (KIM/I1-D),
Enak ‗Fun‘ (KIM/I29-S), Memenuhi kompetensi pedagogik .... ‗Meet
padagogic competence‘ (FIS/I2-SL), Jelas .... ‗clear‘ (FIS/I14-L), ... kreatif

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dalam penyampaian dan manajemen kelas ‗creative in delivering materias


and managing class‘ (PGMI/I4-MH), Tanggap terhadap kondisi kelas dan
tanggap terhadap karakter mahasiswa ‗Responsive to the class condition
and students‘ characteristics‘ (PGMI/I16-MR).

Personality competence
The information about English language teachers‘ personality
competence may be accessed from table 3 below:
Table 3
The Score of Personality Competence
of English Language Teachers
at Education and Teacher Training Faculty

No. Characteristics Score


1. is patient and supportive 2.4
2. doesn‘t have sense of humour 2.2
3. is enthusiastic and confident 2.2
Mean 2.3

Just like the previous three competences, the data above proove that
the average score of English language teachers‘ personality competence
has not reached an ideal score, since it is less than 3.0. Although it is not a
terrible score, the English teachers still need to improve their personality.
They still needto be more patient and supportive, have sense of humour,
enthusiatic and confident.
To change a person‘s personality is not an easy job, since it has
usually been built from her/his family and closest environment. But it is
not impossible for a person to have better personality, to suit with the
requirement of her/his profession.
That process may be started from improving teachers‘ emphaty and
care. Put ourselves in the position of others so that we can feel what others

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feel. Emphaty may boost our care, may make us more patient and
supportive, and enthusiatic when handling our class.
Some students had good perception about their English teachers‘
personality competence by expressing their opinion through the open-
ended questionnaire. Some said that their teachers are Menarik, antusias,
.... ‗Interesting, enthusiastic‘ (BIO/I15-AP), Perhatian pada yang belum
paham ‗Give attention to those who are unclear‘ (BIO/I26-a), Enak ‗Fun‘
(KIM/I29-a), Fleksibel, humoris, obyektif ‗Flexible, has sense of humour,
objective‘ (FIS/14-L), Sabar, cakap, motivator yang baik ‗Patient, skillfull,
good motivator‘ (FIS/I16-AM), Baik, sabar, suportif, jelas, .... ‗Good,
patient, supportive, clear‘ (PGMI/I10-AM), Sabar, inovatif ‗patient,
innovative‘ (PGMI/I17-NMA), Jelas, motivator yang baik, terbuka ‗Clear,
good motivator, open‘ (PGMI/I19-MU).

Perception toward arabic language teachers


The source of information about students‘ perception toward Arabic
language teachers are students from other four departments of Education
and Teacher Training Faculty, i.e. Islamic Education, Mathematics, Islamic
Education Management, and Arabic Education.

Professional competence
The following data provide information about Arabic language
teachers‘ professional competence with the average score of 2.7.

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Table 4
The Score of Professional Competence
of Arabic Language Teachers
at Education and Teacher Training Faculty

No. Characteristics Score


of Professional Competence
1. has good mastery of teaching 3.2
materials
2. is proficient user of the target 2.8
language
3. doesn‘t see L1 and L2 as the 2.0
different ones
4. has awareness of the realities of 2.8
the target language
Mean 2.7

Table 4 shows that most Arabic language teachers at Education and


Teacher Training Faculty have good mastery of teaching materials. They
may also be cathegorized as teachers good Arabic language proficiency
and awareness of the realities of the target language. This perception may
be influenced by the good score of pedagogic competence.
Most of them are perceived not to see L1 and L2 as the different
ones. Contrasting between native language and target language may raise
students‘ awareness about the different features between all those two
languages. Good awarenesss of the differences prevent students from
transfering L1 language rules into the L2‘s they are learning. To conclude,
that comparison will be a meaningful strategy in teaching a second or a
foreign language.

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Teachers with good mastery of the materials often impatient in


delivering the materials gradually. The Arabic language teachers may also
be impatience in highlighting the difference between the native language
and the target language. That is why, students perceive that their teachers
do not see L1 and L2 as the different one.
Most of data from open-ended aquestionnaire do support the above
numerical data. Through this instrument most students also had positive
perception to their arabic teachers‘ professional competence. Among all of
them said, Menguasai .... ‗Master the materials‘ (PAI/A12-F), Menguasai,
berpengalaman, .... ‗Master the materials, experienced‘ (PAI/A21-Y),
Memenuhi standar ‗Meet the standards of a good teacher (KI/A12-SA),
Menguasai materi, .... ‗Master the materials‘ (KI/A15-SA), ... mempunyai
kemampuan linguistik .... ‗... has linguistic ability ....‘ (KI/A26-FA).

Pedagogic and social competence


The scores of teachers‘ pedagogic competence are listed in the
following table:
Table 5
The Score of Pedagogic and Sosial Competence
of Arabic Language Teachers
at Education and Teacher Training Faculty

No. Characteristics Score


1. doesn‘t believe in students‘ ability 2.7
2. is interesting, stimulating 2.8
3. Is creative 2.7
4. is a good communicator 3.0
5. always teaches based on students‘ 2.0
request

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6. is sensitive to the needs and wants 2.2


of her learners
7. teaches responsively 2.6
8. sometimes aware of current 2.7
theoretical and methodological
developments
9. has a large and varied repertoire of 2.8
pedagogic procedures
10. set hard challenges 2.7
11. Encourage cooperative learning 2.7
12. Encourage peer monitoring and 2.6
feedback
13. Encourage reflection and self 2.7
evaluation
14. provide constructive feedbacks 2.6
15 is flexible and takes initiative 2.8
Mean 2.7

The average score of pedagogic and social competence of Arabic


language teachers at Education and Teacher Training Faculty is relatively
good. Most of them are good communicator. It means that they can convey
their learning materials well. Students‘ understanding is facilitated by their
explanation.
They also do not always involve students in setting teaching
poicies. Score 2.0 means that they keep the ballance between students‘
involvement and teachers‘ authority in setting them.
Most of the teachers are also interesting, stimulating, have varied
repertoire of pedagogic procedures, flexible and take initiative. Data from

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open-ended questionnaire seem not to support the above data. Most


students of Islamic education Department (PAI) wrote that their teachers‘
explanation is ununderstandable, teacher has less attention to the slow
learners, monotonous class – ―... kurang memahami kekurangan
mahasiswa‖ (PAI/A4-MI), ―... belum baik, belum memahamkan‖ (PAI/A6-
N), ―... kurang memahamkan, tidak sesuai kontrak belajar‖ (PAI/A12-F),
―... menguasai, berpengalaman, tapi anggap mahasiswa berkemampuan
sama,‖ (PAI/A21-Y) , ―Metode kurang, hanya menghafal, kadang
monoton‖ (PAI/A26-N), ―... tidak menghiraukan yang belum bisa‖
(PAI/A26-M).
Unlike students of Islamic Education Department, students from
Mathematics, Arabic, and Islamic Education Management said differently
about their Arabic language teachers. Their Arabic language teachers are
patient, supportive, fun, creative, humorist, qualified, have good
commitment, methode, classroom management, ... Their teachers are ...
sabar, suportif, menyenangkan ‗patient, supportive, fun‘ (KI/A1-ZR), ...
berkomitmen, tepat waktu ‗has commitment, on time‘ (KI/A1-AI), ...
kuasai kelas, materi, metode ‗manage the class, master the materials and
methods‘ (KI/A5-FA), ... semangat, menarik ‗enthusiatic, interesting‘
(KI/A16-SA), ... sabar, membimbing ‗patient, guide‘ (KI/A17-YR), ...
jelas, menguasai metode, banyak inisiatif ‗clear, master teaching methods,
has good initiative‘ (PBA/A12-F), ... komunikatif, paham situasi
mahasiswa, fasih ‗communicative, understand students‘ condition, speaks
fluently‘ (PBA/A23-NMU), ... sabar, suportif, variatif, sistematis ‗patient,
supportive, variative, sistematic‘ (TM/A11-F), ... pengertian, sabar,
toleran ‗understand students‘ condition, patient, tolerant‘ (TM/A12-AH).

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Personality competence
Table 6 provides information about Arabic language teachers‘
personality competence.
Table 6
The Score of Personality Competence
of English Language Teachers
at Education and Teacher Training Faculty

No. Characteristics Score


1. is patient and supportive 2.9
2. doesn‘t have sense of humor 2.7
3. is enthusiastic and confident 2.7
Mean 2.76

From table 6 it is proven that most of the Arabic language


teachers have considerably good personality competence. Although the
score is less than but closes to 3.0.
Personality may be the first thing which creates good impression,
triggers and stimulates positive attitude to the language learning.
Personality is actually innnate, but it may be changed and developed,
although it is hard.
The data from open-ended questionnaire support the numerical
data above. Some of them are, sabar, suportif, variatif, sistematis
‗patient, supportive, variative, systematic‘ (TM/A-F), pengertian, sabar,
toleran ‗understand students‘ condition, patient, tolerant‘ (TM/A12-AH),
sabar, suportif, menyenangkan ‗patient, supportive, fun‘ (KI/A1-ZR),
sabar, kreatif, humoris ‗patient, creative, has sense of humour‘ (KI/A10-
UN), sabar, kreatif, menarik, jelas ‗patient, creative, interesting, clear‘
(PAI/A4-Mi), sabar, baik, suasana cair ‗patient, good, fun‘ (PAI/A5-

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Students’ Perceptions on a Good Tertiary Foreign Language Teacher

MT), tahu kondisi mhs, motivator ‗understand students‘ condition,


motivator‘ (PBA/A28-MNU).

Perception toward english and arabic language teachers: a brief


comparison
To highlight clearly the difference between the students‘
perception toward English and Arabic Language Teachers at Education
and Teacher Training Faculty, the researcher need to provide the
following data:
Table 7
The Score of Students‘ Perception toward English and Arabic Language
Teachers at Education and Teacher Training Faculty

Characteristics
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
E 2.4 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.7 2.6 1.8 1.7 2
A 2.9 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.7 3.2 3 2 2.2 2.6

Characteristics
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
E 2.2 2.3 2.5 1.5 2.3 2.4 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.3
A 2.7 2.8 2.8 2 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.8 2.8

If it is seen in detail, table 7 shows that in all characteristics Arabic


language teachers are dominating. Arabic language teachers win 0.5 over
English language teachers in almost all characteristics.
Meanwhile, the data from each department may be listed as follow:

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Table 8
The Score of Students‘ Perception toward English and Arabic Language
Teachers from the Departments at Education and Teacher Training Faculty

Teachers‘ Department Average Score


Subject
English Biology 2
Chemistry 3
Physics 2
Islamic Elementary Teacher Training 2
Arabic Islamic Education 2
Mathematics 2
Islamic Education Management 3
Arabic Education 3

It is clearly seen that chemistry department students have better


perception to their English language teachers. Meanwhile, students who
have better perception to their Arabic Language Teachers are those from
Islamic Education Management and Arabic Education Departments.
The above conclusion does not mean that teachers who teach
chemistry, Islamic Education Management and Arabic Education
Departments students are more qualified than those who teach the rest of
students, since the English and the Arabic classes are mixed. The students
are classified based on their intake rather than their department.

Perception of students of dakwah and communication faculty


Perception toward english language teachers
To gain information about students‘ perception toward English
language teachers, researchers distributed questionnaire to the students
from four departments, i.e. KPI, BPI and MD.

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Professional competence
In terms of characteristics relating to professional competence the
data show that having good mastery of teaching materials gains the highest
score. It is 3.2. Other characteristics representing professional competence
are proficient user of the target language, has awareness of the realities of
the target language, and doesn‟t see L1 and L2 as the different materials.
Each of them gets 2.7, 2.2, 3.1. Those scores are summarized in tabel 1
below:
Table 1
The Score of Professional Competence
of English Language Teachers
at Dakwah and Communication Faculty

No. Characteristics Score


of Professional Competence
1. has good mastery of teaching materials 3.2
2. is proficient user of the target language 2.7
3. doesn‘t see L1 and L2 as the different ones 2.2
4. has awareness of the realities of the target language 3.1
Mean (11.2 : 4) 2.8

If it is seen from the ranks of 4 (strongly agree), 3 (agree), 2


(disagree), and 1 (strongly disagree), which also mean 4 (very good), 3
(good), 2 (good enough), 1 (bad) the score of 2.8 (mean) is categorized as
good. The score of 3.2 shows that the English teachers teaching English 1,
2, and 3 at Dakwah Faculty have good mastery of the materials. As can be
seen that a teacher who has good mastery of the materials with the support
of good pedagogic competence will give clear explanation of the materials
and good result. It indicates that the perception of students toward the

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teachers is good.
On the contrary, it is shown that the teachers are not proficient
users of the target language, with the score of 2.7. In fact speaking is still
hard for most of students and some teachers are also still hard to
familiarize students with the oral use of the target language. To use the
target language is actually not a problem for most of the English language
teachers. But, it becomes a problem when the teachers fail to grade the
language to students‘ levels. Moreover, if the class is too heterogeneous.
This fact often results in the desicion to use English less than Indonesian
language when explaining the materials. Students may see that case as the
teachers‘ lack of competence in using oral English.
Most of the teachers has less awareness of the realities of the target
language, and L1 and L2 as the different one as can be seen from the score
of 2.2 and 3.1 It may be true since not all English language teachers have
background of English Education. Some of them teach the language
because they are considered as good language users either oral or written
regardless their educational background. Cultural intgration and
personalization is important when we teach a foreign language. But any
information about the target language is commonly interesting for the
students. Moreover, information about the target language in context.
Students should also know in what way the native language and the
target language are different. By comparing between both of them the area
of learning difficulties may be predicted. Hence, based on this prediction,
teachers set a strategic plan in the form of teaching learning activities
which focus on that area. In a nut cell, identifying the difference between
native and target language is highly demanded in teaching a foreign
language.

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Students’ Perceptions on a Good Tertiary Foreign Language Teacher

One thing wonder the researcher is the data from open-ended


questionnaire. Mosts students said that their English teachers were good.
Only little of the did not say so. Some of the prooves may be listed are: ...
jelas, menguasai ‗clear, master the materials‘ (FD/BPI), ... sabar, cakap,
motivator yang baik ‗patient, skillfull, good motivator‘, ... tidak pernah
berbahasa Inggris dan lebih mengajar tentang bahasa, bukan ketrampilan
berbahasanya ‗never use English, teaches about language not language
skill‘ (FD/KPI), ... sabar, berbahasa Inggris dengan baik ‗patient, speaks
English well‘, Berbahasa Inggris dengan baik dan lancar ‗Speaks English
well and fluently‘ (FD/MD).

Pedagogic and social competence


The scores of teachers‘ pedagogic competence are listed in the
following table:
Table 2
The Score of Pedagogic and Sosial Competence
of English Language Teachers
at Dakwah and Communication Faculty

No. Characteristics Score


1. doesn‘t believe in students‘ ability 2.7
2. is interesting, stimulating 2.8
3. Is creative 2.9
4. is a good communicator 2.9
5. always teaches based on students‘ request 2.5
6. is sensitive to the needs and wants of her learners 2.7
7. teaches responsively 2.8
8. sometimes aware of current theoretical and 2.7
methodological developments

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9. has a large and varied repertoire of pedagogical 3.0


procedures
10. set hard challenges 2.9
11. Encourage cooperative learning 2.7
12. Encourage peer monitoring and feedback 2.9
13. Encourage reflection and self evaluation 2.9
14. provide constructive feedbacks 2.8
15 is flexible and takes initiative 3.0
Mean (42.2 : 15 ) 2.8

Data above ensure the previous prediction that the low score of
teachers‘ professional competence may be tightly influenced by the
teachers‘ pedagogic and sosial competence. It is shown by the mean of the
competences which reaches 2.8, which is in fact less than ideal (good
enough). Teachers‘ inability to convey the lesson clearly often result in the
perception that the teachers do not master the materials well.
The lowest score is 2.5 representing teachers‘ frequency in
accommodating students‘ request which says always teaches based on
students‟ request. Although the score seems quite low but it is in fact the
ideal score. When we teach, we are requested to consider students‘ request.
But, we must note not to always hear their voice.
Before teaching teachers prepare syllabus and lesson plan. when
they implement them, they are required to involve them in terms of choice
of themes, activities learning sources. In fact, we do that in line with our
teaching learning plan.
The frequency of monitor, feedback, reflection and evaluation is
good enough, from 2.8 to 2.9. teachers who seldom monitor students‘
activity will not be able to provide appropriate feedback. It‘s also

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Students’ Perceptions on a Good Tertiary Foreign Language Teacher

impossible for the to conduct reflection and class evaluation. It needs


improvement to have a good result.
Monitoring is one of crucial items in teaching learning process. It in
fact needs energy and consumes time. When monitoring students‘ activity,
teachers do not have time to do their ―side busnisses‖ while students are
working out their instruction. More over, if it is followed by correcting
students‘ work. Although it‘s time consuming teachers should spend their
portion of time to monitor and correct students‘ activities and work. This is
they way how they will learn from their mistakes.
Referring to these competences, some of the data from open-ended
questionnaire also say good. Most students said that their teachers were
good, professional who implemented varied methodes, taught for skills,
knew students‘ condition, had fun class. They said, ... menggunakan
metode bervariasi dan kelas yang menyenangkan ‗uses varied methods and
has fun class‘ , ... kreatif, lumayan menarik, jelas ‗creative, interesting
enough, clear‘ (FD/BPI), ... kreatif dalam penyampaian dan manajemen
kelas ‗creative in delivering materials and managing class (FD/KPI),
Tanggap terhadap kondisi kelas dan tanggap terhadap karakter
mahasiswa ‗Responsive to the class condition and students‘ characters‘
(FD/MD).

Personality competence
The information about English language teachers‘ personality
competence may be accessed from table 3 below:

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Table 3
The Score of Personality Competence
of English Language Teachers
at Dakwah and Communication Faculty

No. Characteristics Score


1. is patient and supportive 3.1
2. doesn‘t have sense of humour 2.7
3. is enthusiastic and confident 3.5
Mean (9.3 : 3) 3.1

Different from the previous three competences that the data above
proove that the average scores of English language teachers‘ personality
competence has not reached an ideal score, since it is less than 3.0. This
table of Personality shows that their personalities are good. They are not
only patient and supportive, but also enthusiatic and confident. Even
though teachers‘ emphaty and care, patient, supportive, and enthusiatic
when handling our class in fact (based on the data above) they are less
sense of humor in a classroom.
Perception toward arabic language teachers
The source of information about students‘ perception toward
Arabic language teachers are students from other three departments of
Dakwah and Communication Faculty, i.e. KPI, BPI, and MD.

Professional competence
The following data provide information about Arabic language
teachers‘ professional competence with the average score of 2.7.

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Table 4
The Score of Professional Competence
of Arabic Language Teachers
at Dakwah and Communication Faculty

No. Characteristics of Professional Competence Score


1. has good mastery of teaching materials 3.2
2. is proficient user of the target language 2.6
3. doesn‘t see L1 and L2 as the different ones 2.2
4. has awareness of the realities of the target language 3.0
Mean ( 11 : 4 ) 2.8

Table 4 shows that most Arabic language teachers at Dakwah and


Communication Faculty have good mastery of teaching materials. They
may also be cathegorized as teachers good Arabic language proficiency
and awareness of the realities of the target language. This perception may
be influenced by the good score of pedagogic competence.
Most of them are perceived not to see L1 and L2 as the different
ones. Contrasting between native language and target language may raise
students‘ awareness about the different features between all those two
languages. Good awarenesss of the differences prevent students from
transfering L1 language rules into the L2‘s they are learning. To conclude,
that comparison will be a meaningful strategy in teaching a second or a
foreign language.
Teachers with good mastery of the materials often impatient in
delivering the materials gradually. The Arabic language teachers may also
be impatience in highlighting the difference between the native language
and the target language. That is why, students perceive that their teachers
do not see L1 and L2 as the different one.

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Most of data from open-ended aquestionnaire do support the above


numerical data. Through this instrument most students also had positive
perception to their arabic teachers‘ professional competence. Among all of
them said, Menguasai materi ‗Master the materials‘, berpengalaman
‗berpengalaman‘, Memenuhi standar ‗Meet the standards
(FD/KPI,BPI,MD).

Pedagogic and social competence


The scores of teachers‘ pedagogic competence are listed in the
following table:
Table 5
The Score of Pedagogic and Sosial Competence
of Arabic Language Teachers
at Dakwah and Communication Faculty

No. Characteristics Score


1. doesn‘t believe in students‘ ability 2.8
2. is interesting, stimulating 2.8
3. Is creative 2.8
4. is a good communicator 2.9
5. always teaches based on students‘ request 2.7
6. is sensitive to the needs and wants of her learners 2.8
7. teaches responsively 2.7
8. sometimes aware of current theoretical and 3.1
methodological developments
9. has a large and varied repertoire of pedagogic procedures 2.9
10. set hard challenges 2.8
11. Encourage cooperative learning 2.7
12. Encourage peer monitoring and feedback 2.7

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13. Encourage reflection and self evaluation 2.8


14. provide constructive feedbacks 2.7
15 is flexible and takes initiative 2.8
Mean ( 42 : 15 ) 2.8

The average score of pedagogic and social competence of Arabic


language teachers at Dakwah and Communication Faculty is relatively
good. Most of them are good communicator. It means that they can convey
their learning materials well. Students‘ understanding is facilitated by their
explanation.
They also do not always involve students in setting teaching
policies. Score 2.8 means that they keep the ballance between students‘
involvement and teachers‘ authority in setting them.
Most of the teachers are also interesting, stimulating, have varied
repertoire of pedagogic procedures, flexible and take initiative. Data from
open-ended questionnaire seem not to support the above data. Most
students of Islamic Broadcasting and Communication Department (KPI)
wrote that their teachers‘ explanation is ununderstandable, teacher has less
attention to the slow learners, monotonous class (FD/BPI,KPI,MD).
Some students also said about their Arabic language teachers. Their
Arabic language teachers are patient, supportive, fun, creative, humorist,
qualified, have good commitment, methode, classroom management.

Personality competence
Table 6 provides information about Arabic language teachers‘
personality competence.

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Table 6
The Score of Personality Competence
of English Language Teachers
at Dakwah and Communication Faculty

No. Characteristics Score


1. is patient and supportive 3.0
2. doesn‘t have sense of humour 2.8
3. is enthusiastic and confident 3.4
Mean (9.2 : 3) 3.1

From table 6 it is proven that most of the Arabic language teachers


have considerably good personality competence. Personality may be the
first thing which creates good impression, triggers and stimulates
positive attitude to the language learning. Personality is actually innnate,
but it may be changed and developed, although it is hard.

Perception toward english and arabic language teachers: a brief


comparison
To highlight clearly the difference between the students‘
perception toward English and Arabic Language Teachers at Dakwah
and Communication Faculty, the researcher need to provide the
following data:
Table 7
The Score of Students‘ Perception toward English and Arabic Language
Teachers at Dakwah and Communication Faculty

Characteristics
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
E 2.4 2.2 2.2 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.2 2.9 2.5 2.7 2.8

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Students’ Perceptions on a Good Tertiary Foreign Language Teacher

A 2.9 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.8 3.2 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.7

Characteristics
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
E 3.0 2.9 2.7 2.2 2.7 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.8 3.0 3.1
A 3.1 2.9 2.6 2.2 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.7 2.8 3.0

If it is seen in detail, table 7 shows that in all characteristics English


language teachers are dominating. English language teachers win 0.5 over
Arabic language teachers in almost all characteristics.
Meanwhile, the data from each department may be listed as follow:
Table 8
The Score of Students‘ Perception toward English and Arabic Language
Teachers from the Departments at Dakwah and Communication Faculty

Teachers‘ Department Average Score


Subject
English BPI 3.0
KPI 2.8
MD 2.7
Arabic BPI 2.9
KPI 2.7
MD 2.6

It is clearly seen that KPI (Islamic Communication & Broadcasting)


department students have better perception to their English language
teachers. Meanwhile, students who have better perception to their Arabic
Language Teachers are those from Islamic Counseling Departments (BPI).

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The above conclusion does not mean that teachers who teach KPI,
and MD Departments students are more qualified than those who teach the
rest of students, since the English and the Arabic classes are mixed. The
students are classified based on their intake rather than their department.

References
Ani Purjayanti. 2007. ―The ‗Good Language Teacher‘: Students‘
Perspectives. Human Resources Development in English Language
Teaching: The 55th TEFLIN Conference Proceedings. December 4-
6, 2007.
Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Tinggi (Dikti). 2006. Sosialisasi Tim Dikti.
Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi (KBK)
Hoffman, Donald D. The Interface theory of Perception to Swift
Extinction. www.cogsci.uci.edu/~ddhoff/interface.pdf. Accessed on
October 10, 2013
Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan: Permendikbud no. 65/2013
Tomlinson, Brian (ed). 1998. Material Development in Language
Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tomlinson, Brian. 2003. Developing Materials to Develop Yourself
Teaching. London: Continuum Press.
Harmer, Jeremy. 1983. The Practice of English Language Teaching.
London & New York: Longman
Hay McBer Consultants. 2000. Research in Teaching Effectiveness. A
summary report to the Department for Education and Employment,
United Kingdom. Retrieved September 14, 2005 ,from
http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/doc/1487/haymcber.doc.
I Gusti Ayu GS. 2007. ―Good Language Teacher in the Era of
Globalization.‖ Human Resources Development in English

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Students’ Perceptions on a Good Tertiary Foreign Language Teacher

Language Teaching: The 55th TEFLIN Conference Proceedings.


December 4-6, 2007.
Listyani. 2007. ―What is a Good Language Teacher? An Overview of
Students‘ and Teachers‘ Reflection.‖ Human Resources
Development in English Language Teaching: The 55th TEFLIN
Conference Proceedings. December 4-6, 2007.
Zhang, Qunying and Davit Watkins. ―Conceptions of a Good Tertiary EFL
Teachers in China‖ in Tesol Quaterly Vol. 4 No. 4, December
2007

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Muhammad Nafi Annury

The Impact of Structural Competence Towards Speaking Competence of The


Fourth Semester Students of English Department of Tarbiyah Faculty IAIN
Walisongo Semarang in the Academic Year of 2010/2011

Muhammad Nafi Annury


IAIN Walisongo Semarang
Jl. Walisongo 3-5 Semarang
nafiannury@gmail.com

Abstract

This paper tries to define any impact of structural competence towards


speaking competence. In this research, the writer used descriptive co-
relational method. It was used to describe whether there was an impact
between two variables, i.e. structural competence (X) as independent
variable and speaking competence (Y) as dependent variable. The subject
of study was the fourth semester students of English department of
Tarbiyah Faculty IAIN Walisongo Semarang. After the data had been
analyzed, it was found that there was significant impact of structural
competence especially in appropriateness. It helped students to arrange
words into sentences that they utter.

Keywords: Structural Competence, Speaking Competence

Abstrak

Makalah ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah ada dampak kemampuan


berbicara terhadap kemampuan struktur berbahasa. Pada penelitian ini,
penulis mengunakan metode deskriptif korelasi. Hal tersebut digunakan
untuk mengetahui apakah ada dampak antara kedua varibel tersebut;
kompetensi struktur bahasa (X) sebagai variabel yang tidak berpengaruh
dan kompetensi berbicara (Y) sebagai variabel yang terpengaruh. Subyek
penelitian adalah mahasiswa semester empat Progdi Tadris Bahasa Inggris
Fakultas Pendidikan IAIN Walisongo Semarang. Setelah dianalisa,
ditemukan bahwa ada dampak yang signifikan terhadap kompetensi stuktur
berbahasa terutama pada ketepatan pada penyusunan tuturan. Hal tersebut
membantu mahasiswa dalam merangkai kata untuk menyusun kalimat
yang mereka tuturkan.

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The Impact of Structural Competence Towards Speaking Competence of…

Kata kunci: Kompetensi struktur berbahasa, Kompetensi berbicara

Introduction
English is an international language which used all over the world.
Many people learn to master it because many aspects in modern life cannot
be separated from English. Nowadays we can find everything is written in
English. As one of the aspects of globalization, English is now considered
more and more important.
English is spoken throughout the world and in most of multilingual
societies; it has been adopted as the official language of law,
administration, commerce, and education. In nearly every country in the
world, English is taught in school as the major second language (Gathered,
1996: VI)
There are four skills in mastering English, they are speaking,
listening, reading and writing. Speaking is considered primary
(Finocchiaro, 1973:3) because people learn to speak their native language
several years before they learn to read and to write it. People judge one‘s
English competence through his speaking. If a student can speak English
well, it indicates that he masters English.
There are some elements of language such as vocabulary, structure,
pronunciation, spelling, etc. Structure, as one of the elements of English is
very important in language teaching. It is the system of language (Byrne,
1979), how the language is organized and used in communication. We can
understand the language if we know its structure.
Some other time, the writer finds some students who understand
structure, but in fact, they seem have difficulties in English especially in
their speaking class. For instances: students still making mistakes on

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defining Present and Simple Past Tense. They often do this cause they are
not realized when they have to change some activities which done in the
past, therefore, they speak it in the Present Tense. It means that students
knowledge of structural competence which they have do not support them
much.
Since structure is a fundamental in mastering English, and speaking
is considered primary, the writer formulates a problem. The writer tries to
define any impact of structural competence towards speaking competence
of fourth semester students of English department of Tarbiyah Faculty
IAIN Walisongo Semarang in the academic year of 2010/2011.

Nature of structure
As one of the elements of language, structure is very important
learning, since it is the basic framework to master the production and
comprehension of the typical sentences of the language. When people
communicate with others, they may utter a word or some words to convey
their ideas, thought or feelings. The words, which are form then, are called
sentence. The sentence can be defined as a group of words joined together
by grammatical agreement (relating device) and which, not grammatically
dependent upon any other groups, are complete in themselves (Fries,
1952:20). Quirk and Greenbaun (1976:12) stated that a sentence may
alternatively be seen as compromising five units called of sentence;
structure, i.e: subject, verb, complement, object, and adverbial abbreviated
as S, V, C, O, A.

a. Elements of Sentence
The elements are simply explained below:

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The Impact of Structural Competence Towards Speaking Competence of…

1. Subject is a noun or pronoun that comes before the verb in an


ordinary affirmative sentence. It usually says (in an active sentence)
who or what does the action that verb refers to.
2. Verb is word, which is used with a subject to form the basics of a
clause. Most verbs refer to actions or states.
3. Object is a noun or pronoun that normally comes after the verb (in
active sentence). There are two kind of object:
a) Direct Object
It refers to a person or thing affected by the action of the verb.
b) Indirect Object
It usually refers to a person who receives the direct object.
1) Adverbial is a group of words that does the same job as an
adverb phrase or adverb clause.
2) Complement is a part of sentence that gives more
information about subject (after be, seem and the same after
verbs) or in some structures, about object (Swan: 1980).

b. The Sentence Classification


Sentence is divided according to their structure into class simple,
compound and complex sentence.

1. Simple sentence

A simple sentence is a group of words, which express a single


independent thought or contains one independent clause only. Quirk
and Greenbaun (1976: 191) divided simple sentence into four major
syntactic classes, whose use correlates with different communicative
functions:
a) Statements are sentences in which the subject is always presented
and generally precedes the verb, example: A student comes to the

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class.
b) Questions are sentences marked one by one or more of these
criteria:
1) The placing of the operator immediately in front of the
subject, example: Does a student come to the class?
2) The initial positioning of an interrogative or wh- elements,
example: Who comes to the class?
3) Rising intonation, example: A student comes to the class?
c) Commands are sentences, which normally have no overt
grammatical subject and whose; verb is in the imperative,
example: Come on the class!
d) Exclamations are sentences which have an initial phrase
introduced by what or how, without inversion subject and
operator; example: What a diligent student!

2. Compound sentence

Compound sentence is a sentence that combined from two


or more simple sentences (main clause) joined coordinately by
punctuation alone, by coordinate conjunctions or by conjunctive
adverbs.
a) Joined by punctuation alone

John was sick; he did not come to school

Main clause Main clause


Punctuation

b) Joined by coordinative conjunction; and, but, or.

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John was sick, but he came to school

Main clause Main clause


Coordinative conjunction

c) Joined by conjunctive adverb; moreover, in addition, otherwise,


however, nevertheless, therefore, etc.
John was sick, however he came to school

Main clause Main Clause


Conjunctive adverb
3. Complex sentence
A complex sentence is a sentence that consisting of one main
clause and one or more subordinate clauses.
For example: They watch the television whenever they like

Main clause subordinate clause

4. Compound complex sentence


Compound complex sentence is a sentence that consists of two
or more main clauses and one more subordinate clauses. For example:
since I had seen her the day before, I knew that he was unhappy, but I
did not guess that he would give up this plan.

Language skills
Anyone who uses languages well has a number of different
abilities. He/she may read books, write letters, speak on the telephone,
listen to the radio, and so on. Generally, we can identify four major skills
such as; listening, speaking, reading and writing (Hammer, 1978: 16).

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Those skills are classified into productive and receptive skills. Speaking
and writing are productive skills and involve some kinds of production on
the part of the language user. Listening and reading understanding belong
to receptive skills and involve the language user is receiving written or
spoken language.
When two people carry out a conversation, they very often use a
combination of skills, for example speaking and listening skills. As we
know that speaking is a part of language skills which should be mastered
by students. As stated in the 2006 national curriculum states that students
should master the four language skills besides speaking, there are:
listening, writing and reading. Therefore, English still becomes one of the
compulsory subjects which have been afraid by students.

Nature of communication
When two people are in talking to each other, we can fairly be sure
that are so far a certain reason. The reasons they may have are as follows:
a. They want to say something. ―Want‖ is used here in general way to
suggest that speakers make definite decisions to address other people.
Speaking may be forced upon them but we can call still say they feel the
need to speak, otherwise they would keep silent.
b. They have some comunicative purposes. Speakers say things because
they want something to happen as a result of what they say. They may
want to give information or express their ideas. They may decide to be
rude or flatter, to agree communicative purpose, or succeed in
conveying the message and the effect they want it to have.
c. They select from their language store. Speakers have an infinitive
capacity to create new sentences (especially if they are native speakers).

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In order to achieve their communicative purpose, they will select the


language they think is appropriate for this purpose.

d. They want to listen to ―something‖. Once again ―want‖ is used in


general way. But the listeners in order to understand what they are
listening to they must have some desire to do so.

e. They are interested in the communicative purpose of what is being said.


In general people listen to because they want to find out what the
speaker is going to say – in other words what ideas they are conveying,
and what effect they wish the communication to have.

f. The process a variety of languages. Although the listener may have a


good idea of what the speaker is going to say next in general terms, he
has to be prepared to process a great variety of life grammar and
vocabulary to understand exactly what is being said.

As we see from the explanation above that oral communication is a


two-way process between speaker and listener, involving the productive
skill of speaking and receptive skill of understanding. Both speaker and
listener have a positive function to perform. The speaker has encode the
message to be conveyed in appropriate language, while the listener has to
decode (or interpret) the message. The message itself, in normal speech,
usually contains a great deal of ―information‖ which is redundant. At the
some other time, the listener is helped by prosodic feature, such as stress
and intonation, which accompany the spoken utterances and form part of
its meaning, hence, by facial and body movement.

Oral production
The main goal in teaching the productive skill of speaking is oral
fluency that is the ability to express oneself intelligibility, reasonably,

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accurately and without undue hesitation. To attain this goal, the students
will be brought from the stage where they merely imitate a model or
respond to cues to the point where they can use the language to express
their own ideas. Two complementary levels of training will therefore be
required practice in the manipulation of the six elements of the language
(principally the use of grammatical patterns and lexical terms) and practice
in the expression of personal meaning. For the purpose the teacher cannot
depend on written texts as basic for oral practice. Audio – visual aids, on
the other hand, provide at all levels a powerful way of stimulating and
developing oral ability without resource to the written language.

Interdependence of the oral skills in communication


Although in the class practice it is often necessary to concentrate at
certain times developing one of the oral skills more than others, we should
not lose sight of the fact that oral comunication is two-ways process
between speaker and listener. Thus, the speaker does not always imitate: he
also responds to what he has heard, while the listener does not always
remain silent: he is normally expected to make some sort of response. In
classroom, therefore, appropriate provision has to be made to see that the
two oral skills are integrated through situations, which permit and
encourage authentic comunication.

Intelligibility
Intelligibility is usually defined in phonological sound such as /i:/
and /i/. At a level of basic understanding this aspect of intelligibility is
unquestionably important but for the purpose of oral fluency, the terms
need to be able to communicate effectively, the leaners need an adequate
matery of grammar and vocabulary as well as phonology. In the arrea of

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grammar, learners should not be expected to master grammatical items


simply because the exist in the language, but not only those essential for
communication.

Oral ability and motivation


The development of oral ability is a good source of motivation for
most learners who normally much concern to be able to speak and
uderstand a foreign language. Satisfaction at being able to say a small
number of sentences after a few lesson must be sustained by demonstrating
to the students that they can say progresively more and more through the
language as the course continues. Motivation can often be improved in
large classes by placing greater emphasis on the receptive skill of listening.
This has the additional advantage of getting the students accustomed to
understanding the language without reference to a written text as well as
providing opportunities the meaningful repetition of known.

Communicative competence
From the baby onwards, everybody starts to learn how to
communicate effectively and how to respond to other people‘s
communications. Some people are better at communicating than others, but
common people learn to communicate through language.
One of the importance factors in context is the nature of the
participants. The age, sex, social status and educational level of the speaker
and listener, all affect that the mode of expression used.
The next two factors are closely connected with each other. They
are actual situation in which the language occurs and the kind of contact
between the participants. The importance of the situation itself has always
been recognized, and it is heavily emphasized in situational language

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courses, as well as in travelers; phrase books, where it becomes clear that


the language varies according to whether one is shopping, or asking
direction, or booking at the hotel and restaurant. Depending on the
situation, the contact between the participants could either in speech or in
writing, and at any points on the range of proximity, i.e. face to face, not
face-to-face (two ways contact by telephone or correspondence), or one
way contact (radio, TV, advertisement, notice). Simply by observing the
choice of expression, one can postulate circumstances‘ in which one or the
other would be likely to be written rather than spoken, used in one place
rather than another.
Another parameter is the nature of the subject matter or topic or
field of discourse. Its influence has been recognized for extreme of English
Special Purposes such as technical usage, international aviation English,
legal terminology, etc.

Mod and purpose


The way people communicate, as well as what they communicate is
a matter of choice. It is restricted by the conventions of the speech
community and the language itself. The external factors governing usage
play their part in decreeing what is appropriate to different circumstances.
A speaker is free to choose the mood as he wishes to convey as
well as what he wants to say, he is constrained by the available resources
of the language to fulfill his aims. That‘s why he must select not only a
correct expression but one that is appropriate to his intentions.
Regarding the function of communication, there are five general
functions, which can usefully be isolated: personal. The speaker will be
open to interpret as polite, aggressive, in a hurry, angry, pleased, etc.,
according to how he speaks Directive. The speaker attempts to control of

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influence the listener in some ways. Establishing relationship: the speakers


establish and maintain contact the listener, often by speaking in ritualized
way in which what is said is not as important as the fact that is said is not
as important as information to the listener. Enjoyment: the speaker is using
language for its own ‗sake‘ in poetry, rhymes, songs, etc (Corder, 1973:42-
9).

Basic assumption
Structure is the rule of language that enables speakers to express
and organized their ideas through sentences or utterances or in the other
words to carry out a communication with others. Therefore, students must
understand the English structure in order to speak English. Without
understanding its structure, it is very hard to get the meaning of the
message conveyed.

Research Method
In this study the writer used descriptive co-relational method. It
was used to describe whether there was impact between two variables, i.e.
structural competence (X) as independent variable and speaking
competence (Y) as dependent variable.
The population of this research was the fourth semester students of
English Department Tarbiyah Faculty IAIN Walisongo Semarang in the
academic year of 2011/2012. The number of the population was sixty (60)
students. The sample was taken from the all students of fourth semester
because the total number of population was less than 100 subjects.
In collecting the data of this research, the writer used test as the
instrument. There were two kinds of tests. The structure oral test was used
to measure students‘ competence in structure. The other test, oral test was

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used to collect data of students‘ speaking competence. The tests had been
carried out at June 27th 2011 and June 29th 2011.
1. Structure test
Structure test of 40 items, and the test contains multiple choice
ones. The test is compiled from TOEFL. The consideration of
compiling it is that TOEFL, is a standardized test and admitted by
people to measure one‘s English competence.
Table 1
The content of structure test

No Materials Item
Numbers
1 Duration: since 1
2 Used to 2
3 Numerical order the 3, 4
4 Not only .............. but also 5
5 Causative have, make 6,7,8
6 Conditional type I 9, 10
7 Conditional type II 11
8 Had better 12
9 Paralel structure 13, 14
10 Anticipatory II 16
11 Uncountable noun 17
12 Countable noun 18
13 Degree comparison 19, 20
14 Adjective clause 22, 23
15 Would rather 24
16 Passive voice 25
17 Indirect question 26, 27

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18 Infinitive to 28, 29
19 Verb + ing form 30, 31
20 Verbal modifier – ing form 32
21 Either; neither 33, 34
22 Clause 35, 36
23 Because 37
24 Reflexive pronoun 38
25 Because of 39
26 Adverb 40

2. Oral test
Underhill (1987: 44-81) states there are twenty techniques to
test speaking skill, i.e.: discussion oral report, learner-learner joint
discussion, role-play, interview, learner-learner description and
recreation, form filling, making appropriate responses, questions
answer, reading blank dialogue, using picture, giving description, i.e.:
tell story or text from aural stimuli, reading aloud,
translating/interpreting sentence completion from aural or written
stimulus, sentence correction, sentence transformation and sentence
repetition. From those techniques, the writer taught that using picture
was effective and the most efficient to conduct the test. The
components of language proficiency used are:
a. Fluency
It refers to one‘s ability to speak a language smoothly and easily
b. Grammar
It concerns with one‘s ability to organize words into sentences
grammatically correct and to measure one‘s ability in applying
grammatical rule as well.

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c. Vocabulary
This item is designed to measure one‘s skill to remember or retake
any words from his memory.
d. Pronunciation
It measures one‘s ability to pronounce English sounds correctly,
includes its aspects like stress, intonation, etc.

3. Scoring systems
a. Scoring of structure test
The structure test consists of 40 items and all are multiple choice.
The score of each number is one for the right one. So we can get a
maximum score around 40.
b. Scoring of oral test
As mentioned above that the test type used is using picure. There
are seven pictures that must be retold by the students for about ten
minutes. The components of language proficiency, grammar,
vocabulary and pronounciation. The maximum score of each is 20,
thus the total score is 80.
Table 2
The Speaking Score

No Language aspects Number of items Score


1 Fluency 5x4 20
2 Grammar 5x4 20
3 Vocabulary 5x4 20
4 Pronounciation 5x4 20
Total 80

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To make it easier, the writer gives criteria for each components


and it is applied by score 1 – 5. The criteria are mentioned below:
1. Fluency
5: speak smoothly and easily without any grooving
4 : speak with only accational hesitation
3: frequently have to think first before speak but enable to continue
to speak
2: often stop speaking
1: say a word then stop speaking
2. Grammar
5: the sentences are all grammatically correct
4: making mistakes but not destroy the meaning
3: making mistakes and destroy the meaning
2: the utterances are difficult to be understood
1: the speech cannot be understood at all
3. Vocabulary
5: using appropriate vocabulary
4: using some innapropriate words
3: frequently using innapropriate
2: having very limited vocabulary
1: stop speaking at all
4. Pronounciation
5: Pronounce all words correctly
4: understandable although having certain accent
3: paying attention a lot of and making understanding
2: often making misprouncing
1: the speech is not understandable

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Discussion
Students’ structural competence
1. Classical structural competence
In measuring the classical structural competence is 50.4%. Thus the
classical structural competence is 50.4%. It can be said that the
students structural competence is fair.
To know the precentage of students‘ competence, Arikunto (1991:
67) suggested five categories the students‘ competence as follows:
a. Very good: if 81-100% the answer are correct
b. Good: if 61-80% of the answer are correct
c. Fair: if 41-60% of the answer are correct
d. Bad: if 21-60% of the answer are correct
e. Very bad: if 0-20% of the answer are correct
2. Frequency distribution of structural competence
The computation of frequency distribution of students‘
structural competence is as follows:
Table 3
The Length of Class Interval

Class interval Fi Xi Fixi


30 – 32 3 31 93
27 – 29 5 28 140
24 – 26 8 25 200
21 – 23 12 22 264
18 – 20 16 19 304
15 – 17 10 19 160
Des – 14 6 13 78
Total 50 157 1239

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a. Determining the range of scores by substracting the highest score


by lowest score. The range of students‘ structure is the highest
score: 31, and the lowest score: 12. The range is 19.
b. The number of class interval by using the formula 1 + 3.3 log 50.
The result is 6.606. so the number of class internal is 7.
c. Length of class interval is 2.71
In this case the length of class interval used is 3
3. Measure of central tendency of structural competence
Table 4
The Structural Competence

Mean Median Mode

20.31 20.125 19.3

a. The mean of students‘ structural competence has been compurized


by frequency distribution is 20.31
b. Thus the median of structural competence is 20,125
c. Mode 19.3

Students’ speaking competence


Table 5
The Students‘ speaking Competence

Class interval Fi Yi Fi . Yi

72 – 74 3 73 219
69 – 71 9 70 630
66 – 68 13 67 871
63 – 65 3 64 192
60 – 62 15 61 915
57 – 59 5 58 290
54 – 56 5 55 275
51 – 53 5 52 260
Total 58 62 3652

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1. Classical speaking competence is 80. 125%


Thus the classical speaking competence is 80.125%. We can categorize
that the classical speaking competence is good. It can be seen in
Arikunto (1991: 67) in the previous pages.
2. Frequency distribution
The computation of frequency distribution of students speaking
competence is as follows:
a. The range of students‘ speaking competence is, the highest score:
73, and the lowest score: 51. The range is 22.
b. The number of class interva by using the formula: 1 + 3.3 log 50,
the result is 6.606. So, the number of class interval is 7
c. The length of class interval (P) is 3.14
In this case the length of class interval used is 3
3. Measure of central tendency of speaking competence
a. The mean is 59,868
Thus the main of speaking competence is 59.868
b. Median
Thus, the median of speaking competence is 66,4
c. Mode
The mode of speaking competence is 66.357

Product moment correlation


The computation of product moment correlation coefficient is done
after we find the values of N, ∑X, ∑Y, ∑X2, ∑Y2, and ∑ XY score. The
result of computation using Pearson‘s formula is 0.990

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Table 6
The Respondents

Respondents R Y X^2 Y^2 XY


R1 20 60 400 3600 1200
R2 16 56 256 3136 896
R3 19 59 361 3481 1121
R4 23 63 529 3969 1449
R5 19 59 361 3481 1121
R6 17 57 289 3249 969
R7 17 57 289 3249 969
R8 18 58 324 3364 1044
R9 18 58 324 3364 1044
R10 18 58 324 3364 1044
R11 22 62 484 3844 1364
R12 20 60 400 3600 1200
R13 24 64 576 4096 1536
R14 20 60 400 3600 1200
R15 19 59 361 3481 1121
R16 21 61 441 3721 1281
R17 27 67 729 4489 1809
R18 26 66 676 4356 1716
R19 24 64 576 4096 1536
R20 13 53 169 2809 689
R21 15 55 225 3025 825
R22 23 63 529 3969 1449
R23 19 59 361 3481 1121
R24 21 61 441 3721 1281
R25 15 55 225 3025 825
R26 26 66 676 4356 1716
R27 24 64 576 4096 1536
R28 20 60 400 3600 1200
R29 20 60 400 3600 1200
R30 20 60 400 3600 1200
R31 22 62 484 3844 1364
R32 21 61 441 3721 1281
R33 19 59 361 3481 1121
R34 21 61 441 3721 1281
R35 19 59 361 3481 1121
R36 23 63 529 3969 1449

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R37 16 56 256 3136 896


R38 23 63 529 3969 1449
R39 18 58 324 3364 1044
R40 20 60 400 3600 1200
R41 19 59 361 3481 1121
R42 20 60 400 3600 1200
R43 20 60 400 3600 1200
R44 23 63 529 3969 1449
R45 26 66 676 4356 1716
R46 19 59 361 3481 1121
R47 22 62 484 3844 1364
R48 21 61 441 3721 1281
R49 18 58 324 3364 1044
R50 21 61 441 3721 1281
R51 22 62 484 3844 1364
R52 21 61 441 3721 1281
R53 21 61 441 3721 1281
R54 20 60 400 3600 1200
R55 24 64 576 4096 1536
R56 17 57 289 3249 969
R57 25 65 625 4225 1625
R58 20 60 400 3600 1200
R59 15 55 225 3025 825
R60 20 60 400 3600 1200
R61 20 60 400 3600 1200
1240 3680 25726 222526 75326

From this table above we know that the computation of product


moment correlation coefficient is done after we find the values of N, ∑X,
∑Y, ∑X2, ∑Y2, and ∑ XY score. The result of computation using
Pearson‘s formula is 0.0990.

Conclusion
The classical structural competence of fourth semester students of
English Department of Tarbiyah Faculty IAIN Walisongo Semarang is
50.4%. It can be catgorized in fair level and the mean of structural

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competence is 20.125. The classical speaking competence of fourth


semester students of English Department of Tarbiyah Faculty IAIN
Walisongo Semarang is 59.868% and it is good category. The mean of
speaking competence is 63.76. It occurs because structure is a small
element in speaking besides vocabulary, pronounciation, and fluency that
work together. The result showed that there was significant impact of
structural competence especially in appropriateness because they are able
to arrange words into sentences when they utter.

References
Arikunto, Suharsimi. 2006. Prosedur Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan
Praktik. Jakarta: PT. Rineka Cipta.
Byrne, James. 1973. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. New
York: Addison Wesley Longman
Corder, Dale. 1973. How To Develop Self-Confidence And Influence
People by Public Speaking. London: Vermilion.
Fries, CC. 1952. Speech Communication Made Simple. New York:
Addison Wesley Longman.
Guthered, Tim.1996. The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford:
Oxford University Press.
Harmer, Jeremy. 2001. The Practice of English Language Teaching. Great
Britain: Pearson Education Limited.
Underhill, M. 1987. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. New
York: Addison Wesley Longman.
Swan. 1980. Writing English Language Tests. London: Longman.

174 REGISTER, Vol. 6, No. 2, November 2013


Rahmat Yusny and Sarah Fitri

The Influence of Digital Games Based Learning on


Students’ Learning Outcomes and Motivation

Rahmat Yusny
UIN Ar Raniry Aceh
Jl. Syech Abdurra’uf Kopelma Darussalam Banda Aceh
ryusny@gmail.com

Sarah Fitri
UIN Ar Raniry Aceh
Jl. Syech Abdurra’uf Kopelma Darussalam Banda Aceh
sarah_fitri24@yahoo.com

Abstract

There is no doubt that the emergence of today's digital age greatly affects
the human life - including students in their educational life. In order to
simplify the process of studying languages, especially English, many
scientists and experts continue to find new and innovative methods. One
of them is the method of Digital Games Based Learning (DGBL).
However, the implementation effort of DGBL method to improve English
language skills of students is still a matter of controversy. It is mainly
caused by the use of game - which is assumed by the public just as merely
means of entertainment rather than as a medium of learning. Judging on
this reason, researchers are interested highlighting them to be their
research. This research was conducted in order to view the significance and
influence of DGBL in improving English language skills of students -
particularly the ability to hear and read - as well as their motivation to
learn. The study was conducted over five sessions in March 2013 with a
sample of 13 students were selected at random stratification of 68 second -
year student population PBI , Ar - Raniry UIN .Researchers collected data
by applying the experimental use of games in the classroom , provide pre-
test and post-test , as well as distributing questionnaires dealing with
motivation. From the analysis of quantitative data, it can be concluded that
the method of Digital Games Based Learning (DGBL) can be used to
improve student‘s achievement and learning motivation in learning
English.

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Keywords: Digital Games Based Learning (DGBL), Learning outcome,


Motivation

Abstrak

Kemunculan era digital dewasa ini, tidak dapat dipungkiri, sangat


berpengaruh terhadap kehidupan manusia—termasuk siswa dalam
mengenyam pendidikan mereka. Guna mempermudah proses mempelajari
ilmu bahasa, terutama Bahasa Inggris, banyak ilmuwan dan para ahli yang
terus berupaya menemukan metode baru dan inovatif. Salah satunya adalah
metode Digital Games Based Learning (DGBL). Akan tetapi, upaya
pengimplementasian metode DGBL untuk meningkatkan kemampuan
berbahasa Inggris siswa masih menjadi kontroversi. Hal ini tidak lain
disebabkan oleh penggunaan game—yang diasumsikan oleh publik
sekedar alat hiburan semata—sebagai media pembelajaran. Menilik pada
alasan tersebut, peneliti tertarik mengangkat permasalahan ini ke dalam
penelitiannya. Penelitian ini dilakukan guna melihat signifikansi serta
pengaruh DGBL dalam meningkatkan kemampuan berbahasa Inggris
mahasiswa—terutama kemampuan mendengar dan membaca—serta
motivasi belajar mereka. Penelitian dilakukan selama lima sesi pada bulan
Maret 2013 dengan jumlah sampel 13 mahasiswa yang dipilih secara
stratifikasi acak dari 68 jumlah mahasiswa PBI tahun kedua, UIN Ar-
Raniry. Peneliti mengumpulkan data dengan mengaplikasikan penggunaan
game di kelas eksperimen, memberikan pretest dan posttest, serta
mendistribusikan kuisioner motivasi. Dari hasil analisis data secara
kuantitatif, dapat disimpulkan bahwa metode Digital Games Based
Learning (DGBL) dapat meningkatkan prestasi serta motivasi belajar
mahasiswa dalam mempelajari Bahasa Inggris.

Kata kunci: Digital Games Based Learning (DGBL), Prestasi, Motivasi

Introduction
The method in which student‘s speaking, listening, writing and
reading abilities can be improved are becoming critical issues in which
English is used as foreign language. Therefore, developing effective
method to increase students‘ performance as both language learner and

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language user, and thus, enhancing students‘ English learning


achievements has become an important topic.
To assist students with developing foreign language proficiency,
second language teaching methods have begun to embrace the use of
technology, specifically Computers-Assisted Language Learning (CALL)
tools (Alatis, 1983; Pusack, 1981; Soper, 1982; Stevens, 1983, as cited in
Levent, 2009: 45). One of methods that use Computer-Assisted Language
Learning tools is learning through digital games. Prensky (2001: 5) used
term ―Digital Games Based Learning‖ to denote the use of computer game
in educational content. Digital Games Based Learning is a profoundly new
learning method that integrates the use of digital game on learning
environment.
Although game is most often thought as a pure entertainment, it is
important to actually know that it can be enormously powerful tool used to
learn. Prensky (2006) stressed that digital game works as learning tool
since ―all games [basically] already cause player to learn‖. Findings from
many researchers strengthen such acclaim as they found that digital game
has enormously increased students‘ learning achievement, especially in
learning language (Liu and Chu, 2010; Muller, n.d.; Panoutsopoulos and
Sampson, 2012).
Prensky (2001:3) described ―the process of game playing [as]
engaging,‖ so much that it brings together a great deal of motivation.
Therefore, combining games with learning can add potential motivation,
massive enough to let the learners stick with their learning process. Levent
(2009: 46) further remarked that digital game helps the process of learning
to become more engaging as it adds fun and excitement to help students
feel more relaxed and comfortable. Purushotma (2005) has suggested that

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games can be so highly motivating that they can even cause addictive
behavior as cited in Levent (2009: 46).
As cited in Prensky (2006: 1), Akerman (n.d.) affirmed that ―play
(game) is our brain‘s favorite way of learning things.‖ Thus, learning new
things by playing game can be one of the most engaging as well as
effective ways to perceive data to our brain. The fact that people feel
better, get less tired, and are highly motivated when they do things they
enjoy, such as playing games, is the main idea of creating Digital Games
Based Learning method.
Greatly interested with the use and development of Digital Games
Based Learning (DGBL) method in English language learning—especially
in enhancing students‘ reading and listening skills as well as their learning
motivation—the researchers decided to strive this research to address the
following two major aims:
1. To know if adventure game enhances students‘ English receptive
skills
2. To find out the influence of DGBL towards students‘ learning
motivation

Hypothesis
The hypothesis of this research is formulated as follow:
―Digital Games Based Learning does influence students‘ learning
outcomes and motivation‖

Digital games based learning


There were two essential premises explaining the existence of
digital games based learning (Prensky, 2006: 1). The first premise is that
today‘s learners have changed in some fundamental ways. The fact that

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students nowadays living in digitally enhanced world, are somewhat have


different way of thinking than what former students had. The second
premise is that computer can provide new way to motivate today‘s students
to learn. If one could think what game is actually best at, it would be based
on the fact that it could provide motivation to its players. As mentioned by
Anyaegbu (2012) ―Games are often used for motivational or fun
purposes.‖
Therefore, keeping the students motivated enough (to stick with
their educational life) is a very critical matter faced nowadays. Learning
methods that were effective in motivating learners in the past might not be
able to motivate the learners of today. That is why the proponents of digital
games based learning believed (Prensky, 2001; Pivec&Dziabenko, 2003)
that digital games based learning is the learning method that could foster
not only students‘ learning achievement but also their inner motivation.
However, the use of game as a profoundly new learning method has
been thoroughly criticized. As per saying goes ―there are always two sides
of a coin.‖ While one side sees the emergence of digital games based
learning as a bright light and solution in improving both students‘
achievements and motivation, the rest sees it as a merely exaggerated
misled effort in combining two radically different things: serious, book-
oriented, fixed purposed, rigid activity named learning, with carefree, fun-
oriented, time-wasting activity called game.

Positive effect of gaming in learning


Games are effective not because of what they are, but because of
what they embody and what learners are doing as they play a game
(Richard Van Eck, 2006). ―Games create an environment where education
is mostly learner-centered, with a good opportunity for socialization when

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they are well-organized, and awakening the will to win and competitive
desire inside people‖(Squire, 2003: 5).Moreover, game presents simulated
situation that often extracted from real world. Students think and
understand better when they learn something they have been familiar with.
Gee (2003) as cited in McClarty et al. (2012) pointed out ―games present a
similar situation through simulation, providing us the opportunity to think,
understand, prepare, and execute actions‖.
Another learning benefit one can get from game playing is derived
from the fact that game provides opportunities to continue practice despite
repeated failures. It also presents immediate feedback and clear objectives.
This allows players to change their game play in order to improve their
performance and reach their goals.
Game is said to be particularly effective when ―Designed to address
a specific problem or to teach a certain skill‖ (Mitchell and Savill-Smith,
2004: 19), for example in encouraging learning in subjects areas such as
math, physics and language, where specific objectives can be stated, or
when chosen selectively to fulfill the objective intended aforementioned of
playing the game, for instance: playing game to enhance spatial, problem-
solving and strategic ability or to obtain new knowledge.

Negative effect of gaming in learning


As highlighted by Clark (2003) as cited in Mitchell and Savill-
Smith (2004), there are a number of risk factors that can negatively give
impact on learning via computer games:
1) Game objectives may not be compatible with learning
objectives.

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2) Games can distract from learning as players concentrate on


completing, scoring, and winning instead of focusing on
learning.
3) Games require suspension of belief; it may be difficult to retain
learning acquired in that state
4) Failure to reach male and female players to the same extent
5) Games risk the learners becoming non socialized people as
gaming world is then literally seen as their world instead of
their societies (pp. 22-23).

Aside from the bad effect of game is causing on learners, game in


general induces severe effects of frequent playing for gamers. This
includes health issues, psycho-social issues, and changes in behavior.
Hence, players definitely in need to have a control and a good self-
management in playing the game and also a good sense of selection in
choosing age and task appropriate game.

Learning outcomes
Learning outcomes measure final result of intervention or program
given to the students. It should be measurable as it will identify or observe
what the students will achieve, should be able to do, and will know as the
effect of the intervention given beforehand. Thus, immediate evidence of
these collected knowledge, skills, and ability gathered after intervention is
what is called outcomes.
A learning outcome is a written statement of what the successful
student/learner is expected to be able to do at the end of the
module/course unit, or qualification. The key aspect each of the
definitions has in common is the desire for more precision and
consideration as to what exactly a learner acquires in terms of

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knowledge and/or skills when they successfully complete a period


of learning (Adam, 2004, p. 6).

Game and reading comprehension


Aside from the importance of cognitive and metacognitive
strategies, a few studies have addressed the issues related to ―motivation‖
and ―engagement‖ when it comes to reading comprehension and the way to
enhances it. As Guthrie et al. (2006) put it:
Engaged reading is based on motivational and cognitive
characteristics of the reader…who is intrinsically motivated, builds
knowledge, uses cognitive strategies, and interacts socially to learn
from text. These engagement processes can be observed in
student‘s cognitive effort, perseverance, and self-direction in
reading (p. 404).

Encouraging learners to reading comprehension can be done by


selecting appropriate materials, especially for young readers in their early
stages of learning. This selection is very crucial considering the number of
selected readers in recent times. That is why—in motivating readers of
today—many educational practitioners have begun to embrace game as
one of the methods used in enhancing students‘ reading achievement.
Being labeled as one of solutions in motivating language learner,
games as Carlson (1952) as cited in Meizaliana (2009:53) described ―. . .
are activities used to provide a fun and more relax atmosphere especially . .
. for student to acquire a second or foreign language.‖ Thus, games are
believed to help enhancing students‘ motivation to learn to read and later to
read to learn by providing various contexts of learning materials in a more
fun and engaging way.

Game and listening comprehension


Listening as an active process requires conscious attention and

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interests as well as physical involvement. Students who indicated high


levels of motivation appeared to engage in listening more. ―Motivation and
metacognition appear to be elements that are part of clusters of variables
contributing to variance in L2 listening‖ (Vandergrift, 1997: 196).
Listening to what learners want to listen to and want to try to comprehend
might motivate them to listen and to keep on learning. These want and
interest might appear in when someone touches with different, unusual
way of learning, thus commended on using game in learning language.
As Verdugo and Belmonte (2007: 87) pointed out: ―Digital
technology for students, if appropriately selected and organized, can offer a
range of opportunities to develop foreign language listening and
proficiency in a playful and enjoyable context.‖ Therefore, in order to
motivate and to enhance students‘ listening ability, one can afford to use
appropriate, task-oriented, listening-produced game.

Game enhances learning motivation


The first thing one might expect to see while playing game is an
increasing motivation. Common wisdom suggests that games are at least
motivating, if not educational. Game embodies aspects and characters that
engage learners to play.
Games contain the pieces necessary to engage students and help
them enter a state of flow where ―they are fully immersed in their learning
environment and energized and focused on the activity they are involved
in‖ (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990, as cited in McClarty et al., 2012: 14). When
complete attention is devoted to the game, a player may lose track of time
and not notice other distractions. Purushotma (2005) as cited in Levent
(2009: 46) further added that ―games can be so highly motivating that they
can even cause addictive behavior.‖

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On the other hand, game also creates fantasy, imaginary world


which has rich visuals and plenty aesthetics aspects. Such things might
attract awe and excitement from its players as it is considered as unique
and recognizable feature. Another aspect of game that attains interest is its
clear objectives. ―Games are played to win or achieve a goal … The key to
motivation is winning while remaining challenged‖ (Becta, 2001: 1).
Eventually, all ―these components can increase student engagement, and
student engagement is strongly associated with student achievement‖
(McClarty et al., 2012).

Research Design
Participants
The population of the study was 68 English Department of IAIN
Ar-Raniry students year 2011. The researchers used stratified random
sampling technique to specify and determine the final samples of this
research. Stratified random sampling is sampling technique which was
based on diversities or stratified qualifications and characteristics that
targeted population has (Prasetyo & Jannah, 2009). The researchers
stratified population based on students‘ game playing frequency and
students‘ interest in game playing.
The researchers used preliminaries questionnaire as a basis to
determine their strata. The researchers distributed the questionnaire to all
English department students year 2011and there were 68 students
responded to the questionnaire. Final samples were 13 students whom the
researchers selected after careful consideration based on end result of
preliminaries questionnaire.

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Data collection
This study was a quantitative research. It also applied pre-
experimental design with one group pretest-posttest design. According to
Sugiyono (2008), one-group pretest-posttest design is a design in which the
experimental group experiences both pretest and posttest during the
experiment. Further, the data was collected through experimental treatment
using digital game, pretest and posttest, and motivational questionnaire.
The process of collecting the data would be picturised as follow:

Figure 1: Diagram Outlining the Procedure of The Case Study

Digital game
The game used in this research was ―Dream Sleuth‖. The game was
comprised as adventure, point-click, and hidden-object game. This game
used as an intervention for five-meeting research.

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Figure 2: ―Dream Sleuth‖ Screenshot


The selection of Dream Sleuth as intervention in this study was for
the very reason of finding out appropriate game to foster English language
learners‘ ability. Looking at how the game had in plate, this game offered
mysterious storyline, unique mini games, exciting game play, and the
foremost reason of having quite plenty of language learning benefits—
especially reading and listening benefits.

Tests
The researchers handed out two tests for the experimental class:
pre-test and post-test. Pretest was given at the beginning of the meeting,
before the treatment conducted. Whereas post-test would be given at the
end of the meeting, immediately after giving class treatment.
Pre-test was distributed with the aim of measuring the students‘
initial learning achievements before given the treatment. On the other
hand, post-test had a purpose of measuring the improvement or differences
in students‘ learning outcomes after being treated with the game. Both

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were necessary for the researchers to obtain the data as in to analyze


whether there would be influences of digital game based learning on
students‘ learning outcomes or not. The researchers intended to see
students‘ learning outcomes. In particular, they wanted to find out two
mainstream students‘ English learning outcomes, which were listening and
reading. Therefore, in designing the test, the researchers created two parts
of the test: listening comprehension and reading comprehension test.
Listening part consisted of four sections: section I, II, III, and IV.
Each section of listening test comprised of five questions. In designing the
listening part, the researchers excerpted the audio materials originated from
Dream Sleuth game. They used Audacity, an audio editing software, to
record, select, part, and save listening part in one complete format of
listening material. Meanwhile, reading part consisted of two reading texts:
reading text I and II. Each reading text has ten comprehension questions. In
selecting reading texts, the researchers carefully examined reading texts
and their correlation with the treatment. Reading text I was Aesop fables
story, while reading text II was selected based on the theme used in
―Dream Sleuth‖ game.
Table 1
Sample of Test
Grandma : Happy birthday grandma!
Catherine : _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Catherine!
Listening Part Thank you.
It‘s going to be a crazy day today with
so many _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ coming.

According to the writer, what is the true nature of the


nurse?
Reading Part (A) She is caring
(B) She is tricky and mean
(C) She is evil and hateful
(D) She is truthful

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Questionnaire
The researchers applied questionnaire in order to perceive students‘
learning motivation. Questionnaire was distributed in the middle of
treatment, right after the third session of game playing. Questionnaire used
in this research was Learning Motivation through Game Playing
Questionnaire (LMGP-Q). The questionnaire was adapted from Keller‘s
ARCS model used by Kebritchi (2008). The questionnaire consisted of 20
questions with 14 non reversed questions and six reversed questions. Each
item of ARCS Model (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction)
comprised of five questions.
Table 2
LMGP-Q‘s List of Questions
I think this game will be
The game is relevant to my
1. challenging, but neither too 11.
interests.
easy, nor too hard for me.
There is something interesting It is clear to me how people
2. about this game that will 12. use the game to improve
capture my attention. their English skills
This game seems more
I will really enjoy completing
3. difficult than I would like for 13.
the task in this game
it to be
After working on this game
I believe that completing the for awhile, I believe that I
4. task in the game will give me a 14. will be confident in my
feeling of satisfaction. ability to successfully
improve my English skills
I think that the variety of
It is clear to me how this game
materials, tasks, illustration,
5. is related to things I already 15.
etc., will help keep my
know.
attention on this game.
The technology used to
I believe this game will gain
6. 16. deliver this the game may be
and maintain my interest
frustrating/ irritating.
I believe that the tasks It will feel good to
7. contained in this game will be 17. successfully complete this
important to improve my game.

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English skills

As I learn more about this


The contents of this game do
game, I am confident that I
8. 18. not include information that
could learn English through
will be useful to me.
playing
I believe that I will enjoy this
game so much that I would I do NOT think that I will be
9. like to know more about the 19. able to really understand
learning I got while playing what I learn from the game
the game
I do not think that this game
The game seems dry and
10. 20. will be worth my time and
unattractive.
effort.

This questionnaire used Likert Scale measurement. There were five


scales used in this Likert scale, namely: Not True = 1; Slightly True = 2;
Moderately True = 3; Mostly True = 4; and Very True = 5. There were the
items marked reversedwhich are stated in a negative manner. For the
reversed questions (item 3, item 10, item 16, item 18, item 19, and item
20), researcher would use reversed scoring. That is for these items, 5=1,
4=2, 3=3, 2=4, and 1=5. The range of score for this questionnaire is: 20 –
35 indicates very low learning motivation; 36 – 51 indicates low learning
motivation; 52 – 67 indicates moderate learning motivation; 68 – 83
indicates high learning motivation; and 84 – 100 indicates very high
learning motivation.
Table 3
Reversed and Non-Reversed Motivational Questionnaire‘s Questions

Items Questions
Non Reversed Reversed
Attention 2, 6, 15 10, 16
Relevance 5, 7, 11, 12 18
Confidence 1, 8, 14 3, 19
Satisfaction 4, 9, 13, 17 20

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Research result
Students’ learning outcomes
Through the use of tests, the researchers found necessary data
needed to figure out the answer whether game method applied was
significantly influential to enhance students‘ learning outcomes. In
analyzing the data from the tests, the researchers would use statistical
computing program called SPSS (Statistical Product and Service Solution).
Table 4
Frequencies Table of Pre-test and Post-test
Pretest Posttest
N Valid 13 13
Missing 0 0
Mean 54.2308 71.3462
Median 57.5000 72.5000
Std. Deviation 9.48599 6.00481
Variance 89.984 36.058
Minimum 40.00 60.00
Maximum 70.00 80.00

Based on the analysis of pretest and posttest, the researchers found


that there was difference between mean of pretest (54.23) and posttest
(71.35). From these data alone, it can be inferred that there was difference
of students‘ learning outcomes before and after getting the treatment. To
further analyze the improvement of students‘ learning outcome, the
researchers used formula of paired samples t test, finding that t value was
significantly different from t table and p value was much more less than
standard sig. value of 0.05. With -t value< -t table (-6.683 < -2.179) and p
value< 0.05 (0.000 < 0.05), meaning that the alternative hypothesis stating

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significant improvement in learning outcomes following the treatment


using digital game was statistically accepted.
Table 5
Paired Samples T Test
Paired Differences
Sig.
Std. 95% Confidence
Std. (2-
Erro Interval of the T df
Mean Deviat tail
r Difference
ion ed)
Mean Lower Upper
Pretest
-
Pai – - 2.560 -
9.2334 -22.69510 11.5356 12 .000
r 1 Posttes 17.1154 9 6.683
7
t

As many proponents of DGBL claimed that game is significantly


influential to students‘ achievements if it is appropriately selected. Thus, in
regard of such statement, the researchers used the formula of Effect Size to
confirm digital game‘s treatment significance.

In classifying the criteria of effect size number, the researchers used


classification designed by Glass (n.d., as cited in Sutrisno, 2010):
: classified as low
: classified as medium
: classified as high

With score 1.80, it can be concluded that game did have significant
influence on students‘ learning outcomes. Above all, according to scale of
effect size range from Glass, this number of effect size indicated high
effect.

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Students’ learning motivation


The researcherss distributed motivational questionnaire to their
participants. The questionnaire was adapted from Keller‘s ARCS model
employed by Kebritchi (2008), indicating students‘ learning motivation
toward the use of digital game. To suit the purpose of their study, the
researcherss adapted questions and scales in their designated questionnaire.
Learning Motivation through Game Playing (LMGP-Q), as it was
named, was distributed during the treatment. The researcherss used both
numerical and descriptive analysis to explain the questionnaire. After
getting the result for questionnaire, the researcherss found that among 13
samples, one student was classified as moderate level of motivated learner,
eight as highly motivated learners, and four as very highly motivated
learners.
Table 6
The Description of Students‘ Questionnaire Results

No. Initials Score Level


1. N.F 82 High
2. I.P 79 High
3. Y.A 94 Very High
4. S.F.Y 88 Very High
5. I.R 86 Very High
6. N.U 80 High
7. Aul. 71 High
8. D.R.R 69 High
9. R.A 60 Moderate
10. O.R.P 83 High
11. M.D.U 75 High
12. N.M 87 Very High
13. N.H 80 High
Mean 79.54 High

In accordance of each items in ARCS model, with Attention (M=


4.14), Relevance (M = 3.88), Confidence (M = 3.89), and Satisfaction (M

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= 4.02) resulting in positive attitude and motivation from participants in


general. These result demonstrated participants‘ positive interest,
confidence, satisfaction, and attitude toward using game to enhance their
learning experience and motivation.
Table 7
Mean of ARCS Model Items

Items Score Average (Mean)


Attention 4.14
Relevance 3.88
Confidence 3.89
Satisfaction 4.02

Hypothesis
Now that the result of the research had been found, the researcherss
could analyze the hypothesis. Statistically speaking, hypothesis ―Digital
Games Based Learning does influence students‘ learning outcomes and
motivation‖ was accepted, as the result indicates improvement on students‘
learning outcomes (-6.683 < -2.179) and positive indicator for learning
motivation (M = 79.54). Eventually, it can be summarized that digital
game based learning has significant influence on students‘ learning
outcomes and motivation. In the end, concluding that formulated
hypothesis is accepted.

Conclusions
Conclusions
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of digital
games based learning on students‘ learning outcomes and motivation. The
population of the study was 68 English Department students year 2011.
The total 13 samples were derived from the use of stratified random

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sampling which divided the population into three, from which the
researchers selected her samples.
This study was a quantitative research. It also applied pre-
experimental design with one group pretest-posttest design. The data was
collected through experimental treatment using digital game, pretest and
posttest, and motivational questionnaire. The process of collecting the data
was held for five sessions in March, 2013.
In analyzing the data from the tests, the researchers used paired
sample t test to find out if there was difference of score following students‘
engagement in game-playing. Further use of effect size formula was also
considered in order to find out how big of effect was actually the digital
games based learning method had in enhancing students‘ learning
outcomes. Moreover, in analyzing the data of motivational questionnaire,
the researchers was setting out standard value for each item and reversed
item, accumulating them into final score and describing them into three
level group of students‘ learning motivation. Since the researchers used
Keller‘s ARCS model, the researchers then analyzed each ARCS item—
considering its dimensional difference within learning motivation. After
analyzing the data and discussing its result, provided below are the
conclusions of study:
1. There was significant improvement of students‘ learning outcomes, in
particular reading and listening skills, after indulging within the
treatment using digital game. The significance of digital game to
enhance students‘ English skills was shown through the result of data
analysis. The difference of pretest‘s mean (M = 54.23) to that of
posttest‘s (M = 71.35) signaling that there was difference of students‘
before and after treatment‘s score. Further use of paired samples t test
strengthened the difference, by resulting in -t value (-6.683) lower than

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Rahmat Yusny and Sarah Fitri

that of -t table‘s (-2.179). The significance of students‘ improvement


were statistically calculated using effect size which resulted in high
significance level of influence of digital games based learning on
students‘ learning outcomes. In summary, it can be concluded that
DGBL did enhance students‘ learning outcomes.
2. There was influence of digital games based learning toward students‘
learning motivation since the result of motivational questionnaire
showed that students mostly reacted positively toward the use of game
to learn English. Mean score (M = 79.54) was the proof that in average,
participants indulged in this research were indicated as highly motivated
learners. This indication of high learning motivation was clearly shown
during the researchers‘ research—having seen her participants playing
continuously with a lot of curiosity; breaking in joy for finishing certain
levels; or simply seen them focusing intensely since the level was pretty
difficult. In the end, it all proved that digital games based learning
indeed has effect on students‘ learning motivation.
3. Through the analysis of Keller‘s ARCS items, the researchers could
deduce the following assumptions: (1) Majority of students believed
that digital games based learning could increase their interest and
attention toward English learning as it provided various tasks, rich
visuals, and challenging levels, all provided in English; (2) students
realized that the game, if appropriately selected, could enhance their
English learning, especially in reading and listening; and (3) students
would feel satisfaction, excitement, challenge, and accomplishment
once they finish the game. These resulting in students‘ feeling more
motivated and enthusiastic toward learning English through game-
playing.

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Future works
For future researchers, the researcherss suggest to ensue further
exploration toward the effect of digital games in learning environment. The
following issues can be considered for future research: Firstly, it is helpful
to examine the effects of the same or similar game used in this study with
different participants. Secondly, various findings for the influence of the
games in this study, justify further investigation to better identify the cause
of the game effects on achievement and motivation. Thirdly, as this study
relied only on statistical calculation, further and deeper investigation using
qualitative instruments on effects of the games on motivation should be
conducted. Finally, the researchers recommended other researchers to work
on the same background with a more complete design and a greater
number of participants.

References
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on Reading Motivation and Comprehension. The Journal of
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Levent, U. 2009. An Evaluative Checklist for Computer Games Used for
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Meizaliana, M. 2009. Teaching Structure through Games to the Students of


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198 REGISTER, Vol. 6, No. 2, November 2013


Khairil Razali and Husnul Khatimah

Autonomous Learning Writing Promoted by the Use of


Facebook Group

Khairil Razali
UIN ArRaniry Aceh
Jl. SyechAbdurra’ufKopelma Darussalam Banda Aceh
khairilrazali1976@gmail.com

Husnul Khatimah
UIN ArRaniry Aceh
Jl. SyechAbdurra’ufKopelma Darussalam Banda Aceh
husnulkhatimah.adnan@gmail.com

Abstract

In aglobalized world, internet facilities and social media are becoming


increasingly important and take a strategic role in most of human activities.
One of them is in the education and learning sector. This qualitative
research explored the role of a Facebook group to increase students'
autonomy in learning writing. The experiment was conducted with
qualitative methodology to 6 students as a sample. The process of data
collection is done through the media Facebook group which was developed
during the data collection through observation and interviews. The research
lasted for 30(thirty) days in which researchers became the administrator
and facilitator. From the process of collecting and analyzing the data
assumed that Facebook group influenced the autonomy and promote
independent of students learning in writing.

Keywords: Facebook group, Students autonomy, Learning writing

Abstrak

Dalam dunia yang global, sarana internet dan media social menjadi
semakin penting dan mengambil peran strategis dalam segala lini
kehidupan manusia. Salah satunya adalah di sector pendidikan dan
pembelajaran. Penelitian ini melakukan explorasi kualitatif tentang eran
Facebook Group terhadap peningkatan kemandirian siswa dalam belajar
writing. Penelitian dilaksanakan dengan pendekatan kualitatif terhadap 6

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Autonomous Learning Writing Promoted by the Use of Facebook Group

siswa sebagai sampel. Proses pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui media


facebook group yang di desain untuk proses penelitian ini, observasi dan
wawancara. Penelitian berlangsung selama 30 (tiga puluh) hari dimana
peneliti menjadi pengelola akun dan fasilitator. Dari proses pengumpulan
dan analisa disimpulkan bahwa media Facebook group mempromosikan
dan mempengaruhi kemandiriaan siswa dalam kemandirian belajar writing.

Kata Kunci: Facebook group, Kemandirian belajar siswa, Belajar


menulis

Introduction
Facebook is a global large social media that boosts more than 100
million followers, and it is one of the fastest-growing and best-known sites
on internet these days. Initiated and established by Zuckerberg in 2004,
Facebook as a network at first targeted high school and college students
but it goes globally and actively gains its popularity of all people ages.
(Blattner & Fiori, 2009).
Literally, Hayashi (2011) has studied about the use of Facebook
that contributed the increased students‘ motivation and language output.
She explained that in Facebook students can enjoy written communication
freely by sharing their ideas, via Facebook status or note. They also can
comment to other‘s posting, and or share link, and video as well. However
even so, she just tends to see the use of Facebook in general and focusing
on the general language learning.
Learning writing in the classroom is not adequate to foster students‘
competence. Therefore, the demand of autonomous learning methods and
techniques by learning outside classroom is increased. Autonomous
learning as defined by Holec (cited in Hayashi, 2011) as ―The ability to
take charge of one‘s learning,‖ had grown considerably in the field of
language education. Lee (2011) stated that autonomous learning does not

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require learners to work in isolation; rather, they socially construct


knowledge by actively engaging in the process of learning. Through social
interaction, learners develop a capacity to receive information, and then to
create a new perspective. It means, to lead students to get their autonomy
in learning, the instructors must be able to create such community that
appropriate for this need.
Fortunately, besides enhancing students‘ motivation to love
writing, Facebook also provides an additional media to facilitate this need.
One of the examples is Facebook group. ‗Facebook group‘ is a feature that
is available on the social networking site Facebook, where students are
allowed to participate communicate and interact via post and chat for a
specific purpose with unlimited number of people, and of course with
unlimited usage of time.
This article mainly discusses the use of Facebook groups only.
Actually, Yunus et al (n.d) has studied about the connection of Facebook
group and learning writing. However, their focus is only on how Facebook
develop students‘ preparation process in writing, which is brainstorming,
before they are doing the real writing. Then, they looked at the issues from
teacher point of view with having the result ‗How to teach writing to ELS
students by using Facebook group?‘
Otherwise, this present study would explore more at how
‗Facebook Group Promoting Students Autonomy in Writing Learning?‘
with the focus more on students point of view. According to Yunus et al
(n.d) method, for this study, a Facebook group was created specifically for
the purpose of providing students with a space where they were in control
of the content and the direction of their learning, as well as providing more
opportunities for students to write. The researcher merely acted as a
facilitator for the group which apply scaffolding role, to give temporary

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support to help student move from lower stage to higher stage of


development. Facebook group also allowed for almost immediate feedback
and fun interaction that the researcher hoped will motivate students in
improving their writing. The researcher hypothesized that Facebook group
will benefit the students in motivating them to learn writing autonomously.

Facebook
Facebook has been a leading social media currently. Facebook has
been gaining market share since launched in February 2004. It obtains over
eight million users in the U.S. alone and expands worldwide to eight other
English-Speaking Countries with more to follow (Yani, 2011). It started its
corporation with high schools in the United States in September 2005 and
followed crossing the Atlantic to universities in the UK (Yani, 2011). Now,
the site becomes one of the biggest web sites in the world visited by 400
million people in a month.
In Indonesia, currently stands at the second largest Facebook
market in the world. The fact, despite of its relatively slow internet
connection compared to other countries, its rates grown rate from year to
year that has been tremendously high. Bucher (as cited in Yani, 2011)
reported the top 30 countries by number of active Facebook users with
Facebook data from 1st April 2011 compared to April 2009 and April 2010,
which is showed that Indonesia precisely the second stair after USA and
above the UK. It is surprise when we recall back to the Facebook History
development which showed that UK is the second home of Facebook in the
beginning.
However, Sukmana (2011) states there are reasons statistically lead
Indonesia at the second place of followers Facebook growth.
Culturally,Indonesian is mostly based on sharing, communicating, and

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solidarity. Facebook facilitates Indonesian people to connect with their


families, friends and collegues in their lives easily. As more and more
people get connected through Facebook, people are not able to refuse to
join it since most of their friends had been there. In addition, the fact
mobile phone subscribers have reached more than 200 million in 2011 in
Indonesia. It shows an increasingly trend. Another important reason is the
demands and interests towards Facebook has led to innovative and
impressive development of Facebook website, therefore, it leads to attracts
users through its features and functions. Indeed, by the reason, exclusive
network, photo-tagging, news feed, and great application including
Facebook group resulted to a community-based cultural country like
Indonesia promotes of the existence of Facebook and its group
allowspeople to manage communication, moreover, it gives in some way
Facebook increases its development in Indonesian Market rapidly.
Furthermore, Facebook has successfully won the heart of
Indonesian people, moreover the young adults. Communication on
Facebook group is mostly done in written type, therefore this study would
like to find out how this popular media involves in developing students‘
autonomy in learning writing. To somehow the students‘ autonomy in
learning is totally important in learning writing.

Learner autonomy
The origin theory and practice of autonomy in language learning
emerged from Knowel‘sresearch of self-directed learning (1975, cited in
Kocak, 2003) which defined as a leading figure in adult education, as a
process in which individuals accept responsibility for all the decisions
concerned with their learning. In the 1970s and 1980s the focuses on adult
self-directed learning was becoming popular.

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Then, the term of autonomy firstly was introduced by Holec in


1981. It begins with the council of Europe‘s Modern Language project,
which led to the publication of Holec‘s seminar report, in which autonomy
is defined as ‗The ability to take charge of one‘s own learning‘ (cited in
Benson, 2006). However, the practical application focuses on self-directed
learning and led the development of self-access centers and learner training
as focal point for experimentation.
Therefore, as the more recent literature has begun to use the term
‗self-directed learning‘ together with the concept of learning autonomy in
the context of institutional education context, it treats autonomous learning
as a synonym for self-directed learning. The only distinction between
autonomy and self-directed learning is clearly emphasized by Dickinson
(1987, cited in Kocak, 2003) who said that in self-directedlearning,
learners accept responsibility for all decisions related to their learning but
not necessarily implement those decisions; on the other hand, in
autonomous learning the learners are entirely responsible for all the
decisions concerned with their learning and also the implementation of
these decisions.
Nevertheless, at that time, the issues of autonomous learning still
involved around adult learning which is held out of the classroom-based.
Then, in his book on learner training, Dickinson (1992, cited in Benson,
2003) argued that learner often acted ‗independently,‘ both cognitively and
behaviorally, in the classroom, while Dam (1995, cited in Benson 2003)
demonstrated how principle of autonomy could be integrated into
secondary school classroom without self-access or formal learner training.
This then turn to the application of learner autonomy in the classroom
context, which was as the second wave of the interest in learner autonomy
in language learning and teaching.

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Furthermore, Allwright (1988: 35, cited in Benson 2003) suggested


for the re-conceptualizing autonomy if it was to be used to the classroom
context. It is because, he defined autonomy as the long-life learning which
was not being adequate captured by the classroom environment. This idea
then was supported by the development of computer and internet usage for
the academic educational purposes. This is third wave of the context for
growing of the interest of autonomy in recent years. Indeed, the ―tendency
has been towards a blurring of the distinctions, leading to new and often
complex understandings of the role of autonomy in language teaching and
learning‖ (Benson, 2003).
Language skills can best be developed if the learner develops
awareness of his or her own learning, and of the strategies and styles that
are available. Strategic competence means being able to plan, implement,
monitor and evaluate one‘s learning, and making use of all available
opportunities both in and outside the classroom.
Autonomy is often taken, mistakenly we believe, to be a solitary
condition. However more and more writers are stressing the need for
interaction and negotiation. Dam (1995, cited in Nordlund, n.d.) stressed
the social dimension that ―learner autonomy is characterized by a readiness
to take charge of one‘s own learning in the service of one‘s needs and
purposes. This entails a capacity and willingness to act independently and
in co-operation with others, as a socially responsible person.‖
Therefore, in this learning, every participant is encouraged to
response to each other writing, whether to appreciate it or to revise it. Their
participation in commenting others would be well-observed.
An important part of language-learning awareness is the admission
that a lot of learning goes on the outside the classroom. There has been
considerable debate over whether autonomy is just another Western

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concept that is being forced on cultures that do not share the same values.
However, there have been autonomous systems successfully applied and
adopted in a wide range of cultures. This indicates that the problem may be
more a misunderstanding about the deep values of different societies.
Individual differences in learning styles, for instance, may be more
important than learning strategies that have been acquired in a different
classroom culture.
Furthermore, autonomous learning can be developed in almost any
context and with any type of learner, but the context and culture have to be
taken into account.

Autonomous learning of writing


Writing is a task, described by Levy and Olive as ―one of the most
complex activities that people can accomplish‖ (Dion, M. N., 2011). It is
undeniable that the hardest skill in English learning is writing which
require learner‘s competency to receipt the information, process it, and at
least, produce it. Seriously, learning writing is inadequate if only rely on
the ―two hours or four hours‖ learning in the classroom. Writing is about
the long processes, which require more time, more effort, as well as more
guidance.
Indeed, learners need to learn more outside the classroom in order
to be a good writer, especially English writer. It is undeniably that the
demand of autonomous learning in writing is such a crucial issue to be
focused on. Therefore, in this study I would like to explore on how
autonomous learning of writing could be developed by using Facebook
Group Media, which is provided more space for the learning outside the
classroom, but with the consideration that the learners still in touch with

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their social environment, as well as friends, teachers, or even English


native speakers or writers.
As well as a complex subject, English writing has so large scope to
be covered to, and therefore would be impossible conducting research on
all aspect of it. Nevertheless, considering time limitation, participants‘
basic competence, I have to limit the writing scope into two authentic basic
writing, that are; writing comment, and writing a paragraph.
In order to help the participants learn successfully, I provided the
instructional process by using scaffolding approach, which was started
from the lower level to the next. In this situation, I would start the learning
process from the comment writing, and then paragraph writing. To guide
the participants to gain better achievement, along with those writing
instruction, I provided a slight explanation and basic links, and a rubric, so
that they could monitor their learning, as well as their peer learning.
In recent years, interest in students‘ autonomy has grown
considerably in the field of language education (e.g., Benson, 2003).
Furthermore, along with the development of internet and its usage, there
are also many studies that figured out about how is the internet usage can
be adopted to the learning process, or facilitated the learning. Facebook as
the most popular Social Networking Site (SNS) in the world now day also
gained the attention of academic researchers, especially in the language
learning issues.
Albertson (2011) studied the influence of Facebook to students‘
grammatical and pragmatic awareness; he did this study among Japanese
learners of English that showed Facebook can lead students to be more
aware about the grammatical and pragmatic used in daily communication.
It is emphasized by Wu P. and Hsu L‘s study that deal with the connection
of Facebook and EFL Learning (n.d). In their action research they got the

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result that Facebook improve students‘ language competence, as well as


improving their motivation. Their research is in a line with Nowland‘s
study which more focuses on students‘ motivation and autonomous
learning. His result suggests the teacher to not only ―teach a language, but
to also inform and instruct how to study outside the classroom,‖ and
Facebook gladly provide it if the teacher understands to lead the students
use it wisely. In addition, Blattner and Fiori (2009) conducted study more
specific on Facebook usage in the classroom activities which was also
resulting good conclusion on Facebook usage.
Obviously, if that circumstance was happening, the English
learning process by using Facebook will become useless. As Wu P. and
Hsu L. (n.d) concluded that the external factors, such as; ―1) Audience, 2)
quantity and quality of feedback from peers, 3) Topic preference, 4)
Upcoming assignment and examination and 5) novelty effect,‖ will
become the disturbance of the learning process.

Research design
Participants
We conducted the research at the second grade students of Madrasah
AliyahNegeri (MAN) Model Banda Aceh. The population of the research
was 130 students. However, there was only 114 students participated in
answering questionnaires.
Nevertheless, to get the detail of qualitative data, we limited the
samples into six participants purposively; by giving them the
questionnaires to select the appropriateness. The researchers distributed
questionnaires to explore of how often they signed in Facebook, Facebook
group, their writing passion, and their writing interest which is proved by
how often they write a diary or anything a day.

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Data collection
This study applied a descriptive qualitative approach. It explores
understanding of a central phenomenon. There were three major
procedures in collecting the data. They were observations, interviews and
documents analysis. The research was carried on the Facebook group that
the researchers created for this study purpose. Then research samples were
added through their Facebook account into the group developed. To begin
the conversation flow, the researchers started the conversation through
simple and free topics started from free writing to introduce them. They
research respondents were free to write anything they would like to such as
their activities, and so on. To support the collection of the detail qualitative
data, the learning activities were done merely in Facebook Group
environment for 30 days. The observation activities were carried out on
Facebook Group.
The learning process in the Facebook group was activated through
―posting‖ as the instructional learning, and ―comment‖ as the learning
response to one another. To attract students, topics posted in the group
were different from regular classroom learning process. It maintains more
approaching to the basic learning of writing; which is more authentic and
more needed as a base of their learning writing development, such as
writing a good comment on the internet, and writing a good paragraph.
Therefore, any of the participants‘ posting, both assignment and free
posting, and comment in the Facebook Group were the document that
would be analyzed for the research need.

Discussion
The result of observation and document analysis
The primary data for this research was the observation data from

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the Facebook group environment, which was more detail and


comprehensive. Therefore, all of the participants‘ postings and comments
in Facebook group were data of the research.
Actually, according to Thanasaulas‘s (2000), autonomous learning
emphasized as the ―path‖ of the learning process in which the learners go
through, and it was not a product that can be produced, moreover in the
very short period of time. It means, it is adequate hard to measure the
autonomous learning. Therefore, in order to analyze and measure the
participants‘ autonomous learning of English writing development during
one month learning activities, we adopted Reinder‘s (2010) Eight-Stages of
autonomous learning process as the patron for this measurement. Each of
the stages highlights the learners in learning autonomously. The eight-
stages were as cycle that could not be torn up each other. Those stages are;
identifying needs, selecting goals, planning learning, selecting resources,
selecting learning strategies, practice, monitoring the progress, and the
last was assessment and revision.
Furthermore, in order to analyze those stages thoroughly, I will
explain them separately;
1. Identifying needs
In this stage, before the learning was starting, the learners were
asked to decide what they need to learn, and what condition they need in
order to learn better. Therefore, we asked them to decide the rules of this
group learning activities that need to be obeyed by all of the participants.
In order to stimulate their opinion involvement; we suggested 3 rules to be
applied; 1) be active and participate enthusiastically, 2) be respectful to
each other by using well or polite language, and 3) be brave to talk and do
not afraid of making mistake. However, those rules were opened to be
eliminated or accepted, as well as the full opportunity for them to add other

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rules that theyneed. In this identifying needs stage, only two participants
(C and No) who decided what they need by adding other rules through
their comments, but other participants (V, Na, I, and R) gave no responses.
 C: ―I should add? no. 4. do not neglect the task given by admin.
no.5 not active at night always, but when the sun is not setting too n
often comment on and make suggestions. and that's all I can say.
participation please!‖
 No: ―I agree with chohaekyungevilmagnae but, sorry maybe I can't
active at night without the participation of its members will be
difficult to realize that learning to our liking with‖

2. Selecting goals
In this stage, the learners were asked to decide what the goals of
our learning in this group are. They need to know and elaborate what they
want to learn, in short, what kind of writing they want to master in through
this learning media. Therefore, to help them think, we suggested them to
learn about descriptive and/or narrative paragraph, but also with the same
consideration that they might choose and decide their own. However, they
had to elaborate why they need to learn and how.

3. Planning of learning
At this stage, there were no other participants were responding, the
conclusion that other participants also agreed with those needs and goals
that had been settled by C and No. Therefore, the learning process was
started. It began with the writing comment learning. We posted a brief
basic knowledge about how to write a good comment on the internet. Then,
they explored their writing comment competency by commenting on other
people‘s English posting, and reported them to the group, as well as their

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analysis of other comments in that posting. Then, every of them had to


comment and revise each other report about writing comment.
Trying to understand the postings and the link given about
comment, all of the participants have their own way in learning, as well as
their strategy to plan their own learning. The participants wrote a reflection
on the problem, the feeling toward the learning, etc. one of the participant
reflected as follows;
―I like study about write comment, because I can know new
vocabulary from other, but sometimes I can't understand all‖
Nevertheless, in the next learning topic, learning about writing
paragraph, almost all of the participants wrote their reflection about
learning of writing paragraph.
In this reflection writing section, a participant, V reflected based on
the reflection guideline, but she misunderstood the ―planning learning‖
meaning in this context which was talking about the planning about how to
learn the materials, but she talked about ―the future plan.‖ She explained
about her future plans as ―2. My plan after this I can learn to practice in
daily life and I plan one more I want to learn to speak like a tourist, they
understand my language and I can understand their language as well.‖
Fortunately, in this turn C understood the instruction well, but she
wrote shorter reflection than the previous one. There are only several
questions were covered in No‘s reflection, but it was very confusing
answer about planning learning question; “lesson planning is done well,
but to realize in need of sacrifice and hard work of both the recipient and
the giver. Not all of the planning we can do well or according to plan lots
of obstacles in this regard occurred.”

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4. Selecting resources
The learners selected their own learning sources. The participants
were free to check and search any others as many as they wanted to.
According to the explanation in stage 3, at this stage, there were only three
participants (C, V, and No) explained their selecting resource process,
while two others (Na and I) were only talking about their feeling and one
participant was giving no response. In this stage, C elaborated that she did
not visit any other link because she felt that the link given was adequate for
her learning as follows;

Otherwise, V said that she visit other link to help her understand
what she read in the given link, as she said ―I've also seen other people's
links, if I am unsure of my mind, I saw it aims to correct my mistakes.‖
however, unluckily, she did not mention the links she had visited to. This is
in accordance with No‘s thought, which was visiting other links because

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she thought that learning something was not enough by visiting one link, as
she said “of course because we can understand the learning of a variety of
things not just one link only goal that we get more banyak pengetahuan.”

5. Selecting learning strategies.


The detail of those three participants‘ learning strategies were C
elaborated in her first reflection that her learning strategies were by
speaking, reading, writing, and listening, but in the second reflection she
wrote that arranging time is her strategy in learning, as she said “to
arrange a time to learn.” Otherwise, V explained that her learning
strategies was by trying to understand the materials giving by guessing and
if she failed to guest, she would ask me directly, and she really did it, as
she said “I am attempting guessing yourself what tasks the teacher, if I do
not understand also recently asked directly at the teacher.” The last is No,
which was writing her learning strategies by trying to find the meaning of
the material, and therefore she tried to look at the digital dictionary, AlFA
link, and asking her friends, and very rare she asked me.

6. Practice
In this stage, the learners are asked to practice their learning by
writing based on the task given.The task that was given had been designed
based on the autonomous learning development consideration. Therefore,
their participation in fulfilling the task by writing showed how their
autonomous learning in writing developed.
To help them practice writing, in the beginning of the learning, I
asked the participants to do free writing about themselves as the
introduction. For this activity, all of the participants (C, V, Na, No, I, and
R) were participating very well. Indeed, before the learning was started,
three participants (C, No, and V) had been starting writing by asking other

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participants‘ condition and/or just saying hello and good night, and Na also
participated commenting on those posting. Furthermore, in the activity of
―how to write a good comment‖ material posted the participants practiced
writing comment by exploring comments of other people outside the group
and posted its report in the group, even though those posting did not meet
the deadline that had been settled together before. However, there are two
participants (C and R) who were merely analyzing other people‘s
comment, but they did not providing any comment in that posting.

7. Monitoring progress
The ―monitoring progress‖ not only can be explored through the
―seen check,‖ it also can be seen from their opinion about the learning.
Therewas one participant (C) who showed her opinion about the writing
comment learning, as she said “oh come on guys .... please, further
comments.. do not be quiet like this.. I'm bored -_-“
Interestingly 100% students participated at this stages, but with the
detail that 69% of participant were highly participated observing others‘
posting, and only 15% who were critically giving opinion about the
learning progress and 52% were participating well, because they missed
the last 5 posting and they did not give any opinion through the learning
progress.

8. Assessment and revision.


In this last stage, the learners were asked to assess their peers
learning as well as theirs. Therefore, their feedbacks for other participants
were observed through their comments, but the feedbacks that assess
others‘ posting will only be counted.
In this stage, the participants‘ participation decreased than previous
stages. There were only three participants (C, V and R) who provided

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feedback to assess other participants‘ posting, but others were giving none.
However, each of them only wrote one feedback in each learning step; C
only wrote one feedback for writing comment learning in No‘s posting, but
she did not provide any feedback for the writing paragraph learning.
Otherwise, V and R did not provide any assessment feedback in writing
comment learning, but they gave a feedback for their pair in the writing
paragraph learning.
Furthermore, after assessment process (assessing others‘ posting
and their own posting) the participants were asked to revise their posting
according to the assessment. Nevertheless, for the revision process, only
one participant (V) who did; she revised her paragraph, and others did
none; even I and No whose paragraph was revised by the participants
above.

Data interpretation
The result of Facebook group observation and document analysis
shows that Facebook group media promotes students autonomous learning.
The ―practice‖ stages are considered as the main stages in writing learning,
where all of the participants (100%) fully engaged participating. All of the
participants actively practice writing. In addition, all of the participants
also showed full involvement in monitoring the progress. In addition, the
interviews data exposed participants enjoy the learning process and the
practice through media (Facebook Group).
Of six other stages, the participants showed different level of
participation. Where for ―selecting resources, selecting learning strategies‖,
and assessment, there were only three participants showed the engagement,
and for ―planning learning, setting goals, and identifying needs‖ there were
only two participants showed the involvement.

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Nevertheless, from the Facebook observation and document


analysis, there is one participant (C) who was actively participated in the
group, and fulfilled all of the eight stages of autonomous learning, but she
did not realized that the Facebook group had promote her to learn writing
autonomously. It can be seen from her interview answer that “the learning
activity we had done in the group was not motivated me to love English
writing.” Otherwise, other participants‘ participation level is; V fulfilled 6
stages, No fulfilled 5 stages, R fulfilled 3, and the last Na and I fulfilled 2
stages.
In fact, the interviews data reflected the only factor of their problem
in participating the learning in the group is the timing which students had
timing conflict between participating in the research and completing the
school assignments. Since ―selecting goals, selecting learning, and
assessment‖ had to be written in their reflection and it was done in the last
time of the learning, it was approaching to their final examination timing
and therefore they could not participate actively.
The participants stated that they love this type of learning which is
more fun and relax. Even R and ―I‖ that was fulfilling only two stages,
they answered that they loved this kind of learning which was providing a
lot advantages, especially for developing their English vocabulary, writing
comment, and writing a paragraph. Indeed, ―I‖ showed high enthusiasm of
this learning and said that she wanted to be a member in other Facebook
groups that provides English learning. Actually her answer and the
participation in the group were contradictory, but then she explained that
she got problem in accessing the internet connection. Therefore, it can be
concluded that the Facebook group promote students‘ autonomy in
learning writing, even though it was not significant.

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Conclusion
This study concludes that the Facebook group promoted students‘
autonomy in learning English writing. It promotes students to practice
writing more often, and also promotes students monitor the learning
process. One of the reasons that the learners felt learning writing in the
Facebook group as more fun and relax compared to routine classroom
situation. However, for the selecting learning resources, selecting learning
strategies, assessment, identifying needs, and setting goals the learners
suffered from difficulty due to final examination and school assignments of
students. Therefore, it is urgent to consider Facebook Group as a media in
learning language mainly. The fact that it could promote autonomy;
moreover, teacher should take consideration in a way to motivate students.

References
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Ratih Asyi Supriyanto

Grammatical Interference from English into Indonesian


Language Made by English Native Speakers in Salatiga

Ratih Asti Supriyanto


English Department of Educational Faculty
State Islamic Studies Institute (STAIN) Salatiga
Jl. Tentara Pelajar No. 02 Salatiga, Central Java, Indonesia
nature.asti@gmail.com

Abstract

This research was carried out the syntactic interference from English to
Indonesian language made by English native speakers in Salatiga. This
study was also intended to find out morphological interference from
English to Indonesian language made by English native speakers in
Salatiga. The research method used was interviewing, recording and
transcribing. This method was applied by interviewing English native
speakers, then the writer recorded and transcribed to find out the
interference that they made. After the data had been collected and
analyzed, the writer finds several sub-classifications in syntactic
interference as the following: (1) sentence; (2) phrase; (3) diction; and
syntactic interference are dominated by phrase, because the phrase
construction of English and Indonesian language is different. The
construction phrase of Indonesian language is head word + modifier, but in
English head word is put after the modifier. Meanwhile for morphological
interference is dominated by applying the base form in using the verbs in
sentence. The construction of verb in English does not need the inflectional
morphology to make the sentence clear as the Indonesian language. The
speakers have a tendency to use the base form to show the verb in
Indonesian sentence.

Keywords: Interference, Syntactic interference, Morphological


interference.

Abstrak

Penelitian ini menyajikan interferensi sintaksis dari bahasa Inggris ke


bahasa Indonesia yang dibuat oleh penutur asli bahasa Inggris di Salatiga.
Penelitian ini juga dimaksudkan untuk menemukan interferensi morfologi

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dari bahasa Inggris ke bahasa Indonesia yang dibuat oleh penutur asli
bahasa Inggris di Salatiga. Metode yang digunakan adalah wawancara,
rekaman dan transkrip. Metode ini diterapkan dengan mewawancarai
penutur asli bahasa Inggris, kemudian penulis merekam dan mentranskrip
hasil wawancara untuk mengetahui interferensi yang mereka buat. Setelah
data dikumpulkan dan dianalisis, penulis menemukan beberapa sub -
klasifikasi interferensi sintaksis sebagai berikut : (1) kalimat, (2) frase, (3)
diksi, dan gangguan sintaksis didominasi oleh frase, karena konstruksi
frase bahasa Inggris dan bahasa Indonesia berbeda. Susunan frase dalam
bahasa Indonesia adalah kata + modifikator , tapi dalam bahasa Inggris
kata diletakkan setelah modifikator. Sementara itu interferensi morfologi
didominasi dengan menerapkan bentuk dasar dalam menggunakan kata
kerja pada kalimat. Dalam bahasa Inggris konstruksi kata kerja tidak
memerlukan infleksi morfologi untuk membuat kalimatnya jelas
sebagaimana yang berlaku dalam bahasa Indonesia. Para pembicara
memiliki kecenderungan untuk menggunakan bentuk dasar pada kata kerja
yang mereka gunakan dalam kalimat bahasa Indonesia.

Kata Kunci : Interferensi, Interferensi sintaksis, Interferensi morfologi

Introduction
Communication is the requirement of life. As social creatures,
people need it, and language is perfect tool to communicate. Recently
learning language, especially more than one language is important for
people in the world, because it can be the bridge to communicate with
others in different places, even different countries. In fact, there are some
constraints to do it, people who learn different language will find
difficulties to learn the grammar, vocabularies, even phonetic aspect in that
language. As the result, they will mix the same aspects from their mother
tongue to language that they learn. In linguistics, this phenomenon is called
interference.
The first scholar who introduces interference is Weinreich in 1953.
He used interference to clarify the systemic change in language because of

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contiguity between that language and the other language that made by
bilingual speaker (Chaer and Agustina, 2004:120).
Meanwhile according to Robert Lado, bilingualism is individual
capability to use two languages equally well or almost equal technically
referred to the knowledge of two languages whatever its degree (Chaer and
Agustina, 2004:86). Almost bilingual people make interference in the
beginning when they speak in their target language. For example,
Indonesian who learns English, they will make interference in their writing
or their speaking skill in the target language, in this case English.
According to Pudiyono‘s research (2012:6), the structural of
Indonesian language can be influenced in practice by Indonesian students;
it‘s like the following sentence: Dia sangat mencintai adiknya. With such
grammatical pattern as the example, an Indonesian learning English could
capably express the idea just like in Indonesian pattern as the following:
She very loves her brother. Definitely, this utterance is not grammatically
acceptable in English. The correct grammatical rule is the word very
cannot be used to explain adverb such very loves. Very in English is used
to modify an adjective. Therefore, the morpheme very is linked directly
before an adjective, for instance: very busy, very beautiful, very angry, very
important, very much, very little, very handsome, etc. In short, the word
very cannot stand alone. On the contrary, the word, which can be used to
modify an English verb, is very much.
On the other hand, English native speakers who learn Indonesian
language could also experience language interference, not only Indonesian
who learns English. When the writer met English native speakers, the
writer heard that consonant ―t‖ will be ―c‖ when they spoke in Indonesian
language. For example, the word tahu/tempe will be cahu/cempe, it is
called phonic interference. Besides, language interference could also

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appear in morphological and syntactical areas which could be included in


grammatical interference. Considering the situation above, the writer
curious to find and identify kinds of syntactical and morphological
interference from English to Indonesian language made by English native
speakers in Salatiga.

Interference
The first scholar who used interference is Weinreich in 1953, he
formulated interference to clarify the systemic change in language because
of contiguity between that language and the other language that are made
by bilingual speaker (Chaer and Agustina, 2004:120). Then, more than a
decade ago, Fishman in 1971 decried the extensive and arbitrary
employment of the term ‖interference‖ by many linguists in reference to
any number of bilingual phenomena. (Poplack, 1983:11)
Instead of making the usual field work assumption that the
underlying structures of the varieties encountered in bilingual
speech communities were unknown, linguists have usually assumed
that they were known, but basically nothing more than X
―Interfering‖ with Y and vice versa. As a result they frequently
failed to familiarize themselves with the communities and speakers
from which they obtained their corpuses of speech.

Alwasilah (1985:131) explored the notion of interference based on


Hartman and Stonk that interference is a mistake caused by the propensity
of habitually used pronunciation (speech) of a language to another
language pronunciation unit includes sounds, grammar, and vocabulary.
Meanwhile, Valdman‘s opinion in 1966 as cited by Hayi, et.al (1985)
mentions that interference is an obstacle because of speaker habits on
mother language (first language) in the study of language acquisition

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(second language). Consequently, there will be transfer of negative


elements from the mother language into the target language.
Suhendra Yusuf (1994:67) stated that the main factors of
interference are the differences between the source language and the target
language. The differences are not only in structure but also the variety of
vocabularies. Another notion advanced by Jendra (1991:187), he declared
that the interference is the infiltration system of a language into another
language. Interference arises from implementing unit system of sounds
(phonemes) by bilingual in a first language into a second language sound
system, which causes chaos or irregularities at the phonemic system of the
recipient language. Interference is a common symptom in sociolinguistic
that occurs as a result of language contact, the use of two or more
languages in the speech multilingual community. This case is an issue that
attracted attention for linguists.

Syntactic interference
Interference occurs when the syntactic structure of a language is
absorbed by the other language (Suwito, 1983:56). Interference can be seen
in the use of syntactic fragments of words, phrases and clauses in sentences
(Chaer and Agustina, 2004:124). For example, English and Indonesian
phrases.
English Indonesian
Santika Hotel Hotel Santika
Salatiga Kota Kota Salatiga

The other example can be seen in the sentences, Dina reads the
poetry with beautiful. In English this sentence is not exist, because the right
form is Dina reads the poetry beautifully. From this case, the interference

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can be proved, cause the sentence “Dina reads the poetry with beautiful”
is the translation from the sentence “Dina membaca puisi dengan indah”
Morphological interference
According to Suwito (1983:55) morphological interference occur if
the formation of word in a language absorbs the affixes from other
languages. The affix of a language used to spell a word in another
language, while affixes consist of prefix, suffix, inserts, as well as
combinations of affixes. For examples, morphological interference from
Javanese into Indonesian language. In words ketrabak/ kebawa and
kebagusan/ keasinan
Javanese Indonesian English
Ke-tabrak Tertabrak accidentally crashed into
Ke-bawa Terbawa taken along (accidentally)
Ke-asin-an Terlalu asin saltiness
Ke-bagus-an Terlalu bagus too good

Research method
The type of this research was qualitative research. The specific
thing that observed and analyzed was the utterances comprise of words,
phrases, clauses, and sentences made by English native speakers in
Salatiga.
The writer took the subjects of research to get the data through
purposive sampling technique. According to Arikunto (2006: 183)
Purposive sampling is a technique of sampling based on some
consideration. There are ten subjects in this research. They are nine
Americans and one Dutchman who speak English since they were child.
Their names are Peter Greenwald as a pilot; Ashley Greenwald as
housewife; Peter Anderson Neal as a Pilot; Joy Marcie Neal as housewife;
Melissa Jean Kroneman as housewife; Klaash Christian Kroneman as a

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pilot; Karren Fosdahl and Tabitha Julia Kidwell as a lecturer; Shad Chris
Deal as a constructor; and Sarah Christine Shad as a housewife. The writer
did the interview, then recording and transcribing to get the data. After data
had been collected, the writer analyzed the data based on the syntactical
and morphological interference in order to find out their classification.

Discussion
Syntactic interference
Sentence
Suhendra Yusuf (1994:67) states that the main factors of
interference are the differences between the source language and the target
language. The differences are not only in structure but also in the variety of
vocabularies. Thus, the structure of the target language always influences
the interference made by bilinguals. Meanwhile, structure of English and
Indonesian language in the sentence has similarities:
1) Kemudian saya bekerja sebagai instruktur pilot untuk pilot, baru
murid ya. S P O
(Then, I worked as a pilot instructor for a pilot, the new student)
It is S + P + O which make foreigners easier to learn Indonesian
language. Hence, there is limited interference in structure of
sentence.
Kemudian saya bekerja sebagai insruktur pilot untuk pilot, baru
murid ya from the sentence, then, I worked as a pilot instructor for
a pilot, the new student. The structure is right. There are; I / saya as
a subject, worked / bekerja as a predicate, as a pilot instructor /
sebagai instruktur pilot as an object, and complement is for a pilot,
the new student / untuk pilot,baru murid. The sentence structure is
complete, subject, predicate, object, and the complement existed in
the sentence above,but for the level of phrase, interference exists in
the phrase baru murid. The phrase interference will be discussed in
the next sub topic.

Phrase
There is a tendency, English native speakers made syntactic

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interference in the phrase construction and the diction in the sentence.


Phrase interference occured due to the construction of the phrase in the
English language interference into Indonesian used by English native
speakers in Salatiga. There is the difference between English phrase and
Indonesian phrase, in English construction, phrase consist of modifier +
head word for example the new + student, while the Indonesian structure is
head word + modifier for example murid + baru (student + new). It seems
that the difference cause phrase interference from English to Indonesian
language. As data below;
2) Kemudian Saya bekerja sebagai insruktur pilot untuk pilot, baru
murid ya. (Then, I worked as a pilot instructor for a pilot, the new
student.)
The pattern of baru murid is modifier + head word. It is clear that
the speaker used English phrase construction. When he spoke in
Indonesian, the correct pattern is head word + modifier or murid
baru. It should be, Kemudian saya bekerja sebagai instruktur untuk
pilot, murid baru ya. (Then, I worked as a pilot instructor for a
pilot, the new student.)

3) Menjelaskan bagaimana kami rencana membantu orang yang


hidup disini.(Explain how our plan to help the people who live
here)
There is interference from English pattern in Kami rencana (our
plan). The pattern of the noun phrase is modifier (possessive
pronoun) + head word (noun). It is English pattern compare to
Indonesian phrase head word + modifier. The phrase should be
rencana kami. Menjelaskan bagaimana rencana kami membantu
orang yang hidup disini. (Explain how our plan to help the people
who live here)

4) Oh food, kesukaan makan, banyak kata panjang ya ?(Oh food,


favorite food, a lot of long words huh? )
Actually in the phrase kesukaan makan (favorite food), the
interference is not only in the structure, but also in the
morphological aspect that will be discussed in the sub chapter two

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number 23. As the previous data, there is English interference in


kesukaan makan (favorite food). Using English pattern modifier +
head word. Conversely, Indonesian phrase construction is head
word + modifier, so the sentence should be, Oh food, (makanan)
kesukaan, banyak kata panjang ya ? (Oh food, favorite food, a lot
of long words huh? )

5) Em..Lincoln kota.(Em.. Lincoln city)


Lincoln kota is the English phrase modifier + head word, so it is
phrase interference. It will be correct if the speaker use Indonesian
pattern head word + modifier. So the phrase should be, Em..kota
Lincoln.(Em.. Lincoln city)

6) Saya hanya anak di orang tua. (I am the only child of parents)


As the previous data, the phrase hanya anak (the only child) has
been interfered by English pattern, modifier + head word. The
correct pattern is head word + modifier or anak hanya (the only
child). In addition, hanya anak (the only child) has also interference
in diction that will be discussed in the sub chapter 1b, so the right
sentence should be, saya anak (tunggal) di orang tua. (I am the
only child of parents)
The other interference in phrase is dating, while there are some
ways to inform the date for English native speakers depend on the
orientation, British or American,

British: Day-Month-Year American: Month-Day-Year


the twenty sixth of July, 2013 July the twenty sixth, 2013
26th July 2013 July 26th, 2013
26 July 2013 July 26, 2013
26/7/2013 7/26/2013
26/7/13 7/26/13
26/07/13 07/26/2015

Because the subjects of this research are American, so they


commonly used the second type in dating. Meanwhile, it is
common in Indonesian language to use the first type / British type.
The interferences are caused by American speakers who use the
second type in Indonesian language. As the data below;

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7) Sekarang baru tiba sama dengan istri Saya, Januari 1 2013.


(Recently arrived, same with my wife, January 1st 2013)
It should be, Sekarang baru tiba sama dengan istri saya, 1 Januari
2013.(Recently arrived, same with my wife, January 1st 2013)

Mostly, except phrase construction and dating, the interference was


also happened in the preposition. Most of data stated that speakers had
incorrect translation for English preposition to Indonesian preposition.
They considered that it has same meaning. For examples are di- and ke-,
di- is the preposition of place relation (at), but ke- is refers to direction of
the place (that will go). (Moeliono, 1997:230).
In the sentences below, the words came here is translated by datang
di sini. It is incorrect translation, because came / datang explains the place
that will be, as the data below;
8) Waktu kami datang di sini. (When we came here)
It should be,Waktu kami datang ke sini. .(When we came here)

9) Saya sebelum datang di sini Saya murid univesitas. (Before I came


here, I am a university student)
It should be, Saya sebelum datang ke sini, saya murid universitas.
(Before I came here, I am a university student)

10) Di tempat jauh sekali, jadi saya bisa pergi ke sana dengan rencana
kedutaan. (In the far place, so I can go there with the embassy
schedule)
As like the previous data, di tempat jauh sekali .(In the far place)
is followed by go, and go explains the place that will be. So the
correct translation is ke tempat jauh sekali .(in the far place)
The sentence should be, Ke tempat (yang) jauh sekali,jadi saya
bisa pergi ke sana dengan rencana kedutaan. (In the far place, so I
can go there with the embassy schedule)

11) Tetapi saya naik pesawat, eh untuk organisasi dan em di satu


tahun. (But I get on the plane for organization in one year )

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Different from the previous data, in this sentence, the speaker


explains how long he will work in his organization. In Indonesian
language, the preposition used selama as a sign of the relation of
time era. And it should be,Tetapi saya naik pesawat, eh untuk
organisasi dan em selama satu tahun. (But I get on the plane for
organization in one year )

The next preposition is kepada to replace for in English language.


In Indonesian language, kepada is the preposition that indicates the relation
of direction, conversely in sentences below the speaker has tendency to
indicate the relation of allocation. So the appropriate word is untuk, bagi,
guna, or buat to replace for in English.
12) Saya membaca admission application kepada orang-orang. (I read
admission application for people.)
It should be, Saya membaca admission application untuk orang-
orang. (I read admission application for people.)

13) Ya Ramayana atau Ada Baru untuk popok diaper popok ya kepada
anak saya ya. (Yes Ramayana or Adabaru for diapers, diapers for
my child)
In this context, it should be, Ya Ramayana atau Ada baru untuk
popok diaper popok ya buat anak Saya ya . (Yes Ramayana or
Adabaru for diapers, diapers for my child)

14) Saya pergi ke Kalimantan sudahsaya belajar Indonesian Indonesia


untuk satu tahun. (I go to Kalimantan after I studied Indonesian
language for a year )
The interference in sentence above is for that was translated by
untuk, but has a meaning selama as a sign of the relation of time
era.
Actually, in the sentence above has interference in morphological
aspect too that will be discussed in the sub chapter two. In this
context, for has a meaning selama and it should be, Saya pergi ke
Kalimantan (sesudah)saya belajar Indonesian Indonesia selama
satu tahun. (I go to Kalimantan after I studied Indonesian language
for a year )

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The interference in the sentence below is incorrect translation for


the word by. Whereas, by or oleh is preposition that indicates the object
relation, while the speaker explained the preposition of manner and the
appropriate word is dengan.
15) Saya belajar oleh internet aja. (I learned by internet)
In the context of sentence above, oleh internet is the preposition of
manner. It should be, Saya belajar dengan (menggunakan) internet aja. (I
learned by internet)
Diction
In the level of sentence, the writer found the interference in the
relative clause as the data below;
16) Saya punya teman, teman di pasar siapa punya warung atau toko.
(I have a friend, a friend in the market who has a stall or store)
In English sentence, relative pronoun used who to explain the
object a friend in the sentence. The relative pronoun who cannot be
interpreted directly in Indonesian language siapa. who or siapa in
Indonesian language that used in the interrogative sentence, and the
speaker supposed to use yangto translate the relative pronoun who,
Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (2007), the word yang used to
clarify the previous word in the sentence as the function of relative
pronoun above. Hence, it should be, saya punya teman, teman di
pasar yang punya warung atau toko. (I have a friend, a friend in the
market who has a stall or store)
Another interference in sentence is diction which was influenced by
English language as a native language of the subjects, As the data;

17) Saya mohon maaf suami saya tidak bisa dipanggil. (I am sorry, my
husband cannot be called )
Dipanggil in Indonesian language means ask for coming, but in the
context of sentence above is contact via phone. And call itself in
the dictionary has some meanings, there are memanggil, menyebut,
mengadakan, menelepon and etc. The appropriate diction for the
sentence should be ditelepon or dihubungi. So the sentence should
be, saya mohon maaf suami saya tidak bisa dihubungi. (I am sorry,
my husband cannot be called )

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18) Waktu kami selesai di IMLAC kami pergi ke Banda Aceh untuk
suami Saya.(When we finished in IMLAC we will go to Banda
Aceh for my husband)
In this context, when is time of chronological. Meanwhile in the
dictionary when has some meaning, there are kapan, ketika, waktu,
and etc. The appropriate diction for the sentence is sesudah/ setelah
because the context is chronological time. It should be, Setelah
kami selesai di IMLAC kami pergi ke Banda Aceh untuk suami
saya. (When we finished in IMLAC we will goto Banda Aceh for
my husband)

19) Tidak makan orang Indonesia.(It is not Indonesian food)


Tidak in the sentence above means abjuration. The sentence will
mean, if the speaker use the appropriate diction bukan in this
context, because bukan in Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (2007)
means abjuration. In addition, the sentence above has other
interference in morphological aspect that will clarify in the next
discussion. So the sentence should be, Bukan (makanan) orang
Indonesia. (It is not Indonesian food)

Morphological interference
Actually, morphological process between Indonesian and English
language is absolutely different. Morphological aspect is divided into two
kinds, there are inflection and derivation. Verhaar (1983:66) explains that
inflectional morphology is the alteration of morpheme which defends the
lexical identity. In English, inflectional morphology altered by suffixes,
examples cat + s = cats (would be plural form of nouns), play + ed =
played (would be the past form of regular verbs). Meanwhile, in
Indonesian language, inflectional morphology is often in the verb by
adding prefixes and konfixes (the combination of prefixes and suffixes).
As the example, by adding prefix me + tulis(verb) = menulis(verb) / di +
tulis = ditulis, by adding konfix me + tulis + kan = menuliskan(verb).
Later, derivational morphology according to (Verhaar, 1983:65) the

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Grammatical Interference from English into Indonesian Language Made…

alteration of morpheme that produces the word with the different lexical
identity. English and Indonesian language have the same way to derivate
the word, adding the prefix, suffix, and the combination of them. In
English as examples, bi + cycle(verb) = bicycle (noun), play (verb) + er =
player (noun), and dis + grace (noun) + ful = disgraceful (adjective).
Meanwhile, examples in Indonesian language are pe + main (verb) =
pemain (noun), makan (verb) + an = makanan (noun), and per + main +
an = permainan (noun).
The morphological interference in the data below is the using of
base form. Speakers used the base form / basic word more regular than the
word with affixes.
20) Saya terbang pasien untuk rumah sakit. (I flew the patient for
hospital)
There is no morphological process in the verb flew, just the
alteration from fly – flew, without affixes. Whereas, in Indonesian
language those sentences above need the morphological process to
build the verb as a context. And the speakers translated the word fly
directly. Terbang is flying to himself, but in the context of the
sentences above mean bring something to fly, so the speakers must
add the prefix Me- and suffix –kan (menerbangkan) to make it
appropriate with the context above.The morphological interference
in this sentence existed because the speaker used English principle
to translate the sentence above by using the base form. So the
sentences should be; Saya menerbangkan pasien untuk rumah
sakit.(I flew the patient for hospital)

21) Kami membawa apa makan dan obat.(We bring food and
medicine)

22) Tidak makan orang Indonesia. (It is not Indonesian food)

23) Oh food, kesukaan makan, banyak kata panjang ya ?(Oh food,


favorite food, a lot of long words huh? )

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In sentences above food is the noun without morphological process,


but in Indonesian context makanan/ food is the derivative word
from the word makan. And the speakers used the base form makan
to show makanan. The morphological interference in this sentence
existed because the speaker used English principle to translate the
sentence above by using the base form. So it should be; Kami
membawa, apa makanan dan obat; (Bukan) makanan orang
Indonesia; Of food, makanan kesukaan, banyak kata panjang ya?.
(We bring food and medicine; It is not Indonesian food; Oh food,
favorite food, a lot of long words huh?)

24) Waktu saya lahir anak saya. (When I gave birth to my child.)
In sentence above, gave birth is the verb without morphological
process. Meanwhile, according to Indonesian language
morphological process of building the verb happens in the word
lahir. Lahir is out of uterus, but in the sentence above, it means put
outside the baby from uterus, so the speaker need affixation Me-kan
(melahirkan). The morphological interference in this sentence
existed because the speaker used English principle to translate the
sentence above by using the base form and it should be; Waktu saya
melahirkan anak saya. (When I gave birth to my child.)

25) Saya mundur diri karena gak ada visa. (I back off because I do not
have a visa)
In the sentence above, the speaker used the base form mundur to
show back off. Mundur diri in Indonesian language is meaningless,
the right form is mengundurkan diri, mengundurkan is derivative
word from mundur by adding me + kan. It means Retire or back
off. The morphological interference in this sentence existed because
the speaker used English principle to translate the sentence above
by using the base form so it should be; Saya mengundurkan diri
karena gak ada visa. (I cancel because I do not have a visa)

26) Saya tidak ucapan betul ya? (I did not say right ya?)
In the sentence above say is the verb, but in Indonesian language
ucapan is noun from the base form ucap, there is derivational
morphology to alter the word ucapan become mengucapkan (verb).
So the speaker must add meng-kan to make it become a verb, so it
should be; Saya tidak mengucapkan betul ya? (I did not say right
ya?)

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Grammatical Interference from English into Indonesian Language Made…

27) Saya pergi ke Kalimantan sudah saya belajar Indonesia untuk satu
tahun. (I go to Kalimantan after I studied Indonesian language for
one year)
After in the sentence above is not the result of morphological
process. In Indonesian language Sudah is finished, but in this
context sudah means after, so prefix se- is needed to make the
sentence clearly become sesudah (after).
The morphological interference in this sentence existed because the
speaker used English principle to translate the sentence above by
using the base form. The sentence should be; Saya pergi ke
Kalimantan sesudah saya belajar Indonesia untuk satu tahun. (I go
to Kalimantan after I studied Indonesian language for one year)

28) Sangat sulit menjelaskan hidup di negara lain kalau orang belum
pernah ke sana. (It is hard to describe the life in the other country if
someone has not gone there.)
The life in the sentence above means condition and there is no
morphological process in that word. Meanwhile, hidup in
Indonesian context is the verb, there is derivational process to built
the word hidup (verb) become kehidupan (noun) by adding prefix
ke- and suffix –an. The morphological interference in this sentence
existed because the speaker used English principle to translate the
sentence above by using the base form. So it should be; Sangat sulit
menjelaskan kehidupan di negara lain kalau orang belum pernah
ke sana. (It is hard to describe the life in the other country if
someone has not gone there.)

Conclusion
In the research findings, the writer found some categories of
syntactical interference. It consists of three classes, there are in sentence,
phrase, and diction. The dominant interference was in the phrase class.
Interference was found in phrase construction (modifier and head word).
The construction phrase of Indonesian language is head word + modifier,
but in English head word is put after the modifier. Except the phrase

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Ratih Asyi Supriyanto

construction, interference was found in the application of preposition in the


sentences. Especially when the speakers interpreted here and for.

In addition, the writer also found the morphological interference in


application of base form for invention the verb and some nouns. Most of
them, the interference in this case happened because the morphological
process in English language, especially in the verb construction. In
English, verb does not need the inflectional morphology to make the
sentence clear as the Indonesian language that needs inflectional
morphology in the sentence. As a result, the speakers inclined to use the
base form to show the verb in Indonesian sentence.

References
Alwasilah, A Chaedar. 1985. Beberapa Madhab dan dikotomi Teori
Linguistik. Bandung: Angkasa.
Arikunto, Suharsimi. 2006. Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik.
Jakarta : PT Rineka Cipta.
Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. 2007. Kamus Besar Bahasa
Indonesia. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.
Chaer, Abdul & Leonie Agustina. 2004. Sosiolingistik: Perkenalan
Awal.Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
Hayi, Abdul, et.al. 1985. Interferensi Gramatika Bahasa Indonesia dalam
Bahasa Jawa. Jakarta. Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan
Bahasa.
Jendra.I Wayan. 1991. Dasar-Dasar Sosiolinguistik. Denpasar: Ikayana.
Moeliono, Anton. 1997. Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta:
Balai Pustaka.

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Suwito. 1983. Pengantar Awal Sosiolinguistik Teori dan Praktik.


Surakarta: Henary Offset.
Verhaar, J. W. M, 1983. Pengantar Linguistik. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada
University Press.
Poplack, Shana. 1983. Bilingual Competence: Linguistic Interference or
Grammatical Integrity? . New York: University of New York.
Pudiyono. 2012. Educational Research: Grammatical Interference towards
the Students‟ Spoken and Written English. Jakarta:International
Journal for Educational Studies.
Yusuf, Suhendra. 1994. Teori Terjemah: Pengantar ke Arah Pendekatan
Linguistik dan Sosiolinguistik. Bandung: Mandar Maju.

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Ratih Asyi Supriyanto

INDEX

A Intelligence, 57, 73
Internal Potentials, 57
Americanization, 79, 81, 103,
105
K
Animation, 79, 107, 109, 111
Aptitude, 57, 68, 71, 72, 73 Kecepatan Membaca, 111
Attitude, 57, 61 Kesadaran, 42

B L
Beta Setiawati, 79 Language Education, 1
Language educations and literacy.
C See Language Education
Language Learning, 55, 57, 77
Comprehensible Inputs, 22
language teaching, 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 11,
Culture, 42, 43, 55, 100, 106,
16, 17, 18, 19, 43, 45, 46, 52, 53
107, 108, 109, 110
Learners, 54, 57, 78
Culture distortion, 100
M
D
Male Dominance, 92
Direct English Daily
Maslihatul Umami, 1
Conversations, 22
Motivation, 57, 65, 68
Discrimination, 83, 84
Multicultural, 1, 10, 17, 18, 43
Disney Films, 79
Multilingual, 1, 5, 10, 15, 17, 18
E
N
EFL, 42, 44, 45, 53, 55
National characteristics, 47
F No English Background, 22
Non-American Stories, 79
Feminism, 88 Non-verbal aspects of
Foreign language characteristics, communications, 26
47 Noor Malihah, 42
H P
Hambatan, 42 Parents‘ Stimulus, 22
I Pemahaman dalam Membaca, 111
Indonesian culture, 44, 46, 51, 54 Pendekatan, 42
Inna Naili Izzatul Laila, 111 Popular culture, 79, 109

REGISTER, Vol. 6, No. 2, November 2013 239


R S
Racism, 82, 110 Second language acquisition, 25
Reading Comprehension, 116 Setia Rini, 22
Rebelliousness of teenagers, 96
Respond, 22 T
Ruwandi, 57 Teaching the content, 16
Teaching the language, 16
Types of questions, 25

240 REGISTER, Vol. 1, No. 1, June 2008


SUBMISSION GUIDELINES

REGISTER is a forum of discussion that focuses on language (linguistics


and literature) as well as language teaching studies. It aims at enhancing
critical studies on the various actual phenomena from different
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Wilis, J. 1996. A Framework for Task- Based Learning. Longman:
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Carr, Kathryn S. 1990. How Can We Teach Critical Thinking? Retrieved from
http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-9218/critical.htm
Stadler, Stefanie. 2011. Intercultural communication and East Asian
politeness. In Kadar, Daniel Z. and Sara Mills (eds). Politeness
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