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Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.

Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)


UNIT-06
COMPACTION OF SOILS
Definition of Compaction:
The densification of soil by the application of mechanical energy is known as compaction. Compaction is the most common and
important method of soil improvement. It is a process by which the soil grains get arranged more closely, the value of air voids gets
reduced and the density of soil increased.

Δh
A A

V2 W V1 W

S S

(a) (b)

Fig.1. a).Before compaction. b).After compaction.


Compaction generally leads to an increase in shear strength and helps improve the stability and the bearing capacity of a soil. It
also reduces the compressibility and permeability of the soil. Detrimental settlements can be prevented and undesirable volume
changes through swelling and shrinkage can be controlled.
Laboratory Compaction Test:
The compaction characteristics and the degree of compaction can be obtained from the laboratory. In these tests, a specified
amount of compactive effort is applied to a constant volume of soil mass. The compactive energy is reported in J/m3. In the laboratory,
impact compaction is most commonly used; a hammer (rammer) is dropped several times on a soil sample in a mould. In the field,
compactive effort is the number of passes or coverages of a roller of a certain kind and eight on a given volume of soil.
In the laboratory two types of tests are conducted for compaction test.
a. Standard proctor Test
b.The Modified proctor test.
a. Standard proctor Test.
In 1933 proctor first introduced a laboratory compaction test which is still the most widely used test. The Proctor test, adopted by
the BIS the light compaction test(As per IS: 2720 (Part-7&8), 1974), consists in compacting soil at various water contents into a
cylindrical metal mould, having an internal diameter of 10cm, and internal effective height of 12.73cm and a capacity of 1000cm3. the
soil is compacted in three equal layers, each layer being given 25 blows of a 2.6kg rammer dropped from a height of 31cm above the
soil. The following figure shows a mould and a rammer for the Proctor test.
By knowing the weight of compacted soil and its water content, the dry density for each test is determined.
The following figure shows about standard proctor test;

5cm

5cm

2.5kg
10cm or
2.6kg 31 cm
capacity=
1000cm3

12.73cm

Fig.2. Mould and


rammer .
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)

MDD
Apex point

Dry density
(gm/cc)
Dry
Side Wet Side

OMC

w(%) water content


Fig.3. Water content-dry density curve.
Density= weight of compacted soil
Volume of the soil mass
γ= W/V
Dry density, γd= γ/1+w in KN/m3 or gm/cc or t/m3.
The result of the compaction test are presented in the form of a compaction curve plotted between water contents as abscissa(X-
axis) & corresponding dry density as ordinates(Y-axis).
The dry density corresponding to the maximum point on the water content-dry density curve obtained for a specified amount of
compaction is called the maximum dry density (MDD).
The water content at which a physical amount of compaction produces a maximum dry density is known as the optimum water
content (OMC).
Air Voids line (ηa=0):
Y

Sr=100%

Dry density
(gm/cc)

Water content w(%)


Fig.4. water content Vs dry density.
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)

A line which shows the water contents, dry density relation for the compaction acting soil containing a constant percentage air voids is
known as an air-void line and can be obtained for the following relation
(1 − η a )Gγ w
γd = (1)
1 + wG
Vv
n= (2)
V
Vv
and ηa = (3)
V
where, ηa=percentage air voids.
w= water content for compaction soil in %.
γw= density of water in g/cm3 or KN/m3.
G=Specific gravity of soil solids.
*The theoretical max compaction for any given water content corresponds to zero air voids condition ηa=0*
Zero Air voids line (ηa=0):
The line showing the dry density is a function water content for soil containing no air voids is called zero air voids line or
saturation line which is given by the relation i.e.,
(1 − η a )Gγ w
γd = (4) Put ηa=0
1 + wG
Gγ w
*γ d = * (5)
1 + wG
Alternatively, a line showing the relation between water content and dry density for a constant degree of saturation (Sr) is given by the
equation,
Gγ w
γd =
1 + wG
Gγ w
γd = (6)
wG
1+
Sr
Modified proctor test: Fig.5. Typical standard and modified proctor test shown above and below.
Y

80%Degree of saturation
100%Degree of saturation
Zero air voids line i.e ηa=0
Sr=100%
Line of optimum
Modified proctor test

Standard proctor test


Dry density
(gm/cc) A

x
w(%)
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)
Modified proctor test as to better simulate the compaction required for airfields to support heavier aircraft. The test employed a
heavier hammer,4.5kg with a height of fall of 457.2mm and 5 layers tamped 56 blows into a modified proctor mould of internal
diameter-150mm and effective height-127.3mm.
The Indian Standard equivalent of the Modified proctor test is called the heavier compaction test(IS:2720-partVIII-1983).
Application of Compaction:
Compaction of soils increases their density, shear strength, bearing capacity but reduces their void ratio, porosity, permeability
and settlements.
The results of the compaction test are useful in the stability of field problems like earthen dams, embankments, roads and
airfields. In such constructions, the soils are compacted. The moisture content at which the soils are compacted in the field is
controlled by the value of optimum moisture content determined by the laboratory proctor compaction test.
The compaction energy to be given by the field compaction unit is also controlled by the maximum dry density determined in the
laboratory.
In other words, the laboratory compaction tests results are used to write the compaction specification for field compaction of soils.
Factors affecting compaction:
Following are the factors affecting compaction.
a. Water content.
b. Compactive effort.
c. Type of soil.
d. Method of compaction.
e). Admixtures.
a. Water content (w):
As the water content increases, the particles develop large and larger water films around them, which tend to lubricate the
particles and make them easier to be worked around, to move close into a denser configuration, resulting in a higher dry unit weight
and lower air voids. The dry unit weight continues to increase till the optimum moisture content is reached, a stage when the
lubrication effect is the maximum with further increase in moisture content, however, the water starts to replace the soil particles and
since γw<< γsat, the unit weight starts decreasing.
The dry unit weight can also be related to the water content and degree of saturation by following equation,
Gγ w
γd =
1 + wG
Gγ w
γd = (7).
wG
1+
Sr
For a given water content, the theoretical maximum value of dry unit weight for a compacted soil is obtained corresponding to the
situation when no air voids are left, i.e., when the degree of saturation becomes equal to 100%. If the zero air void density is
calculated for different water content values and plotted along the compaction curve. It is more convenient to draw lines
corresponding to different percentage air voids, ηa. From following equation,
Gγ w
γd = (8).
1 + wG
The zero air void line obtained for Sr=100% in eqn (7) and for ηa=0% in Eqn(8) are identical. However, it can be seen that 100%
air void line & 90% saturation line are not identical.
b. Compactive effort:
For all types of soil and with all methods of compaction, the effect of increasing the compactive energy is to increase the
maximum dry density and to decrease the optimum water content.
According to figure (5), compaction curve B corresponding to the higher compactive effort in a Modified proctor test. Comparing
it with the compaction curve A for a standard proctor test, one can see that the compaction curve shifts to the top and to the left when
the compactive effort is increased.
The margin of increase becomes smaller and smaller even on the dry side of OMC (Optimum Moisture Content), while on the wet
side of OMC, there is hardly any increase at all. If the peaks of compaction curves for different compactive efforts are joined together,
a’ line of optimums’ is obtained in figure (5). The line of optimum is nearly parallel to the zero air void curve.
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)
c. Type of soil:
Following figure shows the different type of soils

1
2
3
4

Dry density 7
(gm/cc)
8

w(%) water content


Fig.6. Description of different types of soil compaction curve.
Compaction curve Description of soil Group Symbol Proctor compaction
MDD(gm/cc) OMC(%)
1 Well graded to loamy sand(SW-SM) SW 1.907±0.080 13.3±2.5
2 Well graded sandy loam(SM) SM 1.827±0.016 14.5±0.40
3 Med-graded sandy loam(SM) CL-ML 1.747±0.032 16.3±0.70
4 Lean sandy silt clay(CL) CL
5 Lean silty clay(CI) CI
6 Loessial silt(ML) ML 1.651±0.016 19.2±0.7
7 Heavy clay
8 Poorly graded sand(SP) SP 1.763±0.032 12.4±1.0

Fullsaturation

Air-Dry

Dry density
(gm/cc) X

Water content ( %)
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)

Fig.7. A typical compaction curve for cohesion less sand shown above.

Dry density
(gm/cc)
w(%) water content
Fig.8 A typical compaction curve for a fat clay.
The maximum dry density which can be obtained by compaction depends upon the type of soil. Well graded coarse grained soils
attain a much higher density than the fine- grained soils require more water for their lubrication and thus higher optimum water
contents.
A typical pattern of the water content-density curve obtained during laboratory compaction of a cohesion less, uniformly graded
fine sand is shown in Figure (7).
The initial decrease of dry density at lower water contents is also observed with highly swelling clays such as block cotton soils,
and some other fat clays.
d. Method of compaction:
Different compaction methods, both in the laboratory and the field, develop their own lines of optimums which may be very much
different from one another. The weight of the equipments, the rammer of operation, such as dynamic (impact), static, kneading or
rolling, the time and the area of contact between the compacting element and the soil are apparently important variables.
e. Admixture:
A number of admixtures other than soil materials are incorporated in soil to modify its compaction properties. The admixtures
have a special application in stabilized soil construction.
The different types of admixtures are given below;
a. Mechanical stabilization.
b. Cement stabilization.
c. Lime stabilization.
d. Bitumen stabilization.
e. Complex stabilization.
f. Thermal stabilization.
g. Miscellaneous chemicals.
h. Electrical stabilization.
i. stabilizing by grouting.
j. water retentive chemicals.
Soil stabilization is a technique aimed to increasing or maintaining the stability of a soil mass or otherwise improving its
engineering properties.
Soil stabilization is used in a variety for engineering works, i.e., for the construction of cheap roads, for providing bases of
even the highest type of pavements where good rocks and crushed gravel normally employed for such bases are not economically
available.
Effect of compaction on soils properties:
The effect of compaction on soil properties depends very much upon the structure which a soil attains during compaction. The
structure of a compacted soil is, therefore, first described, and afterwards some of the properties of compacted soils.
a. Structure.
b. Permeability.
c. Shrinkage and swelling.
d.Compressibility.
e. Pore pressure
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)
f. Stress-strain characteristic.
g. Shear strength.
a. Structure:
The structure of compacted soil depends upon the type of soil, moulding water content, and the type and amount of compaction.
One can summarize the influence of compaction on soil structure as below;

MDD

E
D

A C
Compacted
unit weight
gm/cc

moulding water content (%)

Fig.9. Effect of compactive on structure.


b. Compressibility:
The following figure show about the compressibility of compaction,
Y Y

Dry compacted or undisturbed


sample

Dry compacted or undisturbed sample

Wet compacted or remoulded


sample

Void
Void ratio ratio

X X
Wet compacted or remolded sample Rebound for both sample

(a) Lo-stress consolidation (b) High-stress consolidation

Fig.10. Effect of compaction on compressibility.


Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)
c. Stress-strain characteristics:

Dry compacted.
Deviator stress(KN/m2

Wet
compacted

Axial strain(%)

Fig.11. Effect of compaction on stress-strain characteristic.


d. Shrinkage and swelling:
Swelling: A soil on the dry side of optimum (point A in fig.(9) has a higher deficiency and a more random particle arrangement. It
can, therefore, imbibe more water than a soil on the wet optimum (point C) and in the process, sell more.
Shrinkage: Soils compacted on the wet of optimum tend to exhibit more shrinkage upon drying than those compacted dry of
optimum. The more orderly, nearly parallel orientation of particles (point C and D in fig.9) allows the particles to pack more
efficiently as compared to the randomly oriented particles on the dry side of optimum.
Field Compaction:
Various types of soils can be compacted in the field by three methods
a. Ramming.
b. Rolling.
c. Vibration.
d. Lift Thickness.
Corresponding to these, the various compacting equipments can be grouped under these categories.
a. Rollers
i. Smooth-heel rollers
ii. Sheep-foot rollers
iii. Pneumatic rollers
iv. Lorries and Pneumatic tiered consumption on planet.
v. Truck laying vehicles.
a.Rollers:
i. Smooth-wheel rollers:
These rollers are either three-wheel type with two large smooth faced steel wheels in the rear & one smaller smooth faced drum in the
front. The usual weights range from about 2 to 15t. Heavier rollers upto about 20t are also in use.
These rollers are used for the type of soil i.e. Crushed rocks, gravels and sands.
These are used for road construction project etc.
ii. Sheep-foot rollers:
The sheep-foot rollers consists of a hollow cylindrical steel drum to which are attached the numerous projections known as feet. The
loaded weight per drum ranges from about 2.5 to about 13t. The foot pressure range from about 8 to 35kg/cm2. The sheep foot rollers
are also termed as tamping rollers.
Sheep foot rollers are suitable for the clayey soil and these are used for core of earth dams..
iii. Pneumatic rollers:
These rollers consist of a box or platform mounted between two axles and which is loaded with Kent ledge. The gross weight of the
smaller rollers is of the order of 5 to 15t and they usually have 9 to 11 wheels on the two axles, the rear axle having one more wheel
than the front. The tyre pressures in the smaller rollers are in the order of 2.5kg/cm2 and in the heavier rollers, the pressures range
from 4 to 10.5kg/cm2.
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)
Pneumatic tyred rollers are suitable for sands, gravel, silts. Clayey soils.
These rollers are used for base, sub-base and embankment compaction for highways, airfields, earth dams etc.
b. Vibrators:
A roller with a vibrating unit incorporated is known as a vibratory roller. The weight of vibratory rollers ranges from 120 to 300KN.
The vibratory rollers are suitable for sandy soils.
These rollers are applicable for embankments for soil storage tanks,etc.
c. Ramming:
The simplest is a hand rammer which has a block of iron or stone weighing 3 to 4kg and attached to a wooden handle.
Mechanical rammers are pneumatic or internal combustion types weighing from 30 to 150kg. Internal combustion type jumping
rammers known as frog rammers weight upto one tonne.
d. Lift Thickness:
The density of a compacted layer decreases with increasing depth. To minimize non-uniformity of density distribution across the
layer, the compacted thickness of the layer or the lift thickness has to be restricted for each method of compaction.
Generally, the compacted lift thickness is limited to 15cm (or 20-22cm loose). The lift thickness for dams where heavy pneumatic-
tyred rollers are used is increased upto 22cm. in cohesion less soils; thicker lifts upto 30cm or more may be allowed.
Number of Passes: The compaction of a soil increases with an increase in the number of passes made,. However, beyond a certain
limit, the increase in the density with an increase in the number of passes is not applicable. From economic consideration, the number
of passes is generally restricted to a reasonable limit between 5 to 15.
Proctor needle:
The Proctor needle approach given here is an efficient and fast one for the simultaneous determination of in-situ unit weight and
in-situ moisture content, it is also called ‘penetration needle. The apparatus basically consists of a needle attached to a spring-loaded
plunger through a shank. An array of interchangeable needle tips is available, ranging from 6.45 to 645 mm2, to facilitate the
measurement of a wide range of penetration resistance values. A calibration of penetration against dry unit weight and water content is
obtained by pushing the needle into specially prepared samples for which these values are known and noting the penetration. The
penetration of the needle and resistance (load applied) may be shown on a graduated scale on the shank and stem of handle
respectively.
A sample calibration curve is shown below;

Y 1.20

6.00 1.00

5.00 0.80
Penetration resistance
4.00 0.60

3.00
0.40
2.00
0.20
γd 1.00 compaction curve
kN/cum N/mm2
0.00 0.00
X
w (%)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

Fig.13. Calibration curve for proctor needle.


The procedure for the use of the Proctor ‘plasticity’ needle, as it is called, is obvious. The spring-loaded plunger is pressed into
the compacted layer in the field with an appropriate plasticity needle. The penetration resistance is recorded for a standard depth of
penetration at a standard time-rate of penetration. Against this penetration resistance, the corresponding values of water content and
dry unit weight are obtained from the calibration curve. S
The size of the needle to be chosen depends upon the type of soil such that the resistance to be read is neither to large nor too
small.
Compacting equipments:
1. By Vibrofloatation.
2. By Terra Probe method.
3. By Pounding.
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)
4. By Explosives.
1. By Vibrofloatation.
Refer the following figure,

Vibrofloatation is used for compacting thick deposits of loose, sandy soils upto 30m depth. A vibrofloat consists of a cylindrical tube,
about 2m diameter, fitted with water jets at the top and the bottom. It contains a rotating eccentric mass which develops a horizontal
vibratory motion.
The vibrofloat is sunk into the loose soil upto the desired depth using the lower water jet (shown in above fig. a.). As water
comes out of the jet, it creates a momentary quick condition ahead of the vibrofloat settles due to its own mass. When the desired
depth has been reached, the vibrator is achieved. The vibrofloat then vibrates laterally and causes the compaction of the soil in the
horizontal direction to a radius of about 1.5m.
The water from the lower jet is transferred to the top jet and the pressure is reduced so that it is just enough to carry the sand
poured at the top to the bottom of the hole (shown in above fig. b). Vibration continues as the vibrofloat is slowly raised to the surface.
Additional sand is continuously backfilling, the entire depth of the soils is compacted (shown in fig. c).
The spacing of the holes is usually kept between 2 to 3m on a grid pattern. The relative density (density index) achieved for
the sandy soils is 70% or more. In soft, cohesive soils, vibrofloatation is not effective. For cohesive soils, it can be used to form a sand
pile to reinforce the deposit and to accelerate consolidation and thus improve its engineering properties.
2. By Terra Probe method.
Terra probe method in many respects is similar to the vibrofloatation method. The terra probe consists of an open-ended pipe,
about 75cm diameter. It is provided with a vibratory pile drive. The vibratory pile driver when activated gives vertical vibrations to the
terra probe and it goes down. After reaching the desired depth, the terra probe is gradually raised upward while the vibrodriver
continues to operate. Thus, the soil within and around the term terra probe is densified.
The terra probe method has been successfully used upto depth of 20m. The spacing of the holes is usually kept about 1.5m.
Saturated soil conditions are ideal for the success of the method. For the sites where the water table is deep, water jets are fitted to the
term terra probe to assist the penetration and densification of the soil.
3. By Pounding.
To densify large deposits of loose, sandy soils, the pounding method has also been recently used. The method is also known as
heavy tamping, dynamic compaction or high-energy compaction. Pounding is done by dropping a heavy mass (2 to 50Mg) from a
large height (7 to 35m) on the ground surface. The actual mass and the height are selected depending upon the crane available and the
depth of the soil deposit. A closely spaced grid pattern is selected for the pounding locations. At each location, 5 to 10 poundings are
given.
The pounding method is used to compact the soil deposits to a great depth. It is very effective for densifying loose sandy deposits.
Recently, the method has been successfully used to compact fine-grained soil deposits as well. The depth (D) in meters upto which the
method is effective can be determined from the following relation:
D = C MH ------------------------(9)
where, C=coefficient (0.5 to 0.75), M=mass (Mg), H=height of drop (m).
While using the pounding method, care shall be taken that harmful vibrations are not transferred to the adjacent buildings. The
radious of influence (R) in metres beyond which no harmful vibrations are transmitted can be determined from the relation.
R = 130 MH ----------------------(10)
where, M=mass (Mg), and H=height of drop (m).
4. By Explosives.
Buried explosives are sometimes used to density cohesionless soils. The shock wave and vibrations produced by explosives are
somewhat similar to that produced by vibratory, compaction equipment. The method is quite effective when the cohesionless soil is
fully saturated. The shock waves cause liquefaction of sand, which is followed by densification. In partially saturated cohesionless
soils, compressive stresses develop due to capillary action and prevent the soil particles from taking closer positions. The method is
not effective for partially saturated soils.
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)
Explosive charges usually consist of about 60% dynamite and 30% special gelatin dynamite and ammonite. The charges are
placed at two-thirds the thickness of the stratum to be densified. The spacing of the explosive points is kept between 3 to 8m. Three to
five blasts are generally required at each location.
The radius of influence ® of compaction can be determined using the relation

R= M ( C) 1
3
------------------------(11)
where, R=radius of influence (m), M=mass of charge (kg), C=Constant (=0.04 for 60% dynamite).
Jan/2005
1. During a compaction test, a soil attains a maximum dry density of 18KN/m3 at water content of 12%. The specific
gravity of soil is 2.67. Determine the degree of saturation, percentage air voids at maximum dry density. Also find the
theoretical maximum dry density corresponding to zero air void at the optimum moisture content.
Solution: Given data;
a.γdmax=18KN/m3, b.w=12% , c.Gs=2.67
To find: a, Sr=?. b. ac=?, c. ηa=?, d.γther=?
Procedure:
Gγ w
1. Dry density, γ d =
1+ e
Gγ Gγ w wG Gγ w wG 0.12 * 2.67
1+ e = ∴e = − 1∴ = − 1∴ S r = = =0.7039 or 70.39%
γd γd Sr γd Gγ W 2.67 * 9.81
−1 − 1
γd 18
2. Percentage air voids (ηa):
(1 − η a )Gγ w ⎛ 1 + wG ⎞ ⎛ 1 + wG ⎞
γd = ∴1 − η a = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟γ d ∴η a = 1 − ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟γ d
1 + wG ⎝ Gγ w ⎠ ⎝ Gγ w ⎠
⎛ 1 + 0.12 * 2.67 ⎞
ηa =1- ⎜ ⎟ *18 =0.0926 or 9.26%
⎝ 2.67 * 9.81 ⎠
3. Air content (ac):
ac=1-Sr=1-0.7039=0.2961 or 29.61%.
4. For theoretical maximum dry density (γd):
Gγ w 2.67 * 9.81
γd = = = 19.836 KN / m 3
1 + wG 1 + 0.12 * 2.67
2. During a compaction test, a soil attains a maximum dry density of 18.6KN/m3 at a water content of 15percent. The specific
gravity of soil is 2.70. Determine the degree of saturation and percentage air voids at the maximum dry density. What would
be the theoretical maximum dry density corresponding to zero air voids at the optimum water content?.
Solution: Given data;
a.γdmax=18.6KN/m3,b.w=15%,c.Gs=2.70
To find: a, Sr=?. b. ac=?, c. ηa=?, d.γther=?
Procedure:
Gγ w
1. Dry density, γ d =
1+ e
Gγ Gγ w wG Gγ w wG 0.15 * 2.70
1+ e = ∴e = − 1∴ = − 1∴ S r = = =0.9551 or 95.51 %
γd γd Sr γd Gγ W 2.70 * 9.81
−1 −1
γd 18.6
2. Percentage air voids (ηa):
(1 − η a )Gγ w ⎛ 1 + wG ⎞ ⎛ 1 + wG ⎞
γd = ∴1 − η a = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟γ d ∴η a = 1 − ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟γ d =
1 + wG ⎝ Gγ w ⎠ ⎝ Gγ w ⎠
⎛ 1 + 0.15 * 2.70 ⎞
ηa =1- ⎜ ⎟ *18.6 =0.0133 or 1.33%
⎝ 2.70 * 9.81 ⎠
3. Air content (ac):
ac=1-Sr=1-0.955=0.045 or 4.50%.
4. For theoretical maximum dry density (γd):
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)
Gγ w 2.70 * 9.81
γd = = = 18.85 KN / m 3
1 + wG 1 + 0.15 * 2.7
Jan/2007
3. A laboratory compaction test on a soil having G=2.68 gave a maximum dry density of 17.85KN/m3 and the moisture content
17%. Find the degree of saturation, air content and percentage of air voids at the maximum dry density. Also find the
theoretical maximum dry density with respect to zero-air voids at O.M.C.
Solution: Given data;
a.γdmax=17.85KN/m3,b.w=17%,c.Gs=2.68
To find: a, Sr=?. b. ac=?, c. ηa=?, d.γther=?
Procedure:
Gγ w
1. Dry density, γ d =
1+ e
Gγ Gγ w wG Gγ w wG 0.17 * 2.68
1+ e = ∴e = − 1∴ = − 1∴ S r = = =0.9636 or 96.36 %
γd γd Sr γd Gγ W 2.68 * 9.81
−1 −1
γd 17.85
2. Percentage air voids (ηa):
(1 − η a )Gγ w ⎛ 1 + wG ⎞ ⎛ 1 + wG ⎞
γd = ∴1 − η a = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟γ d ∴η a = 1 − ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟γ d =
1 + wG ⎝ Gγ w ⎠ ⎝ Gγ w ⎠
⎛ 1 + 0.17 * 2.68 ⎞
ηa =1- ⎜ ⎟ *17.85 =0.0121 or 1.21%
⎝ 2.68 * 9.81 ⎠
3. Air content (ac):
ac=1-Sr=1-0.955=0.045 or 4.50%.
4. For theoretical maximum dry density (γd):
Gγ w 2.68 * 9.81
γd = = = 18.069 KN / m 3
1 + wG 1 + 0.17 * 2.68
Jan/2004
4. Standard Proctor compaction test, conducted on a soil yielded the following results.
Bulk density(KN/m3) 18.0 19.0 19.6 20.45 21.0 20.50 20.1
Water content (%) 9.6 11.0 12.5 14.0 16. 18.0 19.5
Find the maximum dry density and optimum moisture content by plotting the compaction curve. Also plot 100% and 80%
saturation lines.
Solution: Given data;
a. Sr=100%=1,b. Sr=80%=0.80
To find; a. MDD=?, b. OMC=?.
Procedure:
γ
1. Dry density, γd = KN / m 3 ……(γ=bulk density).
1+ w
γ 18
a. γd = = = 16.42kN / m 3
1+ w 1 + 0.096

γ 19
b. γd = = = 17.11kN / m 3
1+ w 1 + 0.11

γ 19.6
c. γd = = = 17.42kN / m 3
1+ w 1 + 0.125

γ 20.45
d. γd = = = 17.93kN / m 3
1+ w 1 + 0.14

γ 20
e. γd = = = 18.10kN / m 3
1+ w 1 + 0.16
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)
γ 20.50
f. γd = = = 17.37kN / m 3
1+ w 1 + 0.18

γ 20.1
g. γd = = = 16.82kN / m 3
1+ w 1 + 0.195
2. Plot the dry density v/s water content compaction curve.

MDD 100%, saturation line


20
80%, saturation line
18

16

14
γd
kN/cum 14

12 OMC
10 X
6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22
w (%)

Fig.12. Compaction curve.


3. From the graph;
a. Maximum dry density, MDD=18.1KN/m3.
b. Optimum moisture content, OMC=16%
4. Now calculate 100% saturation line, Sr=1);
a. We know that;

(1 − η a )Gγ w
γd =
wG
1+
Sr


γd = ………(Qη a = 0 Assume and G=2.7)
wG
1+
Sr

2.7 * 9.81
i. γd = = 21.03kN / m 3
0.096 * 2.7
1+
1
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)
2.7 * 9.81
ii. γd = = 20.42kN / m 3
0.11 * 2.7
1+
1

2.7 * 9.81
iii. γd = = 19.80kN / m 3
0.125 * 2.7
1+
1

2.7 * 9.81
iv. γd = = 19.22kN / m 3
0.14 * 2.7
1+
1

2.7 * 9.81
v. γd = = 18.49kN / m 3
0.16 * 2.7
1+
1

2.7 * 9.81
vi. γd = = 17.82kN / m 3
0.18 * 2.7
1+
1

2.7 * 9.81
vii. γd = = 17.35kN / m 3
0.195 * 2.7
1+
1
5. For 80% saturation line;

2.7 * 9.81
i. γd = = 20.00kN / m 3
0.096 * 2.7
1+
0 .8

2.7 * 9.81
ii. γd = = 19.31kN / m 3
0.11 * 2.7
1+
0.80

2.7 * 9.81
iii. γd = = 18.62kN / m 3
0.125 * 2.7
1+
0.80

2.7 * 9.81
iv. γd = = 17.98kN / m 3
0.14 * 2.7
1+
0.80

2.7 * 9.81
v. γd = = 17.19kN / m 3
0.16 * 2.7
1+
0.80
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)
2.7 * 9.81
vi. γd = = 16.47 kN / m 3
0.18 * 2.7
1+
0.80

2.7 * 9.81
vii. γd = = 15.97 kN / m 3
0.195 * 2.7
1+
0.80

July/2005
5. The following data was obtained from proctor compaction test.
Water content (w%) 5.9 7.60 9.61 11.61 13.81
Weight of wet sample (KN) 18.20 19.50 20.00 20.00 19.80
Sp.gr of soil=2.70, volume of mould=9.5*10-4m3. Plot the moisture content dry density curve and zero air void line. Determine
OMC and maximum dry density of the sample.
Solution: Given data;
a. Gs=2.7,b. V=9.5*10-4m3.
To find; a. MDD=?, b. OMC=?, c. Zero air void line i.e., Sr=1 and ηa=0.
Procedure;
1. Wet or bulk density, γ=weight of wet sample/volume of mould
a. γ=18.20/9.5*10-4=19.15*103kN/m3.
b. γ=19.50/9.5*10-4=20.52*103 kN/m3.
c. γ=20.00/9.5*10-4=21.05*103kN/m3.
d. γ=20.00/9.5*10-4=21.05*103kN/m3.
e. γ=19.80/9.5*10-4=20.84*103kN/m3.
γ
2. Dry density, γd = kN/m3.
1+ w

19.15 *10 3
a. γ d = = 18.08 * 10 3 kN / m 3
1 + 0.59

20.52 *10 3
b. γd = = 19.07 * 10 3 kN / m 3 ,
1 + 0.76

21.05 *10 3
c. γd = = 19.20 *10 3 kN / m 3
1 + 0.096

21.05 *10 3
d. γd = = 18.86 *10 3 kN / m 3 ,
1 + 0.1161

20.84 * 10 3
e. γ d = = 18.311 *10 3 kN / m 3
1 + 0.1381
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)
3. Now draw the graph i.e., MDD V/s OMC

MDD
Zero air
34 Void line i.e. Sr=1
32
30
28
26
24
22
20
γd 18
kN/cum 16
14
12 OMC
10
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
Water content, w (%)

Fig.13. Compaction curve.


4. From the graph;
a. Maximum dry density, MDD, γdmax=19.2*103kN/m3.
b. Optimum moisture content, OMC=9.61%
5. Now calculate zero air void line;
a. We know that;

(1 − η a )Gγ w
γd =
wG
1+
Sr


γd = ………(Qη a = 0 Assume and G=2.7)
wG
1+
Sr

2.7 * 9.81
i. γd = = 22.084kN / m 3
0.059 * 2.7
1+
1

2.7 * 9.81
ii. γd = = 21.97kN / m 3
0.076 * 2.7
1+
1

2.7 * 9.81
iii. γd = = 21.03kN / m 3
0.0961 * 2.7
1+
1
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)
2.7 * 9.81
iv. γd = = 20.165kN / m 3
0.1161 * 2.7
1+
1

2.7 * 9.81
v). γd = = 19.29kN / m 3
0.1381 * 2.7
1+
1
July.2007
6.Obtain the value of compactive energy imported to the soil during Modified Proctor compaction test.
Solution:
Compactive energy(E);

E=
(Numberofblowsperlayer ) * (Numberoflayer ) * (Weightofhammer ) * (Heightofdropofhammer )
Volumeofmould

E=
(56) * (5) * (4.55 * 9.81 / 1000) * (0.4572)
2249.8683 * 10 −6
E = 2540.7106kN − m / m 3 ≈ 2541kN − m / m 3 ≈ 2541kj / m 3

7. Obtain the value of compactive energy imported to the soil during Standard Proctor compaction test.
Solution:
Compactive energy(E);

E=
(Numberofblowsperlayer ) * (Numberoflayer ) * (Weightofhammer ) * (Heightofdropofhammer )
Volumeofmould

E=
(25) * (3) * (2.5 * 9.81 / 1000) * (0.305)
944 * 10 −6
E = 594kN − m / m 3 ≈ 600kN − m / m 3 ≈ 600kj / m 3
Dec.2010
8. The following data were obtained from standard proctor test:
Weight of wet soil(kgs) 1.80 1.94 2.00 2.05 2.03 1.98
Water content (%) 8.50 12.20 13.75 15.50 18.20 20.20
i) Plot the compaction curve and obtain maximum dry density and OMC.
ii) Draw 100% saturation line (zero air void line)
iii) What is the degree of saturation and percentage air voids @ OMC?.
Solution:
a. Assume volume of mould, v=1000cm3=1000*10-6m3=0.001m3.
b.1kg=1*9.81/1000=0.00981kN
c.From graph, OMC=15.50% and γdmax=17.75kN/m3
d. At OMC, Sr=85.06%
e.ηa=4.90%.
May/June.2010
9. The observations of a standard proctor test are given below:
Bulk unit weight 18.0 19.0 19.9 20.8 21.0 20.5 20.1
(kN/m3)
Water content (%) 9 11 13 15 16 17 18
Draw the compaction curve and determine OMC and maximum dry density. Also calculate the voids ratio and degree of
saturation at OMC, if G=265 and γw=10kN/m3.
Solution:
a. From graph, OMC=15.50%, γd=18.20kN/m3
b. At OMC, e=(Gγw/γd-1)=0.4286
c. Sr=wG/e=0.9403(94.03%).
Dec-2011
10. Standard proctor’s compaction test was conducted on a soil yielded the following results:
Water content (%) 9 11 13 15 16 17 18
Weight of wet soil (N) 18.0 19.0 19.9 20.8 21.0 20.5 20.1
If G=2.60 and γw=10kN/m3
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)
i) Plot the compaction curve
ii) Report maximum dry density and OMC
iii) Calculate void ratio and degree of saturation at OMC.
Solution:
a.
Water content (%) 9 11 13 15 16 17 18
Weight of wet soil (N) 18.0 19.0 19.9 20.8 21.0 20.5 20.1
γb in kN/m3 18.0 18.0 19.90 20.8 21.0 20.5 20.1
γd= γb /1+w in kN/m3 16.51 17.12 17.61 18.09 18.10 17.52 17.08

b. From graph, MDD=18.20kN/m3 and OMC=15.50%


c. At OMC, e=(Gγw/γd-1)=(2.60*10/18.20)-1=0.43
c. Sr=wG/e=0.155*2.60/0.43=0.9430=94.30%.
Dec.09/Jan.10
11. Following are the observation of a compaction test:
Water content (%) 7.7 11.5 14.6 17.5 19.5 21.2
Weight of wet soil (N) 16.67 18.54 19.92 19.52 19.23 18.83
If the volume of compaction mould is 950CC, assuming G=2.65.
iv) Draw the compaction curve
v) Report the maximum dry unit weight and optimum moisture content
vi) Draw 100% saturation line.
Solution:
a. From graph, MDD=18.30kN/m3+ and OMC=14.60%
b. e=(Gγw/γd-1)=(2.65*10/18.30)-1=0.448
c. Sr=wG/e=0.155*2.65/0.448=0.9168
Dec.08/Jan.09
12. During a compaction test, a soil attains a maximum dry density of 18kN/m3 at a water content of 12%. Determine the
degree of saturation and percent air voids at maximum dry density . Also find the theoretical maximum dry density
corresponding to zero air voids at optimum moisture content. Take G=2.67.
Solution:
a. e=0.455, b.Sr=70.39%, c.ηa=9.26%, d.γd=19.836kN/m3.
2002scheme.May/June.2010
13. A cohesive soil yields a maximum dry density of 1.8g/cc at an OMC of 16% during a standard proctor test. If the value of
G is 2.65, what is the degree of saturation?. What is the maximum dry density it can further compacted to?.
Solution:
a. e=0.4722, b.Sr=0.8979=89.79%, c.γd=1.86g/cc when Sr=1.
2002scheme.June-July.2009
14. The following data were obtained from standard compaction test:
Water content (%) 9.5 11 12 14 16 18 19.5
Bulk unit weight kN/m3 18 19 19.6 20.5 21 20.5 20.0
Plot the moisture content versus dry unit weight and zero air void line. Determine OMC and maximum dry unit weight of
sample. G=2.7.
Solution:
a. From graph, OMC=16% and γd=18.10kN/m3, b. Plot the zero air void line i.e Sr=100%.
July.2007
15. A standard proctor compaction test was conducted on a soil whose G=2.85 and following results were obtained:
Bulk unit weight, kN/m3 18 19 19.6 20.45 21 20.5 20.10
Water content, % 9.6 11 12.5 14 16 18 19.50
i) Draw the compaction curve and obtain the values of maximum dry unit weight and OMC.
ii) Draw the zero air voids lin.
iii) Draw 10% air voids line. Show specimen calculations for these(ii and iii).
Solution:
a. γd=γb/1+w, b.γdmax=18.275kN/m3., c.OMC=15.20%., d.for ZAV; γd=Gγw/1+ calculate and plot, e.for 10% air void line;
γd=(1-ηa)Gγw/1+wG calculate and plot.
16. In an earth embankment is compacted at a water content of 18% to a bulk density of 19.2KN/m3. If the specific gravity of
the sand is 2.7, find the void ratio and the degree of saturation of the compacted embankment.
17. A moist soil sample compacted into a mould of 1000cm3 capacity and weight 35N, weighs 53.5N with the mould. A
representative sample of soil taken from it has an initial weight of 0.187N and even dry weight of 0.169N. Determine a.
water content, d, wet density, c. dry density, d. void ratio and e. degree of saturation of sample.
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)
18. a soil in the borrow pit has a void ratio of 0.90. A fill-in-place volume of 20,000m3 is to be constructed with an in-place dry
density of 18.84KN/m3. If the owner of borrows area is to be compensated at Rs 1.5 per cubic meter of excavation,
determine the cost of compensation.
19. A soil in the borrow pit at a dry density of 17KN/m3 with a moisture content of 10%. The soil is excavated from this pit and
compacted in a embankment to a dry density of 18KN/m3 with a moisture content of 15%. Compute the quantity of soil to
be excavated from the borrow pit and the amount of water to be added for 100m3 of compacted soil in the embankment.
20. The following data have been obtained in a standard laboratory proctor compaction test on glacial till;
Water content in w% 5.02 8.81 11.25 13.05 14.40 19.25
Weight of container and compacted soil in KN 35.80 37.30 39.32 40.00 40.07 39.07
The specific gravity of the soil particles is 2.77. The container is 9.44cm3 in volume and its weight is 19.78N. Plot the
compaction curve and determine the optimum moisture content. Also compute the void ratio and degree of saturation at
optimum condition.
21. Given standard soil compaction test results as follows;
Trial No Moisture content in % by dry weight Wet unit weight of compacted soil in KN/m3
1 8.3 19.80
2 10.50 21.30
3 11.30 21.60
4 13.40 21.20
5 13.80 20.80
22. For a compacted soil, Gs=2.72, w=18%,and γd=0.9 γw. Determine the dry unit weight of the compacted soil.
23. The laboratory test results of standard proctor test are given in the following table;
Volume of mould in m3 Weight of moist soil in mould in KN Moisture content, w in %
1/30 3.63 10
1/30 3.86 12
1/30 4.02 14
1/30 3.98 16
1/30 3.88 18
1/30 3.73 20
24. A proctor compaction test was conducted on a soil sample, and the following observations were made;
Water content in w% 7.7 11.5 14.60 17.50 19.70 21.20
Mass of wet soil in gm 1739 1919 2081 2033 1986 1948
If the volume of the mould was 950cm3 and the specific gravity of soils grains was 2.65, make necessary calculations and
draw i. compaction curve and ii. 80% and iii. 100% saturation lines.

GOOD-LUCK