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GEOKIMIA MAGMA

Pertemuan ke 10
2017
THE ROCK CYCLE
ROCKS

• AGGREGATIONS OF 2 OR MORE MINERALS


• Same or different minerals combine together
• THREE CATEGORIES
• IGNEOUS
• SEDIMENTARY
• METAMORPHIC
Magma
Adalah bahan pijar bersifat cair liat, bersuhu
tinggi (900-1400oC) yang terbentuk di dalam
bumi
Magma primer: magma yang terbentuk
pertama kali. Disebut juga magma primitif
karena berkomposisi ultra basa dengan
penyusun utama Fe, Mg, Ni, Cr, Si dan O.
Magma primitif disebut juga magma induk
karena merupakan induk daripada magma-
magma turunannya sebagai akibat proses
diferensiasi magma.
Komposisi kimia magma primer
Unsur 1 2 3 4 5 6
SiO2 50-49 49,4-49,1 49,39 49,71 49,7 49,1
TiO2 0,8-0,7 1-0,9 0,85 0,74 0,72 0,62
Al2O3 16,4-15,1 18-17,2 15,70 14,97 16,4 16,5
FeO* 8,3-9,2 9,5-9,7 9,76 10,57 7,89 8,78
MgO 10-12,5 8,4-10,3 12,5 13,03 10,1 10,3
CaO 10,9-11,7 10,2-9,7 9,43 9,0 13,0 12,4
NaO 2,4-1,9 2,8-2,6 2,33 1,56 1,98 1,92
K2O 0,4-0,3 0,3-0,3 0,34 0,28 0,01 0,07
Ni(ppm) 119-193 200 232
Cr(ppm) 418-711 479 410
Mg# 69-75 64-68 71,4 71,37 71,7 69,9
MAGMA DIFFERENTIATION
• (Partial melting)
• Fractionation
• Immiscibility
• Magma Mixing
• Assimilation
• [others]
Basaltic Volcanism Study Project (1981):
Magma primer: suatu cairan berkomposisi
basal yang belum berubah semenjak
terbentuk di sumbernya akibat peleburan.
Magma induk: magma darimana magma-
magma basal yang lebih terubah serta
magma turunan lainnya dapat dihasilkan.
Magma primitif: magma primer atau magma
induk yang mempunyai perbandingan tinggi
pada Mg/(Mg+Fe) dan Ca/(Ca+Na), serta
unsur-unsur kompatibel yang melimpah (Ni,
Cr, Co).
Perbandingan Mg/(Mg+Fe) disebut Mg
number dengan kode Mg#.
Berguna untuk mengetahui tingkat
keprimitifan magma atau batuan beku.
Semakin tinggi nilai nomor magnesium
maka semakin tinggi pula tingkat
keprimitifannya, sehingga mendekati
komposisi selubung bumi yang berupa
peridotit.
Cara menghitung nomor magnesium:

1. Persen berat MgO dari suatu hasil analisis


kimia dibagi dengan berat molekul MgO
sebesar 40,32 untuk mendapatkan
proporsi Mg.
2. Proporsi Fe didapat dengan membagi
prosen berat FeO dengan berat molekul
FeO (71,85).
3. Nomor magnesium dihitung berdasarkan
rumus 100% x Mg/Mg+Fe.
VARIATION DIAGRAMS

How do we display chemical


data in a meaningful way?
Models of Magmatic Evolution
Table 8-5. Chemical analyses (wt. %) of a
hypothetical set of related volcanics.

Oxide B BA A D RD R
SiO2 50.2 54.3 60.1 64.9 66.2 71.5
TiO2 1.1 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.3
Al2O3 14.9 15.7 16.1 16.4 15.3 14.1
Fe2O3* 10.4 9.2 6.9 5.1 5.1 2.8
MgO 7.4 3.7 2.8 1.7 0.9 0.5
CaO 10.0 8.2 5.9 3.6 3.5 1.1
Na2O 2.6 3.2 3.8 3.6 3.9 3.4
K2O 1.0 2.1 2.5 2.5 3.1 4.1
LOI 1.9 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.2 1.4
Total 99.5 99.2 100.6 100.0 99.7 99.2
B = basalt, BA = basaltic andesite, A = andesite, D = dacite,
RD = rhyo-dacite, R = rhyolite. Data from Ragland (1989)
Major Elements and
Magma Series
a. Alkali vs. silica
b. AFM
c. FeO*/MgO vs. silica

diagrams for 1946 analyses


from ~ 30 island and
continental arcs with
emphasis on the more
primitive volcanics
Figure 16-3. Data compiled by Terry
Plank (Plank and Langmuir, 1988)
Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 90, 349-370.
22

10

Bivariate Al2O3
17
5
MgO

(x-y)
diagrams
12 0
15

FeO* 10
10
CaO

5
5

Harker 0 0
4
diagram 6

for Na2O 3
K2O
4
Crater 2

Lake 2 1

0
0
45 50 55 60 65 70 75 45 50 55 60 65 70 75
SiO2 SiO2
Figure 11-2 After Murata and Richter, 1966 (as modified by Best, 1982)
Ternary Variation Diagrams
Example: AFM
diagram FeO + Fe2O3

(alkalis-FeO*-MgO)

K2O + Na2O MgO


Harker diagram B BA A D RD R

– Smooth trends Al O
16
2 3
14
– Model with 3 10

assumptions: 6 Fe2O3

1 Rocks are related by MgO 8 2

FX 4

0
2 Trends = liquid line of 8

descent 4 CaO

3 The basalt is the parent 4 0

Na O 3
magma from which the 2

2
others are derived 4

Figure 8-6. Stacked variation diagrams of hypothetical 2 K2O


components X and Y (either weight or mol %). P = parent, D
0
= daughter, S = solid extract, A, B, C = possible extracted 45 55 65 75
solid phases. For explanation, see text. From Ragland (1989).
Basic Analytical Petrology, Oxford Univ. Press. Wt. % SiO2
S a
P
D

S A b
P
B D

A c
C S P
Y
B D

S2 A d

S1 P2 D
B P1

A e
Figure 8-7. Stacked Harker diagrams
for the calc-alkaline volcanic series of S
D
Table 8-5 (dark circles). From
Ragland (1989). Basic Analytical P
B
Petrology, Oxford Univ. Press.
X
B BA A D RD R

16
Al2O3
• Extrapolate BA  B and 14

further to low SiO2 10

Fe2O3
• K2O is first element to  0 (at
6

8
SiO2 = 46.5 red line) MgO
2

0
8
Thus the green line will  the
4 CaO
concentration of all other oxides
4 0

Na2O 3

2
4

2 K2O

0
45 55 65 75

Wt. % SiO2
Tholeiitic

B-A

A
D

Calc-alkaline
AFM diagram: can further subdivide the subalkaline
magma series into a tholeiitic and a calc-alkaline series

Figure 8-14. AFM diagram showing the distinction


between selected tholeiitic rocks from Iceland, the Mid-
Atlantic Ridge, the Columbia River Basalts, and Hawaii
(solid circles) plus the calc-alkaline rocks of the Cascade
volcanics (open circles). From Irving and Baragar (1971).
After Irvine and Baragar (1971). Can. J. Earth Sci., 8,
523-548.
Classifications based on major elements

Classification of sub-alkaline lavas


Figure 16-8. K2O-SiO2 diagram of nearly 700 analyses for Quaternary island arc volcanics from
the Sunda-Banda arc. From Wheller et al. (1987) J. Volcan. Geotherm. Res., 32, 137-160.
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