5 tayangan

Diunggah oleh jzautcyz

- Power Quality Improvement in a Weak Bus System Using Facts Controller
- Efficiency Testing of Electric Induction Motors
- 435_MK-IND-CAT-SWAN+R3-1010
- Developing an Improved Model for THD Reduction using Hybrid Active Power Filter for 12-Pulse Rectifier Circuit Load
- Harmonic Treatment in Industrial Power
- 9_an Optimization Based Algorithm for Shunt Active Filter Under Distorted Supply Voltages
- Chen Lijun 2001
- Specifying a Variable Frequency Drive
- ME96SS_en.pdf
- 9_an optimization based algorithm for shunt active filter under distorted supply voltages.pdf
- Dynamic Power Factor Correction in a Non Linear Environment
- Power Quality Factor Improvement Using Shunt Active Power Line Conditioner
- GTCL Harmonics Filter 30 KVA
- 77.pdf
- Harmonic Treatment in Industrial Power
- 8th Semester Final Project Report
- Harmonic Elimination of H-Bridge Seven Level Inverter
- 049 Gosbell Full Paper
- CHAPTER 5 (1)
- FUNDAMENTALS OF HARMONICS AND ITS EFFECT ON POWER SYSTEM A CASE STUDY

Anda di halaman 1dari 5

Harmonic is multiple of the fundamental frequency and it can be voltage and current in an electric power system are a result of non-

linear electric loads. Harmonic frequencies in the power grid are a frequent cause of power quality problems. Harmonics in power

systems result in increased heating in the equipment and conductors, misfiring in variable speed drives, and torque pulsations in

motors. Reduction of harmonics is considered desirable.

Contents

Current harmonics

Voltage harmonics

Harmonics fundamentals

Total harmonic distortion

Effects

Motors

Telephones

Sources

See also

Further reading

References

Current harmonics

In a normal alternating current power system, the current varies sinusoidally at a specific frequency, usually 50 or 60 hertz. When a

linear electrical load is connected to the system, it draws a sinusoidal current at the same frequency as the voltage (though usually not

in phase with the voltage).

Current harmonics are caused by non-linear loads. When a non-linear load, such as a rectifier is connected to the system, it draws a

current that is not necessarily sinusoidal. The current waveform can become quite complex, depending on the type of load and its

interaction with other components of the system. Regardless of how complex the current waveform becomes, as described through

Fourier series analysis, it is possible to deconstruct it into a series of simple sinusoids, which start at the power system fundamental

frequency and occur at integer multiples of the fundamental frequency

.

Further examples of non-linear loads include common office equipment such as computers and printers, Fluorescent lighting, battery

chargers and also variable-speed drives.

In power systems, harmonics are defined as positive integer multiples of the fundamental frequency. Thus, the third order harmonic is

the third multiple of the fundamental frequency. This type of harmonics is generated in non-linear loads. Examples of nonlinear loads

include transistors, electrical motors, and the non-ideal transformer. Non-linear loads create disturbances in the fundamental

harmonic, which produce all types of harmonics. However, in this section we focus on the 3rd order harmonic due to its certain

[1]

special characteristics in the context of powers systems.

Power is supplied by a three phase system, where each phase is 120 degrees apart. This is done for two reasons: Firstly it is because

generators/motors that use three phases are more efficient due to the constant torque the phases supply, and secondly it is because

after power is supplied to a load, the three phases can theoretically be added onto a neutral wire and cancel each other out. This saves

the utility from creating return wiring to the power plant.

However, if the 3 phases contain 3rd order harmonics, the

currents will not fully add to zero. As seen in the figure, the 3rd

harmonic will add constructively with the 3rd harmonics within

the other phases. This leads to an oscillating current in the

neutral wire, which can be dangerous since it is designed (i.e.

3rd Order Harmonic Addition

small-size conductors) to carry minimal current.[1] To avoid 3rd

harmonics adding together Delta connections are used, and the

current is cycled around the connection instead of combining into the neutral of a W

ye connection.

Voltage harmonics

Voltage harmonics are mostly caused by current harmonics. The voltage provided by

the voltage source will be distorted by current harmonics due to source impedance.

If the source impedance of the voltage source is small, current harmonics will cause

only small voltage harmonics. It is typically the case that voltage harmonics are

A compact fluorescent lampis one

indeed small compared to current harmonics. For that reason, the voltage waveform example of an electrical load with a

can usually be approximated by the fundamental frequency of voltage. If this non-linear characteristic, due to the

approximation is used, current harmonics produce no effect on the real power rectifier circuit it uses. The current

transferred to the load. An intuitive way to see this comes from sketching the voltage waveform, blue, is highly distorted.

wave at fundamental frequency and overlaying a current harmonic with no phase

shift (in order to more easily observe the following phenomenon). What can be

observed is that for every period of voltage, there is equal area above the horizontal axis and below the current harmonic wave as

there is below the axis and above the current harmonic wave. This means that the average real power contributed by current

harmonics is equal to zero. However, if higher harmonics of voltage are considered, then current harmonics do make a contribution to

the real power transferred to the load.

Harmonics fundamentals

Harmonics provides a mathematical analysis of distortions to a current or voltage waveform. Based on Fourier series, harmonics can

describe any periodic wave as a summation of simple sinusoidal waves which are integer multiples of the fundamental frequency

.

Harmonics are steady-state distortions to current and voltage waves and repeat every cycle. They are different from transient

[2]

distortions to power systems such as spikes, dips and impulses.

Total harmonic distortion, or THD is a common measurement of the level of harmonic distortion present in power systems. THD can

be related to either current harmonics or voltage harmonics, and it is defined as the ratio of total harmonics to the value at

fundamental frequency times 100%.

where Vn is the RMS voltage ofnth harmonic, In is the RMS current of thenth harmonic, and n = 1 is the fundamental frequency.

It is usually the case that we neglect higher voltage harmonics; however, if we do not neglect them, real power transferred to the load

is affected by harmonics. Average real power can be found by adding the product of voltage and current (and power factor, denoted

by pf here) at each higher frequency to the product of voltage and current at the fundamental frequency

, or

where Vk and Ik are the RMS voltage and current magnitudes at harmonick ( denotes the fundamental frequency), and is

the conventional definition of power without factoring in harmonic components.

It must be noted that the power factor mentioned above is the displacement power factor. There is another power factor that depends

on THD. True power factor can be taken to mean the ratio between average real power and the magnitude of RMS voltage and

current, .[3]

and

, it becomes clear that the quantity can betaken to have two components, one

of which is the traditional power factor (neglecting the influence of harmonics) and one of which is the harmonics’ contribution to

power factor:

where is the displacement power factor and is the distortion power factor (i.e. the harmonics' contribution to total

power factor).

Effects

One of the major effects of power system harmonics is to increase the current in the system. This is particularly the case for the third

harmonic, which causes a sharp increase in the zero sequence current, and therefore increases the current in the neutral conductor.

[4]

This effect can require special consideration in the design of an electric system to serve non-linear loads.

In addition to the increased line current, different pieces of electrical equipment can suffer effects from harmonics on the power

system.

Motors

Electric motors experience losses due to hysteresis and eddy currents set up in the iron core of the motor. These are proportional to

the frequency of the current. Since the harmonics are at higher frequencies, they produce higher core losses in a motor than the power

frequency would. This results in increased heating of the motor core, which (if excessive) can shorten the life of the motor. The 5th

harmonic causes a CEMF (counter electromotive force) in large motors which acts in the opposite direction of rotation. The CEMF is

not large enough to counteract the rotation, however it does play a small role in the resulting rotating speed of the motor

.

Telephones

In the United States, common telephone lines are designed to transmit frequencies between 300 and 3400 Hz. Since electric power in

the United States is distributed at 60 Hz, it normally does not interfere with telephone communications because its frequency is too

low.

Sources

A pure sinusoidal voltage is a conceptual quantity produced by an ideal AC generator built with finely distributed stator and field

windings that operate in a uniform magnetic field. Since neither the winding distribution nor the magnetic field are uniform in a

working AC machine, voltage waveform distortions are created, and the voltage-time relationship deviates from the pure sine

function. The distortion at the point of generation is very small (about 1% to 2%), but nonetheless it exists. Because this is a deviation

from a pure sine wave, the deviation is in the form of a periodic function, and by definition, the voltage distortion contains

harmonics.

When a sinusoidal voltage is applied to a linear load, such as a heating element, the current through it is also sinusoidal. In non-linear

loads, such as an amplifier with a clipping distortion, the voltage swing of the applied sinusoid is limited and the pure tone is polluted

with a plethora of harmonics. Which harmonics are created and their amplitudes can be predicted by the Bullard Harmonic

Solution[5]. The larger the distorted area (voltage * time) thehigher the amplitudes of the harmonics.

When there is significant impedance in the path from the power source to a nonlinear load, these current distortions will also produce

distortions in the voltage waveform at the load. However, in most cases where the power delivery system is functioning correctly

under normal conditions, the voltage distortions will be quite small and can usually be ignored.

Waveform distortion can be mathematically analysed to show that it is equivalent to superimposing additional frequency components

onto a pure sinewave. These frequencies are harmonics (integer multiples) of the fundamental frequency, and can sometimes

propagate outwards from nonlinear loads, causing problems elsewhere on the power system.

The classic example of a non-linear load is a rectifier with a capacitor input filter

, where the rectifier diode only allows current to pass

to the load during the time that the applied voltage exceeds the voltage stored in the capacitor, which might be a relatively small

portion of the incoming voltage cycle.

Other examples of nonlinear loads are battery chargers, electronic ballasts, variable frequency drives, and switching mode power

supplies.

See also

Power factor

Further reading

Sankaran, C. (1995-10-01)."Effects of harmonics on power systems". Electrical Construction and Maintenance

Magazine. Penton Media, Inc. Retrieved 2008-09-05.

References

1. "Harmonics Made Simple"(http://ecmweb.com/archive/harmonics-made-simple)

. ecmweb.com. Retrieved

2015-11-25.

2. "Power System Harmonics"(http://literature.rockwellautomation.com/idc/groups/literature/documents/wp/mvb-wp011

_-en-p.pdf) (PDF). Rockwell Automation. Allen-Bradley.

3. W. Mack Grady and Robert Gilleski."Harmonics and How They Relate to Power Factor"(http://intranet.ctism.ufsm.b

r/gsec/Apostilas/fatordepotenciaethd.pdf)(PDF). Proc. of the EPRI Power Quality Issues & Opportunities

Conference.

4. For example, see the National Electrical Code: "A 3-phase, 4-wire, wye-connected power system used to supply

power to nonlinear loads may necessitate that the power system design allow for the possibility of high harmonic

neutral currents. (Article 220.61(C), FPN No. 2)"

5. Distortion: The Cause Of Harmonics And The Lie Of THD by Dan .PBullard

"

Text is available under theCreative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License ; additional terms may apply. By using this

site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of theWikimedia

Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

- Power Quality Improvement in a Weak Bus System Using Facts ControllerDiunggah olehesatjournals
- Efficiency Testing of Electric Induction MotorsDiunggah olehlbk50
- 435_MK-IND-CAT-SWAN+R3-1010Diunggah olehamitxt
- Developing an Improved Model for THD Reduction using Hybrid Active Power Filter for 12-Pulse Rectifier Circuit LoadDiunggah olehIJRASETPublications
- Harmonic Treatment in Industrial PowerDiunggah olehSunil Kumar
- 9_an Optimization Based Algorithm for Shunt Active Filter Under Distorted Supply VoltagesDiunggah olehrakeshee2007
- Chen Lijun 2001Diunggah olehKiran Yaddanapudi
- Specifying a Variable Frequency DriveDiunggah olehAdeel Raza
- ME96SS_en.pdfDiunggah olehAnonymous oza0rW9M
- 9_an optimization based algorithm for shunt active filter under distorted supply voltages.pdfDiunggah olehrakeshee2007
- Dynamic Power Factor Correction in a Non Linear EnvironmentDiunggah olehIOSRjournal
- Power Quality Factor Improvement Using Shunt Active Power Line ConditionerDiunggah olehJulie Osborne
- GTCL Harmonics Filter 30 KVADiunggah olehcity1212
- 77.pdfDiunggah olehInternational Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology ( IJSRSET )
- Harmonic Treatment in Industrial PowerDiunggah olehFrancisco Alejandro Celma Carrillo
- 8th Semester Final Project ReportDiunggah olehkiit2013-elec-237 Electrical
- Harmonic Elimination of H-Bridge Seven Level InverterDiunggah olehSenthil Nathan S
- 049 Gosbell Full PaperDiunggah olehDevi Vara Prasad Optimistic
- CHAPTER 5 (1)Diunggah olehTechnos_Inc
- FUNDAMENTALS OF HARMONICS AND ITS EFFECT ON POWER SYSTEM A CASE STUDYDiunggah olehPratik Ranjan
- K Factor IEE03Diunggah olehAdonis Cuevas
- On Improving Distortion Power Quality Index in.pdfDiunggah olehmalini72
- Power Quality Overview IEEMA MonographDiunggah olehSunil Vaishnav
- PO_UPS health check up.pdfDiunggah olehRajsekhar Maiti
- Dyuthi-2090Diunggah olehgurunathan14
- IJETR033415Diunggah oleherpublication
- Gc 3510651086Diunggah olehAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- REO - EMC for Power Drive Systems.pdfDiunggah olehmicver_00
- DSCMDiunggah olehSrivatsava Rajagopalan
- How Do Lighting System Affect Power QualityDiunggah olehNima Mahmoudpour

- Unit Hydro GraphDiunggah olehSudharsananPRS
- UML Diagrams Example-Weather Monitoring SystemDiunggah olehS.Arul Patchi Prasath
- Nat Reviewer EditedDiunggah olehkatherinejhen
- Lec 5-Week 3-(Invert Levels )Diunggah olehjahanzaibch
- Alchourrón and Bulygin on Deontic Logic and the Logic of Norm-Propositions. Lennart ÅqvistDiunggah olehEduardo Gandulfo
- Transcendental Idealism in WittgensteinDiunggah olehRikobidik Antasena
- Reed SolomonDiunggah olehrampravesh kumar
- Mathematics RulesDiunggah olehroh009
- Oligopolistic BehaviourDiunggah olehrecruitmentafriq
- Introduction to Autodesk Inventor F1 in Schools Final 022513Diunggah olehRam Murty
- LSCA_P7_VJADiunggah olehdemain
- umlDiunggah olehGoudam Raj
- Assignment_I_Sem.docxDiunggah olehKristina Miller
- Welcome to Narosa Publishing House.pdfDiunggah olehkale sanjay
- Module 1 Lesson 4.pptxDiunggah olehLisa McGuire
- Quiz beeDiunggah olehKevin Rey Caballeda
- six sigmaaaDiunggah oleharifmukhtar
- Heat Generation in the Inertia Welding of Dissimilar TubesDiunggah olehpedro heraclitoromanhotmail.com
- Lab 2 - Introduction to Ohms Law XAVIERDiunggah olehÏbhéèDre Thïïnfàllible Morrison
- 201205 - SUMMER 2012 - PSYC 305 - STATS II SYLLABUSDiunggah olehcreativelyinspired
- bpj lesson 3Diunggah olehapi-307096342
- Frankho Math and Chess Puzzles for ChildrenDiunggah olehFrank Ho
- ReportDiunggah olehHani Alex
- A Novel Method for the Application of Adaptive filters for Active Noise Control SystemDiunggah olehEditor IJRITCC
- TorsionDiunggah olehamiruddin sharif
- Report(Ots)Diunggah olehKanaka Lakshmi S
- 2011 2nd Mid Term Exam f2 - Paper 2Diunggah olehApple Lee Kuok Ing
- Inter Part One Physics Old PaperDiunggah olehMian Ejaz
- Corporate Finance Tutorial 1Diunggah olehmarvinali
- Performance of ANNs for Prediction of TDS of Godavari River, IndiaDiunggah olehInnovative Research Publications