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comparative study

To cite this article: Anil Singh Yadav & Manish Kumar Thapak (2016) Artificially roughened

solar air heater: A comparative study, International Journal of Green Energy, 13:2, 143-172, DOI:

10.1080/15435075.2014.917419

Apr 2014.

Published online: 23 Apr 2014.

http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=ljge20

Download by: [The National Library - Kolkata] Date: 30 November 2017, At: 03:12

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GREEN ENERGY

2016, VOL. 13, NO. 2, 143–172

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15435075.2014.917419

Anil Singh Yadava and Manish Kumar Thapakb

Mechanical Engineering Department, Lakshmi Narain College of Technology-Excellence (LNCTE), Bhopal, India; bMechanical Engineering

a

ABSTRACT KEYWORDS

Artificially roughened solar air heater has been topic in research for the last 30 years. Prediction of heat Artificial roughness; fluid

transfer and fluid flow processes of an artificially roughened solar air heater can be obtained by three flow; heat transfer; pressure

drop; solar air heater

approaches: theoretical, experimental, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This article provides a

comprehensive review of the published literature on the investigations of artificially roughened solar air

heater. In the present article, an attempt has been made to present holistic view of various roughness

Downloaded by [The National Library - Kolkata] at 03:12 30 November 2017

geometries used for creating artificial roughness in solar air heater for heat transfer enhancement. This

extensive review reveals that quite a lot of work has been reported on design of artificially roughened

solar air heater by experimental approach but only a few studies have been done by theoretical and CFD

approaches. Finally this article presents a comparative study of thermo-hydraulic performance of 21

different types of artificial roughness geometries attached on the absorber plate of solar air heater in

terms of thermo-hydraulic performance parameter. Heat transfer and friction factor correlations devel-

oped by various investigators for different types of artificially roughened solar air heaters have also been

reported in this article.

Introduction 2011; Languri et al. 2011; Waqas and Kumar 2013; Song et al.

2013).

Basically all the forms of energy in the world as we know are

Solar air heaters because of their simple design are cheap

solar in origin. Oil, coal, natural gas, and wood were originally

and most widely used collection devices of solar energy. The

produced by photosynthetic processes, followed by complex

main applications of solar air heaters are space heating,

chemical reactions in which decaying vegetation was sub-

seasoning of timber, curing of industrial products and

jected to very high temperatures and pressures over a long

these can also be effectively used for drying of concrete/

period of time. Even the energy of the wind and tide has a

clay building components (Twidell and Weir 2006; Li 2011;

solar origin, since they are caused by differences in tempera-

Maczulak 2011; Yadav and Bhagoria 2013a). A conventional

ture in various regions of the earth. Solar energy is the oldest

solar air heater generally consists of an absorber plate with a

energy source ever used. The sun was adored by many ancient

parallel plate below forming a small passage through which

civilizations as a powerful god. The first known practical

the air is to be heated and flows as shown in Figure 1. A solar

application was in drying for preserving food. The greatest

air heater is simple in design and requires little maintenance.

advantage of solar energy as compared with other forms of

However, the value of the heat transfer coefficient between

energy is that it is clean and can be supplied without environ-

the absorber plate and air is low and this results in a lower

mental pollution (Quaschning 2005; Kalogirou 2009; Foster,

efficiency. For this reason, the surfaces are sometimes rough-

Ghassemi, and Cota 2010).

ened in the air flow passage (Sukhatme and Nayak 2011).

Solar collector is one of the basic equipment through

Numbers of investigations involving roughness elements of

which solar energy is converted into thermal energy. Solar

different shapes, sizes, and orientations with respect to flow

collectors in the system for the utilization of solar thermal

direction have been carried out in order to obtain an opti-

energy are widely used in various equipment. Many classifica-

mum arrangement of roughness element geometry. The

tions have been proposed for the types of solar collectors.

objective of present article is to review various roughness

These different classifications are based on their design, work-

geometries used in solar air heater, tested experimentally and

ing fluid, applications, geometries, and operation style.

simulated numerically (CFD) for performance enhancement

Researchers and engineers are harvesting the thermal solar

by various investigators and provides critical analysis of data

energy for a variety of applications (Liu et al. 2007; Chen et al.

on heat transfer and friction characteristics of roughened

2010; Al-Nimr, Khuwaileh, and Alata 2011; El-Sebaii et al.

CONTACT Anil Singh Yadav anilsinghyadav@gmail.com Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, Lakshmi Narain College of Technology-Excellence

(LNCTE), Bhopal, MP 462021, India.

Color versions of one or more of the figures in the article can be found online at www.tandfonline.com/ljge.

Both authors contributed equally to this work.

© 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

144 A. S. YADAV AND M. K. THAPAK

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surface to facilitate designers and investigators to make best type of a conventional system is described by Garg and Prakash

use of it in future. (2000).

The article is organized as follows. The current section

discusses the necessity of solar energy and basic of solar air

heater. Section 2 discusses the thermo-hydraulic performance Thermal performance

of solar air heater. Section 3 deals with the use of artificial Thermal performance of solar air heater can be expressed in

roughness in solar air heater for heat transfer enhancement. terms of the fraction of incident solar radiation utilized to

Section 4 discusses the methodology of investigations includ- increase the temperature of air. In other words, thermal

ing theoretical, experimental, and CFD approach, and pre- efficiency is a measure of thermal performance of a solar air

sents the outcomes of all three types of investigations on heater. Thermal performance of solar air heater can be com-

artificially roughened solar air heater. Empirical findings are puted with the help of Hottel–Whillier–Bliss equation

also presented in Section 4. Section 5 presents a comparison of reported by Duffie and Beckman (1991).

thermo-hydraulic performance for different roughness geo- Σ Σ

metries used in solar air heaters, when they operate in the Qu ¼ ApFR IðταÞe — ULðTi — TaÞ (1)

same conditions. Furthermore, the final section contains con- or

cluding remarks with discussion.

Qu Σ Σ

qu ¼ ¼ FR IðταÞe — ULðTi — TaÞ (2)

Ap

Thermo-hydraulic performance of a solar air heater The rate of valuable energy gain by flowing air in the

course of duct of a solar air heater can be intended as follows

Performance of any system represents the degree of utilization equation;

of input to the system. It is required to analyze thermal and . Σ

hydraulic performance of a solar air heater for making an Qu ¼ mcpðTo — TiÞ ¼ hAp Tpm — Tam (3)

efficient design of such type of a system. Thermal performance The value of heat transfer coefficient (h) can be increased

is concerned with heat transfer process within the collector and by various active and passive augmentation techniques. It can

hydraulic performance is concerned with pressure drop in the be represented in nondimensional form of Nusselt num-

duct. A conventional solar air heater (Figure 1) is considered ber (Nu).

for brief analysis of thermal and hydraulic performance in the

following sub-sections. Design and construction detail of such Nu ¼ hL=k (4)

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GREEN ENERGY 145

Further, thermal efficiency of a solar air heater can be conversion efficiency (mechanical power to thermal), consid-

expressed by the following equation; ering that mechanical power is obtained from a typical ther-

qu mal power plant and it is given by

ηth ¼ ¼ Σ Σ

I FR ðταÞe — ULðTi — TaÞ=I (5) C ¼ ηth ηtr ηmηp (9)

The value of C is taken by considering typical values of

Hydraulic performance various efficiencies as 0.2 [=thermal power plant efficiency

Hydraulic performance of a solar air heater is concerned with (ηth = 0.34) × transmission efficiency (ηtr = 0.90) × motor

pressure drop (ΔP) in the duct of a solar air heater. Pressure efficiency (ηm = 0.90) × efficiency of the pump (ηp = 0.75)].

drop accounts for energy consumption by blower to propel air

through the duct. Pressure drop can be represented in non-

dimensional form by using the following relationship of fan- Use of artificial roughness in solar air heater for heat

ning friction factor (f). transfer enhancement

f ¼ ΔPD=2ρLv2 (6) The heat transfer between the absorber surface (heat transfer

surface) of solar air heater and flowing air can be improved by

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Thermo-hydraulic performance and corrugated surfaces without enhancing heat transfer coeffi-

cient or by increasing heat transfer coefficient using the turbu-

Performance of a solar air heater based on the consideration lence promoters in the form of artificial roughness on absorber

of the thermal as well as hydraulic characteristics is termed as surface. The roughness, on the absorber plate can be provided

thermo-hydraulic performance. The mechanical energy by several methods such as sand blasting, machining, casting,

required for creating turbulence along with the useful energy forming, welding ribs, and or fixing thin circular wires. The use

is considered for evaluating the thermo-hydraulic perfor- of artificial roughness in different forms and shapes is the most

mance of a solar air heater. Useful energy is thermal energy effective and economic way of improving the performance of a

while pumping power is mechanical. So, for performance solar air heater. Numbers of experimental investigations invol-

analysis both energies should be taken in the same form. ving roughness elements of different shapes, sizes, and orienta-

It is desirable that design of solar air heater should be made tions with respect to flow direction have been carried out in

in such a way that it should transfer maximum heat energy to order to obtain an optimum arrangement of roughness element

the flowing fluid with minimum consumption of pumping geometry. It is well known that in a turbulent flow, a laminar/

power. Therefore in order to analyze overall performance of a viscous sub-layer exists in addition to the turbulent core. The

solar air heater, thermo-hydraulic performance should be artificial roughness on heat transfer surface breaks up the lami-

evaluated by considering thermal and hydraulic characteristics nar boundary layer of turbulent flow and makes the flow turbu-

of the collector simultaneously. A number of criteria have lent adjacent to the wall. The artificial roughness that results in

been proposed by investigators for performance evaluation the desirable increase in the heat transfer also results in an

of a solar air heater. Two most important criteria for perfor- undesirable increase in the pressure drop due to the increased

mance evaluation of a solar air heater are: friction; thus the design of the flow duct and absorber surface of

Thermo-hydraulic performance parameter: An important duct should, therefore, be executed with the objectives of high

thermo-hydraulic performance evaluation parameter which heat transfer rates and low friction losses. In this method, the

is used to compare the heat transfer of artificially roughened turbulence is promoted by roughened surfaces only in the

duct to that of a smooth duct under constant pumping power viscous sub layer region to obtain heat transfer enhancement

constraints as defined by Webb and Eckert (1972): at the cost of moderate friction penalty. It is therefore desirable

Thermo — hydraulic performance parameter that the turbulence must be created only in the region very close

. Σ to the heat transferring surface i.e. in the viscous sub-layer only

Nur=

Nu

s where the heat transfer takes place and the core flow should not

¼ . Σ13 (7)

fr= be unduly disturbed so as to avoid excessive friction losses. This

fs DSTCERI

can be done by keeping the height of the roughness elements to

2017-12-02 10:30:50

A value of this parameter higher than unity ensures the be small in comparison with the duct dimensions (Varun, Saini,

--------------------------------------------

effectiveness of using an enhancement device and can be used and Singal 2007; Hans, Saini,ROUGHNESS

and Saini 2009;DESIGNBhushan PARAMETER

and

to compare the performance of number of arrangements to Singh 2010; Thakur et al. 2010; Chamoli et al. 2012; Chamoli,

decide the best among these. Thakur, and Saini 2012; Kumar, Saini, and Saini 2012a; Patil,

Effective Efficiency: Cortes and Piacentini (1990) have sug- Saini, and Kumar 2012; Tyagi et al. 2012).

gested a term indicating the thermo-hydraulic performance of The idea of artificial roughness was first applied by Joule

a flat plate solar air heater and termed it as effective efficiency. (1861) to enhance heat transfer coefficients for in-tube con-

densation of steam and since then many experimental inves-

η . Σ (8)

eff ¼ q Pm tigations were carried out on the application of artificial

u— =C =IA p

roughness in the areas of cooling of gas turbine, electronic

where Ap is the absorber plate area, Pm is mechanical energy equipments, nuclear reactors, compact heat exchangers etc.

consumed for propelling air through collector, and C is the Several investigators have modeled the shape of internal

146 A. S. YADAV AND M. K. THAPAK

cooling passage of gas turbine as a rectangular channel with solving these equations, there would be little hope of predict-

two opposite rough walls and two smooth walls. Several types ing many phenomena of practical interest. In the theoretical

of surface roughness have been used; they may be broadly approach, simplifying assumptions are used in order to make

classified as regular surface roughness and irregular surface the problems tractable (Patankar 1980).

roughness. Irregular surface roughness can be produced by Lewis (1975) presented the parameters which control the

sand blasting the surface. Regular surface roughness is of momentum- and heat-transfer performance of a rough

many types in the form of cavities and ribs depending on surface in a uniform channel flow in a novel way. A new

the shape, arrangement, and orientation of roughness ele- efficiency parameter was defined for optimizing thermo-

ments on the heated plate. Early studies beginning with that hydraulic performance of roughened surfaces with respect to

of Nikuradse (1950) attempted to develop velocity and tem- smooth surfaces. The purpose of this study was to present a

perature distribution for roughened surfaces. Nikuradse method and design charts for evaluating and optimizing

investigated the effect of roughness on the friction factor and the thermo-hydraulic performance of rough surfaces in

velocity distribution in pipes roughened by sand blasting. To channels where the concept of an equivalent hydraulic dia-

increase the heat transfer in case of solar air heaters, the meter was valid.

roughness elements have to be considered only on one wall, Prasad and Saini (1988) analytically

DSTCERI

investigated the per-

which is the only heated wall, because there is only one wall, formance of solar air heater having circular transverse wire rib

2017-12-02 10:33:16

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which receives the solar radiation. Therefore, the solar air roughness on the absorber plate and expressions for predic-

--------------------------------------------

DSTCERI

heaters are modeled as a rectangular channel having one tion of average Stanton number and average

DESIGN PARAMETER

2017-12-02 10:33:56 friction factor

2

rough wall and three smooth walls. This makes the fluid were developed. The results of these expressions were com-

--------------------------------------------

flow and heat transfer characteristics distinctly different pared with available data. The MODEL

results were found to compare

from those found in the case of channel with two opposite with a mean deviation of 6.3% for friction factor and −10.7%

roughened walls, roughened annular, and circular tubes. The for the Nusselt number. The effect of height and pitch of the

roughness elements can be two-dimensional ribs or three roughness elements on the heat transfer and friction factor

dimensional discrete elements, transverse or inclined ribs or were also investigated. It was found that for a given relative

V-shaped continuous or broken ribs with or without gap. The roughness pitch both the Nusselt number and friction factor

roughness elements can also be arc-shaped wire or dimple or increase with increasing relative roughness height and for a

cavity or compound rib-grooved. The common shape of ribs given relative roughness height both the Nusselt number and

is square but different shapes like circular, semi-circular, and friction factor decrease with increasing relative roughness

chamfered have also been considered to investigate thermo pitch, but not in direct proportions

hydraulic performance. Cortis and Piacentini (1990) developed a steady-state

The key dimensionless geometrical parameters that are mathematical model for a roughened solar air collector. For

used to characterize artificial roughness are: heat transfer and friction in rectangular ducts with periodic

disturbances were employed for evaluating the incidence of

Relative roughness pitch (P/e): Relative roughness pitch (P/e) is

defined as the ratio of distance between two consecutive ribs and

such disturbances on bare collector efficiency and on its

height of the rib. pressure drop. An effective efficiency, which takes into

Relative roughness height (e/D): Relative roughness height account extra heat obtained, and additional mechanical (elec-

(e/D) is the ratio of rib height to equivalent diameter of the air tric) energy consumption for moving air when heat-transfer

passage. augmentation devices are employed, was defined. Simulation

Angle of attack (α): Angle of attack is inclination of rib with

direction of air flow in duct.

results were given for a bare collector, with and without

Aspect ratio: It is ratio of duct width to duct height. This factor perturbations, showing efficiency and effective efficiency

also plays a very crucial role in investigating thermo-hydraulic dependence on collector dimensions, solar radiation intensity,

performance. disturbance diameter, and pitch, for collector performance

optimization.

Gupta, Solanki, and Saini (1997) discussed the effect of

Methodology of investigations to determine the

roughness and operating parameters on the thermal as well

thermo-hydraulic performance of solar air heater

as the hydraulic performance of roughened solar air heaters

There are basically three approaches or methods that can be and the thermo-hydraulic performance of roughened solar

used to solve a problem of fluid flow and heat transfer in a air heaters was compared with that of conventional smooth

solar air heater. These approaches are: solar air heaters. The optimum design and operating condi-

(a) Theoretical (b) experimental, and (c) computational tions were determined. On the basis of thermo-hydraulic

fluid dynamics (CFD). considerations, it was found that the systems operating in a

specified range of Reynolds number (3500–19,000) would

show better thermo-hydraulic performance depending

Theoretical approach

upon the insolation. A relationship between the system and

A theoretical prediction works out the consequences of a operating parameters that combine to yield optimum per-

mathematical model, rather than those of an actual physical formance was developed.

model. For the physical processes of interest, the mathemati- Mittal et al. (2007) presented a comparison of effective

cal model mainly consists of a set of differential equations. If efficiency of solar air heaters having different types of geome-

the methods of classical mathematics were to be used for try of roughness elements on the absorber plate. The effective

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GREEN ENERGY 147

efficiency for different geometry was computed by using the roughened solar air heater duct performed better as per EAR

correlations for heat transfer and friction factor developed by or heat energy gain criteria for any values of Reynolds number

various investigators within the investigated range of operat- and roughness parameters of expanded metal mesh. The

ing and system parameters. Solar air heater having inclined EXAR was a more suitable criterion to incorporate the quality

ribs as roughness elements was found to have better effective of heat collected and pump work required. The EXAR was

efficiency in the higher range of Reynolds number. However, more for higher duct depth and low Reynolds number range.

expanded metal mesh was found suitable roughness element Based on EXAR the suitable design parameters of expanded

in the lower range of Reynolds number. metal mesh roughness geometry were determined.

Layek, Saini, and Solanki (2007a) presented the mathema- Singh, Chander, and Saini (2012) studied the exergetic

tical model for predicting the entropy generation of a solar air efficiency of a solar air heater having discrete V-down rib

heater having chamfered rib–groove roughened absorber roughness analytically and the results obtained were com-

plate. Effect of the roughness parameter on the entropy gen- pared with that of a conventional flat-plate solar air heater.

eration was considered. It was found that the entropy genera- Effects of the Reynolds number and rib-roughness parameters

tion decreases with increase in relative roughness height. The on exergetic efficiency were determined. It was found that

set of relative roughness pitch of 6, relative groove position there exist optimum roughness parameters of the discrete V-

0.4 and chamfer angle 18° showed the minimum rise in down rib for a given Reynolds number (or temperature rise

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Gupta and Kaushik (2009a) carried out a comparative Curves of optimum rib-roughness parameters were also

study of various types of artificial roughness geometries in plotted. A set of rib-roughness parameters namely relative

the absorber plate of solar air heater duct for the heat transfer roughness pitch of 8, relative gap position of 0.65, angle of

and friction characteristics. The performance evaluation in attack of 60°, relative gap width of 1.0 and relative roughness

terms of energy efficiency, exergy efficiency, and effective height of 0.043 provided maximum exergetic efficiency.

energy efficiency was carried out, for various values of Karwa and Shrivastava (2013) carried out thermal perfor-

Reynolds number, for some selected artificial roughness geo- mance of a solar air heater having absorber plate with V-down

metries in the absorber plate of solar air heater duct. The six discrete rib roughness using a mathematical model. The col-

roughness geometries as per the order of ability to create lector, which supplied heated air for space heating application,

turbulence and a smooth surface were selected. The correla- was installed at a slope of 45° facing south and operated in a

tions for heat transfer and coefficient of friction developed by closed loop mode with inlet air at a fixed temperature of 295

respective investigators were used to calculate efficiencies. It K. The ambient temperature was varied from 278 K to 288 K.

was found that artificial roughness on absorber surface effec- The thermal efficiency of the roughened duct air heater was

tively increases the efficiencies in comparison to smooth sur- 6–26% higher than that of a smooth duct air heater. The

face. The energy efficiency in general increased in the results of analysis were presented in the form of performance

following sequence: smooth surface, circular ribs, V-shaped plots with constant temperature rise lines of 10°C, 15°C, 20°C,

ribs, wedge-shaped rib, expanded metal mesh, rib-grooved, and 25°C.

and chamfered rib–groove. The effective energy efficiency The above literature review reveals that very few theoreti-

based criteria also followed same trend of variation among cal/analytical studies have been reported on the design of

various considered geometries, and trend was reversed at very artificially roughened solar air heater.

high Reynolds number. The exergy efficiency based criteria

also followed the same pattern; but the trend was reversed at

Experimental approach

relatively lower value of Reynolds number and for higher

range of Reynolds number the exergy efficiency approaches The most reliable information about a physical process is

zero or may be negative. It was found that for the higher often given by actual measurement. An experimental

range of Reynolds number circular ribs and V-shaped ribs approach involving full-scale equipment can be used to pre-

give appreciable exergy efficiency up to high Reynolds num- dict how identical copies of the equipment would perform

ber; while for low Reynolds number chamfered rib–groove under the same conditions. Such full scale tests are, in most

gives more exergy efficiency. cases, prohibitively expensive and often impossible. The alter-

Gupta and Kaushik (2009b) carried out a parametric study native then is to perform experiments on small-scale, models.

of artificial roughness geometry of expanded metal mesh type The resulting information, however, must be extrapolated to

in the absorber plate of solar air heater duct and compared full scale, and general rules for doing this are often unavail-

with smooth duct. The performance evaluation in terms of able. Further, the small-scale models do not always simulate

energy augmentation ratio (EAR), effective energy augmenta- all the features of the full-scale equipment; frequently, impor-

tion ratio (EEAR) and exergy augmentation ratio (EXAR) was tant features such as combustion or boiling are omitted from

carried out for various values of Reynolds number and rough- the model tests. This further reduces the usefulness of the test

ness parameters of expanded metal mesh roughness geometry results. Finally it must be remembered that there are serious

in the absorber plate of solar air heater duct. It was found that difficulties of measurement in many situations, and that the

the augmentation ratios decreased at faster rate with Reynolds measuring instruments are not free from errors (Patankar

number in the order of EAR, EEAR and EXAR. It was also 1980).

found that augmentation ratios increased with increase in A number of standards describe the testing procedures for

duct depth and intensity of solar radiation. The artificially the thermal performance of solar collectors. The most well-

148 A. S. YADAV AND M. K. THAPAK

known are the ISO 9806-1:1994 (1994) and the ASHRAE performance was reported to be 71%. Heat transfer enhance-

Standard 93:2003 (2003). These can be used to evaluate the ment factor (Nur/Nus) was found to vary between 1.25 and

performance of both flat-plate and concentrating solar 2.08 for the range of parameters investigated. Correlations for

collectors. heat transfer and friction factor were also developed.

For the tests, the following parameters need to be Prasad (2013) presented the experimental results on heat

measured: transfer and thereby thermal performance of artificially

roughened solar air heaters for fully developed turbulent

(1) Global solar irradiance at the collector plate. flow data collected under actual outdoor conditions. Thin G.

(2) Diffuse solar irradiance at the collector aperture. I. wires of varying diameter were provided on the flow side of

(3) Air speed above the collector aperture. the absorber plate normal to the fluid flow direction as a

(4) Ambient air temperature. roughness element. Author reported that such solar air hea-

(5) Fluid temperature at the collector inlet. ters were found to give considerably high value of collector

(6) Fluid temperature at the collector outlet. heat removal factor, collector efficiency factor and thermal

(7) Fluid flow rate. efficiency as compared to the corresponding values of those of

smooth collectors. In the range of the operating parameters

The use of artificial roughness in solar air heaters owes its investigated, the ratio of the respective values of the heat

Downloaded by [The National Library - Kolkata] at 03:12 30 November 2017

origin to several investigations carried out in connection with removal factor, collector efficiency factor, and thermal effi-

the enhancement of heat transfer in duct flow, nuclear reac- ciency for the roughened collectors to the smooth collectors

tors, cooling of turbine blades, and electronic components. As were found to be 1.786, 1.806, and 1.842, respectively.

in solar air heater the solar radiation is absorbed by absorber

plate, which is the main heat transfer surface; therefore, the

solar air heaters are modeled as a rectangular channel having Wedge-shaped rib roughness

one rough wall and three smooth walls. General arrangement Bhagoria, Saini, and Solanki (2002) performed experiments to

of different types of roughness geometries investigated experi- determine the effect of relative roughness pitch, relative

mentally by various investigators are discussed in detail under roughness height, and wedge angle on the heat transfer and

following sub-sections. friction factor in a solar air heater roughened duct having

wedge-shaped rib roughness as shown in Figure 3. Statistical

Transverse wire rib roughness correlations for the Nusselt number and friction factor were

developed in terms of geometrical parameters of the rough-

Prasad and Mullick (1983) were the first who introduced the ness elements and the flow Reynolds number. The major

application of artificial roughness in the form of small dia- conclusions from the studies were: 1. As compared to the

meter wire attached on the underside of absorber plate to smooth duct, the presence of ribs yields Nusselt number up

improve the thermal performance of solar air heater for dry- to 2.4 times while the friction factor rises up to 5.3 times for

ing purposes as shown in Figure 2. It was reported that the range of parameters investigated. 2. The maximum heat

protruding wires improve plate efficiency factor from 0.63 to transfer occurs for a relative roughness pitch of about 7.57,

0.72 resulting in 14% improvement in thermal performance while the friction factor keeps decreasing as the relative

for a Reynolds number of 40,000. The agreement of the roughness pitch increases. 3. A maximum enhancement of

measured heat transfer coefficients with theoretical predic- heat transfer occurs at a wedge angle of about 10° while on

tions was found to be satisfactory. either side of this wedge angle, Nusselt number decreases. The

Verma and Prasad (2000) carried out an outdoor experi- friction factor increases as the wedge angle increases.

mental investigation for thermo-hydraulic optimization of the

roughness and flow parameters for Reynolds number (Re)

range of 5000–20,000, relative roughness pitch (P/e) range of 90° Broken transverse rib roughness

10–40 and relative roughness height (e/D) range of 0.01–0.03.

Sahu and Bhagoria (2005) investigated the effect of 90° broken

Authors reported effect of transverse wire roughness on heat

ribs (Figure 4) on thermal performance of a solar air heater

and fluid flow characteristics for three rectangular solar air

heater ducts; two were roughened collectors and one was a

plane surface. Transverse wires were fixed on underside of

absorber plate as shown in Figure 2. The optimal value of P

roughness Reynolds number (e+) was found to be 24 and e

corresponding to this value, optimal thermo-hydraulic P

Air

P

Wires Absorber plate

P

e

Figure 2. Transverse continuous wire rib roughness. Figure 3. Wedge-shaped transverse rib roughness.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GREEN ENERGY 149

P Wires Absorber Plate

Aharwal, Gandhi, and Saini (2009) carried out an experimen-

tal investigation on heat transfer and friction characteristics of

solar air heater ducts with integral repeated discrete square

Air

ribs on the absorber plate as shown in Figure 6. The effect of

geometrical parameters, especially, the gap width and gap

position was investigated. As compared to the smooth surface,

the rib-roughened surface yielded an increase of about 2.83

and 3.60 times in the Nusselt number and friction factor,

respectively, for the range of parameters investigated. The

Figure 4. Transverse 90° broken rib roughness.

maximum heat transfer enhancement was observed at a rela-

tive gap position of 0.25 for relative gap width of 1.0, relative

roughness pitch of 8, angle of attack of 60° and relative

for fixed roughness height (e) value of 1.5 mm, relative rough- roughness height of 0.037. The maximum value of friction

ness height (e/D) value of 0.0338, duct aspect ratio (W/H) factor occurs for discrete transverse ribs with relative rough-

value of 8, pitch (P) in the range of 10–30 mm and Reynolds ness pitch of 8. Based on the experimental data, correlations

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number (Re) range of 3000–12,000. It was found that the for Nusselt number and friction factor were developed as a

maximum Nusselt number attained for roughness pitch of function of roughness parameters of inclined discrete square

20 and decreased with an increase in roughness pitch. ribs and flow Reynolds number.

Roughened absorber plates increased the heat transfer coeffi-

cient by 1.25–1.4 times as compared to smooth rectangular

duct under similar operating conditions at higher Reynolds

Combination of transverse and inclined rib roughness

number. Based on experimentation, it was concluded that the

maximum thermal efficiency of roughened solar air heater Varun, Saini, and Singal (2008) carried out an experimental

was to be of the order of (51–83.5%) depending upon the investigation to study the heat transfer and friction character-

flow conditions. istics by using a combination of inclined as well as transverse

ribs on the absorber plate of a solar air heater as shown in

Figure 7. For relative roughness pitch (p/e) value of 8, the best

thermal performance was reported. Based on experimental

Inclined wire rib roughness data collected during investigation, correlations for Nusselt

Gupta, Solanki, and Saini (1993) carried out a series of number and friction factor was developed for the investigated

experiments to determine the effect of inclined transverse system.

wire roughness on heat and fluid flow characteristics in

transitionally rough flow region (5<e+<70) for rectangular

P

solar air heater ducts with an absorber plate having inclined

transverse wire roughness on its underside as shown in

Figure 5. Simple correlations for Nusselt number and fric-

W

tion factor were developed in terms of geometrical para- 60°

d

meters of roughness, duct cross section, and the flow d

Reynolds number. It was observed that nontransverse ribs Continuousrib d/W = 0.16 d/W = 0.25

were advantageous when compared with transverse ribs for

the enhancement of the heat transfer coefficient. For a

roughened solar air heater, maximum enhancement in heat

d

transfer and friction factor was reported to be of the order d d

1.8 and 2.7 times, respectively, corresponding to angle of

inclination values of 60° and 70°, respectively. Best thermo- d/W = 0.33 d/W = 0.5 d/W = 0.67

Figure 6. Inclined continuous rib roughness with gap.

height (e/D) value of 0.023 and Reynolds number (Re) value

of 14,000.

P

W

Flow

60˚

L

p

Figure 5. Inclined continuous rib roughness. Figure 7. Combination of transverse and inclined rib roughness.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GREEN ENERGY 151

Mittal and Varun (2009) carried out an experimental angle of attack of 61.9°, relative longway length of mesh value

investigation of the thermo-hydraulic performance of a solar of 46.87 and relative shortway length of mesh value of 25.

air heater having transverse and inclined ribs as artificial Maximum value of friction factor was reported for angle of

roughness element on the absorber plate as shown in attack of 72°, relative longway length of mesh value of 71.87

Figure 7. It was reported that the thermo-hydraulic perfor- and relative shortway length of mesh value of 15. Correlations

mance of rib roughened solar air heater having P/e = 8 was for Nusselt number and friction factor were developed.

best among the three different types of rib geometry used. It

was observed that the thermo-hydraulic performance of rib

Metal grit rib roughness

roughened solar air heater was always more than that of

smooth one in the range of Reynolds number investigated. Karmare and Tikekar (2007) experimentally investigated the

heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of artificial

roughened rectangular duct of an aspect ratio 10:1 with

Expanded metal mesh roughness metal grit ribs (Figure 9). Authors reported that the presence

Saini and Saini (1997) carried out an experimental investiga- of metal grit ribs on collector surface of the duct yielded up to

tion for fully developed turbulent flow in a rectangular duct two-fold enhancement in the Nusselt number and three-fold

with large aspect ratio (11:1) and having expanded metal enhancement in the friction factor for the range of parameters

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mesh as artificial roughness to study the effect of wire mesh studied. Artificially roughened plate having l/s=1.72, e/

roughened absorber plate on heat transfer augmentation and D=0.044, P/e=17.5 showed the highest heat transfer perfor-

friction characteristics of solar air heater as shown in Figure 8. mance whereas artificially roughened plate having l/s=1.72, e/

It was reported that the maximum heat transfer of order four D=0.044, P/e=12.5 showed highest friction factor. Optimum

times over the smooth duct was obtained corresponding to performance was observed for the artificially roughened plate

having roughness parameters l/s=1.72, e/D=0.044, P/e=17.5

for the range of parameters studied. Based on the experimen-

L Expanded Metal Mesh tal data, correlations were developed for Nusselt number and

friction factor.

Karmare and Tikekar (2009) experimentally investigated

Air

S thermo-hydraulic performance of roughened solar air heaters

with metal rib grits (Figure 9). The study showed substantial

enhancement in thermal efficiency (10–35%) over solar air

heater with smooth collector plate. The thermal efficiency

Figure 8. Expanded metal mesh roughness.

Airflow

l

p S

S

= 60°

1500 mm

p S

e = 2 mm

= 60°

150 A. S. YADAV AND M. K. THAPAK

increase in the pumping power requirement due to the Air

increase in the friction factor (80–250%).

Figure 11. V-shaped rib roughness.

Chamfered rib-roughness

Karwa, Solanki, and Saini (1999) performed an experimental rectangular duct of solar air heater. The following important

investigation of heat transfer and friction for the flow of air in conclusions were drawn from this experiment: 1.The max-

rectangular ducts with repeated chamfered rib-roughness on imum enhancement of Nusselt number and friction factor as

one broad wall as shown in Figure 10. The aspect ratios of the a result of providing artificial roughness was found to be,

rectangular duct investigated were 4.8, 6.1, 7.75, 9.66, and 12. respectively, 2.30 and 2.83 times that of smooth duct for an

The roughened wall was uniformly heated while the remain- angle of attack of 60°. It was observed that the same angle of

ing three walls were insulated. Friction factor and heat trans- attack corresponds to the maximum values of both Nusselt

fer coefficient correlations were developed based on the law of number and friction factor. 2. The thermo-hydraulic perfor-

wall similarity and heat- momentum transfer analogy. mance parameter improved with increasing the angle of attack

Authors reported that as compared to the smooth duct the of flow and relative roughness height and the maxima

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presence of ribs at one broad wall of the duct yielded up to occurred with an angle of attack of 60°. 3. It was found that

about 2 and 3 times increase in the Stanton number and the for relative roughness height of 0.034 and for angle of attack

friction factor, respectively. The highest heat transfer and also of 60°, the V-shaped ribs enhanced the values of Nusselt

the highest friction factor were occurred for 15° chamfered number by 1.14 and 2.30 times over inclined ribs and smooth

ribs. The roughness function was found to be independent of plate case at Reynolds number of 17034. Correlations for heat

the roughness Reynolds number for values of the roughness transfer and friction factor were developed.

Reynolds number greater than 20. The heat transfer function

increased with the increase in the aspect ratio from 4.65 to

Staggered discrete v-shaped rib roughness

9.66 and the roughness function decreased with the increase

in the aspect ratio from 4.65 to 7.75. Thereafter both the Muluwork (2000) compared the thermal performance of stag-

functions attained nearly a constant value gered discrete V-apex up and down ribs with corresponding

Karwa, Solanki, and Saini (2001) conducted an experimen- transverse staggered discrete ribs as shown in Figure 12. They

tal investigation of the performance of solar air heaters with studied the effect of relative roughness length ratio (B/S),

chamfered repeated rib-roughness (Figure 10) on the airflow relative roughness segment ratio (S’/S), relative roughness

side of the absorber plates. Experiments carried out using two staggering ratio (p’/p) and angle of attack (α) on the heat

identical parallel ducts, one with the roughened absorber plate transfer and friction factor. It was observed that the Nusselt

and the other with the smooth one. This study showed sub- number increased with the increase in relative roughness

stantial enhancement in thermal efficiency (10 to 40%) over length ratio (B/S). Nusselt number for V-down discrete ribs

solar air heaters with smooth absorber plates due to the was found to be higher than the corresponding V-up and

enhancement in the Nusselt number (50% to 120%). The transverse discrete roughened surfaces. Nusselt number

thermal efficiency enhancement was also accompanied by a increased with increase in relative roughness staggering ratio

considerable enhancement in the pumping power require- (p’/p) and attained a maximum value for relative roughness

ment due to the increase in the friction factor (80% to staggering ratio (p’/p) value of 0.6. Heat transfer and friction

290%). A mathematical model for thermal performance pre- factor attained maximum values for angle of attack (α) 60°

diction was also presented. and 70° respectively. Correlations for Nusselt number and

friction factor were developed.

V-shaped rib roughness

Multi v-shaped rib roughness

Momin, Saini, and Solanki (2002) experimentally investigated

the effect of geometrical parameters of V-shaped ribs Hans, Saini, and Saini (2010) carried out an experimental

(Figure 11) on heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of investigation to study the effect of multiple V-rib roughness

(Figure 13) on heat transfer coefficient and friction factor in

an artificially roughened solar air heater. Correlations for

w P

e

p

s

Air Flow Flow

Rib

(V-Down) (V-Up)

152 A. S. YADAV AND M. K. THAPAK

w w w

W W W W

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w

W

w w w w

Air Flow Air Flow Air Flow Air Flow

W W W W

geometry and flow parameters were developed. A maximum

enhancement of Nusselt number and friction factor due to

presence of multiple V-rib roughness was found to be 6 and 5

times, respectively, in comparison to the smooth duct for the

range of parameters considered. The maximum heat transfer

enhancement was found to occur for a relative roughness

width (W/w) value of 6 while friction factor attained max-

imum value for relative roughness width (W/w) value of 10. It

was also found that Nusselt number and friction factor

Figure 14. Discrete V-down rib roughness.

attained maxima corresponding to angle of attack (α) value

of 60°. Maximum enhancement of Nusselt number and fric-

tion factor was observed corresponding to relative roughness that for smooth duct was found to be 3.04 and 3.11 folds,

pitch (P/e) value of 8 while Nusselt number and friction factor respectively, for the investigated range of parameters. The

increased monotonically with increase in the value of relative maximum value of Nusselt number and friction factor

roughness height (e/D). occurred at P/e of 8.0, and these decreased on the both sides

of this pitch. Similar trend was observed for angle of attack

(α), relative gap position (d/w) and relative gap width (g/e)

Discrete v-down rib roughness

with maxima of both Nusselt number and friction factor

Singh, Chander, and Saini (2011) experimentally investigated occurred at 60°, 0.65 and 1.0, respectively. Statistical correla-

the heat and fluid flow characteristics of rectangular duct of a tions for Nusselt number and friction factor were developed

solar air heater having its one broad wall heated and rough- as function of Reynolds number and rib roughness

ened with periodic ‘discrete V-down rib’ as shown in parameters.

Figure 14. The maximum enhancement of Nusselt number Karwa and Chitoshiya (2013) presented the results of an

and friction factor for the roughened duct in comparison to experimental study of thermo-hydraulic performance of a

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GREEN ENERGY 153

solar air heater with 60° V-down discrete rib roughness on the P

airflow side of the absorber plate along with that for a smooth

duct air heater. The enhancement in the thermal efficiency Air

due to the roughness on the absorber plate was found to be W

was at the lower flow rate. The results of a detailed thermo- L

hydraulic performance study of solar air heater with v-down

discrete rib roughness using the mathematical model were Figure 16. Arc-shaped rib roughness.

also presented along with the effect of variation of various

parameters on the performance. maximum enhancement in Nusselt number was obtained as

3.80 times corresponding to the relative arc angle (α/90) of

0.3333 at relative roughness height of 0.0422. However, the

Multi v-shaped rib roughness with gap

increment in friction factor corresponding to these para-

Kumar, Saini, and Saini (2012b) carried out an experimental meters was observed 1.75 times only. Based on the experi-

investigation of the effect of geometrical parameters of Multi mental values, correlations for Nusselt number and friction

V-shaped ribs with gap (Figure 15) on heat transfer and fluid factor were developed.

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having rib roughness on its underside. The maximum

enhancement in Nusselt number and friction factor was Dimple-shaped rib roughness

observed 6.32 and 6.12 times of that of the smooth duct, Saini and Verma (2008) carried out an experimental investi-

respectively. The thermo-hydraulic performance parameter gation on fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of solar

was found the best for the relative gap distance of 0.69 and air heater duct having dimple-shaped artificial roughness

the relative gap width of 1.0. (Figure 17). The maximum value of Nusselt number was

Kumar, Saini, and Saini (2013) presented the results of an found corresponds to relative roughness height (e/D) of

experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction in the 0.0379 and relative roughness pitch (P/e) of 10. While mini-

flow of air in rectangular ducts having multi V-shaped rib mum value of friction factor was found correspond to relative

with gap roughness (Figure 15) on one broad wall. As com- roughness height (e/D) of 0.0289 and relative roughness pitch

pared to the smooth duct the presence of multi V-shaped rib (P/e) of 10. Based on experimental data collected during

with gap artificial roughness yielded Nusselt number up to investigation, correlations for Nusselt number and friction

6.74 times while the friction factor increased up to 6.37 times factor were developed for the investigated system.

in the range of parameters investigated. The maximum value

of friction factor occurred for multi v-shaped with gap rib

with relative roughness width of 10. Based on the experimen- Dimple-shaped roughness arranged in angular arc shape

tal data, correlations for Nusselt number and friction factor Sethi, Varun, and Thakur (2012) carried out an experimental

were developed as function of roughness parameters of multi investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics

v-shaped with gap rib and flow Reynolds number. of a solar air heater duct having dimple-shaped elements

arranged in angular fashion (arc) as roughness elements on

absorber plate (Figure 18). The maximum value of Nusselt

Arc-shaped rib roughness number was found corresponding to relative roughness height

Saini and Saini (2008) experimentally studied the effect of arc- of 0.036, relative roughness pitch of 10 and arc angle of 60°.

shaped ribs on heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of

rectangular duct of solar air heater as shown in Figure 16. The

P

Air

Figure 15. Multi V-shaped rib roughness with gap. Figure 17. Dimple-shaped rib roughness.

154 A. S. YADAV AND M. K. THAPAK

It was found that the rib-grooved arrangement provided the

best thermo-hydraulic performance. Correlations for Nusselt

number and friction factor were developed.

Figure 18. Dimple-shaped rib roughness arranged in angular arc shape.

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The statistical correlations for Nusselt number and friction Layek, Saini, and Solanki (2007b) investigated heat transfer

factor were developed as a function of Reynolds number and and friction characteristics of repeated integral transverse

roughness geometry parameters. chamfered rib-groove roughness on one broad wall as

Yadav et al. (2013) carried out an experimental investiga- shown in Figure 20. Nusselt number and friction factor cor-

tion to study the effect of heat transfer and friction character- relations were developed. Authors reported: 1. Nusselt num-

istics of turbulent flow of air passing through rectangular duct ber and friction factor increased by 3.24 times and 3.78 times,

which is roughened by circular protrusions arranged in angu- respectively, as compare to smooth duct. 2. The maximum

lar arc fashion (Figure 18). The roughened wall was uniformly heat transfer enhancement occured for the relative roughness

heated while other three walls were kept insulated. The max- pitch of 6 and relative groove position of 0.4. 3. The highest

imum enhancement in heat transfer and friction factor was Nusselt number occurred for chamfer angle of 18° but the

2.89 and 2.93 times as compared with smooth duct. friction factor increased monotonously with an increase in

Correlations for Nusselt number and friction factor were chamfer angle.

developed. The maximum heat transfer enhancement and Layek, Saini, and Solanki (2009) carried out an experimen-

friction factor attained maximum value for relative roughness tal investigation on heat and fluid flow characteristics of fully

height (e/D) of 0.03 and relative roughness pitch (P/e) of 12. developed turbulent flow in a rectangular duct having

It was found that Nusselt number and friction factor attained repeated integral transverse chamfered rib-groove roughness

maxima corresponding to arc angle (α) of 60°. Correlations on one broad wall as shown in Figure 20. Six roughened plates

were developed for heat transfer coefficient and friction factor were tested placing a 60° V-groove at the centre line in

for artificially roughened duct. between two consecutive chamfered ribs. The rib’s top was

chamfered having chamfer angles of 5°, 12°, 15°, 18°, 22°, and

30° while Relative roughness pitch, relative groove position,

and relative roughness height, were kept constant at 10, 0.5,

Rib-grooved roughness

and 0.03, respectively. Roughened absorber plates increased

Jaurker, Saini, and Gandhi (2006) experimentally investigated the Nusselt number and friction factor by 2.6 and 3.35 times

the heat transfer and friction characteristics of rib-grooved as compared to smooth surface. The maximum enhancement

artificial roughness on one broad wall as shown in Figure 19. of Nusselt number was found for chamfer angle of 18° but the

The presence of rib-grooved artificial roughness yielded friction factor increased monotonously with increase in cham-

Nusselt number and friction factor up to 2.7 and 3.6 times, fer angle. A substantial improvement in the thermo-hydraulic

respectively, in comparison to smooth absorber plate. The performance was obtained, as indicated by the performance

maximum heat transfer occurred for a relative roughness parameter value lying between 1.4 and 1.76 for the range of

experimentation.

g P Groove

Ribs

Inverted u-shaped rib roughness

e

Bopche and Tandale (2009) carried out an experimental

investigation to study the heat transfer coefficient and friction

factor by using artificial roughness in the form of specially

prepared inverted U-shaped turbulators on the absorber sur-

L face of an air heater duct as shown in Figure 21. As compared

to the smooth duct, the turbulator roughened duct enhanced

Figure 19. Rib-grooved artificial roughness. the heat transfer and friction factor by 2.82 and 3.72 times,

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GREEN ENERGY 155

Pitch, p Direction of air flow (upstream) tor as a result of providing artificial roughness was found to

be 2.36 and 2.01 times, respectively, that of smooth duct for

angle of attack of 60°. Maximum thermo-hydraulic perfor-

e

mance was occurred at angle of attack of 60°. Correlations

were developed for heat transfer coefficient and friction factor

for roughened duct.

50 mm

12 mm

Discrete w-shaped rib roughness

Kumar, Bhagoria, and Sarviya (2009) experimentally investi-

2. 5 mm gated the heat transfer and friction characteristics in solar air

heater by using discrete W-shaped rib roughness (Figure 23)

Figure 21. Inverted U-shaped rib roughness. on one broad wall of solar air heater, with an aspect ratio of

8:1. The maximum enhancement of Nusselt number and

friction factor as a result of providing artificial roughness

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respectively. Authors reported that the turbulences generated was found to be 2.16 and 2.75 times that of smooth duct for

only in the viscous sub-layer region of boundary layer results an angle of attack of 60° and relative roughness height of

in better thermo-hydraulic performance i.e. maximum heat 0.0338. Correlations for heat transfer and friction were devel-

transfer enhancement at affordable friction penalty. The cor- oped as a function of roughness and flow parameters.

relations were developed for area averaged Nusselt number

and friction factor for turbulator roughened duct.

Transverse, inclined, v-up continuous, v-down

continuous, v-up discrete, and v-down discrete rib

W-shaped rib roughness roughness

Lanjewar, Bhagoria, and Sarviya (2011a) carried out an Karwa (2003) carried out a comparative experimental study of

experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor augmented heat transfer and friction in a rectangular duct

characteristics of a rectangular duct roughened with W- with transverse, inclined, V-up continuous, and V-down con-

shaped ribs arranged at an inclination with respect to the tinuous, V-up discrete ribs, and V-down discrete (Figure 24).

flow direction on its underside on one broad wall Stanton number and friction factor correlations were devel-

(Figure 22). W-shaped ribs were tested both pointing in

downstream W-down and upstream W-up to the flow.

Maximum enhancement in Nusslet number as a result of

providing artificial roughness was 136% for angle of attack

of 60° for W-down ribs and 124% for angle of attack of 60° for

W-up ribs over smooth plate. Maximum enhancement in

Friction factor as a result of providing artificial roughness

was 101% for angle of attack of 60° for W-down ribs and

135% for angle of attack of 60° for W-up ribs over the smooth

duct. Maximum thermo-hydraulic performance for W-down

ribs was 1.98 while it was 1.81 for W-up ribs in the range of

parameters investigated. Heat transfer and friction factor cor-

relations were developed.

Lanjewar, Bhagoria, and Sarviya (2011b) carried out an Figure 23. Discrete W-shaped rib roughness.

experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor

characteristics of rectangular duct roughened with W-shaped Wire pieces

P

ribs on its underside on one broad wall arranged at an

inclination with respect to flow direction (Figure 22).

p

Air

Air

Figure 22. W-shaped rib roughness. Figure 24. Transverse, inclined, V-discrete, and V-continuous rib roughness.

156 A. S. YADAV AND M. K. THAPAK

oped. The enhancement in Stanton number over smooth duct phenomena such as chemical reactions by means of compu-

was found to be 65–90%, 87–112%, 102–137%, 110–147%, ter-based simulation. The technique is very powerful and

93–134%, 102–142% for transverse, inclined, V-up continu- spans a wide range of industrial and nonindustrial application

ous, V-down continuous, V-up discrete and V-down discrete areas.

rib arrangement respectively. The friction factor ratios corre- The equations governing the fluid flow are the continuity

sponding to these arrangements were found as 2.68–2.94, (conservation of mass), the Navier-Stokes (balance of

3.02–3.42, 3.40–3.92, 3.32–3.65, 2.35–2.47, and 2.46–2.58, momentum), and the energy (conservation of energy) equa-

respectively. Study revealed that the V-down discrete rib tions. These equations form a system of coupled nonlinear

roughness secured the best thermal performance for the partial differential equations (PDEs). Because of the coupled

same power consumption. nature of the equations and the presence of nonlinear terms,

the fluid flow equations are generally not amenable to analy-

tical method of obtaining the solution. In general, closed form

Angled continuous ribs, transverse continuous & broken analytical solutions are possible only if these PDEs can be

ribs, and discrete v-shaped rib roughness made linear, either because non-linear terms naturally drop

Tanda (2011) experimentally investigated the heat transfer out (as in the case of parallel flows or flows that are inviscid

coefficients and friction factors for a rectangular channel and irrotational everywhere) or because the nonlinear terms

Downloaded by [The National Library - Kolkata] at 03:12 30 November 2017

having one wall roughened by repeated ribs and heated at are small compared to other terms so that they can be

uniform flux, while the remaining three walls were smooth neglected (e.g., creeping flows, small amplitude sloshing of

and insulated. Angled continuous ribs, transverse continuous liquid etc.). If the nonlinearities in the governing PDEs cannot

and broken ribs, and discrete V-shaped ribs were considered be neglected, which is often the case for most engineering

as rib configurations (Figure 25). Different types of roughness flows, one normally has to resort to numerical methods to

elements were considered in the study were: (i) 45 deg obtain solutions.

inclined continuous ribs, (ii) transverse continuous ribs, (iii) CFD is the art of replacing the differential equations gov-

transverse broken ribs, (iv) discrete V-shaped ribs. It was erning the Fluid Flow, with a set of algebraic equations (this

found that all the rib configurations considered performed process is called the discretization), which in turn can be

better than a reference smooth channel in the medium-low solved with the aid of a digital computer to get an approx-

range of the Reynolds number, which was that typically imate solution. The commonly used discretization methods in

encountered in solar air heater applications. In particular, CFD analysis are the finite difference method (FDM), the

roughening the heat transfer surface by transverse broken finite volume method (FVM), the finite element method

ribs appeared to be the most promising enhancement techni- (FEM), and the boundary element method (BEM). Some

que of the investigated rib geometries. special cases of flow problems can also be solved using non-

standard method like, boundary integral methods, spectral

The above comprehensive review revealed that quite a lot

methods, and pseudo-spectral methods (Versteeg and

of works have been reported on design of artificially rough-

Malalasekera 1991; Tannehill, Andeson, and Pletcher 1997).

ened solar air heater by experimental approach. Based on

A lot of studies have been reported in the literature on

the experimental studies carried out by various investigators,

correlation for Nusselt number and friction factor were devel- artificially roughened solar air heater for heat transfer

oped. These correlations along with the range of parameters enhancement and so many experiments are going on right

now to optimize roughness parameters for heat transfer

investigated are presented in Table 1.

enhancement. But very few attemptsDSTCERI

of CFD investigation

have been made so far due 2017-12-02

to complexity of flow pattern

11:45:05

Computational fluid dynamics approach and computational limitations. With the development of

--------------------------------------------

numerical methodology and RESEARCH high speed computers,

GAP better

Computational fluid dynamics or CFD is the analysis of solutions of fluid flow problems can be achieved. Ongoing

systems involving fluid flow, heat transfer and associated research yields software that improves the speed and accuracy

of complex simulation scenarios such as turbulent flows,

P

transonic flows etc.

Chaube, Sahoo, and Solanki (2006a) performed a compu-

d’ tational analysis of heat transfer augmentation and flow char-

W d

acteristics due to artificial roughness in the form of ribs on a

P

broad, heated wall of a rectangular duct of a solar air heater

for turbulent flow. A 2-D analysis of heat transfer and fluid

Air flow through a rectangular duct of an artificially roughened

solar air heater was carried out using commercially available

P CFD software, FLUENT 6.1. CFD analysis was performed on

an artificially roughened solar air heater having ten different

rib shapes viz. rectangular, square, chamfered, triangular, etc.,

L provided on the absorber plate. Shear stress transport k–ω

turbulence model was selected by comparing the predictions

Figure 25. Transverse continuous/broken and V-shaped broken rib roughness. of different turbulence models with experimental results

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Table 1. Summary of Heat Transfer and Friction Factor Correlations for Different Roughness Geometries used in Artificially Roughened Solar Air Heater

Correlations

Investigators Roughness Geometry Range of Parameters Heat Transfer and Friction Factor

Prasad and Saini Transverse wire rib e/D: 0.02-0.033 sﬃﬃ.

f̄

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ2ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃΣ

ﬃﬃﬃﬃ

St ¼ . Σ 0:53

(1988) roughness P/e: 10-20

Re: 5000–50000 1þ f

2 4:5ðe Þþ 0:28 0:57

Pr —0:95 =e P

ðWþ2BÞfs þWfr

f¼ 2ðWþBÞ

2

where fr ¼ 2

0:53

½0:95ðPÞ þ2:5 lnð D Þ—3:75]

e 2e

Nu ¼ St RePr

. Σ—0:054

Verma and Prasad Transverse wire rib Re: 5000–20,000 Nur ¼ 0:08596 Pe ðe=DÞ0:072 Re0:732; for eþ ≤ 24

(2000) roughness m: 0.01–0.06 . Σ—0:016 0:021P 0:802 þ

P/e: 10-40 e

Nu ¼

e/D: 0.01–0.03 .Σ P —0:206 — 0:243 1:25

0:02954 ðe=DÞ e Re ¼ e0:0245

f; for > 24r

e+: 8-42 h

. eΣ0:426 .PΣ2:94 . Σ2 i h . Σ2 i

Bhagoria, Saini, and Wedge shaped rib P/e: 60.17x Nur ¼ 1:89 × 10 r

e

=

ðDÞ —4Re 1:21

exp —0:71 ln P e ð[=10Þ—0:018 exp —1:5 ln [ 10

Solanki (2002) roughness ɸ−1.0264˂p/e˂12.12 D e

W/H: 5

e/D: 0.015–0.033 . eΣ0:99 .PΣ—0:52

ɸ: –8°–15° fr ¼ 12:44 Re—0:18 D e

ð [10Þ0:49

Re: 3000–18000

. eΣ0:001 .WΣ—0:06 h . Σ2 i

Gupta, Solanki, and Inclined wire rib e/D: 0.018–0.032 Nur ðfor eþ <35Þ ¼ 0:0024 Re1:084 exp —0:04 1 — α

Saini (1993) roughness P/e: 10

W/H: 6.8–11.5 D H 60

— 60

α: 30°–90° . e Σ—0:24 .WΣ—0:028 h . Σi

0 0071 0:88

exp α 2

Nu ðfor e þ

35Þ Re 0 475 1

Re: 5000–50000 r ≤ ¼ : D H —:

e+: 5–70 . eΣ0:196.WΣ—0:093

fr ¼ 0:1911 D H

Re—0:165 exp½—0:993ð1 — α70Þ2 ]

Saini (2009) ribs roughness with Nur ¼ 0:012 eD Re1:148 ½f1 — 0:25 — Wd f0:01ð1 — geÞ2 gg]

e:1–2 mm

gap b: 2 mm . Σ0:72 —0:0836

fr ¼ 0:5 eD Re

e/D: 0.018—0.037

W/H: 5.87

α: 30°–90°

d/W: 0.167–0.5

g/e: 0.5–2

Re: 3000—18000

Varun, Saini, and Combination of P/e: 3–8 .Σ

¼ 0:0006 ReNur 1:213 Pe 0:0104

Singal (2008) transverse and inclined e/D: 0.030 . Σ— 0:0114

rib roughness Re: 2000–14000 f ¼ 1:08585 Rer 0:3685 Pe

e: 1.6 mm

P: 5–13

W/H: 10

Saini and Saini (1997) Expanded metal mesh e/D: 0.012-0.0390 . e Σ0:625 . Σ2:22 h . 2Σ i

S

roughness L/e: 25-71.87 D 10e

S/e: 15.62–46.87 Nur ¼ 4 × 10—4 Re1:22 × exp f—1:25 ln ðS=10eÞ g

hn . Σoi

Re: 1900–13000 × ðL=10eÞ2:66 exp —0:824 ln ðL=10eÞ2

.Σ . Σ . Σ

fr ¼ 0:815 Re—0:361 L 0:266 S —0:190 10e 0:591

ENERGY

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e 10e D

(Continued )

157

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158

Table 1. (Continued).

Correlations

Investigators Roughness Geometry Range of Parameters Heat Transfer and Friction Factor

Karmare and Tikekar Metal grit rib e/D: 0.035–0.044 . Σ .Σ .Σ

Nur ¼ 2:4 × 10—3 Re1:3 eD 0:42 l s —0:146 P e —0:27

(2007) roughness P/e: 12.5–36

l/s: 1.72–1 . eΣ0:91 . l Σ—0:27 .PΣ—0:51

fr ¼ 15:55 Re—0:26 D s e

Re: 4000–17,000

Karwa, Solanki, and Chamfered rib P/e: 4.5-8.5 for 7 ≤ eþ<20 .Σ

Saini (1999) roughness e/D: 0.014-0.032 . Σ 0 5. Σ 2 56

—0:006φ W : P — : × exp½0:7343f ln P g2 ]ðeþÞ—0:31

g ¼ 103:77e

H e e

ɸ: -15°-18°

W/H: 4.8-12 for 20 ≤ eþ ≤ 60

L/D: 32-66 . Σ0:5 .PΣ—2:56 .Σ

Re: 3000-20000 g ¼ 32:26e—0:006φ WH e

× exp½0:7343f ln Pe g2 ]ðeþÞ0:08

for 5 ≤ eþ<20

.WΣ—0:4 .PΣ2:659 .Σ

R ¼ 1:66e—0:00786φ H e

× exp½—0:762f ln P e g2 ]ðeþÞ—0:075

for 20 ≤ eþ ≤ 60

.WΣ—0:4 .PΣ2:659 .Σ

R ¼ 1:325e—0:00786φ H e

× exp½—0:762f ln P e g2 ]

. eDΣ0:424 . α60Σ—0:077 h . 60 Σ2 i

Momin, Saini, and V-shaped rib P/e: 10

Nur ¼ 0:067 Re0:888 exp —0:782 ln α

Solanki (2002) roughness W/H: 10.15

α: -30°-90° fr ¼ 6:266 Re—0:425 exp —0:719 ln α

Re: 2500-18000 D 60 60

.Σ . Σ .Σ . Σ

1:299 B 1:346 S0 1:112 e 0:270 P0 0:762

. P 0 Σ2 h . . Σ2 Σi

Muluwork (2000) Staggered discrete V- e/D: 0.01-0.05 Nur ¼ 0:05344 Re × exp —2:25ln exp —0:376 ln 1 — α

shaped rib roughness α: 30°-90° S S D P P 60

B/S: 3-9 0:636 0 —0:712 0 —0:0936 2

.BSΣ .S Σ

P’/P: 0.2-0.8 ðP =PÞ exp½—1:26ðlnð1 — α=70ÞÞ ]

fr ¼ 0:7117 Re—0:299 S

S’/S: 1.1-2.3

Re: 3032-17652

Hans, Saini, and Saini Multi V-shaped rib e/D: 0.019–0.043 . Σ . Σ8:54 .WΣ0:43. α Σ—0:49

W/w: 1–10 Nur ¼ 3:35 × 10—5Re0:92 e 0:77 P

(2010) roughness D e w 90

α: 30°–75° Σ

Σ 2 Σ

" . . ΣΣ2 # n . α Σo2Σ

P/e: 6–12 W P

w e 90

. Σ0:73 .PΣ8:9 .WΣ0:22 . α Σ—0:39 h i h . . ΣΣ2i

fr ¼ 4:47 × 10—4 Re—0:3188 eD e w 90 × exp f—0:52ðln α Þ902 g exp —2:133 ln P e

Singh, Chander, and Discrete V-down rib P/e: 4-12 . Σ0:47 .PΣ3:52 .gΣ—0:014 . d Σ—0:043. α Σ—0:023

e/D: 0.015-0.043 Nur ¼ 2:36 × 10—3Re0:90 e

Saini (2011) roughness D e e w 60

d/w: 0.2-0.8 Σ " . . ΣΣ2 #

g/e: 0.5-2.0 Σ Σ " . . ΣΣ 2

# n .gΣo2 Σ

α 2 P d

Re: 3000–15,000 × exp f—0:72ðln Þ g exp —0:84 ln × exp —0:15 ln × exp —0:05 ln

α: 30°-75° 60 e e w

. Σ . Σ2:74 .gΣ0:031 . d Σ—0:058 . α Σ—0:034

fr ¼ 4:13 × 10—2Re—0:126 e 0:70 P

D e e w 60

" # Σ " . . ΣΣ2 #

Σ

α 2

Σ . .

P

ΣΣ 2 n .gΣo2 Σ d

× exp f—0:93ðln Þ g exp —0:685 ln × exp —0:21 ln × exp —0:058 ln w

60 e e

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(Continued )

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Table 1. (Continued).

Correlations

Investigators Roughness Geometry Range of Parameters Heat Transfer and Friction Factor

Kumar, Saini, and Multi V-shaped rib P/e: 6-12 . Σ . Σ1:196 . Σ—0:0708 . Σ—0:0348 . Σ—0:0239. Σ0:506

e/d: 0.022–0.043 Nur ¼ 8:532 × 10—3Re0:932 e 0:175 P g Gd α W

Saini (2013) roughness with gap D e e Lv 60 w

α: 30°–75° Σ

Re: 2000–17000 Σ Σ " . . ΣΣ2 # n .gΣo2 Σ

α 2 P

Gd/Lv: 0.24-0.80 × exp f0:1153ðln Þ g exp —0:2805 ln × exp —0:223 ln

60 e e

g/e: 0.5-1.5 " . . ΣΣ2 # " . . ΣΣ2 #

W/w: 1-10 W Gd

× exp —0:0753 ln w × exp —0:0653 ln Lv

w Lv

. e Σ0:268 P —0:7941 .gΣ—0:1769 Gd 0:0610. α Σ0:1553 .WΣ0:113

. Σ . Σ

0 3151

f ¼ D e

: e Lv 60 w

3:

Σ Σ " . . ΣΣ 2

# Σ n .gΣo2 Σ

1934× Rer α 2 P

× exp f—0:1527ðln Þ g exp 0:1468 ln × exp —0:6349 ln e

60 e

" . . ΣΣ2 # " . . ΣΣ2 #

W Gd

× exp 0:0974 ln × exp —0:1065 ln

w Lv

w Lv

. Σ . Σ

Saini and Saini (2008) Arc shaped rib W/H: 12 Nur ¼ 0:001047 Re1:3186 e 0:3772 α —0:1198

roughness P/e: 10

D 60

e/d: 0.0213–0.0422 .Σ . Σ

—0:17103 e 0:1765 α 0:1185

fr ¼ 0:14408 Re D 60

α/90: 0.3333–0.6666

Re: 2000–17 000

. eΣ0:033.pΣ3:15 h . Σ2 i h . Σ2 i

Saini and Verma Dimple shaped rib P/e: 8-12 Nur ¼ 5:2 × 10—4 Re1:27 exp —2:12 ln P × exp —1:3 ln e

(2008) roughness e/D: 0.0189- D D e e ee D

0.038

Re: 2000–12000 . eΣ—0:0214.pΣ—0:465 h . Σ2 i h . Σ2 i

fr ¼ 0:642 Re—0:465 exp 0:054 ln P × exp 0:840 ln e

Sethi, Varun, and Dimple shaped W/H: 11 . e Σ0:3629 .PΣ—0:047 . α Σ—0:0048 h . . ΣΣ2 i

Thakur (2012) roughness arranged in e/D: 0.021–0.036 Nur ¼ 7:1 × 10—3 Re1:1386 × exp —0:7792 ln α

α: 45°–75° fr ¼ 4:869 × 10—1 Re—0:223 D e 60 × exp½—0:4801ðlnð α ÞÞ

60 ]

e/d: 0.5

Re: 3600–18,000

. e Σ0:521 .PΣ—0:038 . α Σ—0:213 h . ΣΣ2 i

Yadav et al. (2013) Dimple shaped W/H: 11 Nur ¼ 0:154Re1:017 × exp —2:023 ln α

D e 60

roughness arranged in e/D: 0.015–0.03 .

60

.Σ .Σ . Σ

—0:56 e 0:176 P —0:18 α 0:038

arc shape P/e: 12–24 fr ¼ 7:027Re × exp½—1:412ðlnð α 2

α: 45°–75° D e 60 60ÞÞ ]

e/d: 0.3

Re: 3600–18,100

. e Σ0:349.PΣ3:318 .gΣ1:108 h . . ΣΣ2 i h . . ΣΣ2 . ΣΣ3 i

Jaurker, Saini, and Rib-grooved P/e: 4.5-10 Nur ¼ 0:00206Re0:936 D e P

× exp —0:868 ln P e × exp 2:486 ln g P þ 1:406 ln g .

Gandhi (2006) roughness e/D: 0.0181-0.0363 P

Re: 3000-21000 h

g/P: 0.3-0.7 . e Σ0:585.PΣ7:19 .gΣ0:645 . . ΣΣ2i . . ΣΣ2

fr ¼ 0:001227Re—0:199 × exp —1:854 ln P × exp½1:513 ln g þ 0:8662flnðg=PÞg3 ]

ONAL JOURNAL OF GREEN ENERGY

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Layek, Saini, and Chamfered rib- P/e: 4.5-10 . e Σ0:52.PΣ1:72 .gΣ—1:21 h i h . ΣΣ2 i h . . ΣΣ2 i

Nur ¼ 0:00225Re0:92 e 2 g exp —0:46 ln P P

[1:24 × exp f—0:22ðln[Þ

P × exp —0:74 ln g

Solanki (2007b) grooved roughness e/D: 0.022-0.04

. DΣ0:365.ePΣ4:32 .PgΣ—1:124 h . . ΣΣ2 i h. . i

P

g/P: 0.3-0.6 fr ¼ 0:00245Re—0:124 e × exp½0:005[]exp —1:09 ln P e

× exp —0:68 ln g 2

. ΣΣ

ɸ: -5°-30° D e P e P

Re: 3000-21000

(Continued )

159

D

D e 60 60

D e

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Table 1. (Continued).

Correlations

160

Investigators Roughness Geometry Range of Parameters Heat Transfer and Friction Factor

Bopche and Bopche Inverted U- Inverted U- P/e: 6.669-57.14 .Σ .Σ

Nur ¼ 0:5429 Re0:7054 eD 0:3619 Pe —0:1592

and Tandale (2009) shaped rib roughness P: 10– 40 mm

e: 0.7–1.5 mm . eDΣ0:3285 .PeΣ—0:4259

fr ¼ 1:2134 Re—0:2376

e/D: 0.018—0.0396

W/H: 6

α: 90°

Re: 3800–18000

Lanjewar, Bhagoria, W-shaped rib P/e: 10 Heat transfer function:

and Sarviya roughness 2

e: 1.5 mm for W-down 75°g ¼ 12:6813 — 0:03606eþ þ 0:0069ðeþÞ

(2011a) e/D: 0.03375 2

for W-down 60°g ¼ 11:86 — 0:03321eþ þ 0:0062ðeþ Þ for

W/H: 8

Re: 2300–14,000 W-down 45°g ¼ 11:4519 — 0:3116eþ þ 0:0062ðeþÞ for 2

2

α: 30°-75° W-down 30°g ¼ 13:8061 — 0:04434eþ þ 0:0089ðeþÞ for

e+: 8–44 W-up 75°g ¼ 21:3772 — 0:8365e þ 0:0140ðe Þ

þ þ 2

2

for W-up 60°g ¼ 18:3937 — 0:6578eþ þ 0:0106ðeþÞ

þ 2

for W-up 45°g ¼ 19:9017 — 0:7837e þ 0:0135ðe Þ

þ

2

for W-up 30°g ¼ 20:4328 — 0:9177eþ þ 0:0174ðeþÞ

Roughness function:

0:1716

for W-down 75°R ¼ 4:5496ðeþÞ

þ 0:1824

for W-down 60°R ¼ 4:3375ðe Þ

for W-down 45°R ¼ 4:4037ðeþÞ 0:1945

for W-down 30°R ¼ 4:8641ðeþÞ 0:1889

for W-up 75°R ¼ 3:4705ðeþ Þ 0:2281

for W-up 60°R ¼ 3:1321ðeþ Þ 0:2566

for W-up 45°R ¼ 3:4126ðeþ Þ 0:2437

for W-up 30°R ¼ 4:2970ðeþ Þ 0:2262

Lanjewar, Bhagoria, W-shaped rib P/e: 10 . Σ0:4487. α Σ—0:1331 h . Σ2 i

Nur ¼ 0:0613 Re0:9079 eD exp —0:5307 ln α 60

and Sarviya roughness e: 0.8-1.5 mm 60

(2011b) e/D: 0.018-0.03375 . eΣ0:4622 . α Σ—0:0817 h . Σ2 i

W/H: 8 fr ¼ 0:6182 Re—0:2254 D 60 exp —0:28 ln α60

Re: 2300–14,000

α: 30°-75°

. eΣ0:453 . α Σ—0:081 h . Σ2 i

Kumar, Bhagoria, and Discrete W-shaped rib e: 0.75–1.5mm Nur ¼ 0:105 Re0:873 exp —0:59 ln α

Sarviya (2009) roughness P/e: 10

D 60 60

—0:4 e 0:59 α —0:081

h . 60 Σ2 i

fr ¼ 5:68 Re exp —0:59 ln α

W/H: 8:1

α: 30–75°

Re: 3000–15000

Karwa (2003) Transverse, inclined, V- P/e: 10 Heat transfer function:

up continuous, V- W/H: 7.19—7.75 for inclined ribg ¼ 12:765 — 0:05095eþ þ 0:000506ðeþÞ

2

for V-up continuous ribg ¼ 12:387 — 0:04547e þ 0:000408ðeþ Þ for

þ

up discrete and V- α: 60°-90° 2

down discrete rib B/S: 3.0 V-down continuous ribg ¼ 12:502 — 0:11609e þ 0:001239ðe Þ for

þ þ

2

roughness Re: 2800-15000 V-up discrete ribg ¼ 11:249 — 0:013120e þ 0:001479ðe Þ

þ þ

Roughness function:

0:12770

for inclined ribR ¼ 3:7135ðeþ Þ

for V-up continuous ribR ¼ 3:5080ðeþ Þ 0:12195

for V-down continuous ribR ¼ 3:4595ðeþÞ 0:13048

for V-up discrete ribR ¼ 4:0917ðeþ Þ 0:16083

for V-down discrete rib R

0:19102

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¼ : 41ðeþÞ

5

3 3

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GREEN ENERGY 161

325

2400

140

For e/D = 0.0299

/90 = 0.333

120 RE = 14000

RE = 10000

100

Figure 26. Comparison between CFD predictions with experimental results.

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80

available in the literature (Figure 26). The results obtained

from CFD approach were reported to be closer to the experi- 60

mental results. The highest heat transfer was achieved with

chamfered ribs but the best performance index was found

with rectangular rib of size 3 × 5 mm. The peaks of local 40

turbulence intensity was found maximum at peak of the local 20

heat transfer coefficient in the inter-rib regions.

Chaube, Sahoo, and Solanki (2006b) carried out a 2-D

0

computational analysis to assess the comparative performance

0.075 0.080 0.085 0.090 0.095 0.100 0.105 0.110 0.115

of the absorber plate of a solar air heater with different

Length (m)

roughness elements using commercial software package

FLUENT 6.1. The assessment was based on the heat transfer Figure 28. Variation of Nusselt number in inter-rib region along the length of

enhancement with minimum pressure penalty. Ten different duct.

ribs shapes viz. rectangular, square, chamfered, triangular,

semicircular etc. were investigated at the Reynolds number

range from about 3000–20000. The SST k–ω turbulence validity of the models. Among all the models used,

model was selected by comparing the predictions of different Renormalization-group (RNG) k–ε model results were found

DSTCERI

turbulence models with experimental results available in the to have good agreement. Authors also presented the variation

2017-12-02 11:57:59

literature. The results showed that in rectangular ribs, there in the values of Nusselt number between adjacent ribs

--------------------------------------------

was an optimum width of rib, at which maximum heat trans- (Figure 28). Overall enhancement ratio with

TURBULENT a maximum

MODEL

fer with minimum pressure drop penalty occurred. The value of 1.7 was found for the roughness geometry corre-

thermo-hydraulic analysis for constant pumping power sponding to relative arc angle (α/90) of 0.333 and relative

showed that rectangular rib (1 mm × 2 mm) gave the best roughness height (e/D) of 0.0426 for the range of parameters

performance in comparison to other shapes under considera- considered.

tion. It was also observed that both the flow regimes, transi- Karmare and Tikekar (2010) performed a CFD simulation

tionally rough and fully rough, the effect of chamfer angle in of fluid flow and heat transfer in a solar air heater duct with

enhancement of heat transfer was very small in comparison to metal grit ribs as roughness elements employed on one broad

the enhancement of friction factor. wall of a solar air heater. Commercial CFD code FLUENT

Kumar and Saini (2009) carried out a CFD based analysis 6.2.16 was used as a solver. Standard k–ε turbulence model

of fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of a solar air was used to simulate turbulent airflow through artificially

heaters having roughened duct provided with artificial rough- roughened solar air heater. The circular, triangular and square

ness in arc shaped geometry (Figure 27). The heat transfer shape rib grits with the angle of attack of 54°, 56°, 58°, 60°,

and flow analysis of the chosen roughness element were and 62° were tested for the same Reynolds number. The broad

carried out using 3-D models. The ribs were provided on wall was subjected to uniform heat flux. Authors found that

the absorber plate whereas other sides of the duct are kept artificial roughness on the underside of the absorber plate of

smooth. FLUENT 6.3.26 commercial CFD code was used for the solar air heater enhances the rate of heat transfer from the

simulation. Different turbulent models namely Shear stress absorber plate to the flowing air. Amongst the different shape

transport k–ω, Standard k–ε Renormalization group (RNG) k– and orientations analyzed, the absorber plate of square cross-

ε, and Realizable k–ε were tested for smooth duct having section rib with 58° angle of attack gave the best possible

same cross-section of roughened duct in order to find out the results. The percentage increase in the heat transfer for 58°

162 A. S. YADAV AND M. K. THAPAK

rib inclination plate over smooth plate was found to be Yadav and Bhagoria (2013c) presented the study of heat

about 30%. transfer and fluid flow in an artificially roughened solar air

Gandhi and Singh (2010) performed a numerical investiga- heater provided with circular transverse wire rib roughness on

tion to investigate the effect of artificial surface roughness on the absorber plate by using computational fluid dynamics

flow through a rectangular duct having bottom wall rough- (Figure 29). A two-dimensional CFD simulation was per-

ened with repeated transverse ribs of wedge-shaped cross- formed using the ANSYS FLUENT 12.1 code. The

section. Two dimensional numerical modeling of the duct Renormalization-group (RNG) k–ε model was selected as the

flow using FLUENT showed reasonably good agreement most appropriate. The results were validated by comparing

with the experimental observations except for the friction with available experimental results. Maximum value of ther-

factor. Numerical results obtained by commercial computa- mal enhancement factor was found to be 1.65 for the range of

tional fluid dynamics code FLUENT were compared with the parameters investigated.

experimental results. Yadav and Bhagoria (2013d) presented the numerical pre-

Sharma and Thakur (2012) conducted a CFD study to diction of fluid flow and heat transfer in a conventional solar

investigate the heat transfer and friction loss characteristics air heater by CFD. A commercial finite volume package

in a solar air heater having attachments of V-shaped ribs ANSYS FLUENT 12.1 was used to analyze the nature of the

roughness at 60° relative to flow direction pointing down- flow across the duct of a conventional solar air heater. The

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stream on underside of the absorber plate. The computations predictive ability of five different turbulence models, includ-

based on the finite volume method with the SIMPLE algo- ing, standard k−ε turbulence model, Realizable k−ε turbulence

rithm were conducted for the air flow. For validating the model, Renormalized Group (RNG) k−ε turbulence model,

accuracy of numerical solutions, the computations of fully standard k−ω turbulence model, and Shear Stress Transport

developed turbulent flow forced convection in a smooth rec- (SST) k−ω turbulence model were investigated. CFD simula-

tangular duct was carried out to compare with the exact tion results were found to be in good agreement with existing

solution for the Nusselt number and friction factor, empirical correlation results. It was found that the Nusselt

respectively. number increased with increase in Reynolds number and

Yadav and Bhagoria (2013b) conducted a numerical pre- friction factor decreased with increase in Reynolds number.

diction to study only heat transfer behavior of a rectangular Yadav and Bhagoria (2013e) conducted a numerical analy-

duct of a solar air heater having triangular rib roughness on sis of the heat transfer and flow friction characteristics in an

the absorber plate. A commercial finite volume package artificially roughened solar air heater having square sectioned

ANSYS FLUENT 12.1 was used as a solver. Solar air heater transverse ribs roughness considered at underside of the top

with triangular rib roughness provided 1.4 to 2.7 times heated wall (Figure 30). The thermo-hydraulic performance

enhancement in Nusselt number as compared to smooth parameter under the same pumping power constraint was

duct. The maximum value of Nusselt number was found calculated in order to examine the overall effect of the relative

corresponding to relative roughness pitch of 10. roughness pitch. The maximum value of thermo-hydraulic

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GREEN ENERGY 163

Figure 30. Roughened absorber plate with different configuration of square-sectioned transverse rib roughness.

performance parameter was found to be 1.82 corresponding are strongly dependent on the relative roughness height. The

to relative roughness pitch of 10.71. thermo-hydraulic performance parameter was found to be the

Yadav and Bhagoria (2013f) performed a CFD based inves- maximum for the relative roughness height of 0.042.

tigation of turbulent flows through a solar air heater rough- Yadav and Bhagoria (2014b) carried out a numerical

ened with square sectioned transverse rib roughness. Three investigation to analyze the two-dimensional incompressible

different values of rib-pitch (P) and rib-height (e) were taken Navier-Stokes flows through the artificially roughened solar

such that the relative roughness pitch (P/e=14.29) remains air heater for relevant Reynolds number ranges from 3800 to

constant (Figure 31). The relative roughness height, e/D, 18,000. Twelve different configurations of equilateral trian-

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varies from 0.021 to 0.06 and Reynolds number, Re, varies gular sectioned rib (P/e=7.14–35.71 and e/d=0.021–0.042)

from 3800 to 18,000. The results predicted by CFD showed have been used as roughness element (Figures 33 and 34).

that the average heat transfer, average flow friction and The governing equations were solved with a finite-volume-

thermo-hydraulic performance parameter were strongly based numerical method. The commercial finite-volume-

dependent on the relative roughness height. A maximum based CFD code ANSYS FLUENT was used to simulate

value of thermo-hydraulic performance parameter was found turbulent airflow through artificially roughened solar air

to be 1.8 for the range of parameters investigated. heater. The RNG k–ε turbulence model was used to solve

Selection of best turbulence model for the simulation of an the transport equations for turbulent flow energy and dis-

artificially roughened solar air heater has been described sipation rate. A total numbers of 432,187 quad grid intervals

clearly in the Yadav and Bhagoria (2013g). Authors presented with a near wall elements spacing of y+≈2 were used. It was

different CFD investigations on artificially roughened solar air observed that for a given constant value of heat flux (1000

heater. Authors also reported that the results obtained by W/m2), the performance of the artificially roughened solar

RNG k–ε model were in good agreement with the experimen- air heater was strong function of the Reynolds number,

tal results. relative roughness pitch, and relative roughness height. The

Yadav and Bhagoria (2014a) carried out a numerical inves- optimum value of thermo-hydraulic performance parameter

tigation of turbulent flows through a solar air heater rough- was found corresponds to relative roughness height (e/D) of

ened with semicircular sectioned transverse rib roughness on 0.042 and relative roughness pitch (P/e) of 7.14. The opti-

the absorber plate (Figure 32). The physical problem was mum value of thermo-hydraulic performance parameter was

represented mathematically by a set of governing equations, found to be 2.11 for Reynolds number (Re) of 15,000 within

and the transport equations were solved using the finite the range of the parameters investigated.

element method. The numerical results showed that the flow- A numerical investigation on the heat transfer and fluid

field, average Nusselt number, and average friction factor flow characteristics of fully developed turbulent flow in a

Figure 31. Roughened absorber plate with different arrangement of square sectioned transverse rib roughness.

164 A. S. YADAV AND M. K. THAPAK

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Figure 33. Computational domain for CFD analysis: (a) smooth solar air heater (b) equilateral triangular-sectioned rib roughened solar air heater.

rectangular duct having repeated transverse square sectioned smooth duct under similar flow conditions to investigate the

rib roughness on the absorber plate was carried out by Yadav enhancement in Nusselt number and friction factor.

and Bhagoria (2014c). The commercial finite-volume CFD Roughness and flow parameters for artificially roughened

code ANSYS FLUENT (ver. 12.1) was used to simulate turbu- solar air heater were optimized by considering the thermo-

lent airflow through artificially roughened solar air heater. hydraulic performance parameter based on constant pumping

The Navier–Stokes equations and the energy equation were power requirement. It was found that the square sectioned

solved in conjunction with a low Reynolds number RNG k–ε transverse rib roughened duct with P/e = 10.71 and e/D=0.042

turbulence model. Twelve different configurations of square offers the best thermo-hydraulic performance parameter for

sectioned rib (P/e = 7.14–35.71 and e/D = 0.021–0.042) were the investigated range of parameters.

considered (Figures 35 and 36). The effects of relative rough- Yadav and Bhagoria (2014d) investigated the effect of rib

ness pitch and relative roughness height on Nusselt number spacing on average Nusselt number and friction factor in an

and friction factor were determined and the results were artificially roughened solar air heater (duct aspect ratio, AR =

compared with the square sectioned rib roughened duct and 5:1) by adopting CFD approach. Numerical solutions were

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GREEN ENERGY 165

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obtained using commercial software ANSYS FLUENT v12.1. height (P/e) ratios studied were 7.14, 10.71, 14.29, and 17.86.

The computations based on the finite volume method with For each rib spacing simulations were executed at six different

the SIMPLE algorithm were been conducted. Circular sec- relevant Reynolds numbers from 3800 to 18,000. The contour

tioned transverse ribs were applied at the underside of the map of turbulence intensity for relative roughness pitch, P/e =

top of the duct i.e. on the absorber plate. The rib-height-to- 7.14 and Reynolds number, Re = 15000 is displayed in

hydraulic diameter ratio (e/D) was 0.042. The rib-pitch-to-rib- Figure 37. The thermo-hydraulic performance parameter for

166 A. S. YADAV AND M. K. THAPAK

P/e = 10.71 was found to be the best for the investigated range parametric studies to optimize equipment performance. The

of parameters at a Reynolds number of 15,000. second reason for such work on computational simulation is

The present comprehensive review of literature reveals that that some parameters are difficult to test, and experimental

very few studies have been done on prediction of heat transfer study is expensive as well as time consuming. The results

and fluid flow in solar air heater using CFD approach. CFD obtained with the CFD simulation are of acceptable quality.

modeling was originally developed for industrial application. The above comprehensive review reveals that quite a lot of

Today it is being used widely in research work, product works have been reported on design of artificially roughened

development, and in almost all sphere of activity where a solar air heater by experimental approach. But, only a few

detailed picture of phenomena involving heat transfer and studies have been done on theoretical and CFD simulation of

fluid flow, phase change etc. is desired. Presently, CFD tech- artificially roughened solar air heater. Different computational

niques are increasingly used to model flow through solar air methodology, CFD codes and turbulence models along with

heater. The advantages of computational simulations are that the type of roughness geometries, meshing and difference

they can produce extremely large volumes of results at vir- between experimental and simulation results are given in

tually no added expense and it is very cheap to perform Table 2.

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Investigators Roughness Geometry Computational Methodology Simulation Results

Chaube, Sahoo, and Rectangular, square, chamfered, triangular and semi- ● CFD Code: Fluent 6.1 Good agreement observed

Solanki (2006a) circular rib roughness ● Turbulence Model: SST k–ω

● Mesh: Rectangular, Nonuniform

Chaube, Sahoo, and Rectangular, square, chamfered, triangular and semi- ● CFD Code: Fluent 6.1 Good agreement observed

Solanki (2006b) circular rib roughness ● Turbulence Model: SST k–ω

● Mesh: Rectangular, Nonuniform

Kumar and Saini (2009) Arc-shaped rib roughness ● CFD Code: Fluent 6.3.26 Good agreement observed

● Turbulence Model: RNG k–ε

● Mesh: Nonuniform

Karmare and Tikekar Metal grit rib roughness ● CFD Code: Fluent 6.2.16 Good agreement observed

(2010) ● Turbulence Model: RNG k–ε

● Mesh: Nonuniform

Gandhi and Singh (2010) Wedge-shaped transverse rib roughness ● CFD Code: Fluent Good agreement observed except for

● Turbulence Model: k–ω the friction factor

● Mesh: Nonuniform

Sharma and Thakur V- shaped rib roughness ● CFD Code: Fluent Nusselt number ±3%

(2012) ● Turbulence Model: Realizable k–ε friction factor ±3%

● Mesh: Uniform

Yadav and Bhagoria Triangular rib roughness ● CFD Code: Fluent 12.1 Good agreement observed

(2013b) ● Turbulence Model: RNG k–ε

● Mesh: Nonuniform

Yadav and Bhagoria Circular sectioned transverse wire rib roughness ● CFD Code: Fluent 12.1 Nusselt number ±7.5%

(2013c) ● Turbulence Model: RNG k–ε friction factor ±7.5%

● Mesh: Nonuniform

Yadav and Bhagoria —- ● CFD Code: Fluent 12.1 Nusselt number ±2.58%

(2013d) ● Turbulence Model: RNG k–ε friction factor ±3.2%

● Mesh: Nonuniform

Yadav and Bhagoria Square sectioned transverse ribs roughness ● CFD Code: Fluent 12.1 Nusselt number ±10%

(2013e) ● Turbulence Model: RNG k–ε

● Mesh: Uniform

Yadav and Bhagoria Square sectioned transverse ribs roughness ● CFD Code: Fluent 12.1 Less than ±10%

(2013f) ● Turbulence Model: RNG k–ε

● Mesh: Nonuniform

Yadav and Bhagoria Semi-circular sectioned transverse rib roughness ● CFD Code: Fluent 12.1 Less than ±9.5%

(2014a) ● Turbulence Model: RNG k–ε

● Mesh: Non-uniform

(Continued )

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GREEN ENERGY 167

Table 2. (Continued).

Difference Between Experimental and

Investigators Roughness Geometry Computational Methodology Simulation Results

Yadav and Bhagoria Equilateral triangular sectioned rib roughness ● CFD Code: Fluent 12.1 Good agreement observed

(2014b) ● Turbulence Model: RNG k-ε

● Mesh: Combination of uniform

and non-uniform

Yadav and Bhagoria Square sectioned transverse ribs roughness ● CFD Code: Fluent 12.1 Good agreement observed

(2014c) ● Turbulence Model: RNG k-ε

● Mesh: Uniform

Yadav and Bhagoria Circular sectioned transverse wire rib roughness ● CFD Code: Fluent 12.1 Less than ±5.5%

(2014d) ● Turbulence Model: RNG k-ε

● Mesh: Non-uniform

Effect of rib geometry on thermo-hydraulic with the rise of Reynolds number and then decreases with the

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performance of an artificially roughened solar further rise of Reynolds number. Hence there is an optimum

air heater value of relative roughness height, relative roughness pitch,

and Reynolds number which give the maximum thermo-

The present comprehensive literature review reveals that there

hydraulic performance parameter. This comparative analysis

is a considerable enhancement in heat transfer with penalty of

has proved that amongst the entire roughness geometries

friction in artificially roughened solar air heater. Therefore, it

considered, arc-shaped rib geometry has the highest thermo-

is important to determine the best rib shape that will results in

hydraulic performance parameter as compared to other

the maximum enhancement in heat transfer with minimum roughness geometries.

consumption of pumping power. An important thermo-

hydraulic performance evaluation parameter which is used

to compare the heat transfer of artificially roughened duct to Conclusions

that of a smooth duct under constant pumping power con-

This article reviews results of theoretical, experimental and

straint has been given by Equation (7). A comparative inves-

CFD investigations carried out by various researchers in order

tigation has been carried out on different roughness

to enhance the heat transfer by the use of different shapes,

geometries in order to compare their performance in terms

sizes, and orientations of artificial roughness. Based on the

of thermo-hydraulic performance parameter, when they oper-

review of the literature on artificial roughness used in solar air

ate in the same conditions. The values of thermo-hydraulic

heater, it has been found that small height roughness element of

performance parameter for different rib shapes have been

different configuration was widely investigated through theore-

computed by using the correlations for heat transfer and

tical, experimental, and CFD approaches and CFD studies also

friction factor developed by various investigators within the

predict same behaviour as the experimental results. It is also

same investigated range of operating and system parameters.

concluded that most of the studies were carried out on solar air

In this article, a total number of 21 different shapes and

heater with experimental approach and few studies were carried

orientations of roughness elements are considered for com-

out with theoretical and CFD approaches. On the basis of the

parative analysis. The fixed values of parameters considered

review of the literature on artificial roughness used in solar air

under the present investigation are given in Table 3.

heater, the conclusion can be summarized as follows:

Figure 38 shows the variation of thermo-hydraulic perfor-

mance parameter with Reynolds number for different rough-

(1) The use of artificial roughness on a surface is an

ness geometries used in solar air heaters duct. The thermo-

effective technique to enhance heat transfer to fluid

hydraulic performance parameter initially tends to increase

flowing in the duct. Artificial roughness applied on

the heat transferring surface breaks the viscous sub-

layer, which reduces thermal resistance and promotes

Table 3. Fixed Value of Geometrical and Operating Parameters.

turbulence in a region close to artificially roughened

Geometrical and Operating Parameters Fixed Value

surface.

Length of duct, L (mm) 1000

Height of duct, H (mm) 20 (2) It can be concluded that the use of artificial roughness

Width of duct, W (mm) 300 results in higher friction and hence higher pumping

Duct aspect ratio, W/H 15 power requirements. In order to keep the friction

Reynolds number, Re 3800–18000 (6 values) DSTCERI

Angle of attack of flow, α (deg) 60° losses at a minimum2017-12-02

level, the12:10:12

turbulence must be

Intensity of solar radiation, I (W/m2) 800 created only in the region very close to the duct sur-

Chamfer angle, φ (deg) 10° --------------------------------------------

Relative roughness pitch, P/e 10 face, i.e. in laminar sub-layer.

TASK

Relative roughness height, e/D 0.02 (3) The surface roughness can be produced by several

Density of air, ρ (kg/m3) 1.105

Specific heat of air, Cp (J/kg-k) 1008 methods, such as sand blasting, machining, casting,

Thermal conductivity of air, k (J/kg-m-k) 0.026 forming, welding, or fixing ribs of small diameter

Viscosity of air, μ (kg/s-m) 1.865 × 10−5 wires to form a grid. In solar air heaters, artificial

168 A. S. YADAV AND M. K. THAPAK

2.6

P/e = 10 e/D = 0.02 W/H = 15

Angle of attack = 60 degree

Re = 3800-18000

2.4

2.2

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

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1.2

1.0

2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000

Reynolds Number, Re

Wedge shaped rib roughness (Bhagoria, Saini, and Solanki 2002)

Inclined wire rib roughness (Gupta, Solanki, and Saini 1993)

Inclined continuous ribs roughness with gap (Aharwal, Gandhi, and Saini 2009)

Combination of transverse and inclined rib roughness (Varun, Saini, and Singal 2008)

Expanded metal mesh roughness (Saini and Saini 1997)

Metal grit rib roughness (Karmare and Tikekar 2007)

Chamfered rib roughness (Karwa, Solanki, and Saini 1999)

V-shaped rib roughness (Momin, Saini, and Solanki 2002)

Staggered discrete V-shaped rib roughness (Muluwork 2000)

Multi V-shaped rib roughness (Hans, Saini, and Saini 2010)

Discrete V-down rib roughness (Singh,Chander, and Saini 2011)

Multi V-shaped rib roughness with gap (Kumar, Saini, and Saini 2013)

Arc shaped rib roughness (Saini and Saini 2008)

Dimple shaped rib roughness (Saini and Verma 2008)

Dimple shaped roughness arranged in arc shape (Sethi, Varun, and Thakur 2012)

Rib-grooved roughness (Jaurker, Saini, and Gandhi 2006)

Chamfered rib-grooved roughness (Layek, Saini, and Solanki 2007b)

Inverted U-shaped rib roughness (Bopche and Tandale 2009)

W-shaped rib roughness (Lanjewar, Bhagoria, and Sarviya 2011b)

Discrete W-shaped rib roughness (Kumar, Bhagoria, and Sarviya 2009)

roughness in the form of attaching the small diameter most preferred roughness geometry is repeated rib

wires, machining ribs of different shapes, expanded type, which is described by the dimensionless para-

metal mesh ribs and forming dimples/protrusion meters viz. relative roughness height (e/D), relative

have been investigated for performance enhancement. roughness pitch, (P/e), angle of attack (α), channel

(4) Most of the theoretical, experimental and CFD inves- aspect ratio (W/H), etc.

tigations carried out to enhance heat transfer of solar (7) The most important effect produced by the presence

air heaters involve single surface enhancement tech- of a rib on the flow pattern is the generation of two

niques such as transverse, inclined, V-shape, W-shape flow separation regions, one on each side of the rib

ribs, etc. Though simultaneous use of two or more which results higher turbulence and hence the

enhancement techniques produces better results in enhancement in heat transfers as well as in the fric-

comparison to individual technique. tion losses takes place.

(5) Use of artificial roughness results in size reduction of (8) The Nusselt number tends to increase as the Reynolds

solar air heaters if heat exchange rate is kept constant number increases in all cases. The Nusselt number

or if size is kept constant it aids in increasing heat tends to decrease as the relative roughness pitch

extraction by air from the absorber plate, thereby, increases for a fixed value of relative roughness height

maximizing the heat transfer. and it tends to increase as the relative roughness

(6) There are several parameters that characterize the height increases for a fixed value of relative roughness

roughness elements, but for solar air heater the pitch.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GREEN ENERGY 169

(9) The friction factor tends to decrease as the Reynolds a. Combination of transverse I-shaped and V-up wire rib

number increases in all cases. The friction factor roughness

tends to decrease as the relative roughness pitch b. Combination of transverse I-shaped and V-down wire

increases for a fixed value of relative roughness height rib roughness

and it tends to increase as relative roughness height c. Chamfered rib-semicircular grooved roughness

increases for a given value of relative roughness pitch. d. Circular rib-semicircular grooved roughness

(10) Quite a lot of work has been reported on design of e. Square rib-semicircular grooved roughness

solar air heater by experimental approach but only a f. Rectangular rib-semicircular grooved roughness

few studies has been done on theoretical and CFD g. Triangular rib-semicircular grooved roughness

analysis of solar air heater. CFD simulation results h. Discreet arc-shaped rib roughness

were found to be in good agreement with experimental

results and with the standard theoretical approaches. The information presented here will be beneficial for

(11) Conventional techniques used for the design and beginners in this area of research to find out and optimize

development of an artificially roughened solar air hea- the new roughness geometries for maximum enhancement of

ter are mostly tedious, expensive and time consuming. heat transfer. Authors hope that this article has opened the

CFD approach has emerged as a cost effective alter- prospects of use of artificial roughness in the design of

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native and it provides speedy solution to design and enhanced solar air heater to the researchers.

optimization of an artificially roughened solar air hea-

ter. The CFD approach has been used to solve a pro-

blem of fluid flow and heat transfer as it is powerful

tool for dealing with the wide range of parameters and

Nomenclature

complicated analysis which cannot be done through A area of cross-section, mm2

experimental investigations. In recent years CFD has AP surface area of absorber plate, mm2

been applied in the design of artificially roughened B air gap, mm

solar air heater. The solutions obtained from CFD Cp specific heat of air, J/kg K

simulations are largely within the acceptable range D equivalent or hydraulic diameter of duct, mm

proving that CFD is an effective tool for predicting d print diameter of dimple/protrusion or geometric para-

the behavior and performance of a solar air heater. meter of broken rib, mm

(12) The present comprehensive review of literature e rib height, mm

reveals that the following turbulence models are g groove position/ width of gap, mm

found suitable for the computational analysis of arti- Gt global solar irradiance

ficially roughened solar air heater: H depth of duct, mm

a. Standard k–ε model h heat transfer coefficient, W/m2 K

b. Renormalization-group (RNG) k–ε model I intensity of solar radiation, W/m2

c. Realizable k–ε model k thermal conductivity of air, W/mK

d. Standard k–ω and L length of text section of duct, mm

e. Shear stress transport (SST) k–ω model l longway length of mesh, mm

(13) Among all the models used, results predicted by L1 inlet length of duct, mm

renormalization-group (RNG) k–ε model were L2 test length of duct, mm

found to have good agreement. L3 outlet length of duct, mm

(14) The heat transfer and friction factor characteristics in m mass flow rate, kg/s

an artificially roughened solar air heater are studied P pitch, mm

recently using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) Pm mechanical energy consumed for propelling air through

i.e. ANSYS-FLUENT software. CFD simulations collector, W

results are found to be in good agreement with Ql heat loss from collector, W

experimental results. Qt heat loss from top of collector, W

(15) Amongst the entire roughness geometries considered, qu useful heat flux, W/m2

arc-shaped rib geometry has the highest thermo- Qu useful heat gain, W

hydraulic performance parameter as compared to S length of discrete rib or shortway length of mesh, m

other roughness geometries, when they operate in Ta ambient temperature, K

the same conditions. Tam mean air temperature, K

Ti fluid inlet temperature, K

There is tremendous scope for future study of artificially To fluid outlet temperature, K

roughened solar air heater with different combination of Tpm mean plate temperature, K

roughness element with gap at different position and different UL overall heat loss coefficient, W/m2 K

angle of attack. Based on present critical review it has been v velocity of air in the duct, m/s

found that the research on the following geometries of the W width of duct, mm

artificial roughness is relatively limited and may attract more w width of rib, mm

interest in the future research: ΔP pressure drop, Pa

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GREEN ENERGY 171

c collector

Nu average Nusselt number

f fluid

St average Stanton number

i inlet

f̄ average friction factor l loss

B/S relative roughness length m motor

d/w relative gap position o outlet

e/D relative roughness height p pump

e/H rib to channel height ratio pm plate mean

e+ roughness Reynolds number r roughened

f fanning friction factor s smooth

Fr collector heat removal factor t top

fr fanning friction factor for rough surface th thermal

fs fanning friction factor of smooth surface tr transmission

g heat transfer function u useful

g/e relative gap width

g/P relative groove position

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L/D test length to hydraulic diameter ratio of duct

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