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Presented by :-Reena Rawal

2015 HS2D
Projective techniques should be used when the required
information cannot be accurately obtained by direct
methods.
 Projective techniques, originally developed for use in psychology,
can be used in an evaluation to provide a prompt for interviews.

 In psychology, a projective test is a personality test designed to let a


person respond to ambiguous stimuli, presumably revealing hidden
emotions and internal conflicts projected by the person into the test.

 This is sometimes "objective test" or "self-report test" in which


responses are analyzed according to a presumed universal standard
(for example, a multiple choice exam), and are limited to the content
of the test.

 Projective tests have their origins in psychoanalytic psychology,


which argues that humans have conscious and unconscious attitudes
and motivations that are beyond or hidden from conscious awareness.
A test that provide the subject with a stimulus situation giving
him an opportunity to impose upon on it his own private needs
and his particular perception and interpretation
1. Association
 In association techniques, participants are given a stimulus and
are asked to respond with the words, images, or thoughts that
come to mind. It is critical that these thoughts are immediate
and unfiltered. Vocabulary list, facial reaction or non-reaction,
physical movement, drawings, and photos are some useful
cues.

 Example: Rorschach test and Word Association test


 The test is named after its creator, Swiss psychologist Hermann
Rorschach.
 The Rorschach testis a psychological test in which subjects'
perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analyzed
using psychological interpretation, complex algorithms, or both.
 Some psychologists use this test to examine a person's personality
characteristics and emotional functioning.
 In the 1960s, the Rorschach was the most widely used projective
test.
 In a national survey in the U.S., the Rorschach was ranked eighth
among psychological tests used in outpatient mental health
facilities.
 The tester and subject typically sit next to each other at a table,
with the tester slightly behind the subject.
 This is to facilitate a "relaxed but controlled atmosphere".
 There are ten official inkblots, each printed on a separate white
card, approximately 18x24 cm in size Each of the blots has
near perfect bilateral symmetry.
 Five inkblots are of black ink, two are of black and red ink and
three are multicolored, on a white background.
 After the test subject has seen and responded to all of the
inkblots , the tester then presents them again one at a time in a
set sequence for the subject to study: the subject is asked to
note where he sees what he originally saw and what makes it
look like that .
 The subject is usually asked to hold the cards and may rotate
them. Whether the cards are rotated, and other related factors
such as whether permission to rotate them is asked, may
expose personality traits and normally contributes to the
assessment.
 As the subject is examining the inkblots, the psychologist
writes down everything the subject says or does, no matter
how trivial. Analysis of responses is recorded by the test
administrator using a tabulation and scoring sheet and, if
required, a separate location chart.
Word association test :-

 The subject is presented with a list of words.


 Half of them emotional tones or conflictual associations and
others half comprising neutral words.
 Subject is required to respond to each word by offering the
first word that comes to his mind.
 In evaluation word association test , two factors are noted:-
reaction time response word
 The focus is in the product of the subject.
 It require participants to produce, to construct, something at
direction, usually a story or picture from a stimulus concept. This
technique requires more complex and controlled intellectual
activity.

 Example: vision board collage


 Thematic apperception test (TAT )
 Tomkins – Horn picture arrangement test
 TAT, is a projective measure intended to evaluate a person's patterns of thought,
attitudes, observational capacity, and emotional responses to ambiguous test
materials.

 In the case of the TAT, the ambiguous materials consist of a set of cards that portray
human figures in a variety of settings and situations. The subject is asked to tell the
examiner a story about each card that includes the following elements: the event
shown in the picture; what has led up to it; what the characters in the picture are
feeling and thinking; and the outcome of the event
 .
 Because the TAT is an example of a projective instrument— that is, it asks the
subject to project his or her habitual patterns of thought and emotional responses
onto the pictures on the cards— many psychologists prefer not to call it a "test,"
because it implies that there are "right" and "wrong" answers to the questions. They
consider the term "technique" to be a more accurate description of the TAT and
other projective assessments.
 It is new technique and it is designed for group administration
and machine scoring.

 Consist of 25 plates, each containing three sketches that may


be arranged in various others ways to portray a sequence of
events.

 Subject is asked to arrange in the most reasonable sequence


and which make the best sense .

 Write a sentence for each of three pictures to tell the story.


 In which the subject is asked to finish a partially developed
stimulus, such as adding the last words to an incomplete
sentence.
 Completion techniques are similar to word associations but
often considered easier to administer because they better
indicate subject's attitudes and feelings and give good insight
into a participant's need value system (kassarjian, 1974).

Examples:
Perfectly cooked pancake is ___________________________
The best ting about this place is _________________________
I can never go out without _____________________________
 In expressive techniques, respondents are presented with a
verbal or visual situation and asked to relate the feelings and
attitudes of other people to the situation.

 It is similar to construction technique but emphasis is on the


manner in which he does this ,the end product is not important.

 The subject express his needs, desires, emotions ,and motives


through working with , manipulating ,and interacting with
materials ,including other people ,in a manner or style that
uniquely express his personality.
 In this the child is brought into the presence of a verity of
toys ,he may be told that a set of dolls is a family and that he
should play with them and tell a story about them. Or he may
be put into a planned situation with one or two children and
told to play with them.

 Doll play seems well situated to research with young children ,


probably be cause it seems so easy and natural for children to
project themselves into the dolls
Role playing

 It holds considerable promise as an experimental method and an


observation tool of behavior research .
 Respondents are asked to play the role or assume the behavior of
someone else.

Third-person technique

 The respondent is presented with a verbal or visual situation and


the respondent is asked to relate the beliefs and attitudes of a third
person rather than directly expressing personal beliefs and attitudes.
This third person may be a friend, neighbor, colleague, or a
“typical” person.
 It is a rich expressive method .
 The subject is given post of a special type of paint and told to
draw what he likes with the paints, using his finger and hands
 These method require simple responses: the subject chose from
among several alternatives , as in multiple choice item test, the item
or choice that appear most relevant , correct, attractive ,and so on.

 Frequently used in quantitative studies, this technique is also used


informally in qualitative research.

 The subjects have to explain why certain things are most important¨
or least important¨, or to "rank" or order¨ or “categorize” certain
factors associated with a product, brand or service.
 They may elicit responses that subjects would be unwilling or
unable to give if they knew the purpose of the study.

 Helpful when the issues to be addressed are personal,


sensitive, or subject to strong social norms.

 It may be useful for young children ,illiterate and person with


language handicaps or speech defects.

 Helpful when underlying motivations, beliefs, and attitudes


are operating at a subconscious level.
Require highly trained interviewers.

Lack of test reliability and validly of projective technique.

Skilled interpreters are also required to analyze the responses.

There is a serious risk of interpretation bias.

They tend to be expensive.

May require respondents to engage in unusual behavior.


 It allow the researcher to obtain such information without
influencing answers in the process and to find out things about
the respondents that could be unwilling to reveal.

 In social science researchers devise more structured and less


ambiguous tests because mostly they want to access the
attitude that presumably are more available in the individual
consciousness and that could express if it were not this
reluctance to reveal them openly to others.