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Wheat Flour
It is the most important ingredient in the bakeshop. It provides bulk and structure to most of the
bakers products, including breads, cakes and pastries. While the home cook depends almost entirely
on a product called all-purpose flour, the professional baker has a wide variety of flours available with
different qualities and characteristics.
Types of wheat flour
1. Straight flour = is flour made from the entire endosperm. In the break system of roller milling
described above, after the bran, germ, and shorts are removed, the endosperm is cracked and
sifted several times to separate different grades of flour. If these grades, or streams are
combined. The result is straight flour. Because it contains the darker parts of the grain as well
as the whiter interior, straight flour is darker in color than the next grade described.
2. Patent flour = is milled from the inner part of the endosperm which breaks into finer particles
than the part nearer the bran. Patent flour made from hard wheat is strong flour of excellent
quality and light, creamy color. When a formula for conventional bread calls for bread flour,
patent flour is usually selected, although straight flour could be used if slightly darker bread is
acceptable or desired.
3. Clear flour = The portion of the endosperm left after the patent flour is removed is called clear
flour. This flour comes from the outer parts of the endosperm and thus is darker in color and
higher in protein. Clear flour is usually separated into more than one grade.
a. First clear = is a dark flour, tan in color that is often used in rye bread, where its dark color
is not noticed and its high protein content contributes much-needed gluten. Even though it is
dark, it is lighter in color than second clear.
b. Second flour = which is low grade flour not usually used in food production. High-gluten
flour that has especially high protein content is sometimes used in hard-crushed breads and
in such specially products as pizza dough and bagels. It is used to strengthen dough made
from flour that contain little or no gluten.
4. Cake Flour = is made from soft wheat and has a lower gluten content — around 7½ to 9
percent. Its grains are visibly finer than bread flour, and it is much whiter in color. Its fine, soft
texture makes it preferable for tender cakes and pastries.
5. Pastry Flour = is also a weak or low-gluten flour, but it is slightly stronger than cake flour. It has
the creamy white color of patent flour rather than the pure white of cake flour. Pastry is used for
pie dough and fro some cookies, biscuits, and muffins.
6. All-purpose flour = is formulated to have a medium gluten content of around 12 percent or so.
This makes it a good middle-of-the-road flour that can be used for a whole range of baking, from
crusty breads to fine cakes and pastries. Even so, most professional bakers don't use all-
purpose flour but instead use either bread flour, cake flour or pastry flour, depending on what
they are baking.
7. Self-rising flour = is a peculiar bird. It's basically ordinary all-purpose flour that has baking
powder and salt added to it. Intended as a convenience, it's really anything but — the main
problem being that there's no way to control how much baking powder it contains. Also, when
stored in your pantry, the baking powder in the flour will quickly lose its effectiveness, making
things even more unpredictable. Unless you have no other options, this type of flour is probably
best avoided.
8. Bread flour = contains more hard wheat flour and therefore more gluten, which makes it
excellent for making breads, particularly yeast-risen breads.
9. Whole wheat flour = is made by grinding the entire wheat kernel, including the bran and germ.
The germ, as you have learned is high in fat, which can become rancid, so whole wheat flour
does not keep as well as white flour
10. Bran flour = is the type to which bran flakes have been added. The bran may be coarse or fine,
depending on specifications.
11. Rye flour = is used to produce rye bread as well as sourdough. Both have a very distinctive
flavor which comes from the slightly sour taste of the rye flour.
Starch = is a type of carbohydrate, also referred to as a complex carbohydrate since it is made up
of long chains of sugar molecules. Starchy foods include peas, corn, potatoes, beans, pasta, rice
and grains

Some tips to ensure your bakes are perfect

every time

Lighter crusts
For a better crust, set your oven to around
220°C/425°F/Gas7 and leave a roasting tray in
the bottom of the oven to heat up. When the
oven reaches the right temperature and just as
you put the bread in to bake, fill the tray with
cold water. This creates a steam bath in the
oven which helps the bread to have a lighter
crust and prevents tearing.
Is your dough kneaded enough?
To check if your dough is kneaded enough, pull
out a piece of dough between your hands. It
should be able to stretch to 20cm without
Sticky-hand syndrome
Use oil rather than flour on the table when
kneading, as this will not alter the dough’s
consistency and will prevent too much sticky-
hand syndrome.
Warm the milk
When adding milk to dough, make sure that
you warm it a little first. This is because the fat
in the milk can slow down the action of the
yeast slightly, and warming it balances this out.
Try a tin loaf first
When making bread for the first time, always
use a tin so you can work on getting your
dough right. In the tin, the only way for the
dough to go is up. Once you have got your
dough right, then move on to free form loaves.
Keep salt and yeast apart
When mixing your ingredients during bread-
making, always add the salt and yeast to
opposite sides of the bowl as the salt can kill
the yeast.

Correcting Mistakes in baking

Uneven-shape cakes
If your cake ends up an uneven shape, this
could be because there is either too much
liquid in the mixture or too much baking powder
– or simply that the oven was not hot enough.
Cracked cakes
If your cake has cracks in it, this could be
because there was not enough liquid in your
mixture, or too much baking powder was
Uneven-textured cakes
If your cake has an uneven texture, the fat was
either rubbed in too much or not enough.
Tight cakes
If your cake has a very close texture, then you
may have added too much fat or your hands
were too warm when rubbing in the flour.
Disastrous fruit cakes
If you find that the fruit in your cake sinks to
the bottom, then this could be because either
the fruit or the mixture was too wet, or
because the oven was not hot enough.
Hard pastry
If your short crust pastry is too hard, it could be
caused by a number of things. Either you
have added too much water or not enough
fat, or the fat was not rubbed in sufficiently or
was over-handled. Or the pastry was over-
Shrinking pastry
Shrinking pastry is a common mistake. This
normally occurs when the pastry has been
over-handled or has not been left to rest for
long enough.
Soggy bottoms (sog·gy) wet and soft.
The most frustrating pastry problem of all – the
soggy bottom. This normally happens when
the oven is not hot enough or the pastry is not
baked for long enough. However, it can also
be because too much water was added to the


1.Cake flour = Cakes, quick bread, muffins,
2.Instant flour = sauce and gravy, blending too
lower protein content
3.Bleached Southern /All purpose flour = pie
crusts, biscuits, quick breads and muffins
4.Self- rising flour – biscuits quick breads,
5.Unbleached all purpose flour = yeast
breads, cookies and cream puffs
6.Northern all purpose flour- yeast breads,
cookies, cream puffs, puff pastry
7.Northern unbleached all purpose flour =
yeast breads, cream puffs, cookies, puff
pastry, pasta and pizza.
8.Bread flour = yeast breads, pasta and
9.Semolina flour = pasta


1.(REGULAR) WHITE GRANULATED SUGAR = White sugar has had all of the naturally present
molasses refined out. It is the sugar that is most commonly used in baking. The fine crystals in
granulated sugar don’t cake together, which makes it perfect for measuring, sprinkling onto food and
dissolving into drinks.

2.CONFECTIONERS’ ICING OR POWDERED SUGAR= Known by a few different names, icing sugar,
powdered sugar, and confectioners’ sugar are all the same thing: granulated sugar that has been finely
ground and mixed with a small amount of cornstarch to prevent caking. This is the sugar that we
commonly use for frostings, glazes, and for that snowy covering on doughnuts that no doubt is all over
your face and hands with the first bite.

3.COARSE SUGAR OR DECORATING SUGAR = coarse sugar has a much larger crystals than regular
white sugar. The larger size of the crystals (about the size of pretzel salt) makes the sugar stronger and
more resistant to heat. This type of sugar also helps to give baked goods or candy a little texture. It is
used mainly for decorating and comes in a rainbow of colors.

4. SANDING SUGAR = another large crystal sugar. It is between white granulated and coarse sugar in size.
It is another decorating sugar and comes in many colors. It also reflects light and gives of a sparkly shine.
And, who doesn’t love their baked goods sparkly?

5. BROWN SUGAR (LIGHT AND DARK) = Brown sugar is white sugar that has had cane molasses added
to it. The two types of brown sugar, light and dark, refer to the amount of molasses that is present. Light
brown sugar is what is used more often in baking, sauces and, glazes. Dark brown sugar, because of
the rich molasses flavor, is used in richer foods, like gingerbread. Both brown sugars can harden if left
open to the air, so it is best stored in an airtight container.
6.SUPERFINE, ULTRAFINE, BAR OR CASTER SUGAR= These sugars have the smallest crystal size of
white granulated sugar. It is generally used in making delicate or smooth desserts such as mousse,
meringues or puddings. It also is great for sweetening cold beverages because it doesn’t need heat to
7. TURBINADO SUGAR = Turbinado sugar is raw sugar that has only had the surface molasses washed
off. It is light in color, usually has a large crystal, and is slightly lower in calories than white sugar due to
the moisture content. Turbinado sugar is mainly used in sweetening beverages, but can also be used in
8.MUSCOVADO OR BARBADOS SUGAR= Muscovado sugar is a type of British brown sugar. It is
very dark brown in color and has more molasses than light or dark brown sugar. The sugar crystals
are a little larger than regular brown sugar and the texture is stickier. It is used in sweets with rich
flavors such as gingerbread, coffee cake, and fudge.
9. DEMERARA SUGAR= This is another type of sugar that is very popular in England. In the U.S., the
most comparable sugar is Turbinado – because they are both “raw”. Demerara sugar is a large
grained, crunchy sugar that hasn’t had all of the molasses refined out. The sugar is great in tea,
coffee, dissolved into hot cereals or sprinkled onto baked goods.


1. The Recipe
2. Read through the recipe completely before beginning It only takes an extra minute
or two, but reading through every step will save you time, flour, and lots of burned cookies.
3. Watch out for commas! how the ingredients are written dictates how you prepare
and measure them. For example, “1 cup sifted all-purpose flour” means sift the
flour before measuring, whereas with “1 cup all-purpose flour, sifted,” you would
measure first and sift after. Perform any tasks on the ingredients in the order that they’re
written: anything that comes after the comma is done second.
4. Understand the language. Sliced, diced, chopped, cut, broken, beaten… Each word
means something slightly different, so if you aren’t familiar with any of the terms in a recipe,
look them up

II. The Measurements

1. Flours. All-purpose, whole wheat, gluten-free, PB2, cocoa powder, and even oats are all the
same. Lightly spoon them into the measuring cup until the measuring cup is overflowing, then
drag the flat backside of a knife across the top to level it off. Do NOT scoop the flours, cocoa
powder, or oats directly out of the container with the measuring cup or pack them in. This
results in 1.5 times more than is required in a recipe, which dries out your baked goods and
turns them crumbly. Not good!
2. Leaveners. With baking powder and baking soda, lightly fluff the leavener with a measuring
spoon before scooping it out and leveling with a knife. Some containers have a flat edge
built in—that works too!
3. Sugars. For white sugar, use the same spoon-and-level technique described for flours. With
brown sugar, lightly pack it into the measuring cup using a fork or spoon until the cup is
completely filled and level (unless the recipe states otherwise). When you invert the
measuring cup, the brown sugar should be packed tightly enough to hold its shape.
4. Salt and spices. Treat them like the leaveners: fluff, scoop, level.
5. Butter and margarine. Most stick-style butters and margarines are wrapped in a label with
tablespoons marked on the side. Count out how much you need, and cut through the
stick with a sharp knife. You should avoid using a butter knife because the blade is
duller and you won’t carve off as accurate of an amount. With tub-style butter,
margarine, and shortening, press the necessary quantity into a m easuring spoon or cup,
and level with a knife.
6. Liquids. Milk, oil, juice, honey, syrup, and extracts are a little tricky. Place the measuring cup
on the counter, pour in the liquid, and get down at eye level. The liquid at the edges
tends to stick to the sides of the cup, while the liquid in the center sinks down a touch.
(In science-speak, it’s called a meniscus!) You want to make sure the center of the
liquid is even with the rim of the cup for the most accurate measurement. You can also
use a clear measuring cup and the markings on its side instead. For teaspoons and
tablespoons, fill them to the brim but not overflowing or bulging out the top. And be
careful when pouring the liquids into the mixing bowl!

Common Baking skills

Beating egg whites – Beating egg whites at high speeds will incorporate lots of air into them,
causing them to form what we call ‘stiff peaks’ – where the mixture can almost stand up on its own.
It’s best to use an electric mixer for this purpose.
Melting chocolate – The easiest way to melt chocolate is in the microwave, in a microwave safe
bowl. Don’t forget to always set your microwave to medium (50%) and melt in blasts of no more
than one minute at a time, repeating until chocolate is melted. If you don’t have a microwave, it’s a
little more difficult but it can still be done. Simply place the broken chocolate into a bowl. Bring a
small quantity of water to boil in a saucepan, remove from the heat and place the bowl containing
the chocolate firmly on top, making sure the water is not touching the bowl and that there is no
chance of water getting in contact with the chocolate. Stir until melted. Don’t use a wooden spoon,
as the chocolate could be contaminated by the flavours that your spoon has absorbed from
previous use.

1 cup of all-purpose Flour or plain Flour, unsifted = 5 oz (140 g)
1/4 cup of all-purpose Flour or plain Flour, unsifted = 4 tablespoons = 1 1/4 oz (35 g)
1 1/2 cups of Flour, unsifted = 8 oz (225 g)
2 1/4 cups of Flour, unsifted = 12 oz (350g)
1 cup of cake Flour, sifted = 4 oz (115 g)
1 pound of all-purpose or plain Flour = 450 g = 3 1/2 cups unsifted = 4 cups sifted
1 pound (450 g) of cake Flour = 4 1/2 cups
1 pound (450 g) of whole wheat Flour = 3 1/2 cups
1 oz (30 g) Flour = 3 tablespoons
25 g Flour = 3 scant tablespoons
100 g all-purpose Flour or plain Flour, unsifted = 3 1/2 oz = 2/3 cup flour
500 g all-purpose Flour or plain Flour, unsifted = 17 1/2 oz = 3 1/3 cup flour
275 g Flour = 10 oz = 2 cups

Flour Background
Flour is a finely ground powder prepared from grain or other starchy plant foods and used in baking.
Although flour can be made from a wide variety of plants, the vast majority is made from wheat. Dough
made from wheat flour is particularly well suited to baking bread because it contains a large amount of
gluten, a substance composed of strong, elastic proteins. The gluten forms a network throughout the
dough, trapping the gases which are formed by yeast, baking powder, or other leavening agents. This
causes the dough to rise, resulting in light, soft bread.
Flour has been made since prehistoric times. The earliest methods used for producing flour all involved
grinding grain between stones. These methods included the mortar and pestle (a stone club striking grain
held in a stone bowl), the saddlestone (a cylindrical stone rolling against grain held in a stone bowl), and
the quern (a horizontal, disk-shaped stone spinning on top of grain held on another horizontal stone).
These devices were all operated by hand.
The millstone, a later development, consisted of one vertical, disk-shaped stone rolling on grain sitting on
a horizontal, disk-shaped stone. Millstones were first operated by human or animal power. The ancient
Romans used waterwheels to power millstones. Windmills were also used to power millstones in Europe
by the twelfth century.
The first mill in the North American colonies appeared in Boston in 1632 and was powered by wind. Most
later mills in the region used water. The availability of water power and water transportation made
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the center of milling in the newly independent United States. The first fully
automatic mill was built near Philadelphia by Oliver Evans in 1784. During the next century, the center of
milling moved as railroads developed, eventually settling in Minneapolis, Minnesota. During the nineteenth
century numerous improvements were made in mill technology. In 1865, Edmund La Croix introduced the
first middlings purifier in Hastings, Minnesota. This device consisted of a vibrating screen through which
air was blown to remove bran from ground wheat. The resulting product, known as middlings or farina,
could be further ground into high-quality flour. In 1878, the first important roller mill was used in
Minneapolis, Minnesota. This new type of mill used metal rollers, rather than millstones, to grind wheat.
Roller mills were less expensive, more efficient, more uniform, and cleaner than millstones. Modern
versions of middlings purifiers and roller mills are still used to make flour today.
Oven Temperature Conversions

Farenheit Celsius Gas Mark

275º F 140º C gas mark 1-cool
300º F 150º C gas mark 2
325º F 165º C gas mark 3-very moderate
350º F 180º C gas mark 4-moderate
375º F 190º C gas mark 5
400º F 200º C gas mark 6-moderately hot
425º F 220º C gas mark 7- hot
450º F 230º C gas mark 9
475º F 240º C gas mark 10- very h

°C x 9/5 + 32 = °F formula for Fahrenheit (°F)

1) Convert 37°C to Fahrenheit. = 37°C x 9/5 + 32 = 98.6°F
OR 37°C x 9 = + 32 = 98.6°F =

2) Convert 98.6°F to Celsius. = (98.6°F - 32) x 5/9 = 37°C

OR (98.6°F - 32) x 5 = 37°C