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FUNDAMENTALS OF Database Systems

Subject : FUNDAMENTALS OF Database Systems


PART 1 Introduction to Databases
chapter 1 Databases and Database Users
1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)

chapter 2 Database System Concepts and Architecture


1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)
9. Database System Concepts and Architecture - Answer (click here)
10. Data Models, Schemas, and Instances - Answer (click here)
11. Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence - Answer (click here)
12. Database Languages and Interfaces - Answer (click here)
13. The Database System Environment - Answer (click here)
14. Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs - Answer (click
here)
15. Classification of Database Management Systems - Answer (click here)

PART 2 The Relational Data Model and SQL


chapter 3 The Relational Data Model and Relational Database
Constraints
1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)
9. Database System Concepts and Architecture - Answer (click here)
10. Data Models, Schemas, and Instances - Answer (click here)
11. Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence - Answer (click here)
12. Database Languages and Interfaces - Answer (click here)
13. The Database System Environment - Answer (click here)
14. Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs - Answer (click
here)
15. Classification of Database Management Systems - Answer (click here)
16. The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints - Answer
(click here)
17. Relational Model Concepts - Answer (click here)
18. Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas - Answer
(click here)
19. Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations
- Answer (click here)

chapter 4 Basic SQL


1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)
9. Database System Concepts and Architecture - Answer (click here)
10. Data Models, Schemas, and Instances - Answer (click here)
11. Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence - Answer (click here)
12. Database Languages and Interfaces - Answer (click here)
13. The Database System Environment - Answer (click here)
14. Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs - Answer (click
here)
15. Classification of Database Management Systems - Answer (click here)
16. The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints - Answer
(click here)
17. Relational Model Concepts - Answer (click here)
18. Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas - Answer
(click here)
19. Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations
- Answer (click here)
20. Basic SQL - Answer (click here)
21. SQL Data Definition and Data Types - Answer (click here)
22. Specifying Constraints in SQL - Answer (click here)
23. Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL - Answer (click here)
24. INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
25. Additional Features of SQL - Answer (click here)

chapter 5 More SQL Complex Queries Triggers Views and


Schema Modification
1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)
9. Database System Concepts and Architecture - Answer (click here)
10. Data Models, Schemas, and Instances - Answer (click here)
11. Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence - Answer (click here)
12. Database Languages and Interfaces - Answer (click here)
13. The Database System Environment - Answer (click here)
14. Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs - Answer (click
here)
15. Classification of Database Management Systems - Answer (click here)
16. The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints - Answer
(click here)
17. Relational Model Concepts - Answer (click here)
18. Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas - Answer
(click here)
19. Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations
- Answer (click here)
20. Basic SQL - Answer (click here)
21. SQL Data Definition and Data Types - Answer (click here)
22. Specifying Constraints in SQL - Answer (click here)
23. Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL - Answer (click here)
24. INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
25. Additional Features of SQL - Answer (click here)
26. More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema
Modification - Answer (click here)
27. More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries - Answer (click here)
28. Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers - Answer
(click here)
29. Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL - Answer (click here)
30. Schema Change Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)

chapter 6 The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus


1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)
9. Database System Concepts and Architecture - Answer (click here)
10. Data Models, Schemas, and Instances - Answer (click here)
11. Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence - Answer (click here)
12. Database Languages and Interfaces - Answer (click here)
13. The Database System Environment - Answer (click here)
14. Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs - Answer (click
here)
15. Classification of Database Management Systems - Answer (click here)
16. The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints - Answer
(click here)
17. Relational Model Concepts - Answer (click here)
18. Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas - Answer
(click here)
19. Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations
- Answer (click here)
20. Basic SQL - Answer (click here)
21. SQL Data Definition and Data Types - Answer (click here)
22. Specifying Constraints in SQL - Answer (click here)
23. Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL - Answer (click here)
24. INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
25. Additional Features of SQL - Answer (click here)
26. More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema
Modification - Answer (click here)
27. More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries - Answer (click here)
28. Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers - Answer
(click here)
29. Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL - Answer (click here)
30. Schema Change Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
31. The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
32. Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT - Answer (click here)
33. Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory - Answer (click here)
34. Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION - Answer (click here)
35. Additional Relational Operations - Answer (click here)
36. Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
37. The Tuple Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
38. The Domain Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)

PART 3 Conceptual Modeling and Database Design


chapter 7 Data Modeling Using the Entity Relationship ER Model
1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)
9. Database System Concepts and Architecture - Answer (click here)
10. Data Models, Schemas, and Instances - Answer (click here)
11. Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence - Answer (click here)
12. Database Languages and Interfaces - Answer (click here)
13. The Database System Environment - Answer (click here)
14. Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs - Answer (click
here)
15. Classification of Database Management Systems - Answer (click here)
16. The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints - Answer
(click here)
17. Relational Model Concepts - Answer (click here)
18. Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas - Answer
(click here)
19. Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations
- Answer (click here)
20. Basic SQL - Answer (click here)
21. SQL Data Definition and Data Types - Answer (click here)
22. Specifying Constraints in SQL - Answer (click here)
23. Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL - Answer (click here)
24. INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
25. Additional Features of SQL - Answer (click here)
26. More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema
Modification - Answer (click here)
27. More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries - Answer (click here)
28. Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers - Answer
(click here)
29. Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL - Answer (click here)
30. Schema Change Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
31. The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
32. Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT - Answer (click here)
33. Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory - Answer (click here)
34. Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION - Answer (click here)
35. Additional Relational Operations - Answer (click here)
36. Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
37. The Tuple Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
38. The Domain Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
39. Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship (ER) Model - Answer (click
here)
40. Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design - Answer
(click here)
41. A Sample Database Application - Answer (click here)
42. Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes, and Keys - Answer (click here)
43. Relationship Types, Relationship Sets, Roles, and Structural Constraints
- Answer (click here)
44. Weak Entity Types - Answer (click here)
45. Refining the ER Design for the COMPANY Database - Answer (click here)
46. ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions, and Design Issues - Answer (click
here)
47. Example of Other Notation: UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
48. Relationship Types of Degree Higher than Two - Answer (click here)

chapter 8 The Enhanced Entity Relationship EER MODEL


1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)
9. Database System Concepts and Architecture - Answer (click here)
10. Data Models, Schemas, and Instances - Answer (click here)
11. Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence - Answer (click here)
12. Database Languages and Interfaces - Answer (click here)
13. The Database System Environment - Answer (click here)
14. Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs - Answer (click
here)
15. Classification of Database Management Systems - Answer (click here)
16. The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints - Answer
(click here)
17. Relational Model Concepts - Answer (click here)
18. Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas - Answer
(click here)
19. Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations
- Answer (click here)
20. Basic SQL - Answer (click here)
21. SQL Data Definition and Data Types - Answer (click here)
22. Specifying Constraints in SQL - Answer (click here)
23. Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL - Answer (click here)
24. INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
25. Additional Features of SQL - Answer (click here)
26. More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema
Modification - Answer (click here)
27. More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries - Answer (click here)
28. Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers - Answer
(click here)
29. Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL - Answer (click here)
30. Schema Change Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
31. The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
32. Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT - Answer (click here)
33. Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory - Answer (click here)
34. Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION - Answer (click here)
35. Additional Relational Operations - Answer (click here)
36. Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
37. The Tuple Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
38. The Domain Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
39. Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship (ER) Model - Answer (click
here)
40. Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design - Answer
(click here)
41. A Sample Database Application - Answer (click here)
42. Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes, and Keys - Answer (click here)
43. Relationship Types, Relationship Sets, Roles, and Structural Constraints
- Answer (click here)
44. Weak Entity Types - Answer (click here)
45. Refining the ER Design for the COMPANY Database - Answer (click here)
46. ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions, and Design Issues - Answer (click
here)
47. Example of Other Notation: UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
48. Relationship Types of Degree Higher than Two - Answer (click here)
49. The Enhanced Entity-Relationship (EER) Model - Answer (click here)
50. Subclasses, Superclasses, and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
51. Specialization and Generalization - Answer (click here)
52. Constraints and Characteristics of Specialization and Generalization
Hierarchies - Answer (click here)
53. Modeling of UNION Types Using Categories - Answer (click here)
54. A Sample UNIVERSITY EER Schema, Design Choices, and Formal
Definitions - Answer (click here)
55. Example of Other Notation: Representing Specialization and
Generalization in UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
56. Data Abstraction, Knowledge Representation, and Ontology Concepts -
Answer (click here)

chapter 9 Relational Database Design by ER and EER to


Relational Mapping
1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)
9. Database System Concepts and Architecture - Answer (click here)
10. Data Models, Schemas, and Instances - Answer (click here)
11. Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence - Answer (click here)
12. Database Languages and Interfaces - Answer (click here)
13. The Database System Environment - Answer (click here)
14. Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs - Answer (click
here)
15. Classification of Database Management Systems - Answer (click here)
16. The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints - Answer
(click here)
17. Relational Model Concepts - Answer (click here)
18. Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas - Answer
(click here)
19. Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations
- Answer (click here)
20. Basic SQL - Answer (click here)
21. SQL Data Definition and Data Types - Answer (click here)
22. Specifying Constraints in SQL - Answer (click here)
23. Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL - Answer (click here)
24. INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
25. Additional Features of SQL - Answer (click here)
26. More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema
Modification - Answer (click here)
27. More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries - Answer (click here)
28. Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers - Answer
(click here)
29. Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL - Answer (click here)
30. Schema Change Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
31. The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
32. Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT - Answer (click here)
33. Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory - Answer (click here)
34. Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION - Answer (click here)
35. Additional Relational Operations - Answer (click here)
36. Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
37. The Tuple Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
38. The Domain Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
39. Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship (ER) Model - Answer (click
here)
40. Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design - Answer
(click here)
41. A Sample Database Application - Answer (click here)
42. Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes, and Keys - Answer (click here)
43. Relationship Types, Relationship Sets, Roles, and Structural Constraints
- Answer (click here)
44. Weak Entity Types - Answer (click here)
45. Refining the ER Design for the COMPANY Database - Answer (click here)
46. ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions, and Design Issues - Answer (click
here)
47. Example of Other Notation: UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
48. Relationship Types of Degree Higher than Two - Answer (click here)
49. The Enhanced Entity-Relationship (EER) Model - Answer (click here)
50. Subclasses, Superclasses, and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
51. Specialization and Generalization - Answer (click here)
52. Constraints and Characteristics of Specialization and Generalization
Hierarchies - Answer (click here)
53. Modeling of UNION Types Using Categories - Answer (click here)
54. A Sample UNIVERSITY EER Schema, Design Choices, and Formal
Definitions - Answer (click here)
55. Example of Other Notation: Representing Specialization and
Generalization in UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
56. Data Abstraction, Knowledge Representation, and Ontology Concepts -
Answer (click here)
57. Relational Database Design by ER- and EER-to-Relational Mapping -
Answer (click here)
58. Relational Database Design Using ER-to-Relational Mapping - Answer
(click here)
59. Mapping EER Model Constructs to Relations - Answer (click here)

chapter 10 Practical Database Design Methodology and Use of


UML Diagrams
1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)
9. Database System Concepts and Architecture - Answer (click here)
10. Data Models, Schemas, and Instances - Answer (click here)
11. Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence - Answer (click here)
12. Database Languages and Interfaces - Answer (click here)
13. The Database System Environment - Answer (click here)
14. Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs - Answer (click
here)
15. Classification of Database Management Systems - Answer (click here)
16. The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints - Answer
(click here)
17. Relational Model Concepts - Answer (click here)
18. Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas - Answer
(click here)
19. Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations
- Answer (click here)
20. Basic SQL - Answer (click here)
21. SQL Data Definition and Data Types - Answer (click here)
22. Specifying Constraints in SQL - Answer (click here)
23. Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL - Answer (click here)
24. INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
25. Additional Features of SQL - Answer (click here)
26. More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema
Modification - Answer (click here)
27. More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries - Answer (click here)
28. Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers - Answer
(click here)
29. Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL - Answer (click here)
30. Schema Change Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
31. The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
32. Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT - Answer (click here)
33. Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory - Answer (click here)
34. Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION - Answer (click here)
35. Additional Relational Operations - Answer (click here)
36. Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
37. The Tuple Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
38. The Domain Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
39. Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship (ER) Model - Answer (click
here)
40. Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design - Answer
(click here)
41. A Sample Database Application - Answer (click here)
42. Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes, and Keys - Answer (click here)
43. Relationship Types, Relationship Sets, Roles, and Structural Constraints
- Answer (click here)
44. Weak Entity Types - Answer (click here)
45. Refining the ER Design for the COMPANY Database - Answer (click here)
46. ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions, and Design Issues - Answer (click
here)
47. Example of Other Notation: UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
48. Relationship Types of Degree Higher than Two - Answer (click here)
49. The Enhanced Entity-Relationship (EER) Model - Answer (click here)
50. Subclasses, Superclasses, and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
51. Specialization and Generalization - Answer (click here)
52. Constraints and Characteristics of Specialization and Generalization
Hierarchies - Answer (click here)
53. Modeling of UNION Types Using Categories - Answer (click here)
54. A Sample UNIVERSITY EER Schema, Design Choices, and Formal
Definitions - Answer (click here)
55. Example of Other Notation: Representing Specialization and
Generalization in UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
56. Data Abstraction, Knowledge Representation, and Ontology Concepts -
Answer (click here)
57. Relational Database Design by ER- and EER-to-Relational Mapping -
Answer (click here)
58. Relational Database Design Using ER-to-Relational Mapping - Answer
(click here)
59. Mapping EER Model Constructs to Relations - Answer (click here)
60. Practical Database Design Methodology and Use of UML Diagrams -
Answer (click here)
61. The Role of Information Systems in Organizations - Answer (click here)
62. The Database Design and Implementation Process - Answer (click here)
63. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 1:
Requirements Collection and Analysis - Answer (click here)
64. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 2: Conceptual
Database Design - Answer (click here)
65. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 3: Choice of a
DBMS - Answer (click here)
66. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 4: Data Model
Mapping (Logical Database Design) - Answer (click here)
67. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 5: Physical
Database Design - Answer (click here)
68. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 6: Database
System Implementation and Tuning - Answer (click here)
69. Use of UML Diagrams as an Aid to Database Design Specification -
Answer (click here)
70. Rational Rose: A UML-Based Design Tool - Answer (click here)
71. Automated Database Design Tools - Answer (click here)

PART 4 Object Object Relational and XML Concepts Models


Languages and Standards
chapter 11 Object and Object Relational Databases
1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)
9. Database System Concepts and Architecture - Answer (click here)
10. Data Models, Schemas, and Instances - Answer (click here)
11. Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence - Answer (click here)
12. Database Languages and Interfaces - Answer (click here)
13. The Database System Environment - Answer (click here)
14. Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs - Answer (click
here)
15. Classification of Database Management Systems - Answer (click here)
16. The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints - Answer
(click here)
17. Relational Model Concepts - Answer (click here)
18. Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas - Answer
(click here)
19. Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations
- Answer (click here)
20. Basic SQL - Answer (click here)
21. SQL Data Definition and Data Types - Answer (click here)
22. Specifying Constraints in SQL - Answer (click here)
23. Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL - Answer (click here)
24. INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
25. Additional Features of SQL - Answer (click here)
26. More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema
Modification - Answer (click here)
27. More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries - Answer (click here)
28. Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers - Answer
(click here)
29. Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL - Answer (click here)
30. Schema Change Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
31. The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
32. Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT - Answer (click here)
33. Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory - Answer (click here)
34. Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION - Answer (click here)
35. Additional Relational Operations - Answer (click here)
36. Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
37. The Tuple Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
38. The Domain Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
39. Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship (ER) Model - Answer (click
here)
40. Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design - Answer
(click here)
41. A Sample Database Application - Answer (click here)
42. Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes, and Keys - Answer (click here)
43. Relationship Types, Relationship Sets, Roles, and Structural Constraints
- Answer (click here)
44. Weak Entity Types - Answer (click here)
45. Refining the ER Design for the COMPANY Database - Answer (click here)
46. ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions, and Design Issues - Answer (click
here)
47. Example of Other Notation: UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
48. Relationship Types of Degree Higher than Two - Answer (click here)
49. The Enhanced Entity-Relationship (EER) Model - Answer (click here)
50. Subclasses, Superclasses, and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
51. Specialization and Generalization - Answer (click here)
52. Constraints and Characteristics of Specialization and Generalization
Hierarchies - Answer (click here)
53. Modeling of UNION Types Using Categories - Answer (click here)
54. A Sample UNIVERSITY EER Schema, Design Choices, and Formal
Definitions - Answer (click here)
55. Example of Other Notation: Representing Specialization and
Generalization in UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
56. Data Abstraction, Knowledge Representation, and Ontology Concepts -
Answer (click here)
57. Relational Database Design by ER- and EER-to-Relational Mapping -
Answer (click here)
58. Relational Database Design Using ER-to-Relational Mapping - Answer
(click here)
59. Mapping EER Model Constructs to Relations - Answer (click here)
60. Practical Database Design Methodology and Use of UML Diagrams -
Answer (click here)
61. The Role of Information Systems in Organizations - Answer (click here)
62. The Database Design and Implementation Process - Answer (click here)
63. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 1:
Requirements Collection and Analysis - Answer (click here)
64. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 2: Conceptual
Database Design - Answer (click here)
65. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 3: Choice of a
DBMS - Answer (click here)
66. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 4: Data Model
Mapping (Logical Database Design) - Answer (click here)
67. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 5: Physical
Database Design - Answer (click here)
68. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 6: Database
System Implementation and Tuning - Answer (click here)
69. Use of UML Diagrams as an Aid to Database Design Specification -
Answer (click here)
70. Rational Rose: A UML-Based Design Tool - Answer (click here)
71. Automated Database Design Tools - Answer (click here)
72. Object and Object-Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
73. Overview of Object Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
74. Introduction to Object-Oriented Concepts and Features - Answer (click
here)
75. Object Identity, and Objects versus Literals - Answer (click here)
76. Complex Type Structures for Objects and Literals - Answer (click here)
77. Encapsulation of Operations and Persistence of Objects - Answer (click
here)
78. Type Hierarchies and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
79. Object-Relational Features: Object Database Extensions to SQL - Answer
(click here)
80. The ODMG Object Model and the Object Definition Language ODL -
Answer (click here)
81. Object Database Conceptual Design - Answer (click here)
82. The Object Query Language OQL - Answer (click here)
83. Overview of the C++ Language Binding in the ODMG Standard - Answer
(click here)

chapter 12 XML Extensible Markup Language


1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)
9. Database System Concepts and Architecture - Answer (click here)
10. Data Models, Schemas, and Instances - Answer (click here)
11. Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence - Answer (click here)
12. Database Languages and Interfaces - Answer (click here)
13. The Database System Environment - Answer (click here)
14. Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs - Answer (click
here)
15. Classification of Database Management Systems - Answer (click here)
16. The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints - Answer
(click here)
17. Relational Model Concepts - Answer (click here)
18. Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas - Answer
(click here)
19. Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations
- Answer (click here)
20. Basic SQL - Answer (click here)
21. SQL Data Definition and Data Types - Answer (click here)
22. Specifying Constraints in SQL - Answer (click here)
23. Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL - Answer (click here)
24. INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
25. Additional Features of SQL - Answer (click here)
26. More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema
Modification - Answer (click here)
27. More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries - Answer (click here)
28. Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers - Answer
(click here)
29. Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL - Answer (click here)
30. Schema Change Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
31. The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
32. Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT - Answer (click here)
33. Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory - Answer (click here)
34. Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION - Answer (click here)
35. Additional Relational Operations - Answer (click here)
36. Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
37. The Tuple Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
38. The Domain Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
39. Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship (ER) Model - Answer (click
here)
40. Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design - Answer
(click here)
41. A Sample Database Application - Answer (click here)
42. Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes, and Keys - Answer (click here)
43. Relationship Types, Relationship Sets, Roles, and Structural Constraints
- Answer (click here)
44. Weak Entity Types - Answer (click here)
45. Refining the ER Design for the COMPANY Database - Answer (click here)
46. ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions, and Design Issues - Answer (click
here)
47. Example of Other Notation: UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
48. Relationship Types of Degree Higher than Two - Answer (click here)
49. The Enhanced Entity-Relationship (EER) Model - Answer (click here)
50. Subclasses, Superclasses, and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
51. Specialization and Generalization - Answer (click here)
52. Constraints and Characteristics of Specialization and Generalization
Hierarchies - Answer (click here)
53. Modeling of UNION Types Using Categories - Answer (click here)
54. A Sample UNIVERSITY EER Schema, Design Choices, and Formal
Definitions - Answer (click here)
55. Example of Other Notation: Representing Specialization and
Generalization in UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
56. Data Abstraction, Knowledge Representation, and Ontology Concepts -
Answer (click here)
57. Relational Database Design by ER- and EER-to-Relational Mapping -
Answer (click here)
58. Relational Database Design Using ER-to-Relational Mapping - Answer
(click here)
59. Mapping EER Model Constructs to Relations - Answer (click here)
60. Practical Database Design Methodology and Use of UML Diagrams -
Answer (click here)
61. The Role of Information Systems in Organizations - Answer (click here)
62. The Database Design and Implementation Process - Answer (click here)
63. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 1:
Requirements Collection and Analysis - Answer (click here)
64. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 2: Conceptual
Database Design - Answer (click here)
65. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 3: Choice of a
DBMS - Answer (click here)
66. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 4: Data Model
Mapping (Logical Database Design) - Answer (click here)
67. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 5: Physical
Database Design - Answer (click here)
68. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 6: Database
System Implementation and Tuning - Answer (click here)
69. Use of UML Diagrams as an Aid to Database Design Specification -
Answer (click here)
70. Rational Rose: A UML-Based Design Tool - Answer (click here)
71. Automated Database Design Tools - Answer (click here)
72. Object and Object-Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
73. Overview of Object Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
74. Introduction to Object-Oriented Concepts and Features - Answer (click
here)
75. Object Identity, and Objects versus Literals - Answer (click here)
76. Complex Type Structures for Objects and Literals - Answer (click here)
77. Encapsulation of Operations and Persistence of Objects - Answer (click
here)
78. Type Hierarchies and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
79. Object-Relational Features: Object Database Extensions to SQL - Answer
(click here)
80. The ODMG Object Model and the Object Definition Language ODL -
Answer (click here)
81. Object Database Conceptual Design - Answer (click here)
82. The Object Query Language OQL - Answer (click here)
83. Overview of the C++ Language Binding in the ODMG Standard - Answer
(click here)
84. XML: Extensible Markup Language - Answer (click here)
85. Structured, Semistructured, and Unstructured Data - Answer (click here)
86. XML Hierarchical (Tree) Data Model - Answer (click here)
87. XML Documents, DTD, and XML Schema - Answer (click here)
88. Storing and Extracting XML Documents from Databases - Answer (click
here)
89. XML Languages - Answer (click here)
90. Extracting XML Documents from Relational Databases - Answer (click
here)

PART 5 Database Programming Techniques


chapter 13 Introduction to SQL Programming TECHNIQUES
1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)
9. Database System Concepts and Architecture - Answer (click here)
10. Data Models, Schemas, and Instances - Answer (click here)
11. Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence - Answer (click here)
12. Database Languages and Interfaces - Answer (click here)
13. The Database System Environment - Answer (click here)
14. Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs - Answer (click
here)
15. Classification of Database Management Systems - Answer (click here)
16. The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints - Answer
(click here)
17. Relational Model Concepts - Answer (click here)
18. Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas - Answer
(click here)
19. Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations
- Answer (click here)
20. Basic SQL - Answer (click here)
21. SQL Data Definition and Data Types - Answer (click here)
22. Specifying Constraints in SQL - Answer (click here)
23. Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL - Answer (click here)
24. INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
25. Additional Features of SQL - Answer (click here)
26. More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema
Modification - Answer (click here)
27. More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries - Answer (click here)
28. Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers - Answer
(click here)
29. Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL - Answer (click here)
30. Schema Change Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
31. The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
32. Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT - Answer (click here)
33. Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory - Answer (click here)
34. Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION - Answer (click here)
35. Additional Relational Operations - Answer (click here)
36. Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
37. The Tuple Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
38. The Domain Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
39. Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship (ER) Model - Answer (click
here)
40. Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design - Answer
(click here)
41. A Sample Database Application - Answer (click here)
42. Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes, and Keys - Answer (click here)
43. Relationship Types, Relationship Sets, Roles, and Structural Constraints
- Answer (click here)
44. Weak Entity Types - Answer (click here)
45. Refining the ER Design for the COMPANY Database - Answer (click here)
46. ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions, and Design Issues - Answer (click
here)
47. Example of Other Notation: UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
48. Relationship Types of Degree Higher than Two - Answer (click here)
49. The Enhanced Entity-Relationship (EER) Model - Answer (click here)
50. Subclasses, Superclasses, and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
51. Specialization and Generalization - Answer (click here)
52. Constraints and Characteristics of Specialization and Generalization
Hierarchies - Answer (click here)
53. Modeling of UNION Types Using Categories - Answer (click here)
54. A Sample UNIVERSITY EER Schema, Design Choices, and Formal
Definitions - Answer (click here)
55. Example of Other Notation: Representing Specialization and
Generalization in UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
56. Data Abstraction, Knowledge Representation, and Ontology Concepts -
Answer (click here)
57. Relational Database Design by ER- and EER-to-Relational Mapping -
Answer (click here)
58. Relational Database Design Using ER-to-Relational Mapping - Answer
(click here)
59. Mapping EER Model Constructs to Relations - Answer (click here)
60. Practical Database Design Methodology and Use of UML Diagrams -
Answer (click here)
61. The Role of Information Systems in Organizations - Answer (click here)
62. The Database Design and Implementation Process - Answer (click here)
63. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 1:
Requirements Collection and Analysis - Answer (click here)
64. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 2: Conceptual
Database Design - Answer (click here)
65. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 3: Choice of a
DBMS - Answer (click here)
66. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 4: Data Model
Mapping (Logical Database Design) - Answer (click here)
67. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 5: Physical
Database Design - Answer (click here)
68. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 6: Database
System Implementation and Tuning - Answer (click here)
69. Use of UML Diagrams as an Aid to Database Design Specification -
Answer (click here)
70. Rational Rose: A UML-Based Design Tool - Answer (click here)
71. Automated Database Design Tools - Answer (click here)
72. Object and Object-Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
73. Overview of Object Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
74. Introduction to Object-Oriented Concepts and Features - Answer (click
here)
75. Object Identity, and Objects versus Literals - Answer (click here)
76. Complex Type Structures for Objects and Literals - Answer (click here)
77. Encapsulation of Operations and Persistence of Objects - Answer (click
here)
78. Type Hierarchies and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
79. Object-Relational Features: Object Database Extensions to SQL - Answer
(click here)
80. The ODMG Object Model and the Object Definition Language ODL -
Answer (click here)
81. Object Database Conceptual Design - Answer (click here)
82. The Object Query Language OQL - Answer (click here)
83. Overview of the C++ Language Binding in the ODMG Standard - Answer
(click here)
84. XML: Extensible Markup Language - Answer (click here)
85. Structured, Semistructured, and Unstructured Data - Answer (click here)
86. XML Hierarchical (Tree) Data Model - Answer (click here)
87. XML Documents, DTD, and XML Schema - Answer (click here)
88. Storing and Extracting XML Documents from Databases - Answer (click
here)
89. XML Languages - Answer (click here)
90. Extracting XML Documents from Relational Databases - Answer (click
here)
91. Introduction to SQL Programming Techniques - Answer (click here)
92. Database Programming: Techniques and Issues - Answer (click here)
93. Embedded SQL, Dynamic SQL, and SQLJ - Answer (click here)
94. Retrieving Single Tuples with Embedded SQL - Answer (click here)
95. Retrieving Multiple Tuples with Embedded SQL Using Cursors - Answer
(click here)
96. Specifying Queries at Runtime Using Dynamic SQL - Answer (click here)
97. SQLJ: Embedding SQL Commands in Java - Answer (click here)
98. Retrieving Multiple Tuples in SQLJ Using Iterators - Answer (click here)
99. Database Programming with Function Calls: SQL/CLI and JDBC -
Answer (click here)
100. Database Stored Procedures and SQL/PSM - Answer (click here)
101. Comparing the Three Approaches - Answer (click here)

chapter 14 Web Database Programming Using PHP


1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)
9. Database System Concepts and Architecture - Answer (click here)
10. Data Models, Schemas, and Instances - Answer (click here)
11. Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence - Answer (click here)
12. Database Languages and Interfaces - Answer (click here)
13. The Database System Environment - Answer (click here)
14. Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs - Answer (click
here)
15. Classification of Database Management Systems - Answer (click here)
16. The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints - Answer
(click here)
17. Relational Model Concepts - Answer (click here)
18. Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas - Answer
(click here)
19. Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations
- Answer (click here)
20. Basic SQL - Answer (click here)
21. SQL Data Definition and Data Types - Answer (click here)
22. Specifying Constraints in SQL - Answer (click here)
23. Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL - Answer (click here)
24. INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
25. Additional Features of SQL - Answer (click here)
26. More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema
Modification - Answer (click here)
27. More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries - Answer (click here)
28. Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers - Answer
(click here)
29. Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL - Answer (click here)
30. Schema Change Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
31. The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
32. Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT - Answer (click here)
33. Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory - Answer (click here)
34. Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION - Answer (click here)
35. Additional Relational Operations - Answer (click here)
36. Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
37. The Tuple Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
38. The Domain Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
39. Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship (ER) Model - Answer (click
here)
40. Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design - Answer
(click here)
41. A Sample Database Application - Answer (click here)
42. Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes, and Keys - Answer (click here)
43. Relationship Types, Relationship Sets, Roles, and Structural Constraints
- Answer (click here)
44. Weak Entity Types - Answer (click here)
45. Refining the ER Design for the COMPANY Database - Answer (click here)
46. ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions, and Design Issues - Answer (click
here)
47. Example of Other Notation: UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
48. Relationship Types of Degree Higher than Two - Answer (click here)
49. The Enhanced Entity-Relationship (EER) Model - Answer (click here)
50. Subclasses, Superclasses, and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
51. Specialization and Generalization - Answer (click here)
52. Constraints and Characteristics of Specialization and Generalization
Hierarchies - Answer (click here)
53. Modeling of UNION Types Using Categories - Answer (click here)
54. A Sample UNIVERSITY EER Schema, Design Choices, and Formal
Definitions - Answer (click here)
55. Example of Other Notation: Representing Specialization and
Generalization in UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
56. Data Abstraction, Knowledge Representation, and Ontology Concepts -
Answer (click here)
57. Relational Database Design by ER- and EER-to-Relational Mapping -
Answer (click here)
58. Relational Database Design Using ER-to-Relational Mapping - Answer
(click here)
59. Mapping EER Model Constructs to Relations - Answer (click here)
60. Practical Database Design Methodology and Use of UML Diagrams -
Answer (click here)
61. The Role of Information Systems in Organizations - Answer (click here)
62. The Database Design and Implementation Process - Answer (click here)
63. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 1:
Requirements Collection and Analysis - Answer (click here)
64. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 2: Conceptual
Database Design - Answer (click here)
65. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 3: Choice of a
DBMS - Answer (click here)
66. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 4: Data Model
Mapping (Logical Database Design) - Answer (click here)
67. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 5: Physical
Database Design - Answer (click here)
68. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 6: Database
System Implementation and Tuning - Answer (click here)
69. Use of UML Diagrams as an Aid to Database Design Specification -
Answer (click here)
70. Rational Rose: A UML-Based Design Tool - Answer (click here)
71. Automated Database Design Tools - Answer (click here)
72. Object and Object-Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
73. Overview of Object Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
74. Introduction to Object-Oriented Concepts and Features - Answer (click
here)
75. Object Identity, and Objects versus Literals - Answer (click here)
76. Complex Type Structures for Objects and Literals - Answer (click here)
77. Encapsulation of Operations and Persistence of Objects - Answer (click
here)
78. Type Hierarchies and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
79. Object-Relational Features: Object Database Extensions to SQL - Answer
(click here)
80. The ODMG Object Model and the Object Definition Language ODL -
Answer (click here)
81. Object Database Conceptual Design - Answer (click here)
82. The Object Query Language OQL - Answer (click here)
83. Overview of the C++ Language Binding in the ODMG Standard - Answer
(click here)
84. XML: Extensible Markup Language - Answer (click here)
85. Structured, Semistructured, and Unstructured Data - Answer (click here)
86. XML Hierarchical (Tree) Data Model - Answer (click here)
87. XML Documents, DTD, and XML Schema - Answer (click here)
88. Storing and Extracting XML Documents from Databases - Answer (click
here)
89. XML Languages - Answer (click here)
90. Extracting XML Documents from Relational Databases - Answer (click
here)
91. Introduction to SQL Programming Techniques - Answer (click here)
92. Database Programming: Techniques and Issues - Answer (click here)
93. Embedded SQL, Dynamic SQL, and SQLJ - Answer (click here)
94. Retrieving Single Tuples with Embedded SQL - Answer (click here)
95. Retrieving Multiple Tuples with Embedded SQL Using Cursors - Answer
(click here)
96. Specifying Queries at Runtime Using Dynamic SQL - Answer (click here)
97. SQLJ: Embedding SQL Commands in Java - Answer (click here)
98. Retrieving Multiple Tuples in SQLJ Using Iterators - Answer (click here)
99. Database Programming with Function Calls: SQL/CLI and JDBC -
Answer (click here)
100. Database Stored Procedures and SQL/PSM - Answer (click here)
101. Comparing the Three Approaches - Answer (click here)
102. Web Database Programming Using PHP - Answer (click here)
103. A Simple PHP Example - Answer (click here)
104. Overview of Basic Features of PHP - Answer (click here)
105. Overview of PHP Database Programming - Answer (click here)

PART 6 Database Design Theory and Normalization


chapter 15 Basics of Functional Dependencies and Normalization
or Relational Databases
1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)
9. Database System Concepts and Architecture - Answer (click here)
10. Data Models, Schemas, and Instances - Answer (click here)
11. Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence - Answer (click here)
12. Database Languages and Interfaces - Answer (click here)
13. The Database System Environment - Answer (click here)
14. Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs - Answer (click
here)
15. Classification of Database Management Systems - Answer (click here)
16. The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints - Answer
(click here)
17. Relational Model Concepts - Answer (click here)
18. Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas - Answer
(click here)
19. Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations
- Answer (click here)
20. Basic SQL - Answer (click here)
21. SQL Data Definition and Data Types - Answer (click here)
22. Specifying Constraints in SQL - Answer (click here)
23. Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL - Answer (click here)
24. INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
25. Additional Features of SQL - Answer (click here)
26. More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema
Modification - Answer (click here)
27. More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries - Answer (click here)
28. Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers - Answer
(click here)
29. Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL - Answer (click here)
30. Schema Change Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
31. The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
32. Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT - Answer (click here)
33. Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory - Answer (click here)
34. Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION - Answer (click here)
35. Additional Relational Operations - Answer (click here)
36. Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
37. The Tuple Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
38. The Domain Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
39. Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship (ER) Model - Answer (click
here)
40. Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design - Answer
(click here)
41. A Sample Database Application - Answer (click here)
42. Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes, and Keys - Answer (click here)
43. Relationship Types, Relationship Sets, Roles, and Structural Constraints
- Answer (click here)
44. Weak Entity Types - Answer (click here)
45. Refining the ER Design for the COMPANY Database - Answer (click here)
46. ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions, and Design Issues - Answer (click
here)
47. Example of Other Notation: UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
48. Relationship Types of Degree Higher than Two - Answer (click here)
49. The Enhanced Entity-Relationship (EER) Model - Answer (click here)
50. Subclasses, Superclasses, and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
51. Specialization and Generalization - Answer (click here)
52. Constraints and Characteristics of Specialization and Generalization
Hierarchies - Answer (click here)
53. Modeling of UNION Types Using Categories - Answer (click here)
54. A Sample UNIVERSITY EER Schema, Design Choices, and Formal
Definitions - Answer (click here)
55. Example of Other Notation: Representing Specialization and
Generalization in UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
56. Data Abstraction, Knowledge Representation, and Ontology Concepts -
Answer (click here)
57. Relational Database Design by ER- and EER-to-Relational Mapping -
Answer (click here)
58. Relational Database Design Using ER-to-Relational Mapping - Answer
(click here)
59. Mapping EER Model Constructs to Relations - Answer (click here)
60. Practical Database Design Methodology and Use of UML Diagrams -
Answer (click here)
61. The Role of Information Systems in Organizations - Answer (click here)
62. The Database Design and Implementation Process - Answer (click here)
63. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 1:
Requirements Collection and Analysis - Answer (click here)
64. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 2: Conceptual
Database Design - Answer (click here)
65. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 3: Choice of a
DBMS - Answer (click here)
66. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 4: Data Model
Mapping (Logical Database Design) - Answer (click here)
67. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 5: Physical
Database Design - Answer (click here)
68. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 6: Database
System Implementation and Tuning - Answer (click here)
69. Use of UML Diagrams as an Aid to Database Design Specification -
Answer (click here)
70. Rational Rose: A UML-Based Design Tool - Answer (click here)
71. Automated Database Design Tools - Answer (click here)
72. Object and Object-Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
73. Overview of Object Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
74. Introduction to Object-Oriented Concepts and Features - Answer (click
here)
75. Object Identity, and Objects versus Literals - Answer (click here)
76. Complex Type Structures for Objects and Literals - Answer (click here)
77. Encapsulation of Operations and Persistence of Objects - Answer (click
here)
78. Type Hierarchies and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
79. Object-Relational Features: Object Database Extensions to SQL - Answer
(click here)
80. The ODMG Object Model and the Object Definition Language ODL -
Answer (click here)
81. Object Database Conceptual Design - Answer (click here)
82. The Object Query Language OQL - Answer (click here)
83. Overview of the C++ Language Binding in the ODMG Standard - Answer
(click here)
84. XML: Extensible Markup Language - Answer (click here)
85. Structured, Semistructured, and Unstructured Data - Answer (click here)
86. XML Hierarchical (Tree) Data Model - Answer (click here)
87. XML Documents, DTD, and XML Schema - Answer (click here)
88. Storing and Extracting XML Documents from Databases - Answer (click
here)
89. XML Languages - Answer (click here)
90. Extracting XML Documents from Relational Databases - Answer (click
here)
91. Introduction to SQL Programming Techniques - Answer (click here)
92. Database Programming: Techniques and Issues - Answer (click here)
93. Embedded SQL, Dynamic SQL, and SQLJ - Answer (click here)
94. Retrieving Single Tuples with Embedded SQL - Answer (click here)
95. Retrieving Multiple Tuples with Embedded SQL Using Cursors - Answer
(click here)
96. Specifying Queries at Runtime Using Dynamic SQL - Answer (click here)
97. SQLJ: Embedding SQL Commands in Java - Answer (click here)
98. Retrieving Multiple Tuples in SQLJ Using Iterators - Answer (click here)
99. Database Programming with Function Calls: SQL/CLI and JDBC -
Answer (click here)
100. Database Stored Procedures and SQL/PSM - Answer (click here)
101. Comparing the Three Approaches - Answer (click here)
102. Web Database Programming Using PHP - Answer (click here)
103. A Simple PHP Example - Answer (click here)
104. Overview of Basic Features of PHP - Answer (click here)
105. Overview of PHP Database Programming - Answer (click here)
106. Basics of Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational
Databases - Answer (click here)
107. Informal Design Guidelines for Relation Schemas - Answer (click here)
108. Functional Dependencies - Answer (click here)
109. Normal Forms Based on Primary Keys - Answer (click here)
110. General Definitions of Second and Third Normal Forms - Answer (click
here)
111. Boyce-Codd Normal Form - Answer (click here)
112. Multivalued Dependency and Fourth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
113. Join Dependencies and Fifth Normal Form - Answer (click here)

chapter 16 Relational Database Design Algorithms and Further


Dependencies
1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)
9. Database System Concepts and Architecture - Answer (click here)
10. Data Models, Schemas, and Instances - Answer (click here)
11. Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence - Answer (click here)
12. Database Languages and Interfaces - Answer (click here)
13. The Database System Environment - Answer (click here)
14. Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs - Answer (click
here)
15. Classification of Database Management Systems - Answer (click here)
16. The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints - Answer
(click here)
17. Relational Model Concepts - Answer (click here)
18. Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas - Answer
(click here)
19. Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations
- Answer (click here)
20. Basic SQL - Answer (click here)
21. SQL Data Definition and Data Types - Answer (click here)
22. Specifying Constraints in SQL - Answer (click here)
23. Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL - Answer (click here)
24. INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
25. Additional Features of SQL - Answer (click here)
26. More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema
Modification - Answer (click here)
27. More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries - Answer (click here)
28. Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers - Answer
(click here)
29. Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL - Answer (click here)
30. Schema Change Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
31. The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
32. Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT - Answer (click here)
33. Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory - Answer (click here)
34. Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION - Answer (click here)
35. Additional Relational Operations - Answer (click here)
36. Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
37. The Tuple Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
38. The Domain Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
39. Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship (ER) Model - Answer (click
here)
40. Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design - Answer
(click here)
41. A Sample Database Application - Answer (click here)
42. Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes, and Keys - Answer (click here)
43. Relationship Types, Relationship Sets, Roles, and Structural Constraints
- Answer (click here)
44. Weak Entity Types - Answer (click here)
45. Refining the ER Design for the COMPANY Database - Answer (click here)
46. ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions, and Design Issues - Answer (click
here)
47. Example of Other Notation: UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
48. Relationship Types of Degree Higher than Two - Answer (click here)
49. The Enhanced Entity-Relationship (EER) Model - Answer (click here)
50. Subclasses, Superclasses, and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
51. Specialization and Generalization - Answer (click here)
52. Constraints and Characteristics of Specialization and Generalization
Hierarchies - Answer (click here)
53. Modeling of UNION Types Using Categories - Answer (click here)
54. A Sample UNIVERSITY EER Schema, Design Choices, and Formal
Definitions - Answer (click here)
55. Example of Other Notation: Representing Specialization and
Generalization in UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
56. Data Abstraction, Knowledge Representation, and Ontology Concepts -
Answer (click here)
57. Relational Database Design by ER- and EER-to-Relational Mapping -
Answer (click here)
58. Relational Database Design Using ER-to-Relational Mapping - Answer
(click here)
59. Mapping EER Model Constructs to Relations - Answer (click here)
60. Practical Database Design Methodology and Use of UML Diagrams -
Answer (click here)
61. The Role of Information Systems in Organizations - Answer (click here)
62. The Database Design and Implementation Process - Answer (click here)
63. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 1:
Requirements Collection and Analysis - Answer (click here)
64. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 2: Conceptual
Database Design - Answer (click here)
65. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 3: Choice of a
DBMS - Answer (click here)
66. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 4: Data Model
Mapping (Logical Database Design) - Answer (click here)
67. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 5: Physical
Database Design - Answer (click here)
68. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 6: Database
System Implementation and Tuning - Answer (click here)
69. Use of UML Diagrams as an Aid to Database Design Specification -
Answer (click here)
70. Rational Rose: A UML-Based Design Tool - Answer (click here)
71. Automated Database Design Tools - Answer (click here)
72. Object and Object-Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
73. Overview of Object Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
74. Introduction to Object-Oriented Concepts and Features - Answer (click
here)
75. Object Identity, and Objects versus Literals - Answer (click here)
76. Complex Type Structures for Objects and Literals - Answer (click here)
77. Encapsulation of Operations and Persistence of Objects - Answer (click
here)
78. Type Hierarchies and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
79. Object-Relational Features: Object Database Extensions to SQL - Answer
(click here)
80. The ODMG Object Model and the Object Definition Language ODL -
Answer (click here)
81. Object Database Conceptual Design - Answer (click here)
82. The Object Query Language OQL - Answer (click here)
83. Overview of the C++ Language Binding in the ODMG Standard - Answer
(click here)
84. XML: Extensible Markup Language - Answer (click here)
85. Structured, Semistructured, and Unstructured Data - Answer (click here)
86. XML Hierarchical (Tree) Data Model - Answer (click here)
87. XML Documents, DTD, and XML Schema - Answer (click here)
88. Storing and Extracting XML Documents from Databases - Answer (click
here)
89. XML Languages - Answer (click here)
90. Extracting XML Documents from Relational Databases - Answer (click
here)
91. Introduction to SQL Programming Techniques - Answer (click here)
92. Database Programming: Techniques and Issues - Answer (click here)
93. Embedded SQL, Dynamic SQL, and SQLJ - Answer (click here)
94. Retrieving Single Tuples with Embedded SQL - Answer (click here)
95. Retrieving Multiple Tuples with Embedded SQL Using Cursors - Answer
(click here)
96. Specifying Queries at Runtime Using Dynamic SQL - Answer (click here)
97. SQLJ: Embedding SQL Commands in Java - Answer (click here)
98. Retrieving Multiple Tuples in SQLJ Using Iterators - Answer (click here)
99. Database Programming with Function Calls: SQL/CLI and JDBC -
Answer (click here)
100. Database Stored Procedures and SQL/PSM - Answer (click here)
101. Comparing the Three Approaches - Answer (click here)
102. Web Database Programming Using PHP - Answer (click here)
103. A Simple PHP Example - Answer (click here)
104. Overview of Basic Features of PHP - Answer (click here)
105. Overview of PHP Database Programming - Answer (click here)
106. Basics of Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational
Databases - Answer (click here)
107. Informal Design Guidelines for Relation Schemas - Answer (click here)
108. Functional Dependencies - Answer (click here)
109. Normal Forms Based on Primary Keys - Answer (click here)
110. General Definitions of Second and Third Normal Forms - Answer (click
here)
111. Boyce-Codd Normal Form - Answer (click here)
112. Multivalued Dependency and Fourth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
113. Join Dependencies and Fifth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
114. Relational Database Design Algorithms and Further Dependencies -
Answer (click here)
115. Further Topics in Functional Dependencies: Inference Rules,
Equivalence, and Minimal Cover - Answer (click here)
116. Properties of Relational Decompositions - Answer (click here)
117. Algorithms for Relational Database Schema Design - Answer (click here)
118. About Nulls, Dangling Tuples, and Alternative Relational Designs -
Answer (click here)
119. Further Discussion of Multivalued Dependencies and 4NF - Answer (click
here)
120. Other Dependencies and Normal Forms - Answer (click here)

PART 7 File Structures Indexing and Hashing


chapter 17 Disk Storage Basic File Structures and Hashing
1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)
9. Database System Concepts and Architecture - Answer (click here)
10. Data Models, Schemas, and Instances - Answer (click here)
11. Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence - Answer (click here)
12. Database Languages and Interfaces - Answer (click here)
13. The Database System Environment - Answer (click here)
14. Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs - Answer (click
here)
15. Classification of Database Management Systems - Answer (click here)
16. The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints - Answer
(click here)
17. Relational Model Concepts - Answer (click here)
18. Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas - Answer
(click here)
19. Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations
- Answer (click here)
20. Basic SQL - Answer (click here)
21. SQL Data Definition and Data Types - Answer (click here)
22. Specifying Constraints in SQL - Answer (click here)
23. Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL - Answer (click here)
24. INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
25. Additional Features of SQL - Answer (click here)
26. More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema
Modification - Answer (click here)
27. More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries - Answer (click here)
28. Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers - Answer
(click here)
29. Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL - Answer (click here)
30. Schema Change Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
31. The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
32. Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT - Answer (click here)
33. Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory - Answer (click here)
34. Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION - Answer (click here)
35. Additional Relational Operations - Answer (click here)
36. Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
37. The Tuple Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
38. The Domain Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
39. Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship (ER) Model - Answer (click
here)
40. Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design - Answer
(click here)
41. A Sample Database Application - Answer (click here)
42. Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes, and Keys - Answer (click here)
43. Relationship Types, Relationship Sets, Roles, and Structural Constraints
- Answer (click here)
44. Weak Entity Types - Answer (click here)
45. Refining the ER Design for the COMPANY Database - Answer (click here)
46. ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions, and Design Issues - Answer (click
here)
47. Example of Other Notation: UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
48. Relationship Types of Degree Higher than Two - Answer (click here)
49. The Enhanced Entity-Relationship (EER) Model - Answer (click here)
50. Subclasses, Superclasses, and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
51. Specialization and Generalization - Answer (click here)
52. Constraints and Characteristics of Specialization and Generalization
Hierarchies - Answer (click here)
53. Modeling of UNION Types Using Categories - Answer (click here)
54. A Sample UNIVERSITY EER Schema, Design Choices, and Formal
Definitions - Answer (click here)
55. Example of Other Notation: Representing Specialization and
Generalization in UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
56. Data Abstraction, Knowledge Representation, and Ontology Concepts -
Answer (click here)
57. Relational Database Design by ER- and EER-to-Relational Mapping -
Answer (click here)
58. Relational Database Design Using ER-to-Relational Mapping - Answer
(click here)
59. Mapping EER Model Constructs to Relations - Answer (click here)
60. Practical Database Design Methodology and Use of UML Diagrams -
Answer (click here)
61. The Role of Information Systems in Organizations - Answer (click here)
62. The Database Design and Implementation Process - Answer (click here)
63. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 1:
Requirements Collection and Analysis - Answer (click here)
64. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 2: Conceptual
Database Design - Answer (click here)
65. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 3: Choice of a
DBMS - Answer (click here)
66. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 4: Data Model
Mapping (Logical Database Design) - Answer (click here)
67. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 5: Physical
Database Design - Answer (click here)
68. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 6: Database
System Implementation and Tuning - Answer (click here)
69. Use of UML Diagrams as an Aid to Database Design Specification -
Answer (click here)
70. Rational Rose: A UML-Based Design Tool - Answer (click here)
71. Automated Database Design Tools - Answer (click here)
72. Object and Object-Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
73. Overview of Object Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
74. Introduction to Object-Oriented Concepts and Features - Answer (click
here)
75. Object Identity, and Objects versus Literals - Answer (click here)
76. Complex Type Structures for Objects and Literals - Answer (click here)
77. Encapsulation of Operations and Persistence of Objects - Answer (click
here)
78. Type Hierarchies and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
79. Object-Relational Features: Object Database Extensions to SQL - Answer
(click here)
80. The ODMG Object Model and the Object Definition Language ODL -
Answer (click here)
81. Object Database Conceptual Design - Answer (click here)
82. The Object Query Language OQL - Answer (click here)
83. Overview of the C++ Language Binding in the ODMG Standard - Answer
(click here)
84. XML: Extensible Markup Language - Answer (click here)
85. Structured, Semistructured, and Unstructured Data - Answer (click here)
86. XML Hierarchical (Tree) Data Model - Answer (click here)
87. XML Documents, DTD, and XML Schema - Answer (click here)
88. Storing and Extracting XML Documents from Databases - Answer (click
here)
89. XML Languages - Answer (click here)
90. Extracting XML Documents from Relational Databases - Answer (click
here)
91. Introduction to SQL Programming Techniques - Answer (click here)
92. Database Programming: Techniques and Issues - Answer (click here)
93. Embedded SQL, Dynamic SQL, and SQLJ - Answer (click here)
94. Retrieving Single Tuples with Embedded SQL - Answer (click here)
95. Retrieving Multiple Tuples with Embedded SQL Using Cursors - Answer
(click here)
96. Specifying Queries at Runtime Using Dynamic SQL - Answer (click here)
97. SQLJ: Embedding SQL Commands in Java - Answer (click here)
98. Retrieving Multiple Tuples in SQLJ Using Iterators - Answer (click here)
99. Database Programming with Function Calls: SQL/CLI and JDBC -
Answer (click here)
100. Database Stored Procedures and SQL/PSM - Answer (click here)
101. Comparing the Three Approaches - Answer (click here)
102. Web Database Programming Using PHP - Answer (click here)
103. A Simple PHP Example - Answer (click here)
104. Overview of Basic Features of PHP - Answer (click here)
105. Overview of PHP Database Programming - Answer (click here)
106. Basics of Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational
Databases - Answer (click here)
107. Informal Design Guidelines for Relation Schemas - Answer (click here)
108. Functional Dependencies - Answer (click here)
109. Normal Forms Based on Primary Keys - Answer (click here)
110. General Definitions of Second and Third Normal Forms - Answer (click
here)
111. Boyce-Codd Normal Form - Answer (click here)
112. Multivalued Dependency and Fourth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
113. Join Dependencies and Fifth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
114. Relational Database Design Algorithms and Further Dependencies -
Answer (click here)
115. Further Topics in Functional Dependencies: Inference Rules,
Equivalence, and Minimal Cover - Answer (click here)
116. Properties of Relational Decompositions - Answer (click here)
117. Algorithms for Relational Database Schema Design - Answer (click here)
118. About Nulls, Dangling Tuples, and Alternative Relational Designs -
Answer (click here)
119. Further Discussion of Multivalued Dependencies and 4NF - Answer (click
here)
120. Other Dependencies and Normal Forms - Answer (click here)
121. Disk Storage, Basic File Structures, and Hashing - Answer (click here)
122. Secondary Storage Devices - Answer (click here)
123. Buffering of Blocks - Answer (click here)
124. Placing File Records on Disk - Answer (click here)
125. Operations on Files - Answer (click here)
126. Files of Unordered Records (Heap Files) - Answer (click here)
127. Files of Ordered Records (Sorted Files) - Answer (click here)
128. Hashing Techniques - Answer (click here)
129. Internal Hashing - Answer (click here)
130. External Hashing for Disk Files - Answer (click here)
131. Hashing Techniques That Allow Dynamic File Expansion - Answer (click
here)
132. Other Primary File Organizations - Answer (click here)
133. Parallelizing Disk Access Using RAID Technology - Answer (click here)
134. New Storage Systems - Answer (click here)

chapter 18 Indexing Structures for Files


1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)
9. Database System Concepts and Architecture - Answer (click here)
10. Data Models, Schemas, and Instances - Answer (click here)
11. Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence - Answer (click here)
12. Database Languages and Interfaces - Answer (click here)
13. The Database System Environment - Answer (click here)
14. Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs - Answer (click
here)
15. Classification of Database Management Systems - Answer (click here)
16. The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints - Answer
(click here)
17. Relational Model Concepts - Answer (click here)
18. Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas - Answer
(click here)
19. Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations
- Answer (click here)
20. Basic SQL - Answer (click here)
21. SQL Data Definition and Data Types - Answer (click here)
22. Specifying Constraints in SQL - Answer (click here)
23. Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL - Answer (click here)
24. INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
25. Additional Features of SQL - Answer (click here)
26. More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema
Modification - Answer (click here)
27. More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries - Answer (click here)
28. Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers - Answer
(click here)
29. Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL - Answer (click here)
30. Schema Change Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
31. The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
32. Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT - Answer (click here)
33. Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory - Answer (click here)
34. Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION - Answer (click here)
35. Additional Relational Operations - Answer (click here)
36. Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
37. The Tuple Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
38. The Domain Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
39. Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship (ER) Model - Answer (click
here)
40. Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design - Answer
(click here)
41. A Sample Database Application - Answer (click here)
42. Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes, and Keys - Answer (click here)
43. Relationship Types, Relationship Sets, Roles, and Structural Constraints
- Answer (click here)
44. Weak Entity Types - Answer (click here)
45. Refining the ER Design for the COMPANY Database - Answer (click here)
46. ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions, and Design Issues - Answer (click
here)
47. Example of Other Notation: UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
48. Relationship Types of Degree Higher than Two - Answer (click here)
49. The Enhanced Entity-Relationship (EER) Model - Answer (click here)
50. Subclasses, Superclasses, and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
51. Specialization and Generalization - Answer (click here)
52. Constraints and Characteristics of Specialization and Generalization
Hierarchies - Answer (click here)
53. Modeling of UNION Types Using Categories - Answer (click here)
54. A Sample UNIVERSITY EER Schema, Design Choices, and Formal
Definitions - Answer (click here)
55. Example of Other Notation: Representing Specialization and
Generalization in UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
56. Data Abstraction, Knowledge Representation, and Ontology Concepts -
Answer (click here)
57. Relational Database Design by ER- and EER-to-Relational Mapping -
Answer (click here)
58. Relational Database Design Using ER-to-Relational Mapping - Answer
(click here)
59. Mapping EER Model Constructs to Relations - Answer (click here)
60. Practical Database Design Methodology and Use of UML Diagrams -
Answer (click here)
61. The Role of Information Systems in Organizations - Answer (click here)
62. The Database Design and Implementation Process - Answer (click here)
63. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 1:
Requirements Collection and Analysis - Answer (click here)
64. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 2: Conceptual
Database Design - Answer (click here)
65. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 3: Choice of a
DBMS - Answer (click here)
66. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 4: Data Model
Mapping (Logical Database Design) - Answer (click here)
67. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 5: Physical
Database Design - Answer (click here)
68. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 6: Database
System Implementation and Tuning - Answer (click here)
69. Use of UML Diagrams as an Aid to Database Design Specification -
Answer (click here)
70. Rational Rose: A UML-Based Design Tool - Answer (click here)
71. Automated Database Design Tools - Answer (click here)
72. Object and Object-Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
73. Overview of Object Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
74. Introduction to Object-Oriented Concepts and Features - Answer (click
here)
75. Object Identity, and Objects versus Literals - Answer (click here)
76. Complex Type Structures for Objects and Literals - Answer (click here)
77. Encapsulation of Operations and Persistence of Objects - Answer (click
here)
78. Type Hierarchies and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
79. Object-Relational Features: Object Database Extensions to SQL - Answer
(click here)
80. The ODMG Object Model and the Object Definition Language ODL -
Answer (click here)
81. Object Database Conceptual Design - Answer (click here)
82. The Object Query Language OQL - Answer (click here)
83. Overview of the C++ Language Binding in the ODMG Standard - Answer
(click here)
84. XML: Extensible Markup Language - Answer (click here)
85. Structured, Semistructured, and Unstructured Data - Answer (click here)
86. XML Hierarchical (Tree) Data Model - Answer (click here)
87. XML Documents, DTD, and XML Schema - Answer (click here)
88. Storing and Extracting XML Documents from Databases - Answer (click
here)
89. XML Languages - Answer (click here)
90. Extracting XML Documents from Relational Databases - Answer (click
here)
91. Introduction to SQL Programming Techniques - Answer (click here)
92. Database Programming: Techniques and Issues - Answer (click here)
93. Embedded SQL, Dynamic SQL, and SQLJ - Answer (click here)
94. Retrieving Single Tuples with Embedded SQL - Answer (click here)
95. Retrieving Multiple Tuples with Embedded SQL Using Cursors - Answer
(click here)
96. Specifying Queries at Runtime Using Dynamic SQL - Answer (click here)
97. SQLJ: Embedding SQL Commands in Java - Answer (click here)
98. Retrieving Multiple Tuples in SQLJ Using Iterators - Answer (click here)
99. Database Programming with Function Calls: SQL/CLI and JDBC -
Answer (click here)
100. Database Stored Procedures and SQL/PSM - Answer (click here)
101. Comparing the Three Approaches - Answer (click here)
102. Web Database Programming Using PHP - Answer (click here)
103. A Simple PHP Example - Answer (click here)
104. Overview of Basic Features of PHP - Answer (click here)
105. Overview of PHP Database Programming - Answer (click here)
106. Basics of Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational
Databases - Answer (click here)
107. Informal Design Guidelines for Relation Schemas - Answer (click here)
108. Functional Dependencies - Answer (click here)
109. Normal Forms Based on Primary Keys - Answer (click here)
110. General Definitions of Second and Third Normal Forms - Answer (click
here)
111. Boyce-Codd Normal Form - Answer (click here)
112. Multivalued Dependency and Fourth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
113. Join Dependencies and Fifth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
114. Relational Database Design Algorithms and Further Dependencies -
Answer (click here)
115. Further Topics in Functional Dependencies: Inference Rules,
Equivalence, and Minimal Cover - Answer (click here)
116. Properties of Relational Decompositions - Answer (click here)
117. Algorithms for Relational Database Schema Design - Answer (click here)
118. About Nulls, Dangling Tuples, and Alternative Relational Designs -
Answer (click here)
119. Further Discussion of Multivalued Dependencies and 4NF - Answer (click
here)
120. Other Dependencies and Normal Forms - Answer (click here)
121. Disk Storage, Basic File Structures, and Hashing - Answer (click here)
122. Secondary Storage Devices - Answer (click here)
123. Buffering of Blocks - Answer (click here)
124. Placing File Records on Disk - Answer (click here)
125. Operations on Files - Answer (click here)
126. Files of Unordered Records (Heap Files) - Answer (click here)
127. Files of Ordered Records (Sorted Files) - Answer (click here)
128. Hashing Techniques - Answer (click here)
129. Internal Hashing - Answer (click here)
130. External Hashing for Disk Files - Answer (click here)
131. Hashing Techniques That Allow Dynamic File Expansion - Answer (click
here)
132. Other Primary File Organizations - Answer (click here)
133. Parallelizing Disk Access Using RAID Technology - Answer (click here)
134. New Storage Systems - Answer (click here)
135. Indexing Structures for Files - Answer (click here)
136. Types of Single-Level Ordered Indexes - Answer (click here)
137. Multilevel Indexes - Answer (click here)
138. Dynamic Multilevel Indexes Using B-Trees and B+-Trees - Answer (click
here)
139. Search Trees and B-Trees - Answer (click here)
140. B+-Trees - Answer (click here)
141. Indexes on Multiple Keys - Answer (click here)
142. Other Types of Indexes - Answer (click here)
143. Some General Issues Concerning Indexing - Answer (click here)

PART 8 Query Processing and Optimization and Database Tuning


chapter 19 Algorithms for Query Processing and Optimization
1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)
9. Database System Concepts and Architecture - Answer (click here)
10. Data Models, Schemas, and Instances - Answer (click here)
11. Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence - Answer (click here)
12. Database Languages and Interfaces - Answer (click here)
13. The Database System Environment - Answer (click here)
14. Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs - Answer (click
here)
15. Classification of Database Management Systems - Answer (click here)
16. The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints - Answer
(click here)
17. Relational Model Concepts - Answer (click here)
18. Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas - Answer
(click here)
19. Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations
- Answer (click here)
20. Basic SQL - Answer (click here)
21. SQL Data Definition and Data Types - Answer (click here)
22. Specifying Constraints in SQL - Answer (click here)
23. Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL - Answer (click here)
24. INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
25. Additional Features of SQL - Answer (click here)
26. More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema
Modification - Answer (click here)
27. More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries - Answer (click here)
28. Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers - Answer
(click here)
29. Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL - Answer (click here)
30. Schema Change Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
31. The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
32. Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT - Answer (click here)
33. Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory - Answer (click here)
34. Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION - Answer (click here)
35. Additional Relational Operations - Answer (click here)
36. Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
37. The Tuple Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
38. The Domain Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
39. Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship (ER) Model - Answer (click
here)
40. Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design - Answer
(click here)
41. A Sample Database Application - Answer (click here)
42. Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes, and Keys - Answer (click here)
43. Relationship Types, Relationship Sets, Roles, and Structural Constraints
- Answer (click here)
44. Weak Entity Types - Answer (click here)
45. Refining the ER Design for the COMPANY Database - Answer (click here)
46. ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions, and Design Issues - Answer (click
here)
47. Example of Other Notation: UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
48. Relationship Types of Degree Higher than Two - Answer (click here)
49. The Enhanced Entity-Relationship (EER) Model - Answer (click here)
50. Subclasses, Superclasses, and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
51. Specialization and Generalization - Answer (click here)
52. Constraints and Characteristics of Specialization and Generalization
Hierarchies - Answer (click here)
53. Modeling of UNION Types Using Categories - Answer (click here)
54. A Sample UNIVERSITY EER Schema, Design Choices, and Formal
Definitions - Answer (click here)
55. Example of Other Notation: Representing Specialization and
Generalization in UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
56. Data Abstraction, Knowledge Representation, and Ontology Concepts -
Answer (click here)
57. Relational Database Design by ER- and EER-to-Relational Mapping -
Answer (click here)
58. Relational Database Design Using ER-to-Relational Mapping - Answer
(click here)
59. Mapping EER Model Constructs to Relations - Answer (click here)
60. Practical Database Design Methodology and Use of UML Diagrams -
Answer (click here)
61. The Role of Information Systems in Organizations - Answer (click here)
62. The Database Design and Implementation Process - Answer (click here)
63. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 1:
Requirements Collection and Analysis - Answer (click here)
64. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 2: Conceptual
Database Design - Answer (click here)
65. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 3: Choice of a
DBMS - Answer (click here)
66. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 4: Data Model
Mapping (Logical Database Design) - Answer (click here)
67. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 5: Physical
Database Design - Answer (click here)
68. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 6: Database
System Implementation and Tuning - Answer (click here)
69. Use of UML Diagrams as an Aid to Database Design Specification -
Answer (click here)
70. Rational Rose: A UML-Based Design Tool - Answer (click here)
71. Automated Database Design Tools - Answer (click here)
72. Object and Object-Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
73. Overview of Object Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
74. Introduction to Object-Oriented Concepts and Features - Answer (click
here)
75. Object Identity, and Objects versus Literals - Answer (click here)
76. Complex Type Structures for Objects and Literals - Answer (click here)
77. Encapsulation of Operations and Persistence of Objects - Answer (click
here)
78. Type Hierarchies and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
79. Object-Relational Features: Object Database Extensions to SQL - Answer
(click here)
80. The ODMG Object Model and the Object Definition Language ODL -
Answer (click here)
81. Object Database Conceptual Design - Answer (click here)
82. The Object Query Language OQL - Answer (click here)
83. Overview of the C++ Language Binding in the ODMG Standard - Answer
(click here)
84. XML: Extensible Markup Language - Answer (click here)
85. Structured, Semistructured, and Unstructured Data - Answer (click here)
86. XML Hierarchical (Tree) Data Model - Answer (click here)
87. XML Documents, DTD, and XML Schema - Answer (click here)
88. Storing and Extracting XML Documents from Databases - Answer (click
here)
89. XML Languages - Answer (click here)
90. Extracting XML Documents from Relational Databases - Answer (click
here)
91. Introduction to SQL Programming Techniques - Answer (click here)
92. Database Programming: Techniques and Issues - Answer (click here)
93. Embedded SQL, Dynamic SQL, and SQLJ - Answer (click here)
94. Retrieving Single Tuples with Embedded SQL - Answer (click here)
95. Retrieving Multiple Tuples with Embedded SQL Using Cursors - Answer
(click here)
96. Specifying Queries at Runtime Using Dynamic SQL - Answer (click here)
97. SQLJ: Embedding SQL Commands in Java - Answer (click here)
98. Retrieving Multiple Tuples in SQLJ Using Iterators - Answer (click here)
99. Database Programming with Function Calls: SQL/CLI and JDBC -
Answer (click here)
100. Database Stored Procedures and SQL/PSM - Answer (click here)
101. Comparing the Three Approaches - Answer (click here)
102. Web Database Programming Using PHP - Answer (click here)
103. A Simple PHP Example - Answer (click here)
104. Overview of Basic Features of PHP - Answer (click here)
105. Overview of PHP Database Programming - Answer (click here)
106. Basics of Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational
Databases - Answer (click here)
107. Informal Design Guidelines for Relation Schemas - Answer (click here)
108. Functional Dependencies - Answer (click here)
109. Normal Forms Based on Primary Keys - Answer (click here)
110. General Definitions of Second and Third Normal Forms - Answer (click
here)
111. Boyce-Codd Normal Form - Answer (click here)
112. Multivalued Dependency and Fourth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
113. Join Dependencies and Fifth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
114. Relational Database Design Algorithms and Further Dependencies -
Answer (click here)
115. Further Topics in Functional Dependencies: Inference Rules,
Equivalence, and Minimal Cover - Answer (click here)
116. Properties of Relational Decompositions - Answer (click here)
117. Algorithms for Relational Database Schema Design - Answer (click here)
118. About Nulls, Dangling Tuples, and Alternative Relational Designs -
Answer (click here)
119. Further Discussion of Multivalued Dependencies and 4NF - Answer (click
here)
120. Other Dependencies and Normal Forms - Answer (click here)
121. Disk Storage, Basic File Structures, and Hashing - Answer (click here)
122. Secondary Storage Devices - Answer (click here)
123. Buffering of Blocks - Answer (click here)
124. Placing File Records on Disk - Answer (click here)
125. Operations on Files - Answer (click here)
126. Files of Unordered Records (Heap Files) - Answer (click here)
127. Files of Ordered Records (Sorted Files) - Answer (click here)
128. Hashing Techniques - Answer (click here)
129. Internal Hashing - Answer (click here)
130. External Hashing for Disk Files - Answer (click here)
131. Hashing Techniques That Allow Dynamic File Expansion - Answer (click
here)
132. Other Primary File Organizations - Answer (click here)
133. Parallelizing Disk Access Using RAID Technology - Answer (click here)
134. New Storage Systems - Answer (click here)
135. Indexing Structures for Files - Answer (click here)
136. Types of Single-Level Ordered Indexes - Answer (click here)
137. Multilevel Indexes - Answer (click here)
138. Dynamic Multilevel Indexes Using B-Trees and B+-Trees - Answer (click
here)
139. Search Trees and B-Trees - Answer (click here)
140. B+-Trees - Answer (click here)
141. Indexes on Multiple Keys - Answer (click here)
142. Other Types of Indexes - Answer (click here)
143. Some General Issues Concerning Indexing - Answer (click here)
144. Algorithms for Query Processing and Optimization - Answer (click here)
145. Translating SQL Queries into Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
146. Algorithms for External Sorting - Answer (click here)
147. Implementing the SELECT Operation and Algorithms - Answer (click here)
148. Implementing the JOIN Operation and Algorithms - Answer (click here)
149. Algorithms for PROJECT and Set Operations - Answer (click here)
150. Implementing Aggregate Operations and OUTER JOINs - Answer (click
here)
151. Combining Operations Using Pipelining - Answer (click here)
152. Using Heuristics in Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
153. Using Selectivity and Cost Estimates in Query Optimization - Answer
(click here)
154. Cost Components for Query Execution - Answer (click here)
155. Catalog Information Used in Cost Functions - Answer (click here)
156. Examples of Cost Functions for SELECT - Answer (click here)
157. Examples of Cost Functions for JOIN - Answer (click here)
158. Multiple Relation Queries and JOIN Ordering - Answer (click here)
159. Example to Illustrate Cost-Based Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
160. Overview of Query Optimization in Oracle - Answer (click here)
161. Semantic Query Optimization - Answer (click here)

chapter 20 Physical Database Design and Tuning


1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)
9. Database System Concepts and Architecture - Answer (click here)
10. Data Models, Schemas, and Instances - Answer (click here)
11. Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence - Answer (click here)
12. Database Languages and Interfaces - Answer (click here)
13. The Database System Environment - Answer (click here)
14. Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs - Answer (click
here)
15. Classification of Database Management Systems - Answer (click here)
16. The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints - Answer
(click here)
17. Relational Model Concepts - Answer (click here)
18. Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas - Answer
(click here)
19. Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations
- Answer (click here)
20. Basic SQL - Answer (click here)
21. SQL Data Definition and Data Types - Answer (click here)
22. Specifying Constraints in SQL - Answer (click here)
23. Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL - Answer (click here)
24. INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
25. Additional Features of SQL - Answer (click here)
26. More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema
Modification - Answer (click here)
27. More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries - Answer (click here)
28. Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers - Answer
(click here)
29. Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL - Answer (click here)
30. Schema Change Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
31. The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
32. Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT - Answer (click here)
33. Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory - Answer (click here)
34. Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION - Answer (click here)
35. Additional Relational Operations - Answer (click here)
36. Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
37. The Tuple Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
38. The Domain Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
39. Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship (ER) Model - Answer (click
here)
40. Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design - Answer
(click here)
41. A Sample Database Application - Answer (click here)
42. Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes, and Keys - Answer (click here)
43. Relationship Types, Relationship Sets, Roles, and Structural Constraints
- Answer (click here)
44. Weak Entity Types - Answer (click here)
45. Refining the ER Design for the COMPANY Database - Answer (click here)
46. ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions, and Design Issues - Answer (click
here)
47. Example of Other Notation: UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
48. Relationship Types of Degree Higher than Two - Answer (click here)
49. The Enhanced Entity-Relationship (EER) Model - Answer (click here)
50. Subclasses, Superclasses, and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
51. Specialization and Generalization - Answer (click here)
52. Constraints and Characteristics of Specialization and Generalization
Hierarchies - Answer (click here)
53. Modeling of UNION Types Using Categories - Answer (click here)
54. A Sample UNIVERSITY EER Schema, Design Choices, and Formal
Definitions - Answer (click here)
55. Example of Other Notation: Representing Specialization and
Generalization in UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
56. Data Abstraction, Knowledge Representation, and Ontology Concepts -
Answer (click here)
57. Relational Database Design by ER- and EER-to-Relational Mapping -
Answer (click here)
58. Relational Database Design Using ER-to-Relational Mapping - Answer
(click here)
59. Mapping EER Model Constructs to Relations - Answer (click here)
60. Practical Database Design Methodology and Use of UML Diagrams -
Answer (click here)
61. The Role of Information Systems in Organizations - Answer (click here)
62. The Database Design and Implementation Process - Answer (click here)
63. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 1:
Requirements Collection and Analysis - Answer (click here)
64. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 2: Conceptual
Database Design - Answer (click here)
65. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 3: Choice of a
DBMS - Answer (click here)
66. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 4: Data Model
Mapping (Logical Database Design) - Answer (click here)
67. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 5: Physical
Database Design - Answer (click here)
68. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 6: Database
System Implementation and Tuning - Answer (click here)
69. Use of UML Diagrams as an Aid to Database Design Specification -
Answer (click here)
70. Rational Rose: A UML-Based Design Tool - Answer (click here)
71. Automated Database Design Tools - Answer (click here)
72. Object and Object-Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
73. Overview of Object Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
74. Introduction to Object-Oriented Concepts and Features - Answer (click
here)
75. Object Identity, and Objects versus Literals - Answer (click here)
76. Complex Type Structures for Objects and Literals - Answer (click here)
77. Encapsulation of Operations and Persistence of Objects - Answer (click
here)
78. Type Hierarchies and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
79. Object-Relational Features: Object Database Extensions to SQL - Answer
(click here)
80. The ODMG Object Model and the Object Definition Language ODL -
Answer (click here)
81. Object Database Conceptual Design - Answer (click here)
82. The Object Query Language OQL - Answer (click here)
83. Overview of the C++ Language Binding in the ODMG Standard - Answer
(click here)
84. XML: Extensible Markup Language - Answer (click here)
85. Structured, Semistructured, and Unstructured Data - Answer (click here)
86. XML Hierarchical (Tree) Data Model - Answer (click here)
87. XML Documents, DTD, and XML Schema - Answer (click here)
88. Storing and Extracting XML Documents from Databases - Answer (click
here)
89. XML Languages - Answer (click here)
90. Extracting XML Documents from Relational Databases - Answer (click
here)
91. Introduction to SQL Programming Techniques - Answer (click here)
92. Database Programming: Techniques and Issues - Answer (click here)
93. Embedded SQL, Dynamic SQL, and SQLJ - Answer (click here)
94. Retrieving Single Tuples with Embedded SQL - Answer (click here)
95. Retrieving Multiple Tuples with Embedded SQL Using Cursors - Answer
(click here)
96. Specifying Queries at Runtime Using Dynamic SQL - Answer (click here)
97. SQLJ: Embedding SQL Commands in Java - Answer (click here)
98. Retrieving Multiple Tuples in SQLJ Using Iterators - Answer (click here)
99. Database Programming with Function Calls: SQL/CLI and JDBC -
Answer (click here)
100. Database Stored Procedures and SQL/PSM - Answer (click here)
101. Comparing the Three Approaches - Answer (click here)
102. Web Database Programming Using PHP - Answer (click here)
103. A Simple PHP Example - Answer (click here)
104. Overview of Basic Features of PHP - Answer (click here)
105. Overview of PHP Database Programming - Answer (click here)
106. Basics of Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational
Databases - Answer (click here)
107. Informal Design Guidelines for Relation Schemas - Answer (click here)
108. Functional Dependencies - Answer (click here)
109. Normal Forms Based on Primary Keys - Answer (click here)
110. General Definitions of Second and Third Normal Forms - Answer (click
here)
111. Boyce-Codd Normal Form - Answer (click here)
112. Multivalued Dependency and Fourth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
113. Join Dependencies and Fifth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
114. Relational Database Design Algorithms and Further Dependencies -
Answer (click here)
115. Further Topics in Functional Dependencies: Inference Rules,
Equivalence, and Minimal Cover - Answer (click here)
116. Properties of Relational Decompositions - Answer (click here)
117. Algorithms for Relational Database Schema Design - Answer (click here)
118. About Nulls, Dangling Tuples, and Alternative Relational Designs -
Answer (click here)
119. Further Discussion of Multivalued Dependencies and 4NF - Answer (click
here)
120. Other Dependencies and Normal Forms - Answer (click here)
121. Disk Storage, Basic File Structures, and Hashing - Answer (click here)
122. Secondary Storage Devices - Answer (click here)
123. Buffering of Blocks - Answer (click here)
124. Placing File Records on Disk - Answer (click here)
125. Operations on Files - Answer (click here)
126. Files of Unordered Records (Heap Files) - Answer (click here)
127. Files of Ordered Records (Sorted Files) - Answer (click here)
128. Hashing Techniques - Answer (click here)
129. Internal Hashing - Answer (click here)
130. External Hashing for Disk Files - Answer (click here)
131. Hashing Techniques That Allow Dynamic File Expansion - Answer (click
here)
132. Other Primary File Organizations - Answer (click here)
133. Parallelizing Disk Access Using RAID Technology - Answer (click here)
134. New Storage Systems - Answer (click here)
135. Indexing Structures for Files - Answer (click here)
136. Types of Single-Level Ordered Indexes - Answer (click here)
137. Multilevel Indexes - Answer (click here)
138. Dynamic Multilevel Indexes Using B-Trees and B+-Trees - Answer (click
here)
139. Search Trees and B-Trees - Answer (click here)
140. B+-Trees - Answer (click here)
141. Indexes on Multiple Keys - Answer (click here)
142. Other Types of Indexes - Answer (click here)
143. Some General Issues Concerning Indexing - Answer (click here)
144. Algorithms for Query Processing and Optimization - Answer (click here)
145. Translating SQL Queries into Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
146. Algorithms for External Sorting - Answer (click here)
147. Implementing the SELECT Operation and Algorithms - Answer (click here)
148. Implementing the JOIN Operation and Algorithms - Answer (click here)
149. Algorithms for PROJECT and Set Operations - Answer (click here)
150. Implementing Aggregate Operations and OUTER JOINs - Answer (click
here)
151. Combining Operations Using Pipelining - Answer (click here)
152. Using Heuristics in Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
153. Using Selectivity and Cost Estimates in Query Optimization - Answer
(click here)
154. Cost Components for Query Execution - Answer (click here)
155. Catalog Information Used in Cost Functions - Answer (click here)
156. Examples of Cost Functions for SELECT - Answer (click here)
157. Examples of Cost Functions for JOIN - Answer (click here)
158. Multiple Relation Queries and JOIN Ordering - Answer (click here)
159. Example to Illustrate Cost-Based Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
160. Overview of Query Optimization in Oracle - Answer (click here)
161. Semantic Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
162. Physical Database Design and Tuning - Answer (click here)
163. Physical Database Design in Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
164. Factors That Influence Physical Database Design - Answer (click here)
165. Physical Database Design Decisions - Answer (click here)
166. An Overview of Database Tuning in Relational Systems - Answer (click
here)

PART 9 Transaction Processing Concurrency Control and


Recovery
chapter 21 Introduction to Transaction Processing Concepts and
Theory
1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)
9. Database System Concepts and Architecture - Answer (click here)
10. Data Models, Schemas, and Instances - Answer (click here)
11. Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence - Answer (click here)
12. Database Languages and Interfaces - Answer (click here)
13. The Database System Environment - Answer (click here)
14. Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs - Answer (click
here)
15. Classification of Database Management Systems - Answer (click here)
16. The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints - Answer
(click here)
17. Relational Model Concepts - Answer (click here)
18. Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas - Answer
(click here)
19. Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations
- Answer (click here)
20. Basic SQL - Answer (click here)
21. SQL Data Definition and Data Types - Answer (click here)
22. Specifying Constraints in SQL - Answer (click here)
23. Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL - Answer (click here)
24. INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
25. Additional Features of SQL - Answer (click here)
26. More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema
Modification - Answer (click here)
27. More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries - Answer (click here)
28. Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers - Answer
(click here)
29. Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL - Answer (click here)
30. Schema Change Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
31. The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
32. Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT - Answer (click here)
33. Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory - Answer (click here)
34. Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION - Answer (click here)
35. Additional Relational Operations - Answer (click here)
36. Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
37. The Tuple Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
38. The Domain Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
39. Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship (ER) Model - Answer (click
here)
40. Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design - Answer
(click here)
41. A Sample Database Application - Answer (click here)
42. Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes, and Keys - Answer (click here)
43. Relationship Types, Relationship Sets, Roles, and Structural Constraints
- Answer (click here)
44. Weak Entity Types - Answer (click here)
45. Refining the ER Design for the COMPANY Database - Answer (click here)
46. ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions, and Design Issues - Answer (click
here)
47. Example of Other Notation: UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
48. Relationship Types of Degree Higher than Two - Answer (click here)
49. The Enhanced Entity-Relationship (EER) Model - Answer (click here)
50. Subclasses, Superclasses, and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
51. Specialization and Generalization - Answer (click here)
52. Constraints and Characteristics of Specialization and Generalization
Hierarchies - Answer (click here)
53. Modeling of UNION Types Using Categories - Answer (click here)
54. A Sample UNIVERSITY EER Schema, Design Choices, and Formal
Definitions - Answer (click here)
55. Example of Other Notation: Representing Specialization and
Generalization in UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
56. Data Abstraction, Knowledge Representation, and Ontology Concepts -
Answer (click here)
57. Relational Database Design by ER- and EER-to-Relational Mapping -
Answer (click here)
58. Relational Database Design Using ER-to-Relational Mapping - Answer
(click here)
59. Mapping EER Model Constructs to Relations - Answer (click here)
60. Practical Database Design Methodology and Use of UML Diagrams -
Answer (click here)
61. The Role of Information Systems in Organizations - Answer (click here)
62. The Database Design and Implementation Process - Answer (click here)
63. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 1:
Requirements Collection and Analysis - Answer (click here)
64. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 2: Conceptual
Database Design - Answer (click here)
65. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 3: Choice of a
DBMS - Answer (click here)
66. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 4: Data Model
Mapping (Logical Database Design) - Answer (click here)
67. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 5: Physical
Database Design - Answer (click here)
68. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 6: Database
System Implementation and Tuning - Answer (click here)
69. Use of UML Diagrams as an Aid to Database Design Specification -
Answer (click here)
70. Rational Rose: A UML-Based Design Tool - Answer (click here)
71. Automated Database Design Tools - Answer (click here)
72. Object and Object-Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
73. Overview of Object Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
74. Introduction to Object-Oriented Concepts and Features - Answer (click
here)
75. Object Identity, and Objects versus Literals - Answer (click here)
76. Complex Type Structures for Objects and Literals - Answer (click here)
77. Encapsulation of Operations and Persistence of Objects - Answer (click
here)
78. Type Hierarchies and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
79. Object-Relational Features: Object Database Extensions to SQL - Answer
(click here)
80. The ODMG Object Model and the Object Definition Language ODL -
Answer (click here)
81. Object Database Conceptual Design - Answer (click here)
82. The Object Query Language OQL - Answer (click here)
83. Overview of the C++ Language Binding in the ODMG Standard - Answer
(click here)
84. XML: Extensible Markup Language - Answer (click here)
85. Structured, Semistructured, and Unstructured Data - Answer (click here)
86. XML Hierarchical (Tree) Data Model - Answer (click here)
87. XML Documents, DTD, and XML Schema - Answer (click here)
88. Storing and Extracting XML Documents from Databases - Answer (click
here)
89. XML Languages - Answer (click here)
90. Extracting XML Documents from Relational Databases - Answer (click
here)
91. Introduction to SQL Programming Techniques - Answer (click here)
92. Database Programming: Techniques and Issues - Answer (click here)
93. Embedded SQL, Dynamic SQL, and SQLJ - Answer (click here)
94. Retrieving Single Tuples with Embedded SQL - Answer (click here)
95. Retrieving Multiple Tuples with Embedded SQL Using Cursors - Answer
(click here)
96. Specifying Queries at Runtime Using Dynamic SQL - Answer (click here)
97. SQLJ: Embedding SQL Commands in Java - Answer (click here)
98. Retrieving Multiple Tuples in SQLJ Using Iterators - Answer (click here)
99. Database Programming with Function Calls: SQL/CLI and JDBC -
Answer (click here)
100. Database Stored Procedures and SQL/PSM - Answer (click here)
101. Comparing the Three Approaches - Answer (click here)
102. Web Database Programming Using PHP - Answer (click here)
103. A Simple PHP Example - Answer (click here)
104. Overview of Basic Features of PHP - Answer (click here)
105. Overview of PHP Database Programming - Answer (click here)
106. Basics of Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational
Databases - Answer (click here)
107. Informal Design Guidelines for Relation Schemas - Answer (click here)
108. Functional Dependencies - Answer (click here)
109. Normal Forms Based on Primary Keys - Answer (click here)
110. General Definitions of Second and Third Normal Forms - Answer (click
here)
111. Boyce-Codd Normal Form - Answer (click here)
112. Multivalued Dependency and Fourth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
113. Join Dependencies and Fifth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
114. Relational Database Design Algorithms and Further Dependencies -
Answer (click here)
115. Further Topics in Functional Dependencies: Inference Rules,
Equivalence, and Minimal Cover - Answer (click here)
116. Properties of Relational Decompositions - Answer (click here)
117. Algorithms for Relational Database Schema Design - Answer (click here)
118. About Nulls, Dangling Tuples, and Alternative Relational Designs -
Answer (click here)
119. Further Discussion of Multivalued Dependencies and 4NF - Answer (click
here)
120. Other Dependencies and Normal Forms - Answer (click here)
121. Disk Storage, Basic File Structures, and Hashing - Answer (click here)
122. Secondary Storage Devices - Answer (click here)
123. Buffering of Blocks - Answer (click here)
124. Placing File Records on Disk - Answer (click here)
125. Operations on Files - Answer (click here)
126. Files of Unordered Records (Heap Files) - Answer (click here)
127. Files of Ordered Records (Sorted Files) - Answer (click here)
128. Hashing Techniques - Answer (click here)
129. Internal Hashing - Answer (click here)
130. External Hashing for Disk Files - Answer (click here)
131. Hashing Techniques That Allow Dynamic File Expansion - Answer (click
here)
132. Other Primary File Organizations - Answer (click here)
133. Parallelizing Disk Access Using RAID Technology - Answer (click here)
134. New Storage Systems - Answer (click here)
135. Indexing Structures for Files - Answer (click here)
136. Types of Single-Level Ordered Indexes - Answer (click here)
137. Multilevel Indexes - Answer (click here)
138. Dynamic Multilevel Indexes Using B-Trees and B+-Trees - Answer (click
here)
139. Search Trees and B-Trees - Answer (click here)
140. B+-Trees - Answer (click here)
141. Indexes on Multiple Keys - Answer (click here)
142. Other Types of Indexes - Answer (click here)
143. Some General Issues Concerning Indexing - Answer (click here)
144. Algorithms for Query Processing and Optimization - Answer (click here)
145. Translating SQL Queries into Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
146. Algorithms for External Sorting - Answer (click here)
147. Implementing the SELECT Operation and Algorithms - Answer (click here)
148. Implementing the JOIN Operation and Algorithms - Answer (click here)
149. Algorithms for PROJECT and Set Operations - Answer (click here)
150. Implementing Aggregate Operations and OUTER JOINs - Answer (click
here)
151. Combining Operations Using Pipelining - Answer (click here)
152. Using Heuristics in Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
153. Using Selectivity and Cost Estimates in Query Optimization - Answer
(click here)
154. Cost Components for Query Execution - Answer (click here)
155. Catalog Information Used in Cost Functions - Answer (click here)
156. Examples of Cost Functions for SELECT - Answer (click here)
157. Examples of Cost Functions for JOIN - Answer (click here)
158. Multiple Relation Queries and JOIN Ordering - Answer (click here)
159. Example to Illustrate Cost-Based Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
160. Overview of Query Optimization in Oracle - Answer (click here)
161. Semantic Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
162. Physical Database Design and Tuning - Answer (click here)
163. Physical Database Design in Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
164. Factors That Influence Physical Database Design - Answer (click here)
165. Physical Database Design Decisions - Answer (click here)
166. An Overview of Database Tuning in Relational Systems - Answer (click
here)
167. Introduction to Transaction Processing Concepts and Theory - Answer
(click here)
168. Introduction to Transaction Processing - Answer (click here)
169. Transaction and System Concepts - Answer (click here)
170. Desirable Properties of Transactions - Answer (click here)
171. Characterizing Schedules Based on Recoverability - Answer (click here)
172. Characterizing Schedules Based on Serializability - Answer (click here)
173. Transaction Support in SQL - Answer (click here)

chapter 22 Concurrency Control Techniques


1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)
9. Database System Concepts and Architecture - Answer (click here)
10. Data Models, Schemas, and Instances - Answer (click here)
11. Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence - Answer (click here)
12. Database Languages and Interfaces - Answer (click here)
13. The Database System Environment - Answer (click here)
14. Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs - Answer (click
here)
15. Classification of Database Management Systems - Answer (click here)
16. The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints - Answer
(click here)
17. Relational Model Concepts - Answer (click here)
18. Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas - Answer
(click here)
19. Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations
- Answer (click here)
20. Basic SQL - Answer (click here)
21. SQL Data Definition and Data Types - Answer (click here)
22. Specifying Constraints in SQL - Answer (click here)
23. Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL - Answer (click here)
24. INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
25. Additional Features of SQL - Answer (click here)
26. More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema
Modification - Answer (click here)
27. More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries - Answer (click here)
28. Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers - Answer
(click here)
29. Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL - Answer (click here)
30. Schema Change Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
31. The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
32. Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT - Answer (click here)
33. Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory - Answer (click here)
34. Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION - Answer (click here)
35. Additional Relational Operations - Answer (click here)
36. Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
37. The Tuple Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
38. The Domain Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
39. Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship (ER) Model - Answer (click
here)
40. Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design - Answer
(click here)
41. A Sample Database Application - Answer (click here)
42. Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes, and Keys - Answer (click here)
43. Relationship Types, Relationship Sets, Roles, and Structural Constraints
- Answer (click here)
44. Weak Entity Types - Answer (click here)
45. Refining the ER Design for the COMPANY Database - Answer (click here)
46. ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions, and Design Issues - Answer (click
here)
47. Example of Other Notation: UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
48. Relationship Types of Degree Higher than Two - Answer (click here)
49. The Enhanced Entity-Relationship (EER) Model - Answer (click here)
50. Subclasses, Superclasses, and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
51. Specialization and Generalization - Answer (click here)
52. Constraints and Characteristics of Specialization and Generalization
Hierarchies - Answer (click here)
53. Modeling of UNION Types Using Categories - Answer (click here)
54. A Sample UNIVERSITY EER Schema, Design Choices, and Formal
Definitions - Answer (click here)
55. Example of Other Notation: Representing Specialization and
Generalization in UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
56. Data Abstraction, Knowledge Representation, and Ontology Concepts -
Answer (click here)
57. Relational Database Design by ER- and EER-to-Relational Mapping -
Answer (click here)
58. Relational Database Design Using ER-to-Relational Mapping - Answer
(click here)
59. Mapping EER Model Constructs to Relations - Answer (click here)
60. Practical Database Design Methodology and Use of UML Diagrams -
Answer (click here)
61. The Role of Information Systems in Organizations - Answer (click here)
62. The Database Design and Implementation Process - Answer (click here)
63. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 1:
Requirements Collection and Analysis - Answer (click here)
64. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 2: Conceptual
Database Design - Answer (click here)
65. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 3: Choice of a
DBMS - Answer (click here)
66. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 4: Data Model
Mapping (Logical Database Design) - Answer (click here)
67. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 5: Physical
Database Design - Answer (click here)
68. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 6: Database
System Implementation and Tuning - Answer (click here)
69. Use of UML Diagrams as an Aid to Database Design Specification -
Answer (click here)
70. Rational Rose: A UML-Based Design Tool - Answer (click here)
71. Automated Database Design Tools - Answer (click here)
72. Object and Object-Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
73. Overview of Object Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
74. Introduction to Object-Oriented Concepts and Features - Answer (click
here)
75. Object Identity, and Objects versus Literals - Answer (click here)
76. Complex Type Structures for Objects and Literals - Answer (click here)
77. Encapsulation of Operations and Persistence of Objects - Answer (click
here)
78. Type Hierarchies and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
79. Object-Relational Features: Object Database Extensions to SQL - Answer
(click here)
80. The ODMG Object Model and the Object Definition Language ODL -
Answer (click here)
81. Object Database Conceptual Design - Answer (click here)
82. The Object Query Language OQL - Answer (click here)
83. Overview of the C++ Language Binding in the ODMG Standard - Answer
(click here)
84. XML: Extensible Markup Language - Answer (click here)
85. Structured, Semistructured, and Unstructured Data - Answer (click here)
86. XML Hierarchical (Tree) Data Model - Answer (click here)
87. XML Documents, DTD, and XML Schema - Answer (click here)
88. Storing and Extracting XML Documents from Databases - Answer (click
here)
89. XML Languages - Answer (click here)
90. Extracting XML Documents from Relational Databases - Answer (click
here)
91. Introduction to SQL Programming Techniques - Answer (click here)
92. Database Programming: Techniques and Issues - Answer (click here)
93. Embedded SQL, Dynamic SQL, and SQLJ - Answer (click here)
94. Retrieving Single Tuples with Embedded SQL - Answer (click here)
95. Retrieving Multiple Tuples with Embedded SQL Using Cursors - Answer
(click here)
96. Specifying Queries at Runtime Using Dynamic SQL - Answer (click here)
97. SQLJ: Embedding SQL Commands in Java - Answer (click here)
98. Retrieving Multiple Tuples in SQLJ Using Iterators - Answer (click here)
99. Database Programming with Function Calls: SQL/CLI and JDBC -
Answer (click here)
100. Database Stored Procedures and SQL/PSM - Answer (click here)
101. Comparing the Three Approaches - Answer (click here)
102. Web Database Programming Using PHP - Answer (click here)
103. A Simple PHP Example - Answer (click here)
104. Overview of Basic Features of PHP - Answer (click here)
105. Overview of PHP Database Programming - Answer (click here)
106. Basics of Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational
Databases - Answer (click here)
107. Informal Design Guidelines for Relation Schemas - Answer (click here)
108. Functional Dependencies - Answer (click here)
109. Normal Forms Based on Primary Keys - Answer (click here)
110. General Definitions of Second and Third Normal Forms - Answer (click
here)
111. Boyce-Codd Normal Form - Answer (click here)
112. Multivalued Dependency and Fourth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
113. Join Dependencies and Fifth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
114. Relational Database Design Algorithms and Further Dependencies -
Answer (click here)
115. Further Topics in Functional Dependencies: Inference Rules,
Equivalence, and Minimal Cover - Answer (click here)
116. Properties of Relational Decompositions - Answer (click here)
117. Algorithms for Relational Database Schema Design - Answer (click here)
118. About Nulls, Dangling Tuples, and Alternative Relational Designs -
Answer (click here)
119. Further Discussion of Multivalued Dependencies and 4NF - Answer (click
here)
120. Other Dependencies and Normal Forms - Answer (click here)
121. Disk Storage, Basic File Structures, and Hashing - Answer (click here)
122. Secondary Storage Devices - Answer (click here)
123. Buffering of Blocks - Answer (click here)
124. Placing File Records on Disk - Answer (click here)
125. Operations on Files - Answer (click here)
126. Files of Unordered Records (Heap Files) - Answer (click here)
127. Files of Ordered Records (Sorted Files) - Answer (click here)
128. Hashing Techniques - Answer (click here)
129. Internal Hashing - Answer (click here)
130. External Hashing for Disk Files - Answer (click here)
131. Hashing Techniques That Allow Dynamic File Expansion - Answer (click
here)
132. Other Primary File Organizations - Answer (click here)
133. Parallelizing Disk Access Using RAID Technology - Answer (click here)
134. New Storage Systems - Answer (click here)
135. Indexing Structures for Files - Answer (click here)
136. Types of Single-Level Ordered Indexes - Answer (click here)
137. Multilevel Indexes - Answer (click here)
138. Dynamic Multilevel Indexes Using B-Trees and B+-Trees - Answer (click
here)
139. Search Trees and B-Trees - Answer (click here)
140. B+-Trees - Answer (click here)
141. Indexes on Multiple Keys - Answer (click here)
142. Other Types of Indexes - Answer (click here)
143. Some General Issues Concerning Indexing - Answer (click here)
144. Algorithms for Query Processing and Optimization - Answer (click here)
145. Translating SQL Queries into Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
146. Algorithms for External Sorting - Answer (click here)
147. Implementing the SELECT Operation and Algorithms - Answer (click here)
148. Implementing the JOIN Operation and Algorithms - Answer (click here)
149. Algorithms for PROJECT and Set Operations - Answer (click here)
150. Implementing Aggregate Operations and OUTER JOINs - Answer (click
here)
151. Combining Operations Using Pipelining - Answer (click here)
152. Using Heuristics in Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
153. Using Selectivity and Cost Estimates in Query Optimization - Answer
(click here)
154. Cost Components for Query Execution - Answer (click here)
155. Catalog Information Used in Cost Functions - Answer (click here)
156. Examples of Cost Functions for SELECT - Answer (click here)
157. Examples of Cost Functions for JOIN - Answer (click here)
158. Multiple Relation Queries and JOIN Ordering - Answer (click here)
159. Example to Illustrate Cost-Based Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
160. Overview of Query Optimization in Oracle - Answer (click here)
161. Semantic Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
162. Physical Database Design and Tuning - Answer (click here)
163. Physical Database Design in Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
164. Factors That Influence Physical Database Design - Answer (click here)
165. Physical Database Design Decisions - Answer (click here)
166. An Overview of Database Tuning in Relational Systems - Answer (click
here)
167. Introduction to Transaction Processing Concepts and Theory - Answer
(click here)
168. Introduction to Transaction Processing - Answer (click here)
169. Transaction and System Concepts - Answer (click here)
170. Desirable Properties of Transactions - Answer (click here)
171. Characterizing Schedules Based on Recoverability - Answer (click here)
172. Characterizing Schedules Based on Serializability - Answer (click here)
173. Transaction Support in SQL - Answer (click here)
174. Concurrency Control Techniques - Answer (click here)
175. Two-Phase Locking Techniques for Concurrency Control - Answer (click
here)
176. Concurrency Control Based on Timestamp Ordering - Answer (click here)
177. Multiversion Concurrency Control Techniques - Answer (click here)
178. Validation (Optimistic) Concurrency Control Techniques - Answer (click
here)
179. Granularity of Data Items and Multiple Granularity Locking - Answer
(click here)
180. Using Locks for Concurrency Control in Indexes - Answer (click here)
181. Other Concurrency Control Issues - Answer (click here)

chapter 23 Database Recovery Techniques


1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)
9. Database System Concepts and Architecture - Answer (click here)
10. Data Models, Schemas, and Instances - Answer (click here)
11. Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence - Answer (click here)
12. Database Languages and Interfaces - Answer (click here)
13. The Database System Environment - Answer (click here)
14. Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs - Answer (click
here)
15. Classification of Database Management Systems - Answer (click here)
16. The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints - Answer
(click here)
17. Relational Model Concepts - Answer (click here)
18. Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas - Answer
(click here)
19. Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations
- Answer (click here)
20. Basic SQL - Answer (click here)
21. SQL Data Definition and Data Types - Answer (click here)
22. Specifying Constraints in SQL - Answer (click here)
23. Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL - Answer (click here)
24. INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
25. Additional Features of SQL - Answer (click here)
26. More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema
Modification - Answer (click here)
27. More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries - Answer (click here)
28. Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers - Answer
(click here)
29. Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL - Answer (click here)
30. Schema Change Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
31. The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
32. Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT - Answer (click here)
33. Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory - Answer (click here)
34. Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION - Answer (click here)
35. Additional Relational Operations - Answer (click here)
36. Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
37. The Tuple Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
38. The Domain Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
39. Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship (ER) Model - Answer (click
here)
40. Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design - Answer
(click here)
41. A Sample Database Application - Answer (click here)
42. Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes, and Keys - Answer (click here)
43. Relationship Types, Relationship Sets, Roles, and Structural Constraints
- Answer (click here)
44. Weak Entity Types - Answer (click here)
45. Refining the ER Design for the COMPANY Database - Answer (click here)
46. ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions, and Design Issues - Answer (click
here)
47. Example of Other Notation: UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
48. Relationship Types of Degree Higher than Two - Answer (click here)
49. The Enhanced Entity-Relationship (EER) Model - Answer (click here)
50. Subclasses, Superclasses, and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
51. Specialization and Generalization - Answer (click here)
52. Constraints and Characteristics of Specialization and Generalization
Hierarchies - Answer (click here)
53. Modeling of UNION Types Using Categories - Answer (click here)
54. A Sample UNIVERSITY EER Schema, Design Choices, and Formal
Definitions - Answer (click here)
55. Example of Other Notation: Representing Specialization and
Generalization in UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
56. Data Abstraction, Knowledge Representation, and Ontology Concepts -
Answer (click here)
57. Relational Database Design by ER- and EER-to-Relational Mapping -
Answer (click here)
58. Relational Database Design Using ER-to-Relational Mapping - Answer
(click here)
59. Mapping EER Model Constructs to Relations - Answer (click here)
60. Practical Database Design Methodology and Use of UML Diagrams -
Answer (click here)
61. The Role of Information Systems in Organizations - Answer (click here)
62. The Database Design and Implementation Process - Answer (click here)
63. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 1:
Requirements Collection and Analysis - Answer (click here)
64. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 2: Conceptual
Database Design - Answer (click here)
65. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 3: Choice of a
DBMS - Answer (click here)
66. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 4: Data Model
Mapping (Logical Database Design) - Answer (click here)
67. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 5: Physical
Database Design - Answer (click here)
68. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 6: Database
System Implementation and Tuning - Answer (click here)
69. Use of UML Diagrams as an Aid to Database Design Specification -
Answer (click here)
70. Rational Rose: A UML-Based Design Tool - Answer (click here)
71. Automated Database Design Tools - Answer (click here)
72. Object and Object-Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
73. Overview of Object Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
74. Introduction to Object-Oriented Concepts and Features - Answer (click
here)
75. Object Identity, and Objects versus Literals - Answer (click here)
76. Complex Type Structures for Objects and Literals - Answer (click here)
77. Encapsulation of Operations and Persistence of Objects - Answer (click
here)
78. Type Hierarchies and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
79. Object-Relational Features: Object Database Extensions to SQL - Answer
(click here)
80. The ODMG Object Model and the Object Definition Language ODL -
Answer (click here)
81. Object Database Conceptual Design - Answer (click here)
82. The Object Query Language OQL - Answer (click here)
83. Overview of the C++ Language Binding in the ODMG Standard - Answer
(click here)
84. XML: Extensible Markup Language - Answer (click here)
85. Structured, Semistructured, and Unstructured Data - Answer (click here)
86. XML Hierarchical (Tree) Data Model - Answer (click here)
87. XML Documents, DTD, and XML Schema - Answer (click here)
88. Storing and Extracting XML Documents from Databases - Answer (click
here)
89. XML Languages - Answer (click here)
90. Extracting XML Documents from Relational Databases - Answer (click
here)
91. Introduction to SQL Programming Techniques - Answer (click here)
92. Database Programming: Techniques and Issues - Answer (click here)
93. Embedded SQL, Dynamic SQL, and SQLJ - Answer (click here)
94. Retrieving Single Tuples with Embedded SQL - Answer (click here)
95. Retrieving Multiple Tuples with Embedded SQL Using Cursors - Answer
(click here)
96. Specifying Queries at Runtime Using Dynamic SQL - Answer (click here)
97. SQLJ: Embedding SQL Commands in Java - Answer (click here)
98. Retrieving Multiple Tuples in SQLJ Using Iterators - Answer (click here)
99. Database Programming with Function Calls: SQL/CLI and JDBC -
Answer (click here)
100. Database Stored Procedures and SQL/PSM - Answer (click here)
101. Comparing the Three Approaches - Answer (click here)
102. Web Database Programming Using PHP - Answer (click here)
103. A Simple PHP Example - Answer (click here)
104. Overview of Basic Features of PHP - Answer (click here)
105. Overview of PHP Database Programming - Answer (click here)
106. Basics of Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational
Databases - Answer (click here)
107. Informal Design Guidelines for Relation Schemas - Answer (click here)
108. Functional Dependencies - Answer (click here)
109. Normal Forms Based on Primary Keys - Answer (click here)
110. General Definitions of Second and Third Normal Forms - Answer (click
here)
111. Boyce-Codd Normal Form - Answer (click here)
112. Multivalued Dependency and Fourth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
113. Join Dependencies and Fifth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
114. Relational Database Design Algorithms and Further Dependencies -
Answer (click here)
115. Further Topics in Functional Dependencies: Inference Rules,
Equivalence, and Minimal Cover - Answer (click here)
116. Properties of Relational Decompositions - Answer (click here)
117. Algorithms for Relational Database Schema Design - Answer (click here)
118. About Nulls, Dangling Tuples, and Alternative Relational Designs -
Answer (click here)
119. Further Discussion of Multivalued Dependencies and 4NF - Answer (click
here)
120. Other Dependencies and Normal Forms - Answer (click here)
121. Disk Storage, Basic File Structures, and Hashing - Answer (click here)
122. Secondary Storage Devices - Answer (click here)
123. Buffering of Blocks - Answer (click here)
124. Placing File Records on Disk - Answer (click here)
125. Operations on Files - Answer (click here)
126. Files of Unordered Records (Heap Files) - Answer (click here)
127. Files of Ordered Records (Sorted Files) - Answer (click here)
128. Hashing Techniques - Answer (click here)
129. Internal Hashing - Answer (click here)
130. External Hashing for Disk Files - Answer (click here)
131. Hashing Techniques That Allow Dynamic File Expansion - Answer (click
here)
132. Other Primary File Organizations - Answer (click here)
133. Parallelizing Disk Access Using RAID Technology - Answer (click here)
134. New Storage Systems - Answer (click here)
135. Indexing Structures for Files - Answer (click here)
136. Types of Single-Level Ordered Indexes - Answer (click here)
137. Multilevel Indexes - Answer (click here)
138. Dynamic Multilevel Indexes Using B-Trees and B+-Trees - Answer (click
here)
139. Search Trees and B-Trees - Answer (click here)
140. B+-Trees - Answer (click here)
141. Indexes on Multiple Keys - Answer (click here)
142. Other Types of Indexes - Answer (click here)
143. Some General Issues Concerning Indexing - Answer (click here)
144. Algorithms for Query Processing and Optimization - Answer (click here)
145. Translating SQL Queries into Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
146. Algorithms for External Sorting - Answer (click here)
147. Implementing the SELECT Operation and Algorithms - Answer (click here)
148. Implementing the JOIN Operation and Algorithms - Answer (click here)
149. Algorithms for PROJECT and Set Operations - Answer (click here)
150. Implementing Aggregate Operations and OUTER JOINs - Answer (click
here)
151. Combining Operations Using Pipelining - Answer (click here)
152. Using Heuristics in Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
153. Using Selectivity and Cost Estimates in Query Optimization - Answer
(click here)
154. Cost Components for Query Execution - Answer (click here)
155. Catalog Information Used in Cost Functions - Answer (click here)
156. Examples of Cost Functions for SELECT - Answer (click here)
157. Examples of Cost Functions for JOIN - Answer (click here)
158. Multiple Relation Queries and JOIN Ordering - Answer (click here)
159. Example to Illustrate Cost-Based Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
160. Overview of Query Optimization in Oracle - Answer (click here)
161. Semantic Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
162. Physical Database Design and Tuning - Answer (click here)
163. Physical Database Design in Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
164. Factors That Influence Physical Database Design - Answer (click here)
165. Physical Database Design Decisions - Answer (click here)
166. An Overview of Database Tuning in Relational Systems - Answer (click
here)
167. Introduction to Transaction Processing Concepts and Theory - Answer
(click here)
168. Introduction to Transaction Processing - Answer (click here)
169. Transaction and System Concepts - Answer (click here)
170. Desirable Properties of Transactions - Answer (click here)
171. Characterizing Schedules Based on Recoverability - Answer (click here)
172. Characterizing Schedules Based on Serializability - Answer (click here)
173. Transaction Support in SQL - Answer (click here)
174. Concurrency Control Techniques - Answer (click here)
175. Two-Phase Locking Techniques for Concurrency Control - Answer (click
here)
176. Concurrency Control Based on Timestamp Ordering - Answer (click here)
177. Multiversion Concurrency Control Techniques - Answer (click here)
178. Validation (Optimistic) Concurrency Control Techniques - Answer (click
here)
179. Granularity of Data Items and Multiple Granularity Locking - Answer
(click here)
180. Using Locks for Concurrency Control in Indexes - Answer (click here)
181. Other Concurrency Control Issues - Answer (click here)
182. Database Recovery Techniques - Answer (click here)
183. Recovery Concepts - Answer (click here)
184. NO-UNDO/REDO Recovery Based on Deferred Update - Answer (click
here)
185. Recovery Techniques Based on Immediate Update - Answer (click here)
186. Shadow Paging - Answer (click here)
187. The ARIES Recovery Algorithm - Answer (click here)
188. Recovery in Multidatabase Systems - Answer (click here)
189. Database Backup and Recovery from Catastrophic Failures - Answer (click
here)

PART 10 Additional Database Topics Security and Distribution


chapter 24 Database Security
1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)
9. Database System Concepts and Architecture - Answer (click here)
10. Data Models, Schemas, and Instances - Answer (click here)
11. Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence - Answer (click here)
12. Database Languages and Interfaces - Answer (click here)
13. The Database System Environment - Answer (click here)
14. Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs - Answer (click
here)
15. Classification of Database Management Systems - Answer (click here)
16. The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints - Answer
(click here)
17. Relational Model Concepts - Answer (click here)
18. Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas - Answer
(click here)
19. Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations
- Answer (click here)
20. Basic SQL - Answer (click here)
21. SQL Data Definition and Data Types - Answer (click here)
22. Specifying Constraints in SQL - Answer (click here)
23. Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL - Answer (click here)
24. INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
25. Additional Features of SQL - Answer (click here)
26. More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema
Modification - Answer (click here)
27. More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries - Answer (click here)
28. Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers - Answer
(click here)
29. Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL - Answer (click here)
30. Schema Change Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
31. The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
32. Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT - Answer (click here)
33. Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory - Answer (click here)
34. Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION - Answer (click here)
35. Additional Relational Operations - Answer (click here)
36. Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
37. The Tuple Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
38. The Domain Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
39. Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship (ER) Model - Answer (click
here)
40. Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design - Answer
(click here)
41. A Sample Database Application - Answer (click here)
42. Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes, and Keys - Answer (click here)
43. Relationship Types, Relationship Sets, Roles, and Structural Constraints
- Answer (click here)
44. Weak Entity Types - Answer (click here)
45. Refining the ER Design for the COMPANY Database - Answer (click here)
46. ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions, and Design Issues - Answer (click
here)
47. Example of Other Notation: UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
48. Relationship Types of Degree Higher than Two - Answer (click here)
49. The Enhanced Entity-Relationship (EER) Model - Answer (click here)
50. Subclasses, Superclasses, and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
51. Specialization and Generalization - Answer (click here)
52. Constraints and Characteristics of Specialization and Generalization
Hierarchies - Answer (click here)
53. Modeling of UNION Types Using Categories - Answer (click here)
54. A Sample UNIVERSITY EER Schema, Design Choices, and Formal
Definitions - Answer (click here)
55. Example of Other Notation: Representing Specialization and
Generalization in UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
56. Data Abstraction, Knowledge Representation, and Ontology Concepts -
Answer (click here)
57. Relational Database Design by ER- and EER-to-Relational Mapping -
Answer (click here)
58. Relational Database Design Using ER-to-Relational Mapping - Answer
(click here)
59. Mapping EER Model Constructs to Relations - Answer (click here)
60. Practical Database Design Methodology and Use of UML Diagrams -
Answer (click here)
61. The Role of Information Systems in Organizations - Answer (click here)
62. The Database Design and Implementation Process - Answer (click here)
63. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 1:
Requirements Collection and Analysis - Answer (click here)
64. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 2: Conceptual
Database Design - Answer (click here)
65. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 3: Choice of a
DBMS - Answer (click here)
66. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 4: Data Model
Mapping (Logical Database Design) - Answer (click here)
67. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 5: Physical
Database Design - Answer (click here)
68. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 6: Database
System Implementation and Tuning - Answer (click here)
69. Use of UML Diagrams as an Aid to Database Design Specification -
Answer (click here)
70. Rational Rose: A UML-Based Design Tool - Answer (click here)
71. Automated Database Design Tools - Answer (click here)
72. Object and Object-Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
73. Overview of Object Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
74. Introduction to Object-Oriented Concepts and Features - Answer (click
here)
75. Object Identity, and Objects versus Literals - Answer (click here)
76. Complex Type Structures for Objects and Literals - Answer (click here)
77. Encapsulation of Operations and Persistence of Objects - Answer (click
here)
78. Type Hierarchies and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
79. Object-Relational Features: Object Database Extensions to SQL - Answer
(click here)
80. The ODMG Object Model and the Object Definition Language ODL -
Answer (click here)
81. Object Database Conceptual Design - Answer (click here)
82. The Object Query Language OQL - Answer (click here)
83. Overview of the C++ Language Binding in the ODMG Standard - Answer
(click here)
84. XML: Extensible Markup Language - Answer (click here)
85. Structured, Semistructured, and Unstructured Data - Answer (click here)
86. XML Hierarchical (Tree) Data Model - Answer (click here)
87. XML Documents, DTD, and XML Schema - Answer (click here)
88. Storing and Extracting XML Documents from Databases - Answer (click
here)
89. XML Languages - Answer (click here)
90. Extracting XML Documents from Relational Databases - Answer (click
here)
91. Introduction to SQL Programming Techniques - Answer (click here)
92. Database Programming: Techniques and Issues - Answer (click here)
93. Embedded SQL, Dynamic SQL, and SQLJ - Answer (click here)
94. Retrieving Single Tuples with Embedded SQL - Answer (click here)
95. Retrieving Multiple Tuples with Embedded SQL Using Cursors - Answer
(click here)
96. Specifying Queries at Runtime Using Dynamic SQL - Answer (click here)
97. SQLJ: Embedding SQL Commands in Java - Answer (click here)
98. Retrieving Multiple Tuples in SQLJ Using Iterators - Answer (click here)
99. Database Programming with Function Calls: SQL/CLI and JDBC -
Answer (click here)
100. Database Stored Procedures and SQL/PSM - Answer (click here)
101. Comparing the Three Approaches - Answer (click here)
102. Web Database Programming Using PHP - Answer (click here)
103. A Simple PHP Example - Answer (click here)
104. Overview of Basic Features of PHP - Answer (click here)
105. Overview of PHP Database Programming - Answer (click here)
106. Basics of Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational
Databases - Answer (click here)
107. Informal Design Guidelines for Relation Schemas - Answer (click here)
108. Functional Dependencies - Answer (click here)
109. Normal Forms Based on Primary Keys - Answer (click here)
110. General Definitions of Second and Third Normal Forms - Answer (click
here)
111. Boyce-Codd Normal Form - Answer (click here)
112. Multivalued Dependency and Fourth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
113. Join Dependencies and Fifth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
114. Relational Database Design Algorithms and Further Dependencies -
Answer (click here)
115. Further Topics in Functional Dependencies: Inference Rules,
Equivalence, and Minimal Cover - Answer (click here)
116. Properties of Relational Decompositions - Answer (click here)
117. Algorithms for Relational Database Schema Design - Answer (click here)
118. About Nulls, Dangling Tuples, and Alternative Relational Designs -
Answer (click here)
119. Further Discussion of Multivalued Dependencies and 4NF - Answer (click
here)
120. Other Dependencies and Normal Forms - Answer (click here)
121. Disk Storage, Basic File Structures, and Hashing - Answer (click here)
122. Secondary Storage Devices - Answer (click here)
123. Buffering of Blocks - Answer (click here)
124. Placing File Records on Disk - Answer (click here)
125. Operations on Files - Answer (click here)
126. Files of Unordered Records (Heap Files) - Answer (click here)
127. Files of Ordered Records (Sorted Files) - Answer (click here)
128. Hashing Techniques - Answer (click here)
129. Internal Hashing - Answer (click here)
130. External Hashing for Disk Files - Answer (click here)
131. Hashing Techniques That Allow Dynamic File Expansion - Answer (click
here)
132. Other Primary File Organizations - Answer (click here)
133. Parallelizing Disk Access Using RAID Technology - Answer (click here)
134. New Storage Systems - Answer (click here)
135. Indexing Structures for Files - Answer (click here)
136. Types of Single-Level Ordered Indexes - Answer (click here)
137. Multilevel Indexes - Answer (click here)
138. Dynamic Multilevel Indexes Using B-Trees and B+-Trees - Answer (click
here)
139. Search Trees and B-Trees - Answer (click here)
140. B+-Trees - Answer (click here)
141. Indexes on Multiple Keys - Answer (click here)
142. Other Types of Indexes - Answer (click here)
143. Some General Issues Concerning Indexing - Answer (click here)
144. Algorithms for Query Processing and Optimization - Answer (click here)
145. Translating SQL Queries into Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
146. Algorithms for External Sorting - Answer (click here)
147. Implementing the SELECT Operation and Algorithms - Answer (click here)
148. Implementing the JOIN Operation and Algorithms - Answer (click here)
149. Algorithms for PROJECT and Set Operations - Answer (click here)
150. Implementing Aggregate Operations and OUTER JOINs - Answer (click
here)
151. Combining Operations Using Pipelining - Answer (click here)
152. Using Heuristics in Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
153. Using Selectivity and Cost Estimates in Query Optimization - Answer
(click here)
154. Cost Components for Query Execution - Answer (click here)
155. Catalog Information Used in Cost Functions - Answer (click here)
156. Examples of Cost Functions for SELECT - Answer (click here)
157. Examples of Cost Functions for JOIN - Answer (click here)
158. Multiple Relation Queries and JOIN Ordering - Answer (click here)
159. Example to Illustrate Cost-Based Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
160. Overview of Query Optimization in Oracle - Answer (click here)
161. Semantic Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
162. Physical Database Design and Tuning - Answer (click here)
163. Physical Database Design in Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
164. Factors That Influence Physical Database Design - Answer (click here)
165. Physical Database Design Decisions - Answer (click here)
166. An Overview of Database Tuning in Relational Systems - Answer (click
here)
167. Introduction to Transaction Processing Concepts and Theory - Answer
(click here)
168. Introduction to Transaction Processing - Answer (click here)
169. Transaction and System Concepts - Answer (click here)
170. Desirable Properties of Transactions - Answer (click here)
171. Characterizing Schedules Based on Recoverability - Answer (click here)
172. Characterizing Schedules Based on Serializability - Answer (click here)
173. Transaction Support in SQL - Answer (click here)
174. Concurrency Control Techniques - Answer (click here)
175. Two-Phase Locking Techniques for Concurrency Control - Answer (click
here)
176. Concurrency Control Based on Timestamp Ordering - Answer (click here)
177. Multiversion Concurrency Control Techniques - Answer (click here)
178. Validation (Optimistic) Concurrency Control Techniques - Answer (click
here)
179. Granularity of Data Items and Multiple Granularity Locking - Answer
(click here)
180. Using Locks for Concurrency Control in Indexes - Answer (click here)
181. Other Concurrency Control Issues - Answer (click here)
182. Database Recovery Techniques - Answer (click here)
183. Recovery Concepts - Answer (click here)
184. NO-UNDO/REDO Recovery Based on Deferred Update - Answer (click
here)
185. Recovery Techniques Based on Immediate Update - Answer (click here)
186. Shadow Paging - Answer (click here)
187. The ARIES Recovery Algorithm - Answer (click here)
188. Recovery in Multidatabase Systems - Answer (click here)
189. Database Backup and Recovery from Catastrophic Failures - Answer (click
here)
190. Database Security - Answer (click here)
191. Introduction to Database Security Issues - Answer (click here)
192. Discretionary Access Control Based on Granting and Revoking
Privileges - Answer (click here)
193. Mandatory Access Control and Role-Based Access Control for
Multilevel Security - Answer (click here)
194. SQL Injection - Answer (click here)
195. Introduction to Statistical Database Security - Answer (click here)
196. Introduction to Flow Control - Answer (click here)
197. Encryption and Public Key Infrastructures - Answer (click here)
198. Privacy Issues and Preservation - Answer (click here)
199. Challenges of Database Security - Answer (click here)
200. Oracle Label-Based Security - Answer (click here)

chapter 25 Distributed Databases


1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)
9. Database System Concepts and Architecture - Answer (click here)
10. Data Models, Schemas, and Instances - Answer (click here)
11. Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence - Answer (click here)
12. Database Languages and Interfaces - Answer (click here)
13. The Database System Environment - Answer (click here)
14. Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs - Answer (click
here)
15. Classification of Database Management Systems - Answer (click here)
16. The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints - Answer
(click here)
17. Relational Model Concepts - Answer (click here)
18. Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas - Answer
(click here)
19. Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations
- Answer (click here)
20. Basic SQL - Answer (click here)
21. SQL Data Definition and Data Types - Answer (click here)
22. Specifying Constraints in SQL - Answer (click here)
23. Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL - Answer (click here)
24. INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
25. Additional Features of SQL - Answer (click here)
26. More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema
Modification - Answer (click here)
27. More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries - Answer (click here)
28. Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers - Answer
(click here)
29. Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL - Answer (click here)
30. Schema Change Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
31. The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
32. Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT - Answer (click here)
33. Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory - Answer (click here)
34. Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION - Answer (click here)
35. Additional Relational Operations - Answer (click here)
36. Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
37. The Tuple Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
38. The Domain Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
39. Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship (ER) Model - Answer (click
here)
40. Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design - Answer
(click here)
41. A Sample Database Application - Answer (click here)
42. Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes, and Keys - Answer (click here)
43. Relationship Types, Relationship Sets, Roles, and Structural Constraints
- Answer (click here)
44. Weak Entity Types - Answer (click here)
45. Refining the ER Design for the COMPANY Database - Answer (click here)
46. ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions, and Design Issues - Answer (click
here)
47. Example of Other Notation: UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
48. Relationship Types of Degree Higher than Two - Answer (click here)
49. The Enhanced Entity-Relationship (EER) Model - Answer (click here)
50. Subclasses, Superclasses, and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
51. Specialization and Generalization - Answer (click here)
52. Constraints and Characteristics of Specialization and Generalization
Hierarchies - Answer (click here)
53. Modeling of UNION Types Using Categories - Answer (click here)
54. A Sample UNIVERSITY EER Schema, Design Choices, and Formal
Definitions - Answer (click here)
55. Example of Other Notation: Representing Specialization and
Generalization in UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
56. Data Abstraction, Knowledge Representation, and Ontology Concepts -
Answer (click here)
57. Relational Database Design by ER- and EER-to-Relational Mapping -
Answer (click here)
58. Relational Database Design Using ER-to-Relational Mapping - Answer
(click here)
59. Mapping EER Model Constructs to Relations - Answer (click here)
60. Practical Database Design Methodology and Use of UML Diagrams -
Answer (click here)
61. The Role of Information Systems in Organizations - Answer (click here)
62. The Database Design and Implementation Process - Answer (click here)
63. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 1:
Requirements Collection and Analysis - Answer (click here)
64. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 2: Conceptual
Database Design - Answer (click here)
65. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 3: Choice of a
DBMS - Answer (click here)
66. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 4: Data Model
Mapping (Logical Database Design) - Answer (click here)
67. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 5: Physical
Database Design - Answer (click here)
68. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 6: Database
System Implementation and Tuning - Answer (click here)
69. Use of UML Diagrams as an Aid to Database Design Specification -
Answer (click here)
70. Rational Rose: A UML-Based Design Tool - Answer (click here)
71. Automated Database Design Tools - Answer (click here)
72. Object and Object-Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
73. Overview of Object Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
74. Introduction to Object-Oriented Concepts and Features - Answer (click
here)
75. Object Identity, and Objects versus Literals - Answer (click here)
76. Complex Type Structures for Objects and Literals - Answer (click here)
77. Encapsulation of Operations and Persistence of Objects - Answer (click
here)
78. Type Hierarchies and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
79. Object-Relational Features: Object Database Extensions to SQL - Answer
(click here)
80. The ODMG Object Model and the Object Definition Language ODL -
Answer (click here)
81. Object Database Conceptual Design - Answer (click here)
82. The Object Query Language OQL - Answer (click here)
83. Overview of the C++ Language Binding in the ODMG Standard - Answer
(click here)
84. XML: Extensible Markup Language - Answer (click here)
85. Structured, Semistructured, and Unstructured Data - Answer (click here)
86. XML Hierarchical (Tree) Data Model - Answer (click here)
87. XML Documents, DTD, and XML Schema - Answer (click here)
88. Storing and Extracting XML Documents from Databases - Answer (click
here)
89. XML Languages - Answer (click here)
90. Extracting XML Documents from Relational Databases - Answer (click
here)
91. Introduction to SQL Programming Techniques - Answer (click here)
92. Database Programming: Techniques and Issues - Answer (click here)
93. Embedded SQL, Dynamic SQL, and SQLJ - Answer (click here)
94. Retrieving Single Tuples with Embedded SQL - Answer (click here)
95. Retrieving Multiple Tuples with Embedded SQL Using Cursors - Answer
(click here)
96. Specifying Queries at Runtime Using Dynamic SQL - Answer (click here)
97. SQLJ: Embedding SQL Commands in Java - Answer (click here)
98. Retrieving Multiple Tuples in SQLJ Using Iterators - Answer (click here)
99. Database Programming with Function Calls: SQL/CLI and JDBC -
Answer (click here)
100. Database Stored Procedures and SQL/PSM - Answer (click here)
101. Comparing the Three Approaches - Answer (click here)
102. Web Database Programming Using PHP - Answer (click here)
103. A Simple PHP Example - Answer (click here)
104. Overview of Basic Features of PHP - Answer (click here)
105. Overview of PHP Database Programming - Answer (click here)
106. Basics of Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational
Databases - Answer (click here)
107. Informal Design Guidelines for Relation Schemas - Answer (click here)
108. Functional Dependencies - Answer (click here)
109. Normal Forms Based on Primary Keys - Answer (click here)
110. General Definitions of Second and Third Normal Forms - Answer (click
here)
111. Boyce-Codd Normal Form - Answer (click here)
112. Multivalued Dependency and Fourth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
113. Join Dependencies and Fifth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
114. Relational Database Design Algorithms and Further Dependencies -
Answer (click here)
115. Further Topics in Functional Dependencies: Inference Rules,
Equivalence, and Minimal Cover - Answer (click here)
116. Properties of Relational Decompositions - Answer (click here)
117. Algorithms for Relational Database Schema Design - Answer (click here)
118. About Nulls, Dangling Tuples, and Alternative Relational Designs -
Answer (click here)
119. Further Discussion of Multivalued Dependencies and 4NF - Answer (click
here)
120. Other Dependencies and Normal Forms - Answer (click here)
121. Disk Storage, Basic File Structures, and Hashing - Answer (click here)
122. Secondary Storage Devices - Answer (click here)
123. Buffering of Blocks - Answer (click here)
124. Placing File Records on Disk - Answer (click here)
125. Operations on Files - Answer (click here)
126. Files of Unordered Records (Heap Files) - Answer (click here)
127. Files of Ordered Records (Sorted Files) - Answer (click here)
128. Hashing Techniques - Answer (click here)
129. Internal Hashing - Answer (click here)
130. External Hashing for Disk Files - Answer (click here)
131. Hashing Techniques That Allow Dynamic File Expansion - Answer (click
here)
132. Other Primary File Organizations - Answer (click here)
133. Parallelizing Disk Access Using RAID Technology - Answer (click here)
134. New Storage Systems - Answer (click here)
135. Indexing Structures for Files - Answer (click here)
136. Types of Single-Level Ordered Indexes - Answer (click here)
137. Multilevel Indexes - Answer (click here)
138. Dynamic Multilevel Indexes Using B-Trees and B+-Trees - Answer (click
here)
139. Search Trees and B-Trees - Answer (click here)
140. B+-Trees - Answer (click here)
141. Indexes on Multiple Keys - Answer (click here)
142. Other Types of Indexes - Answer (click here)
143. Some General Issues Concerning Indexing - Answer (click here)
144. Algorithms for Query Processing and Optimization - Answer (click here)
145. Translating SQL Queries into Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
146. Algorithms for External Sorting - Answer (click here)
147. Implementing the SELECT Operation and Algorithms - Answer (click here)
148. Implementing the JOIN Operation and Algorithms - Answer (click here)
149. Algorithms for PROJECT and Set Operations - Answer (click here)
150. Implementing Aggregate Operations and OUTER JOINs - Answer (click
here)
151. Combining Operations Using Pipelining - Answer (click here)
152. Using Heuristics in Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
153. Using Selectivity and Cost Estimates in Query Optimization - Answer
(click here)
154. Cost Components for Query Execution - Answer (click here)
155. Catalog Information Used in Cost Functions - Answer (click here)
156. Examples of Cost Functions for SELECT - Answer (click here)
157. Examples of Cost Functions for JOIN - Answer (click here)
158. Multiple Relation Queries and JOIN Ordering - Answer (click here)
159. Example to Illustrate Cost-Based Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
160. Overview of Query Optimization in Oracle - Answer (click here)
161. Semantic Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
162. Physical Database Design and Tuning - Answer (click here)
163. Physical Database Design in Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
164. Factors That Influence Physical Database Design - Answer (click here)
165. Physical Database Design Decisions - Answer (click here)
166. An Overview of Database Tuning in Relational Systems - Answer (click
here)
167. Introduction to Transaction Processing Concepts and Theory - Answer
(click here)
168. Introduction to Transaction Processing - Answer (click here)
169. Transaction and System Concepts - Answer (click here)
170. Desirable Properties of Transactions - Answer (click here)
171. Characterizing Schedules Based on Recoverability - Answer (click here)
172. Characterizing Schedules Based on Serializability - Answer (click here)
173. Transaction Support in SQL - Answer (click here)
174. Concurrency Control Techniques - Answer (click here)
175. Two-Phase Locking Techniques for Concurrency Control - Answer (click
here)
176. Concurrency Control Based on Timestamp Ordering - Answer (click here)
177. Multiversion Concurrency Control Techniques - Answer (click here)
178. Validation (Optimistic) Concurrency Control Techniques - Answer (click
here)
179. Granularity of Data Items and Multiple Granularity Locking - Answer
(click here)
180. Using Locks for Concurrency Control in Indexes - Answer (click here)
181. Other Concurrency Control Issues - Answer (click here)
182. Database Recovery Techniques - Answer (click here)
183. Recovery Concepts - Answer (click here)
184. NO-UNDO/REDO Recovery Based on Deferred Update - Answer (click
here)
185. Recovery Techniques Based on Immediate Update - Answer (click here)
186. Shadow Paging - Answer (click here)
187. The ARIES Recovery Algorithm - Answer (click here)
188. Recovery in Multidatabase Systems - Answer (click here)
189. Database Backup and Recovery from Catastrophic Failures - Answer (click
here)
190. Database Security - Answer (click here)
191. Introduction to Database Security Issues - Answer (click here)
192. Discretionary Access Control Based on Granting and Revoking
Privileges - Answer (click here)
193. Mandatory Access Control and Role-Based Access Control for
Multilevel Security - Answer (click here)
194. SQL Injection - Answer (click here)
195. Introduction to Statistical Database Security - Answer (click here)
196. Introduction to Flow Control - Answer (click here)
197. Encryption and Public Key Infrastructures - Answer (click here)
198. Privacy Issues and Preservation - Answer (click here)
199. Challenges of Database Security - Answer (click here)
200. Oracle Label-Based Security - Answer (click here)
201. Distributed Databases - Answer (click here)
202. Distributed Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
203. Types of Distributed Database Systems - Answer (click here)
204. Distributed Database Architectures - Answer (click here)
205. Data Fragmentation, Replication, and Allocation Techniques for
Distributed Database Design - Answer (click here)
206. Query Processing and Optimization in Distributed Databases - Answer
(click here)
207. Overview of Transaction Management in Distributed Databases - Answer
(click here)
208. Overview of Concurrency Control and Recovery in Distributed
Databases - Answer (click here)
209. Distributed Catalog Management - Answer (click here)
210. Current Trends in Distributed Databases - Answer (click here)
211. Distributed Databases in Oracle - Answer (click here)

PART 11 Advanced Database Models Systems and Applications


chapter 26 Enhanced Data Models for Advanced Applications
1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)
9. Database System Concepts and Architecture - Answer (click here)
10. Data Models, Schemas, and Instances - Answer (click here)
11. Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence - Answer (click here)
12. Database Languages and Interfaces - Answer (click here)
13. The Database System Environment - Answer (click here)
14. Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs - Answer (click
here)
15. Classification of Database Management Systems - Answer (click here)
16. The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints - Answer
(click here)
17. Relational Model Concepts - Answer (click here)
18. Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas - Answer
(click here)
19. Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations
- Answer (click here)
20. Basic SQL - Answer (click here)
21. SQL Data Definition and Data Types - Answer (click here)
22. Specifying Constraints in SQL - Answer (click here)
23. Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL - Answer (click here)
24. INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
25. Additional Features of SQL - Answer (click here)
26. More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema
Modification - Answer (click here)
27. More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries - Answer (click here)
28. Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers - Answer
(click here)
29. Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL - Answer (click here)
30. Schema Change Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
31. The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
32. Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT - Answer (click here)
33. Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory - Answer (click here)
34. Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION - Answer (click here)
35. Additional Relational Operations - Answer (click here)
36. Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
37. The Tuple Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
38. The Domain Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
39. Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship (ER) Model - Answer (click
here)
40. Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design - Answer
(click here)
41. A Sample Database Application - Answer (click here)
42. Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes, and Keys - Answer (click here)
43. Relationship Types, Relationship Sets, Roles, and Structural Constraints
- Answer (click here)
44. Weak Entity Types - Answer (click here)
45. Refining the ER Design for the COMPANY Database - Answer (click here)
46. ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions, and Design Issues - Answer (click
here)
47. Example of Other Notation: UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
48. Relationship Types of Degree Higher than Two - Answer (click here)
49. The Enhanced Entity-Relationship (EER) Model - Answer (click here)
50. Subclasses, Superclasses, and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
51. Specialization and Generalization - Answer (click here)
52. Constraints and Characteristics of Specialization and Generalization
Hierarchies - Answer (click here)
53. Modeling of UNION Types Using Categories - Answer (click here)
54. A Sample UNIVERSITY EER Schema, Design Choices, and Formal
Definitions - Answer (click here)
55. Example of Other Notation: Representing Specialization and
Generalization in UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
56. Data Abstraction, Knowledge Representation, and Ontology Concepts -
Answer (click here)
57. Relational Database Design by ER- and EER-to-Relational Mapping -
Answer (click here)
58. Relational Database Design Using ER-to-Relational Mapping - Answer
(click here)
59. Mapping EER Model Constructs to Relations - Answer (click here)
60. Practical Database Design Methodology and Use of UML Diagrams -
Answer (click here)
61. The Role of Information Systems in Organizations - Answer (click here)
62. The Database Design and Implementation Process - Answer (click here)
63. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 1:
Requirements Collection and Analysis - Answer (click here)
64. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 2: Conceptual
Database Design - Answer (click here)
65. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 3: Choice of a
DBMS - Answer (click here)
66. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 4: Data Model
Mapping (Logical Database Design) - Answer (click here)
67. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 5: Physical
Database Design - Answer (click here)
68. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 6: Database
System Implementation and Tuning - Answer (click here)
69. Use of UML Diagrams as an Aid to Database Design Specification -
Answer (click here)
70. Rational Rose: A UML-Based Design Tool - Answer (click here)
71. Automated Database Design Tools - Answer (click here)
72. Object and Object-Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
73. Overview of Object Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
74. Introduction to Object-Oriented Concepts and Features - Answer (click
here)
75. Object Identity, and Objects versus Literals - Answer (click here)
76. Complex Type Structures for Objects and Literals - Answer (click here)
77. Encapsulation of Operations and Persistence of Objects - Answer (click
here)
78. Type Hierarchies and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
79. Object-Relational Features: Object Database Extensions to SQL - Answer
(click here)
80. The ODMG Object Model and the Object Definition Language ODL -
Answer (click here)
81. Object Database Conceptual Design - Answer (click here)
82. The Object Query Language OQL - Answer (click here)
83. Overview of the C++ Language Binding in the ODMG Standard - Answer
(click here)
84. XML: Extensible Markup Language - Answer (click here)
85. Structured, Semistructured, and Unstructured Data - Answer (click here)
86. XML Hierarchical (Tree) Data Model - Answer (click here)
87. XML Documents, DTD, and XML Schema - Answer (click here)
88. Storing and Extracting XML Documents from Databases - Answer (click
here)
89. XML Languages - Answer (click here)
90. Extracting XML Documents from Relational Databases - Answer (click
here)
91. Introduction to SQL Programming Techniques - Answer (click here)
92. Database Programming: Techniques and Issues - Answer (click here)
93. Embedded SQL, Dynamic SQL, and SQLJ - Answer (click here)
94. Retrieving Single Tuples with Embedded SQL - Answer (click here)
95. Retrieving Multiple Tuples with Embedded SQL Using Cursors - Answer
(click here)
96. Specifying Queries at Runtime Using Dynamic SQL - Answer (click here)
97. SQLJ: Embedding SQL Commands in Java - Answer (click here)
98. Retrieving Multiple Tuples in SQLJ Using Iterators - Answer (click here)
99. Database Programming with Function Calls: SQL/CLI and JDBC -
Answer (click here)
100. Database Stored Procedures and SQL/PSM - Answer (click here)
101. Comparing the Three Approaches - Answer (click here)
102. Web Database Programming Using PHP - Answer (click here)
103. A Simple PHP Example - Answer (click here)
104. Overview of Basic Features of PHP - Answer (click here)
105. Overview of PHP Database Programming - Answer (click here)
106. Basics of Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational
Databases - Answer (click here)
107. Informal Design Guidelines for Relation Schemas - Answer (click here)
108. Functional Dependencies - Answer (click here)
109. Normal Forms Based on Primary Keys - Answer (click here)
110. General Definitions of Second and Third Normal Forms - Answer (click
here)
111. Boyce-Codd Normal Form - Answer (click here)
112. Multivalued Dependency and Fourth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
113. Join Dependencies and Fifth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
114. Relational Database Design Algorithms and Further Dependencies -
Answer (click here)
115. Further Topics in Functional Dependencies: Inference Rules,
Equivalence, and Minimal Cover - Answer (click here)
116. Properties of Relational Decompositions - Answer (click here)
117. Algorithms for Relational Database Schema Design - Answer (click here)
118. About Nulls, Dangling Tuples, and Alternative Relational Designs -
Answer (click here)
119. Further Discussion of Multivalued Dependencies and 4NF - Answer (click
here)
120. Other Dependencies and Normal Forms - Answer (click here)
121. Disk Storage, Basic File Structures, and Hashing - Answer (click here)
122. Secondary Storage Devices - Answer (click here)
123. Buffering of Blocks - Answer (click here)
124. Placing File Records on Disk - Answer (click here)
125. Operations on Files - Answer (click here)
126. Files of Unordered Records (Heap Files) - Answer (click here)
127. Files of Ordered Records (Sorted Files) - Answer (click here)
128. Hashing Techniques - Answer (click here)
129. Internal Hashing - Answer (click here)
130. External Hashing for Disk Files - Answer (click here)
131. Hashing Techniques That Allow Dynamic File Expansion - Answer (click
here)
132. Other Primary File Organizations - Answer (click here)
133. Parallelizing Disk Access Using RAID Technology - Answer (click here)
134. New Storage Systems - Answer (click here)
135. Indexing Structures for Files - Answer (click here)
136. Types of Single-Level Ordered Indexes - Answer (click here)
137. Multilevel Indexes - Answer (click here)
138. Dynamic Multilevel Indexes Using B-Trees and B+-Trees - Answer (click
here)
139. Search Trees and B-Trees - Answer (click here)
140. B+-Trees - Answer (click here)
141. Indexes on Multiple Keys - Answer (click here)
142. Other Types of Indexes - Answer (click here)
143. Some General Issues Concerning Indexing - Answer (click here)
144. Algorithms for Query Processing and Optimization - Answer (click here)
145. Translating SQL Queries into Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
146. Algorithms for External Sorting - Answer (click here)
147. Implementing the SELECT Operation and Algorithms - Answer (click here)
148. Implementing the JOIN Operation and Algorithms - Answer (click here)
149. Algorithms for PROJECT and Set Operations - Answer (click here)
150. Implementing Aggregate Operations and OUTER JOINs - Answer (click
here)
151. Combining Operations Using Pipelining - Answer (click here)
152. Using Heuristics in Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
153. Using Selectivity and Cost Estimates in Query Optimization - Answer
(click here)
154. Cost Components for Query Execution - Answer (click here)
155. Catalog Information Used in Cost Functions - Answer (click here)
156. Examples of Cost Functions for SELECT - Answer (click here)
157. Examples of Cost Functions for JOIN - Answer (click here)
158. Multiple Relation Queries and JOIN Ordering - Answer (click here)
159. Example to Illustrate Cost-Based Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
160. Overview of Query Optimization in Oracle - Answer (click here)
161. Semantic Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
162. Physical Database Design and Tuning - Answer (click here)
163. Physical Database Design in Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
164. Factors That Influence Physical Database Design - Answer (click here)
165. Physical Database Design Decisions - Answer (click here)
166. An Overview of Database Tuning in Relational Systems - Answer (click
here)
167. Introduction to Transaction Processing Concepts and Theory - Answer
(click here)
168. Introduction to Transaction Processing - Answer (click here)
169. Transaction and System Concepts - Answer (click here)
170. Desirable Properties of Transactions - Answer (click here)
171. Characterizing Schedules Based on Recoverability - Answer (click here)
172. Characterizing Schedules Based on Serializability - Answer (click here)
173. Transaction Support in SQL - Answer (click here)
174. Concurrency Control Techniques - Answer (click here)
175. Two-Phase Locking Techniques for Concurrency Control - Answer (click
here)
176. Concurrency Control Based on Timestamp Ordering - Answer (click here)
177. Multiversion Concurrency Control Techniques - Answer (click here)
178. Validation (Optimistic) Concurrency Control Techniques - Answer (click
here)
179. Granularity of Data Items and Multiple Granularity Locking - Answer
(click here)
180. Using Locks for Concurrency Control in Indexes - Answer (click here)
181. Other Concurrency Control Issues - Answer (click here)
182. Database Recovery Techniques - Answer (click here)
183. Recovery Concepts - Answer (click here)
184. NO-UNDO/REDO Recovery Based on Deferred Update - Answer (click
here)
185. Recovery Techniques Based on Immediate Update - Answer (click here)
186. Shadow Paging - Answer (click here)
187. The ARIES Recovery Algorithm - Answer (click here)
188. Recovery in Multidatabase Systems - Answer (click here)
189. Database Backup and Recovery from Catastrophic Failures - Answer (click
here)
190. Database Security - Answer (click here)
191. Introduction to Database Security Issues - Answer (click here)
192. Discretionary Access Control Based on Granting and Revoking
Privileges - Answer (click here)
193. Mandatory Access Control and Role-Based Access Control for
Multilevel Security - Answer (click here)
194. SQL Injection - Answer (click here)
195. Introduction to Statistical Database Security - Answer (click here)
196. Introduction to Flow Control - Answer (click here)
197. Encryption and Public Key Infrastructures - Answer (click here)
198. Privacy Issues and Preservation - Answer (click here)
199. Challenges of Database Security - Answer (click here)
200. Oracle Label-Based Security - Answer (click here)
201. Distributed Databases - Answer (click here)
202. Distributed Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
203. Types of Distributed Database Systems - Answer (click here)
204. Distributed Database Architectures - Answer (click here)
205. Data Fragmentation, Replication, and Allocation Techniques for
Distributed Database Design - Answer (click here)
206. Query Processing and Optimization in Distributed Databases - Answer
(click here)
207. Overview of Transaction Management in Distributed Databases - Answer
(click here)
208. Overview of Concurrency Control and Recovery in Distributed
Databases - Answer (click here)
209. Distributed Catalog Management - Answer (click here)
210. Current Trends in Distributed Databases - Answer (click here)
211. Distributed Databases in Oracle - Answer (click here)
212. Enhanced Data Models for Advanced Applications - Answer (click here)
213. Active Database Concepts and Triggers - Answer (click here)
214. Temporal Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
215. Spatial Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
216. Multimedia Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
217. Introduction to Deductive Databases - Answer (click here)

chapter 27 Introduction to Information Retrieval and Web Search


1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)
9. Database System Concepts and Architecture - Answer (click here)
10. Data Models, Schemas, and Instances - Answer (click here)
11. Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence - Answer (click here)
12. Database Languages and Interfaces - Answer (click here)
13. The Database System Environment - Answer (click here)
14. Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs - Answer (click
here)
15. Classification of Database Management Systems - Answer (click here)
16. The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints - Answer
(click here)
17. Relational Model Concepts - Answer (click here)
18. Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas - Answer
(click here)
19. Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations
- Answer (click here)
20. Basic SQL - Answer (click here)
21. SQL Data Definition and Data Types - Answer (click here)
22. Specifying Constraints in SQL - Answer (click here)
23. Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL - Answer (click here)
24. INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
25. Additional Features of SQL - Answer (click here)
26. More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema
Modification - Answer (click here)
27. More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries - Answer (click here)
28. Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers - Answer
(click here)
29. Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL - Answer (click here)
30. Schema Change Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
31. The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
32. Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT - Answer (click here)
33. Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory - Answer (click here)
34. Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION - Answer (click here)
35. Additional Relational Operations - Answer (click here)
36. Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
37. The Tuple Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
38. The Domain Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
39. Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship (ER) Model - Answer (click
here)
40. Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design - Answer
(click here)
41. A Sample Database Application - Answer (click here)
42. Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes, and Keys - Answer (click here)
43. Relationship Types, Relationship Sets, Roles, and Structural Constraints
- Answer (click here)
44. Weak Entity Types - Answer (click here)
45. Refining the ER Design for the COMPANY Database - Answer (click here)
46. ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions, and Design Issues - Answer (click
here)
47. Example of Other Notation: UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
48. Relationship Types of Degree Higher than Two - Answer (click here)
49. The Enhanced Entity-Relationship (EER) Model - Answer (click here)
50. Subclasses, Superclasses, and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
51. Specialization and Generalization - Answer (click here)
52. Constraints and Characteristics of Specialization and Generalization
Hierarchies - Answer (click here)
53. Modeling of UNION Types Using Categories - Answer (click here)
54. A Sample UNIVERSITY EER Schema, Design Choices, and Formal
Definitions - Answer (click here)
55. Example of Other Notation: Representing Specialization and
Generalization in UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
56. Data Abstraction, Knowledge Representation, and Ontology Concepts -
Answer (click here)
57. Relational Database Design by ER- and EER-to-Relational Mapping -
Answer (click here)
58. Relational Database Design Using ER-to-Relational Mapping - Answer
(click here)
59. Mapping EER Model Constructs to Relations - Answer (click here)
60. Practical Database Design Methodology and Use of UML Diagrams -
Answer (click here)
61. The Role of Information Systems in Organizations - Answer (click here)
62. The Database Design and Implementation Process - Answer (click here)
63. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 1:
Requirements Collection and Analysis - Answer (click here)
64. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 2: Conceptual
Database Design - Answer (click here)
65. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 3: Choice of a
DBMS - Answer (click here)
66. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 4: Data Model
Mapping (Logical Database Design) - Answer (click here)
67. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 5: Physical
Database Design - Answer (click here)
68. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 6: Database
System Implementation and Tuning - Answer (click here)
69. Use of UML Diagrams as an Aid to Database Design Specification -
Answer (click here)
70. Rational Rose: A UML-Based Design Tool - Answer (click here)
71. Automated Database Design Tools - Answer (click here)
72. Object and Object-Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
73. Overview of Object Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
74. Introduction to Object-Oriented Concepts and Features - Answer (click
here)
75. Object Identity, and Objects versus Literals - Answer (click here)
76. Complex Type Structures for Objects and Literals - Answer (click here)
77. Encapsulation of Operations and Persistence of Objects - Answer (click
here)
78. Type Hierarchies and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
79. Object-Relational Features: Object Database Extensions to SQL - Answer
(click here)
80. The ODMG Object Model and the Object Definition Language ODL -
Answer (click here)
81. Object Database Conceptual Design - Answer (click here)
82. The Object Query Language OQL - Answer (click here)
83. Overview of the C++ Language Binding in the ODMG Standard - Answer
(click here)
84. XML: Extensible Markup Language - Answer (click here)
85. Structured, Semistructured, and Unstructured Data - Answer (click here)
86. XML Hierarchical (Tree) Data Model - Answer (click here)
87. XML Documents, DTD, and XML Schema - Answer (click here)
88. Storing and Extracting XML Documents from Databases - Answer (click
here)
89. XML Languages - Answer (click here)
90. Extracting XML Documents from Relational Databases - Answer (click
here)
91. Introduction to SQL Programming Techniques - Answer (click here)
92. Database Programming: Techniques and Issues - Answer (click here)
93. Embedded SQL, Dynamic SQL, and SQLJ - Answer (click here)
94. Retrieving Single Tuples with Embedded SQL - Answer (click here)
95. Retrieving Multiple Tuples with Embedded SQL Using Cursors - Answer
(click here)
96. Specifying Queries at Runtime Using Dynamic SQL - Answer (click here)
97. SQLJ: Embedding SQL Commands in Java - Answer (click here)
98. Retrieving Multiple Tuples in SQLJ Using Iterators - Answer (click here)
99. Database Programming with Function Calls: SQL/CLI and JDBC -
Answer (click here)
100. Database Stored Procedures and SQL/PSM - Answer (click here)
101. Comparing the Three Approaches - Answer (click here)
102. Web Database Programming Using PHP - Answer (click here)
103. A Simple PHP Example - Answer (click here)
104. Overview of Basic Features of PHP - Answer (click here)
105. Overview of PHP Database Programming - Answer (click here)
106. Basics of Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational
Databases - Answer (click here)
107. Informal Design Guidelines for Relation Schemas - Answer (click here)
108. Functional Dependencies - Answer (click here)
109. Normal Forms Based on Primary Keys - Answer (click here)
110. General Definitions of Second and Third Normal Forms - Answer (click
here)
111. Boyce-Codd Normal Form - Answer (click here)
112. Multivalued Dependency and Fourth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
113. Join Dependencies and Fifth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
114. Relational Database Design Algorithms and Further Dependencies -
Answer (click here)
115. Further Topics in Functional Dependencies: Inference Rules,
Equivalence, and Minimal Cover - Answer (click here)
116. Properties of Relational Decompositions - Answer (click here)
117. Algorithms for Relational Database Schema Design - Answer (click here)
118. About Nulls, Dangling Tuples, and Alternative Relational Designs -
Answer (click here)
119. Further Discussion of Multivalued Dependencies and 4NF - Answer (click
here)
120. Other Dependencies and Normal Forms - Answer (click here)
121. Disk Storage, Basic File Structures, and Hashing - Answer (click here)
122. Secondary Storage Devices - Answer (click here)
123. Buffering of Blocks - Answer (click here)
124. Placing File Records on Disk - Answer (click here)
125. Operations on Files - Answer (click here)
126. Files of Unordered Records (Heap Files) - Answer (click here)
127. Files of Ordered Records (Sorted Files) - Answer (click here)
128. Hashing Techniques - Answer (click here)
129. Internal Hashing - Answer (click here)
130. External Hashing for Disk Files - Answer (click here)
131. Hashing Techniques That Allow Dynamic File Expansion - Answer (click
here)
132. Other Primary File Organizations - Answer (click here)
133. Parallelizing Disk Access Using RAID Technology - Answer (click here)
134. New Storage Systems - Answer (click here)
135. Indexing Structures for Files - Answer (click here)
136. Types of Single-Level Ordered Indexes - Answer (click here)
137. Multilevel Indexes - Answer (click here)
138. Dynamic Multilevel Indexes Using B-Trees and B+-Trees - Answer (click
here)
139. Search Trees and B-Trees - Answer (click here)
140. B+-Trees - Answer (click here)
141. Indexes on Multiple Keys - Answer (click here)
142. Other Types of Indexes - Answer (click here)
143. Some General Issues Concerning Indexing - Answer (click here)
144. Algorithms for Query Processing and Optimization - Answer (click here)
145. Translating SQL Queries into Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
146. Algorithms for External Sorting - Answer (click here)
147. Implementing the SELECT Operation and Algorithms - Answer (click here)
148. Implementing the JOIN Operation and Algorithms - Answer (click here)
149. Algorithms for PROJECT and Set Operations - Answer (click here)
150. Implementing Aggregate Operations and OUTER JOINs - Answer (click
here)
151. Combining Operations Using Pipelining - Answer (click here)
152. Using Heuristics in Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
153. Using Selectivity and Cost Estimates in Query Optimization - Answer
(click here)
154. Cost Components for Query Execution - Answer (click here)
155. Catalog Information Used in Cost Functions - Answer (click here)
156. Examples of Cost Functions for SELECT - Answer (click here)
157. Examples of Cost Functions for JOIN - Answer (click here)
158. Multiple Relation Queries and JOIN Ordering - Answer (click here)
159. Example to Illustrate Cost-Based Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
160. Overview of Query Optimization in Oracle - Answer (click here)
161. Semantic Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
162. Physical Database Design and Tuning - Answer (click here)
163. Physical Database Design in Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
164. Factors That Influence Physical Database Design - Answer (click here)
165. Physical Database Design Decisions - Answer (click here)
166. An Overview of Database Tuning in Relational Systems - Answer (click
here)
167. Introduction to Transaction Processing Concepts and Theory - Answer
(click here)
168. Introduction to Transaction Processing - Answer (click here)
169. Transaction and System Concepts - Answer (click here)
170. Desirable Properties of Transactions - Answer (click here)
171. Characterizing Schedules Based on Recoverability - Answer (click here)
172. Characterizing Schedules Based on Serializability - Answer (click here)
173. Transaction Support in SQL - Answer (click here)
174. Concurrency Control Techniques - Answer (click here)
175. Two-Phase Locking Techniques for Concurrency Control - Answer (click
here)
176. Concurrency Control Based on Timestamp Ordering - Answer (click here)
177. Multiversion Concurrency Control Techniques - Answer (click here)
178. Validation (Optimistic) Concurrency Control Techniques - Answer (click
here)
179. Granularity of Data Items and Multiple Granularity Locking - Answer
(click here)
180. Using Locks for Concurrency Control in Indexes - Answer (click here)
181. Other Concurrency Control Issues - Answer (click here)
182. Database Recovery Techniques - Answer (click here)
183. Recovery Concepts - Answer (click here)
184. NO-UNDO/REDO Recovery Based on Deferred Update - Answer (click
here)
185. Recovery Techniques Based on Immediate Update - Answer (click here)
186. Shadow Paging - Answer (click here)
187. The ARIES Recovery Algorithm - Answer (click here)
188. Recovery in Multidatabase Systems - Answer (click here)
189. Database Backup and Recovery from Catastrophic Failures - Answer (click
here)
190. Database Security - Answer (click here)
191. Introduction to Database Security Issues - Answer (click here)
192. Discretionary Access Control Based on Granting and Revoking
Privileges - Answer (click here)
193. Mandatory Access Control and Role-Based Access Control for
Multilevel Security - Answer (click here)
194. SQL Injection - Answer (click here)
195. Introduction to Statistical Database Security - Answer (click here)
196. Introduction to Flow Control - Answer (click here)
197. Encryption and Public Key Infrastructures - Answer (click here)
198. Privacy Issues and Preservation - Answer (click here)
199. Challenges of Database Security - Answer (click here)
200. Oracle Label-Based Security - Answer (click here)
201. Distributed Databases - Answer (click here)
202. Distributed Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
203. Types of Distributed Database Systems - Answer (click here)
204. Distributed Database Architectures - Answer (click here)
205. Data Fragmentation, Replication, and Allocation Techniques for
Distributed Database Design - Answer (click here)
206. Query Processing and Optimization in Distributed Databases - Answer
(click here)
207. Overview of Transaction Management in Distributed Databases - Answer
(click here)
208. Overview of Concurrency Control and Recovery in Distributed
Databases - Answer (click here)
209. Distributed Catalog Management - Answer (click here)
210. Current Trends in Distributed Databases - Answer (click here)
211. Distributed Databases in Oracle - Answer (click here)
212. Enhanced Data Models for Advanced Applications - Answer (click here)
213. Active Database Concepts and Triggers - Answer (click here)
214. Temporal Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
215. Spatial Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
216. Multimedia Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
217. Introduction to Deductive Databases - Answer (click here)
218. Introduction to Information Retrieval and Web Search - Answer (click here)
219. Information Retrieval (IR) Concepts - Answer (click here)
220. Retrieval Models - Answer (click here)
221. Types of Queries in IR Systems - Answer (click here)
222. Text Preprocessing - Answer (click here)
223. Inverted Indexing - Answer (click here)
224. Evaluation Measures of Search Relevance - Answer (click here)
225. Web Search and Analysis - Answer (click here)
226. Trends in Information Retrieval - Answer (click here)

chapter 28 Data Mining Concepts


1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)
9. Database System Concepts and Architecture - Answer (click here)
10. Data Models, Schemas, and Instances - Answer (click here)
11. Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence - Answer (click here)
12. Database Languages and Interfaces - Answer (click here)
13. The Database System Environment - Answer (click here)
14. Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs - Answer (click
here)
15. Classification of Database Management Systems - Answer (click here)
16. The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints - Answer
(click here)
17. Relational Model Concepts - Answer (click here)
18. Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas - Answer
(click here)
19. Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations
- Answer (click here)
20. Basic SQL - Answer (click here)
21. SQL Data Definition and Data Types - Answer (click here)
22. Specifying Constraints in SQL - Answer (click here)
23. Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL - Answer (click here)
24. INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
25. Additional Features of SQL - Answer (click here)
26. More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema
Modification - Answer (click here)
27. More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries - Answer (click here)
28. Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers - Answer
(click here)
29. Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL - Answer (click here)
30. Schema Change Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
31. The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
32. Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT - Answer (click here)
33. Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory - Answer (click here)
34. Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION - Answer (click here)
35. Additional Relational Operations - Answer (click here)
36. Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
37. The Tuple Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
38. The Domain Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
39. Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship (ER) Model - Answer (click
here)
40. Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design - Answer
(click here)
41. A Sample Database Application - Answer (click here)
42. Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes, and Keys - Answer (click here)
43. Relationship Types, Relationship Sets, Roles, and Structural Constraints
- Answer (click here)
44. Weak Entity Types - Answer (click here)
45. Refining the ER Design for the COMPANY Database - Answer (click here)
46. ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions, and Design Issues - Answer (click
here)
47. Example of Other Notation: UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
48. Relationship Types of Degree Higher than Two - Answer (click here)
49. The Enhanced Entity-Relationship (EER) Model - Answer (click here)
50. Subclasses, Superclasses, and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
51. Specialization and Generalization - Answer (click here)
52. Constraints and Characteristics of Specialization and Generalization
Hierarchies - Answer (click here)
53. Modeling of UNION Types Using Categories - Answer (click here)
54. A Sample UNIVERSITY EER Schema, Design Choices, and Formal
Definitions - Answer (click here)
55. Example of Other Notation: Representing Specialization and
Generalization in UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
56. Data Abstraction, Knowledge Representation, and Ontology Concepts -
Answer (click here)
57. Relational Database Design by ER- and EER-to-Relational Mapping -
Answer (click here)
58. Relational Database Design Using ER-to-Relational Mapping - Answer
(click here)
59. Mapping EER Model Constructs to Relations - Answer (click here)
60. Practical Database Design Methodology and Use of UML Diagrams -
Answer (click here)
61. The Role of Information Systems in Organizations - Answer (click here)
62. The Database Design and Implementation Process - Answer (click here)
63. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 1:
Requirements Collection and Analysis - Answer (click here)
64. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 2: Conceptual
Database Design - Answer (click here)
65. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 3: Choice of a
DBMS - Answer (click here)
66. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 4: Data Model
Mapping (Logical Database Design) - Answer (click here)
67. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 5: Physical
Database Design - Answer (click here)
68. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 6: Database
System Implementation and Tuning - Answer (click here)
69. Use of UML Diagrams as an Aid to Database Design Specification -
Answer (click here)
70. Rational Rose: A UML-Based Design Tool - Answer (click here)
71. Automated Database Design Tools - Answer (click here)
72. Object and Object-Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
73. Overview of Object Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
74. Introduction to Object-Oriented Concepts and Features - Answer (click
here)
75. Object Identity, and Objects versus Literals - Answer (click here)
76. Complex Type Structures for Objects and Literals - Answer (click here)
77. Encapsulation of Operations and Persistence of Objects - Answer (click
here)
78. Type Hierarchies and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
79. Object-Relational Features: Object Database Extensions to SQL - Answer
(click here)
80. The ODMG Object Model and the Object Definition Language ODL -
Answer (click here)
81. Object Database Conceptual Design - Answer (click here)
82. The Object Query Language OQL - Answer (click here)
83. Overview of the C++ Language Binding in the ODMG Standard - Answer
(click here)
84. XML: Extensible Markup Language - Answer (click here)
85. Structured, Semistructured, and Unstructured Data - Answer (click here)
86. XML Hierarchical (Tree) Data Model - Answer (click here)
87. XML Documents, DTD, and XML Schema - Answer (click here)
88. Storing and Extracting XML Documents from Databases - Answer (click
here)
89. XML Languages - Answer (click here)
90. Extracting XML Documents from Relational Databases - Answer (click
here)
91. Introduction to SQL Programming Techniques - Answer (click here)
92. Database Programming: Techniques and Issues - Answer (click here)
93. Embedded SQL, Dynamic SQL, and SQLJ - Answer (click here)
94. Retrieving Single Tuples with Embedded SQL - Answer (click here)
95. Retrieving Multiple Tuples with Embedded SQL Using Cursors - Answer
(click here)
96. Specifying Queries at Runtime Using Dynamic SQL - Answer (click here)
97. SQLJ: Embedding SQL Commands in Java - Answer (click here)
98. Retrieving Multiple Tuples in SQLJ Using Iterators - Answer (click here)
99. Database Programming with Function Calls: SQL/CLI and JDBC -
Answer (click here)
100. Database Stored Procedures and SQL/PSM - Answer (click here)
101. Comparing the Three Approaches - Answer (click here)
102. Web Database Programming Using PHP - Answer (click here)
103. A Simple PHP Example - Answer (click here)
104. Overview of Basic Features of PHP - Answer (click here)
105. Overview of PHP Database Programming - Answer (click here)
106. Basics of Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational
Databases - Answer (click here)
107. Informal Design Guidelines for Relation Schemas - Answer (click here)
108. Functional Dependencies - Answer (click here)
109. Normal Forms Based on Primary Keys - Answer (click here)
110. General Definitions of Second and Third Normal Forms - Answer (click
here)
111. Boyce-Codd Normal Form - Answer (click here)
112. Multivalued Dependency and Fourth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
113. Join Dependencies and Fifth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
114. Relational Database Design Algorithms and Further Dependencies -
Answer (click here)
115. Further Topics in Functional Dependencies: Inference Rules,
Equivalence, and Minimal Cover - Answer (click here)
116. Properties of Relational Decompositions - Answer (click here)
117. Algorithms for Relational Database Schema Design - Answer (click here)
118. About Nulls, Dangling Tuples, and Alternative Relational Designs -
Answer (click here)
119. Further Discussion of Multivalued Dependencies and 4NF - Answer (click
here)
120. Other Dependencies and Normal Forms - Answer (click here)
121. Disk Storage, Basic File Structures, and Hashing - Answer (click here)
122. Secondary Storage Devices - Answer (click here)
123. Buffering of Blocks - Answer (click here)
124. Placing File Records on Disk - Answer (click here)
125. Operations on Files - Answer (click here)
126. Files of Unordered Records (Heap Files) - Answer (click here)
127. Files of Ordered Records (Sorted Files) - Answer (click here)
128. Hashing Techniques - Answer (click here)
129. Internal Hashing - Answer (click here)
130. External Hashing for Disk Files - Answer (click here)
131. Hashing Techniques That Allow Dynamic File Expansion - Answer (click
here)
132. Other Primary File Organizations - Answer (click here)
133. Parallelizing Disk Access Using RAID Technology - Answer (click here)
134. New Storage Systems - Answer (click here)
135. Indexing Structures for Files - Answer (click here)
136. Types of Single-Level Ordered Indexes - Answer (click here)
137. Multilevel Indexes - Answer (click here)
138. Dynamic Multilevel Indexes Using B-Trees and B+-Trees - Answer (click
here)
139. Search Trees and B-Trees - Answer (click here)
140. B+-Trees - Answer (click here)
141. Indexes on Multiple Keys - Answer (click here)
142. Other Types of Indexes - Answer (click here)
143. Some General Issues Concerning Indexing - Answer (click here)
144. Algorithms for Query Processing and Optimization - Answer (click here)
145. Translating SQL Queries into Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
146. Algorithms for External Sorting - Answer (click here)
147. Implementing the SELECT Operation and Algorithms - Answer (click here)
148. Implementing the JOIN Operation and Algorithms - Answer (click here)
149. Algorithms for PROJECT and Set Operations - Answer (click here)
150. Implementing Aggregate Operations and OUTER JOINs - Answer (click
here)
151. Combining Operations Using Pipelining - Answer (click here)
152. Using Heuristics in Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
153. Using Selectivity and Cost Estimates in Query Optimization - Answer
(click here)
154. Cost Components for Query Execution - Answer (click here)
155. Catalog Information Used in Cost Functions - Answer (click here)
156. Examples of Cost Functions for SELECT - Answer (click here)
157. Examples of Cost Functions for JOIN - Answer (click here)
158. Multiple Relation Queries and JOIN Ordering - Answer (click here)
159. Example to Illustrate Cost-Based Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
160. Overview of Query Optimization in Oracle - Answer (click here)
161. Semantic Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
162. Physical Database Design and Tuning - Answer (click here)
163. Physical Database Design in Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
164. Factors That Influence Physical Database Design - Answer (click here)
165. Physical Database Design Decisions - Answer (click here)
166. An Overview of Database Tuning in Relational Systems - Answer (click
here)
167. Introduction to Transaction Processing Concepts and Theory - Answer
(click here)
168. Introduction to Transaction Processing - Answer (click here)
169. Transaction and System Concepts - Answer (click here)
170. Desirable Properties of Transactions - Answer (click here)
171. Characterizing Schedules Based on Recoverability - Answer (click here)
172. Characterizing Schedules Based on Serializability - Answer (click here)
173. Transaction Support in SQL - Answer (click here)
174. Concurrency Control Techniques - Answer (click here)
175. Two-Phase Locking Techniques for Concurrency Control - Answer (click
here)
176. Concurrency Control Based on Timestamp Ordering - Answer (click here)
177. Multiversion Concurrency Control Techniques - Answer (click here)
178. Validation (Optimistic) Concurrency Control Techniques - Answer (click
here)
179. Granularity of Data Items and Multiple Granularity Locking - Answer
(click here)
180. Using Locks for Concurrency Control in Indexes - Answer (click here)
181. Other Concurrency Control Issues - Answer (click here)
182. Database Recovery Techniques - Answer (click here)
183. Recovery Concepts - Answer (click here)
184. NO-UNDO/REDO Recovery Based on Deferred Update - Answer (click
here)
185. Recovery Techniques Based on Immediate Update - Answer (click here)
186. Shadow Paging - Answer (click here)
187. The ARIES Recovery Algorithm - Answer (click here)
188. Recovery in Multidatabase Systems - Answer (click here)
189. Database Backup and Recovery from Catastrophic Failures - Answer (click
here)
190. Database Security - Answer (click here)
191. Introduction to Database Security Issues - Answer (click here)
192. Discretionary Access Control Based on Granting and Revoking
Privileges - Answer (click here)
193. Mandatory Access Control and Role-Based Access Control for
Multilevel Security - Answer (click here)
194. SQL Injection - Answer (click here)
195. Introduction to Statistical Database Security - Answer (click here)
196. Introduction to Flow Control - Answer (click here)
197. Encryption and Public Key Infrastructures - Answer (click here)
198. Privacy Issues and Preservation - Answer (click here)
199. Challenges of Database Security - Answer (click here)
200. Oracle Label-Based Security - Answer (click here)
201. Distributed Databases - Answer (click here)
202. Distributed Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
203. Types of Distributed Database Systems - Answer (click here)
204. Distributed Database Architectures - Answer (click here)
205. Data Fragmentation, Replication, and Allocation Techniques for
Distributed Database Design - Answer (click here)
206. Query Processing and Optimization in Distributed Databases - Answer
(click here)
207. Overview of Transaction Management in Distributed Databases - Answer
(click here)
208. Overview of Concurrency Control and Recovery in Distributed
Databases - Answer (click here)
209. Distributed Catalog Management - Answer (click here)
210. Current Trends in Distributed Databases - Answer (click here)
211. Distributed Databases in Oracle - Answer (click here)
212. Enhanced Data Models for Advanced Applications - Answer (click here)
213. Active Database Concepts and Triggers - Answer (click here)
214. Temporal Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
215. Spatial Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
216. Multimedia Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
217. Introduction to Deductive Databases - Answer (click here)
218. Introduction to Information Retrieval and Web Search - Answer (click here)
219. Information Retrieval (IR) Concepts - Answer (click here)
220. Retrieval Models - Answer (click here)
221. Types of Queries in IR Systems - Answer (click here)
222. Text Preprocessing - Answer (click here)
223. Inverted Indexing - Answer (click here)
224. Evaluation Measures of Search Relevance - Answer (click here)
225. Web Search and Analysis - Answer (click here)
226. Trends in Information Retrieval - Answer (click here)
227. Data Mining Concepts - Answer (click here)
228. Overview of Data Mining Technology - Answer (click here)
229. Association Rules - Answer (click here)
230. Classification - Data Mining - Answer (click here)
231. Clustering - Answer (click here)
232. Approaches to Other Data Mining Problems - Answer (click here)
233. Applications of Data Mining - Answer (click here)
234. Commercial Data Mining Tools - Answer (click here)
chapter 29 Overview of Data Warehousing and OLAP
1. Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
2. An Example - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Database Approach - Answer (click here)
4. Actors on the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click here)
5. Workers behind the Scene - Databases and Database Users - Answer (click
here)
6. Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach - Answer (click here)
7. A Brief History of Database Applications - Answer (click here)
8. When Not to Use a DBMS - Answer (click here)
9. Database System Concepts and Architecture - Answer (click here)
10. Data Models, Schemas, and Instances - Answer (click here)
11. Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence - Answer (click here)
12. Database Languages and Interfaces - Answer (click here)
13. The Database System Environment - Answer (click here)
14. Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMSs - Answer (click
here)
15. Classification of Database Management Systems - Answer (click here)
16. The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints - Answer
(click here)
17. Relational Model Concepts - Answer (click here)
18. Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas - Answer
(click here)
19. Update Operations, Transactions, and Dealing with Constraint Violations
- Answer (click here)
20. Basic SQL - Answer (click here)
21. SQL Data Definition and Data Types - Answer (click here)
22. Specifying Constraints in SQL - Answer (click here)
23. Basic Retrieval Queries in SQL - Answer (click here)
24. INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
25. Additional Features of SQL - Answer (click here)
26. More SQL: Complex Queries, Triggers, Views, and Schema
Modification - Answer (click here)
27. More Complex SQL Retrieval Queries - Answer (click here)
28. Specifying Constraints as Assertions and Actions as Triggers - Answer
(click here)
29. Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL - Answer (click here)
30. Schema Change Statements in SQL - Answer (click here)
31. The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
32. Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT - Answer (click here)
33. Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory - Answer (click here)
34. Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION - Answer (click here)
35. Additional Relational Operations - Answer (click here)
36. Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
37. The Tuple Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
38. The Domain Relational Calculus - Answer (click here)
39. Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship (ER) Model - Answer (click
here)
40. Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design - Answer
(click here)
41. A Sample Database Application - Answer (click here)
42. Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes, and Keys - Answer (click here)
43. Relationship Types, Relationship Sets, Roles, and Structural Constraints
- Answer (click here)
44. Weak Entity Types - Answer (click here)
45. Refining the ER Design for the COMPANY Database - Answer (click here)
46. ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions, and Design Issues - Answer (click
here)
47. Example of Other Notation: UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
48. Relationship Types of Degree Higher than Two - Answer (click here)
49. The Enhanced Entity-Relationship (EER) Model - Answer (click here)
50. Subclasses, Superclasses, and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
51. Specialization and Generalization - Answer (click here)
52. Constraints and Characteristics of Specialization and Generalization
Hierarchies - Answer (click here)
53. Modeling of UNION Types Using Categories - Answer (click here)
54. A Sample UNIVERSITY EER Schema, Design Choices, and Formal
Definitions - Answer (click here)
55. Example of Other Notation: Representing Specialization and
Generalization in UML Class Diagrams - Answer (click here)
56. Data Abstraction, Knowledge Representation, and Ontology Concepts -
Answer (click here)
57. Relational Database Design by ER- and EER-to-Relational Mapping -
Answer (click here)
58. Relational Database Design Using ER-to-Relational Mapping - Answer
(click here)
59. Mapping EER Model Constructs to Relations - Answer (click here)
60. Practical Database Design Methodology and Use of UML Diagrams -
Answer (click here)
61. The Role of Information Systems in Organizations - Answer (click here)
62. The Database Design and Implementation Process - Answer (click here)
63. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 1:
Requirements Collection and Analysis - Answer (click here)
64. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 2: Conceptual
Database Design - Answer (click here)
65. The Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 3: Choice of a
DBMS - Answer (click here)
66. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 4: Data Model
Mapping (Logical Database Design) - Answer (click here)
67. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 5: Physical
Database Design - Answer (click here)
68. Database Design and Implementation Process: Phase 6: Database
System Implementation and Tuning - Answer (click here)
69. Use of UML Diagrams as an Aid to Database Design Specification -
Answer (click here)
70. Rational Rose: A UML-Based Design Tool - Answer (click here)
71. Automated Database Design Tools - Answer (click here)
72. Object and Object-Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
73. Overview of Object Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
74. Introduction to Object-Oriented Concepts and Features - Answer (click
here)
75. Object Identity, and Objects versus Literals - Answer (click here)
76. Complex Type Structures for Objects and Literals - Answer (click here)
77. Encapsulation of Operations and Persistence of Objects - Answer (click
here)
78. Type Hierarchies and Inheritance - Answer (click here)
79. Object-Relational Features: Object Database Extensions to SQL - Answer
(click here)
80. The ODMG Object Model and the Object Definition Language ODL -
Answer (click here)
81. Object Database Conceptual Design - Answer (click here)
82. The Object Query Language OQL - Answer (click here)
83. Overview of the C++ Language Binding in the ODMG Standard - Answer
(click here)
84. XML: Extensible Markup Language - Answer (click here)
85. Structured, Semistructured, and Unstructured Data - Answer (click here)
86. XML Hierarchical (Tree) Data Model - Answer (click here)
87. XML Documents, DTD, and XML Schema - Answer (click here)
88. Storing and Extracting XML Documents from Databases - Answer (click
here)
89. XML Languages - Answer (click here)
90. Extracting XML Documents from Relational Databases - Answer (click
here)
91. Introduction to SQL Programming Techniques - Answer (click here)
92. Database Programming: Techniques and Issues - Answer (click here)
93. Embedded SQL, Dynamic SQL, and SQLJ - Answer (click here)
94. Retrieving Single Tuples with Embedded SQL - Answer (click here)
95. Retrieving Multiple Tuples with Embedded SQL Using Cursors - Answer
(click here)
96. Specifying Queries at Runtime Using Dynamic SQL - Answer (click here)
97. SQLJ: Embedding SQL Commands in Java - Answer (click here)
98. Retrieving Multiple Tuples in SQLJ Using Iterators - Answer (click here)
99. Database Programming with Function Calls: SQL/CLI and JDBC -
Answer (click here)
100. Database Stored Procedures and SQL/PSM - Answer (click here)
101. Comparing the Three Approaches - Answer (click here)
102. Web Database Programming Using PHP - Answer (click here)
103. A Simple PHP Example - Answer (click here)
104. Overview of Basic Features of PHP - Answer (click here)
105. Overview of PHP Database Programming - Answer (click here)
106. Basics of Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational
Databases - Answer (click here)
107. Informal Design Guidelines for Relation Schemas - Answer (click here)
108. Functional Dependencies - Answer (click here)
109. Normal Forms Based on Primary Keys - Answer (click here)
110. General Definitions of Second and Third Normal Forms - Answer (click
here)
111. Boyce-Codd Normal Form - Answer (click here)
112. Multivalued Dependency and Fourth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
113. Join Dependencies and Fifth Normal Form - Answer (click here)
114. Relational Database Design Algorithms and Further Dependencies -
Answer (click here)
115. Further Topics in Functional Dependencies: Inference Rules,
Equivalence, and Minimal Cover - Answer (click here)
116. Properties of Relational Decompositions - Answer (click here)
117. Algorithms for Relational Database Schema Design - Answer (click here)
118. About Nulls, Dangling Tuples, and Alternative Relational Designs -
Answer (click here)
119. Further Discussion of Multivalued Dependencies and 4NF - Answer (click
here)
120. Other Dependencies and Normal Forms - Answer (click here)
121. Disk Storage, Basic File Structures, and Hashing - Answer (click here)
122. Secondary Storage Devices - Answer (click here)
123. Buffering of Blocks - Answer (click here)
124. Placing File Records on Disk - Answer (click here)
125. Operations on Files - Answer (click here)
126. Files of Unordered Records (Heap Files) - Answer (click here)
127. Files of Ordered Records (Sorted Files) - Answer (click here)
128. Hashing Techniques - Answer (click here)
129. Internal Hashing - Answer (click here)
130. External Hashing for Disk Files - Answer (click here)
131. Hashing Techniques That Allow Dynamic File Expansion - Answer (click
here)
132. Other Primary File Organizations - Answer (click here)
133. Parallelizing Disk Access Using RAID Technology - Answer (click here)
134. New Storage Systems - Answer (click here)
135. Indexing Structures for Files - Answer (click here)
136. Types of Single-Level Ordered Indexes - Answer (click here)
137. Multilevel Indexes - Answer (click here)
138. Dynamic Multilevel Indexes Using B-Trees and B+-Trees - Answer (click
here)
139. Search Trees and B-Trees - Answer (click here)
140. B+-Trees - Answer (click here)
141. Indexes on Multiple Keys - Answer (click here)
142. Other Types of Indexes - Answer (click here)
143. Some General Issues Concerning Indexing - Answer (click here)
144. Algorithms for Query Processing and Optimization - Answer (click here)
145. Translating SQL Queries into Relational Algebra - Answer (click here)
146. Algorithms for External Sorting - Answer (click here)
147. Implementing the SELECT Operation and Algorithms - Answer (click here)
148. Implementing the JOIN Operation and Algorithms - Answer (click here)
149. Algorithms for PROJECT and Set Operations - Answer (click here)
150. Implementing Aggregate Operations and OUTER JOINs - Answer (click
here)
151. Combining Operations Using Pipelining - Answer (click here)
152. Using Heuristics in Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
153. Using Selectivity and Cost Estimates in Query Optimization - Answer
(click here)
154. Cost Components for Query Execution - Answer (click here)
155. Catalog Information Used in Cost Functions - Answer (click here)
156. Examples of Cost Functions for SELECT - Answer (click here)
157. Examples of Cost Functions for JOIN - Answer (click here)
158. Multiple Relation Queries and JOIN Ordering - Answer (click here)
159. Example to Illustrate Cost-Based Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
160. Overview of Query Optimization in Oracle - Answer (click here)
161. Semantic Query Optimization - Answer (click here)
162. Physical Database Design and Tuning - Answer (click here)
163. Physical Database Design in Relational Databases - Answer (click here)
164. Factors That Influence Physical Database Design - Answer (click here)
165. Physical Database Design Decisions - Answer (click here)
166. An Overview of Database Tuning in Relational Systems - Answer (click
here)
167. Introduction to Transaction Processing Concepts and Theory - Answer
(click here)
168. Introduction to Transaction Processing - Answer (click here)
169. Transaction and System Concepts - Answer (click here)
170. Desirable Properties of Transactions - Answer (click here)
171. Characterizing Schedules Based on Recoverability - Answer (click here)
172. Characterizing Schedules Based on Serializability - Answer (click here)
173. Transaction Support in SQL - Answer (click here)
174. Concurrency Control Techniques - Answer (click here)
175. Two-Phase Locking Techniques for Concurrency Control - Answer (click
here)
176. Concurrency Control Based on Timestamp Ordering - Answer (click here)
177. Multiversion Concurrency Control Techniques - Answer (click here)
178. Validation (Optimistic) Concurrency Control Techniques - Answer (click
here)
179. Granularity of Data Items and Multiple Granularity Locking - Answer
(click here)
180. Using Locks for Concurrency Control in Indexes - Answer (click here)
181. Other Concurrency Control Issues - Answer (click here)
182. Database Recovery Techniques - Answer (click here)
183. Recovery Concepts - Answer (click here)
184. NO-UNDO/REDO Recovery Based on Deferred Update - Answer (click
here)
185. Recovery Techniques Based on Immediate Update - Answer (click here)
186. Shadow Paging - Answer (click here)
187. The ARIES Recovery Algorithm - Answer (click here)
188. Recovery in Multidatabase Systems - Answer (click here)
189. Database Backup and Recovery from Catastrophic Failures - Answer (click
here)
190. Database Security - Answer (click here)
191. Introduction to Database Security Issues - Answer (click here)
192. Discretionary Access Control Based on Granting and Revoking
Privileges - Answer (click here)
193. Mandatory Access Control and Role-Based Access Control for
Multilevel Security - Answer (click here)
194. SQL Injection - Answer (click here)
195. Introduction to Statistical Database Security - Answer (click here)
196. Introduction to Flow Control - Answer (click here)
197. Encryption and Public Key Infrastructures - Answer (click here)
198. Privacy Issues and Preservation - Answer (click here)
199. Challenges of Database Security - Answer (click here)
200. Oracle Label-Based Security - Answer (click here)
201. Distributed Databases - Answer (click here)
202. Distributed Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
203. Types of Distributed Database Systems - Answer (click here)
204. Distributed Database Architectures - Answer (click here)
205. Data Fragmentation, Replication, and Allocation Techniques for
Distributed Database Design - Answer (click here)
206. Query Processing and Optimization in Distributed Databases - Answer
(click here)
207. Overview of Transaction Management in Distributed Databases - Answer
(click here)
208. Overview of Concurrency Control and Recovery in Distributed
Databases - Answer (click here)
209. Distributed Catalog Management - Answer (click here)
210. Current Trends in Distributed Databases - Answer (click here)
211. Distributed Databases in Oracle - Answer (click here)
212. Enhanced Data Models for Advanced Applications - Answer (click here)
213. Active Database Concepts and Triggers - Answer (click here)
214. Temporal Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
215. Spatial Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
216. Multimedia Database Concepts - Answer (click here)
217. Introduction to Deductive Databases - Answer (click here)
218. Introduction to Information Retrieval and Web Search - Answer (click here)
219. Information Retrieval (IR) Concepts - Answer (click here)
220. Retrieval Models - Answer (click here)
221. Types of Queries in IR Systems - Answer (click here)
222. Text Preprocessing - Answer (click here)
223. Inverted Indexing - Answer (click here)
224. Evaluation Measures of Search Relevance - Answer (click here)
225. Web Search and Analysis - Answer (click here)
226. Trends in Information Retrieval - Answer (click here)
227. Data Mining Concepts - Answer (click here)
228. Overview of Data Mining Technology - Answer (click here)
229. Association Rules - Answer (click here)
230. Classification - Data Mining - Answer (click here)
231. Clustering - Answer (click here)
232. Approaches to Other Data Mining Problems - Answer (click here)
233. Applications of Data Mining - Answer (click here)
234. Commercial Data Mining Tools - Answer (click here)
235. Overview of Data Warehousing and OLAP - Answer (click here)
236. Introduction, Definitions, and Terminology - Data warehouses - Answer
(click here)
237. Characteristics of Data Warehouses - Answer (click here)
238. Data Modeling for Data Warehouses - Answer (click here)
239. Building a Data Warehouse - Answer (click here)
240. Typical Functionality of a Data Warehouse - Answer (click here)
241. Data Warehouse versus Views - Answer (click here)
242. Difficulties of Implementing Data Warehouses - Answer (click here)