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Essential Microbiology

Subject : Essential Microbiology


Microbiology
1. What is microbiology? - Answer (click here)
2. Why is microbiology important? - Answer (click here)
3. How do we know? Microbiology in perspective: to the ‘golden age’ and
beyond - Answer (click here)
4. Light microscopy - Answer (click here)
5. Electron microscopy - Answer (click here)

Biochemical Principles
1. What is microbiology? - Answer (click here)
2. Why is microbiology important? - Answer (click here)
3. How do we know? Microbiology in perspective: to the ‘golden age’ and
beyond - Answer (click here)
4. Light microscopy - Answer (click here)
5. Electron microscopy - Answer (click here)
6. Atomic structure - Answer (click here)
7. Isotopes - Answer (click here)
8. Chemical bonds - Answer (click here)
9. Acids, bases, and pH - Answer (click here)
10. Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
11. Carbohydrates - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
12. Proteins - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
13. Higher levels of protein structure - Answer (click here)
14. Nucleic acids: Structure of DNA and RNA - Answer (click here)
15. Lipids - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)

Cell Structure and Organisation


1. What is microbiology? - Answer (click here)
2. Why is microbiology important? - Answer (click here)
3. How do we know? Microbiology in perspective: to the ‘golden age’ and
beyond - Answer (click here)
4. Light microscopy - Answer (click here)
5. Electron microscopy - Answer (click here)
6. Atomic structure - Answer (click here)
7. Isotopes - Answer (click here)
8. Chemical bonds - Answer (click here)
9. Acids, bases, and pH - Answer (click here)
10. Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
11. Carbohydrates - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
12. Proteins - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
13. Higher levels of protein structure - Answer (click here)
14. Nucleic acids: Structure of DNA and RNA - Answer (click here)
15. Lipids - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
16. Cell Structure and Organisation - Answer (click here)
17. The procaryotic cell and its structure - Answer (click here)
18. Eucaryotic cell Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Cell division in procaryotes and eucaryotes - Answer (click here)

Microbial Nutrition and Cultivation


1. What is microbiology? - Answer (click here)
2. Why is microbiology important? - Answer (click here)
3. How do we know? Microbiology in perspective: to the ‘golden age’ and
beyond - Answer (click here)
4. Light microscopy - Answer (click here)
5. Electron microscopy - Answer (click here)
6. Atomic structure - Answer (click here)
7. Isotopes - Answer (click here)
8. Chemical bonds - Answer (click here)
9. Acids, bases, and pH - Answer (click here)
10. Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
11. Carbohydrates - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
12. Proteins - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
13. Higher levels of protein structure - Answer (click here)
14. Nucleic acids: Structure of DNA and RNA - Answer (click here)
15. Lipids - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
16. Cell Structure and Organisation - Answer (click here)
17. The procaryotic cell and its structure - Answer (click here)
18. Eucaryotic cell Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Cell division in procaryotes and eucaryotes - Answer (click here)
20. Microbial Nutrition and Cultivation - Answer (click here)
21. Microbial Nutritional categories - Answer (click here)
22. How do Microbial nutrients get into the microbial cell? - Answer (click
here)
23. Laboratory cultivation of microorganisms - Answer (click here)

Microbial Growth
1. What is microbiology? - Answer (click here)
2. Why is microbiology important? - Answer (click here)
3. How do we know? Microbiology in perspective: to the ‘golden age’ and
beyond - Answer (click here)
4. Light microscopy - Answer (click here)
5. Electron microscopy - Answer (click here)
6. Atomic structure - Answer (click here)
7. Isotopes - Answer (click here)
8. Chemical bonds - Answer (click here)
9. Acids, bases, and pH - Answer (click here)
10. Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
11. Carbohydrates - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
12. Proteins - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
13. Higher levels of protein structure - Answer (click here)
14. Nucleic acids: Structure of DNA and RNA - Answer (click here)
15. Lipids - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
16. Cell Structure and Organisation - Answer (click here)
17. The procaryotic cell and its structure - Answer (click here)
18. Eucaryotic cell Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Cell division in procaryotes and eucaryotes - Answer (click here)
20. Microbial Nutrition and Cultivation - Answer (click here)
21. Microbial Nutritional categories - Answer (click here)
22. How do Microbial nutrients get into the microbial cell? - Answer (click
here)
23. Laboratory cultivation of microorganisms - Answer (click here)
24. Estimation of microbial numbers - Answer (click here)
25. Factors affecting microbial growth - Answer (click here)
26. The kinetics of microbial growth - Answer (click here)
27. Growth in multicellular microorganisms - Answer (click here)

Microbial Metabolism
1. What is microbiology? - Answer (click here)
2. Why is microbiology important? - Answer (click here)
3. How do we know? Microbiology in perspective: to the ‘golden age’ and
beyond - Answer (click here)
4. Light microscopy - Answer (click here)
5. Electron microscopy - Answer (click here)
6. Atomic structure - Answer (click here)
7. Isotopes - Answer (click here)
8. Chemical bonds - Answer (click here)
9. Acids, bases, and pH - Answer (click here)
10. Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
11. Carbohydrates - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
12. Proteins - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
13. Higher levels of protein structure - Answer (click here)
14. Nucleic acids: Structure of DNA and RNA - Answer (click here)
15. Lipids - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
16. Cell Structure and Organisation - Answer (click here)
17. The procaryotic cell and its structure - Answer (click here)
18. Eucaryotic cell Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Cell division in procaryotes and eucaryotes - Answer (click here)
20. Microbial Nutrition and Cultivation - Answer (click here)
21. Microbial Nutritional categories - Answer (click here)
22. How do Microbial nutrients get into the microbial cell? - Answer (click
here)
23. Laboratory cultivation of microorganisms - Answer (click here)
24. Estimation of microbial numbers - Answer (click here)
25. Factors affecting microbial growth - Answer (click here)
26. The kinetics of microbial growth - Answer (click here)
27. Growth in multicellular microorganisms - Answer (click here)
28. Why is energy needed? - Answer (click here)
29. Enzymes - Answer (click here)
30. Principles of energy generation - Answer (click here)
31. Oxidation - reduction reactions - Answer (click here)
32. Glycolysis - Answer (click here)
33. Aerobic respiration - Answer (click here)
34. Oxidative phosphorylation and the electron transport chain - Answer (click
here)
35. Fermentation - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolism of lipids and proteins - Answer (click here)
37. Anaerobic respiration - Answer (click here)
38. Energy may be generated by the oxidation of inorganic molecules -
Answer (click here)
39. Photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
40. Anoxygenic photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
41. Anabolic reactions - Answer (click here)
42. Regulation of metabolism - Answer (click here)
Microbial Diversity
1. What is microbiology? - Answer (click here)
2. Why is microbiology important? - Answer (click here)
3. How do we know? Microbiology in perspective: to the ‘golden age’ and
beyond - Answer (click here)
4. Light microscopy - Answer (click here)
5. Electron microscopy - Answer (click here)
6. Atomic structure - Answer (click here)
7. Isotopes - Answer (click here)
8. Chemical bonds - Answer (click here)
9. Acids, bases, and pH - Answer (click here)
10. Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
11. Carbohydrates - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
12. Proteins - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
13. Higher levels of protein structure - Answer (click here)
14. Nucleic acids: Structure of DNA and RNA - Answer (click here)
15. Lipids - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
16. Cell Structure and Organisation - Answer (click here)
17. The procaryotic cell and its structure - Answer (click here)
18. Eucaryotic cell Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Cell division in procaryotes and eucaryotes - Answer (click here)
20. Microbial Nutrition and Cultivation - Answer (click here)
21. Microbial Nutritional categories - Answer (click here)
22. How do Microbial nutrients get into the microbial cell? - Answer (click
here)
23. Laboratory cultivation of microorganisms - Answer (click here)
24. Estimation of microbial numbers - Answer (click here)
25. Factors affecting microbial growth - Answer (click here)
26. The kinetics of microbial growth - Answer (click here)
27. Growth in multicellular microorganisms - Answer (click here)
28. Why is energy needed? - Answer (click here)
29. Enzymes - Answer (click here)
30. Principles of energy generation - Answer (click here)
31. Oxidation - reduction reactions - Answer (click here)
32. Glycolysis - Answer (click here)
33. Aerobic respiration - Answer (click here)
34. Oxidative phosphorylation and the electron transport chain - Answer (click
here)
35. Fermentation - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolism of lipids and proteins - Answer (click here)
37. Anaerobic respiration - Answer (click here)
38. Energy may be generated by the oxidation of inorganic molecules -
Answer (click here)
39. Photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
40. Anoxygenic photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
41. Anabolic reactions - Answer (click here)
42. Regulation of metabolism - Answer (click here)
43. A few words about Microbial Classification - Answer (click here)

Procaryote Diversity
1. What is microbiology? - Answer (click here)
2. Why is microbiology important? - Answer (click here)
3. How do we know? Microbiology in perspective: to the ‘golden age’ and
beyond - Answer (click here)
4. Light microscopy - Answer (click here)
5. Electron microscopy - Answer (click here)
6. Atomic structure - Answer (click here)
7. Isotopes - Answer (click here)
8. Chemical bonds - Answer (click here)
9. Acids, bases, and pH - Answer (click here)
10. Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
11. Carbohydrates - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
12. Proteins - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
13. Higher levels of protein structure - Answer (click here)
14. Nucleic acids: Structure of DNA and RNA - Answer (click here)
15. Lipids - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
16. Cell Structure and Organisation - Answer (click here)
17. The procaryotic cell and its structure - Answer (click here)
18. Eucaryotic cell Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Cell division in procaryotes and eucaryotes - Answer (click here)
20. Microbial Nutrition and Cultivation - Answer (click here)
21. Microbial Nutritional categories - Answer (click here)
22. How do Microbial nutrients get into the microbial cell? - Answer (click
here)
23. Laboratory cultivation of microorganisms - Answer (click here)
24. Estimation of microbial numbers - Answer (click here)
25. Factors affecting microbial growth - Answer (click here)
26. The kinetics of microbial growth - Answer (click here)
27. Growth in multicellular microorganisms - Answer (click here)
28. Why is energy needed? - Answer (click here)
29. Enzymes - Answer (click here)
30. Principles of energy generation - Answer (click here)
31. Oxidation - reduction reactions - Answer (click here)
32. Glycolysis - Answer (click here)
33. Aerobic respiration - Answer (click here)
34. Oxidative phosphorylation and the electron transport chain - Answer (click
here)
35. Fermentation - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolism of lipids and proteins - Answer (click here)
37. Anaerobic respiration - Answer (click here)
38. Energy may be generated by the oxidation of inorganic molecules -
Answer (click here)
39. Photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
40. Anoxygenic photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
41. Anabolic reactions - Answer (click here)
42. Regulation of metabolism - Answer (click here)
43. A few words about Microbial Classification - Answer (click here)
44. Procaryote Diversity - Answer (click here)
45. Domain: Archaea : Classification and General features - Answer (click here)
46. Phylum: Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
47. Photosynthetic Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
48. Nitrifying Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
49. Iron- and sulphur-oxidising Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
50. Hydrogen-oxidising Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
51. Nitrogen-fixing Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
52. Methanotrophic Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
53. Sulphate- and sulphur-reducing Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
54. Enteric Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
55. Vibrio and related genera - Answer (click here)
56. Pseudomonads - Answer (click here)
57. Acetic acid bacteria - Answer (click here)
58. Stalked and budding Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
59. Sheathed Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
60. Predatory Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
61. Spirilla - Answer (click here)
62. Rickettsia - Answer (click here)
63. Phylum Cyanobacteria: the blue-green bacteria - Answer (click here)
64. Phylum Chlorobi (green sulphur bacteria) and phylum Chloroflexi
(green non-sulphur bacteria) - Answer (click here)
65. Phylum Aquificae and phylum Thermotogae: the deeply branching
bacteria - Answer (click here)
66. Phylum ‘Deinococcus-Thermus’ - Answer (click here)
67. Phylum Planctomycetes - Answer (click here)
68. Phylum Chlamydiae - Answer (click here)
69. Phylum Spirochaetes - Answer (click here)
70. Phylum Bacteroidetes - Answer (click here)
71. Phylum: Verrucomicrobia - Answer (click here)
72. The Gram-positive bacteria: phylum Firmicutes and phylum
Actinobacteria - Answer (click here)
73. Phylum Firmicutes: The low GC Gram-positive bacteria - Answer (click
here)
74. Phylum Actinobacteria: The high GC Gram-positive bacteria - Answer
(click here)
75. Bacteria and human disease - Answer (click here)

Fungi
1. What is microbiology? - Answer (click here)
2. Why is microbiology important? - Answer (click here)
3. How do we know? Microbiology in perspective: to the ‘golden age’ and
beyond - Answer (click here)
4. Light microscopy - Answer (click here)
5. Electron microscopy - Answer (click here)
6. Atomic structure - Answer (click here)
7. Isotopes - Answer (click here)
8. Chemical bonds - Answer (click here)
9. Acids, bases, and pH - Answer (click here)
10. Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
11. Carbohydrates - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
12. Proteins - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
13. Higher levels of protein structure - Answer (click here)
14. Nucleic acids: Structure of DNA and RNA - Answer (click here)
15. Lipids - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
16. Cell Structure and Organisation - Answer (click here)
17. The procaryotic cell and its structure - Answer (click here)
18. Eucaryotic cell Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Cell division in procaryotes and eucaryotes - Answer (click here)
20. Microbial Nutrition and Cultivation - Answer (click here)
21. Microbial Nutritional categories - Answer (click here)
22. How do Microbial nutrients get into the microbial cell? - Answer (click
here)
23. Laboratory cultivation of microorganisms - Answer (click here)
24. Estimation of microbial numbers - Answer (click here)
25. Factors affecting microbial growth - Answer (click here)
26. The kinetics of microbial growth - Answer (click here)
27. Growth in multicellular microorganisms - Answer (click here)
28. Why is energy needed? - Answer (click here)
29. Enzymes - Answer (click here)
30. Principles of energy generation - Answer (click here)
31. Oxidation - reduction reactions - Answer (click here)
32. Glycolysis - Answer (click here)
33. Aerobic respiration - Answer (click here)
34. Oxidative phosphorylation and the electron transport chain - Answer (click
here)
35. Fermentation - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolism of lipids and proteins - Answer (click here)
37. Anaerobic respiration - Answer (click here)
38. Energy may be generated by the oxidation of inorganic molecules -
Answer (click here)
39. Photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
40. Anoxygenic photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
41. Anabolic reactions - Answer (click here)
42. Regulation of metabolism - Answer (click here)
43. A few words about Microbial Classification - Answer (click here)
44. Procaryote Diversity - Answer (click here)
45. Domain: Archaea : Classification and General features - Answer (click here)
46. Phylum: Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
47. Photosynthetic Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
48. Nitrifying Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
49. Iron- and sulphur-oxidising Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
50. Hydrogen-oxidising Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
51. Nitrogen-fixing Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
52. Methanotrophic Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
53. Sulphate- and sulphur-reducing Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
54. Enteric Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
55. Vibrio and related genera - Answer (click here)
56. Pseudomonads - Answer (click here)
57. Acetic acid bacteria - Answer (click here)
58. Stalked and budding Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
59. Sheathed Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
60. Predatory Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
61. Spirilla - Answer (click here)
62. Rickettsia - Answer (click here)
63. Phylum Cyanobacteria: the blue-green bacteria - Answer (click here)
64. Phylum Chlorobi (green sulphur bacteria) and phylum Chloroflexi
(green non-sulphur bacteria) - Answer (click here)
65. Phylum Aquificae and phylum Thermotogae: the deeply branching
bacteria - Answer (click here)
66. Phylum ‘Deinococcus-Thermus’ - Answer (click here)
67. Phylum Planctomycetes - Answer (click here)
68. Phylum Chlamydiae - Answer (click here)
69. Phylum Spirochaetes - Answer (click here)
70. Phylum Bacteroidetes - Answer (click here)
71. Phylum: Verrucomicrobia - Answer (click here)
72. The Gram-positive bacteria: phylum Firmicutes and phylum
Actinobacteria - Answer (click here)
73. Phylum Firmicutes: The low GC Gram-positive bacteria - Answer (click
here)
74. Phylum Actinobacteria: The high GC Gram-positive bacteria - Answer
(click here)
75. Bacteria and human disease - Answer (click here)
76. General biology of the Fungi - Answer (click here)
77. Classification of the Fungi - Answer (click here)
78. Fungi and disease - Answer (click here)

Protista
1. What is microbiology? - Answer (click here)
2. Why is microbiology important? - Answer (click here)
3. How do we know? Microbiology in perspective: to the ‘golden age’ and
beyond - Answer (click here)
4. Light microscopy - Answer (click here)
5. Electron microscopy - Answer (click here)
6. Atomic structure - Answer (click here)
7. Isotopes - Answer (click here)
8. Chemical bonds - Answer (click here)
9. Acids, bases, and pH - Answer (click here)
10. Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
11. Carbohydrates - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
12. Proteins - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
13. Higher levels of protein structure - Answer (click here)
14. Nucleic acids: Structure of DNA and RNA - Answer (click here)
15. Lipids - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
16. Cell Structure and Organisation - Answer (click here)
17. The procaryotic cell and its structure - Answer (click here)
18. Eucaryotic cell Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Cell division in procaryotes and eucaryotes - Answer (click here)
20. Microbial Nutrition and Cultivation - Answer (click here)
21. Microbial Nutritional categories - Answer (click here)
22. How do Microbial nutrients get into the microbial cell? - Answer (click
here)
23. Laboratory cultivation of microorganisms - Answer (click here)
24. Estimation of microbial numbers - Answer (click here)
25. Factors affecting microbial growth - Answer (click here)
26. The kinetics of microbial growth - Answer (click here)
27. Growth in multicellular microorganisms - Answer (click here)
28. Why is energy needed? - Answer (click here)
29. Enzymes - Answer (click here)
30. Principles of energy generation - Answer (click here)
31. Oxidation - reduction reactions - Answer (click here)
32. Glycolysis - Answer (click here)
33. Aerobic respiration - Answer (click here)
34. Oxidative phosphorylation and the electron transport chain - Answer (click
here)
35. Fermentation - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolism of lipids and proteins - Answer (click here)
37. Anaerobic respiration - Answer (click here)
38. Energy may be generated by the oxidation of inorganic molecules -
Answer (click here)
39. Photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
40. Anoxygenic photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
41. Anabolic reactions - Answer (click here)
42. Regulation of metabolism - Answer (click here)
43. A few words about Microbial Classification - Answer (click here)
44. Procaryote Diversity - Answer (click here)
45. Domain: Archaea : Classification and General features - Answer (click here)
46. Phylum: Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
47. Photosynthetic Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
48. Nitrifying Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
49. Iron- and sulphur-oxidising Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
50. Hydrogen-oxidising Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
51. Nitrogen-fixing Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
52. Methanotrophic Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
53. Sulphate- and sulphur-reducing Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
54. Enteric Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
55. Vibrio and related genera - Answer (click here)
56. Pseudomonads - Answer (click here)
57. Acetic acid bacteria - Answer (click here)
58. Stalked and budding Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
59. Sheathed Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
60. Predatory Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
61. Spirilla - Answer (click here)
62. Rickettsia - Answer (click here)
63. Phylum Cyanobacteria: the blue-green bacteria - Answer (click here)
64. Phylum Chlorobi (green sulphur bacteria) and phylum Chloroflexi
(green non-sulphur bacteria) - Answer (click here)
65. Phylum Aquificae and phylum Thermotogae: the deeply branching
bacteria - Answer (click here)
66. Phylum ‘Deinococcus-Thermus’ - Answer (click here)
67. Phylum Planctomycetes - Answer (click here)
68. Phylum Chlamydiae - Answer (click here)
69. Phylum Spirochaetes - Answer (click here)
70. Phylum Bacteroidetes - Answer (click here)
71. Phylum: Verrucomicrobia - Answer (click here)
72. The Gram-positive bacteria: phylum Firmicutes and phylum
Actinobacteria - Answer (click here)
73. Phylum Firmicutes: The low GC Gram-positive bacteria - Answer (click
here)
74. Phylum Actinobacteria: The high GC Gram-positive bacteria - Answer
(click here)
75. Bacteria and human disease - Answer (click here)
76. General biology of the Fungi - Answer (click here)
77. Classification of the Fungi - Answer (click here)
78. Fungi and disease - Answer (click here)
79. The Algae - Answer (click here)
80. Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click here)
81. Euglenophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
82. Dinoflagellata - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
83. Diatoms - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click here)
84. Chlorophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
85. Phaeophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click here)
86. Rhodophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
87. Protozoa - Answer (click here)
88. Zooflagellates (Mastigophora) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
89. Ciliates (Ciliophora) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
90. Amoebas (Sarcodina) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
91. Sporozoans (Apicomplexa) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
92. The slime moulds and water moulds (the fungus-like protists) - Answer
(click here)
93. Protistan taxonomy: a modern view - Answer (click here)

Viruses
1. What is microbiology? - Answer (click here)
2. Why is microbiology important? - Answer (click here)
3. How do we know? Microbiology in perspective: to the ‘golden age’ and
beyond - Answer (click here)
4. Light microscopy - Answer (click here)
5. Electron microscopy - Answer (click here)
6. Atomic structure - Answer (click here)
7. Isotopes - Answer (click here)
8. Chemical bonds - Answer (click here)
9. Acids, bases, and pH - Answer (click here)
10. Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
11. Carbohydrates - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
12. Proteins - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
13. Higher levels of protein structure - Answer (click here)
14. Nucleic acids: Structure of DNA and RNA - Answer (click here)
15. Lipids - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
16. Cell Structure and Organisation - Answer (click here)
17. The procaryotic cell and its structure - Answer (click here)
18. Eucaryotic cell Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Cell division in procaryotes and eucaryotes - Answer (click here)
20. Microbial Nutrition and Cultivation - Answer (click here)
21. Microbial Nutritional categories - Answer (click here)
22. How do Microbial nutrients get into the microbial cell? - Answer (click
here)
23. Laboratory cultivation of microorganisms - Answer (click here)
24. Estimation of microbial numbers - Answer (click here)
25. Factors affecting microbial growth - Answer (click here)
26. The kinetics of microbial growth - Answer (click here)
27. Growth in multicellular microorganisms - Answer (click here)
28. Why is energy needed? - Answer (click here)
29. Enzymes - Answer (click here)
30. Principles of energy generation - Answer (click here)
31. Oxidation - reduction reactions - Answer (click here)
32. Glycolysis - Answer (click here)
33. Aerobic respiration - Answer (click here)
34. Oxidative phosphorylation and the electron transport chain - Answer (click
here)
35. Fermentation - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolism of lipids and proteins - Answer (click here)
37. Anaerobic respiration - Answer (click here)
38. Energy may be generated by the oxidation of inorganic molecules -
Answer (click here)
39. Photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
40. Anoxygenic photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
41. Anabolic reactions - Answer (click here)
42. Regulation of metabolism - Answer (click here)
43. A few words about Microbial Classification - Answer (click here)
44. Procaryote Diversity - Answer (click here)
45. Domain: Archaea : Classification and General features - Answer (click here)
46. Phylum: Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
47. Photosynthetic Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
48. Nitrifying Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
49. Iron- and sulphur-oxidising Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
50. Hydrogen-oxidising Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
51. Nitrogen-fixing Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
52. Methanotrophic Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
53. Sulphate- and sulphur-reducing Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
54. Enteric Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
55. Vibrio and related genera - Answer (click here)
56. Pseudomonads - Answer (click here)
57. Acetic acid bacteria - Answer (click here)
58. Stalked and budding Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
59. Sheathed Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
60. Predatory Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
61. Spirilla - Answer (click here)
62. Rickettsia - Answer (click here)
63. Phylum Cyanobacteria: the blue-green bacteria - Answer (click here)
64. Phylum Chlorobi (green sulphur bacteria) and phylum Chloroflexi
(green non-sulphur bacteria) - Answer (click here)
65. Phylum Aquificae and phylum Thermotogae: the deeply branching
bacteria - Answer (click here)
66. Phylum ‘Deinococcus-Thermus’ - Answer (click here)
67. Phylum Planctomycetes - Answer (click here)
68. Phylum Chlamydiae - Answer (click here)
69. Phylum Spirochaetes - Answer (click here)
70. Phylum Bacteroidetes - Answer (click here)
71. Phylum: Verrucomicrobia - Answer (click here)
72. The Gram-positive bacteria: phylum Firmicutes and phylum
Actinobacteria - Answer (click here)
73. Phylum Firmicutes: The low GC Gram-positive bacteria - Answer (click
here)
74. Phylum Actinobacteria: The high GC Gram-positive bacteria - Answer
(click here)
75. Bacteria and human disease - Answer (click here)
76. General biology of the Fungi - Answer (click here)
77. Classification of the Fungi - Answer (click here)
78. Fungi and disease - Answer (click here)
79. The Algae - Answer (click here)
80. Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click here)
81. Euglenophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
82. Dinoflagellata - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
83. Diatoms - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click here)
84. Chlorophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
85. Phaeophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click here)
86. Rhodophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
87. Protozoa - Answer (click here)
88. Zooflagellates (Mastigophora) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
89. Ciliates (Ciliophora) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
90. Amoebas (Sarcodina) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
91. Sporozoans (Apicomplexa) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
92. The slime moulds and water moulds (the fungus-like protists) - Answer
(click here)
93. Protistan taxonomy: a modern view - Answer (click here)
94. What are viruses? - Answer (click here)
95. Viral structure - Answer (click here)
96. Classification of viruses - Answer (click here)
97. Viral replication cycles - Answer (click here)
98. Replication cycles in bacteriophages - Answer (click here)
99. Replication cycles in animal viruses - Answer (click here)
100. Replication of RNA viruses - Answer (click here)
101. Replication cycles in plant viruses - Answer (click here)
102. Viroids - Answer (click here)
103. Prions - Answer (click here)
104. Cultivating viruses - Answer (click here)
105. Viral diseases in humans - Answer (click here)

Microbial Genetics
1. What is microbiology? - Answer (click here)
2. Why is microbiology important? - Answer (click here)
3. How do we know? Microbiology in perspective: to the ‘golden age’ and
beyond - Answer (click here)
4. Light microscopy - Answer (click here)
5. Electron microscopy - Answer (click here)
6. Atomic structure - Answer (click here)
7. Isotopes - Answer (click here)
8. Chemical bonds - Answer (click here)
9. Acids, bases, and pH - Answer (click here)
10. Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
11. Carbohydrates - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
12. Proteins - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
13. Higher levels of protein structure - Answer (click here)
14. Nucleic acids: Structure of DNA and RNA - Answer (click here)
15. Lipids - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
16. Cell Structure and Organisation - Answer (click here)
17. The procaryotic cell and its structure - Answer (click here)
18. Eucaryotic cell Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Cell division in procaryotes and eucaryotes - Answer (click here)
20. Microbial Nutrition and Cultivation - Answer (click here)
21. Microbial Nutritional categories - Answer (click here)
22. How do Microbial nutrients get into the microbial cell? - Answer (click
here)
23. Laboratory cultivation of microorganisms - Answer (click here)
24. Estimation of microbial numbers - Answer (click here)
25. Factors affecting microbial growth - Answer (click here)
26. The kinetics of microbial growth - Answer (click here)
27. Growth in multicellular microorganisms - Answer (click here)
28. Why is energy needed? - Answer (click here)
29. Enzymes - Answer (click here)
30. Principles of energy generation - Answer (click here)
31. Oxidation - reduction reactions - Answer (click here)
32. Glycolysis - Answer (click here)
33. Aerobic respiration - Answer (click here)
34. Oxidative phosphorylation and the electron transport chain - Answer (click
here)
35. Fermentation - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolism of lipids and proteins - Answer (click here)
37. Anaerobic respiration - Answer (click here)
38. Energy may be generated by the oxidation of inorganic molecules -
Answer (click here)
39. Photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
40. Anoxygenic photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
41. Anabolic reactions - Answer (click here)
42. Regulation of metabolism - Answer (click here)
43. A few words about Microbial Classification - Answer (click here)
44. Procaryote Diversity - Answer (click here)
45. Domain: Archaea : Classification and General features - Answer (click here)
46. Phylum: Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
47. Photosynthetic Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
48. Nitrifying Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
49. Iron- and sulphur-oxidising Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
50. Hydrogen-oxidising Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
51. Nitrogen-fixing Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
52. Methanotrophic Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
53. Sulphate- and sulphur-reducing Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
54. Enteric Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
55. Vibrio and related genera - Answer (click here)
56. Pseudomonads - Answer (click here)
57. Acetic acid bacteria - Answer (click here)
58. Stalked and budding Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
59. Sheathed Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
60. Predatory Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
61. Spirilla - Answer (click here)
62. Rickettsia - Answer (click here)
63. Phylum Cyanobacteria: the blue-green bacteria - Answer (click here)
64. Phylum Chlorobi (green sulphur bacteria) and phylum Chloroflexi
(green non-sulphur bacteria) - Answer (click here)
65. Phylum Aquificae and phylum Thermotogae: the deeply branching
bacteria - Answer (click here)
66. Phylum ‘Deinococcus-Thermus’ - Answer (click here)
67. Phylum Planctomycetes - Answer (click here)
68. Phylum Chlamydiae - Answer (click here)
69. Phylum Spirochaetes - Answer (click here)
70. Phylum Bacteroidetes - Answer (click here)
71. Phylum: Verrucomicrobia - Answer (click here)
72. The Gram-positive bacteria: phylum Firmicutes and phylum
Actinobacteria - Answer (click here)
73. Phylum Firmicutes: The low GC Gram-positive bacteria - Answer (click
here)
74. Phylum Actinobacteria: The high GC Gram-positive bacteria - Answer
(click here)
75. Bacteria and human disease - Answer (click here)
76. General biology of the Fungi - Answer (click here)
77. Classification of the Fungi - Answer (click here)
78. Fungi and disease - Answer (click here)
79. The Algae - Answer (click here)
80. Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click here)
81. Euglenophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
82. Dinoflagellata - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
83. Diatoms - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click here)
84. Chlorophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
85. Phaeophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click here)
86. Rhodophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
87. Protozoa - Answer (click here)
88. Zooflagellates (Mastigophora) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
89. Ciliates (Ciliophora) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
90. Amoebas (Sarcodina) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
91. Sporozoans (Apicomplexa) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
92. The slime moulds and water moulds (the fungus-like protists) - Answer
(click here)
93. Protistan taxonomy: a modern view - Answer (click here)
94. What are viruses? - Answer (click here)
95. Viral structure - Answer (click here)
96. Classification of viruses - Answer (click here)
97. Viral replication cycles - Answer (click here)
98. Replication cycles in bacteriophages - Answer (click here)
99. Replication cycles in animal viruses - Answer (click here)
100. Replication of RNA viruses - Answer (click here)
101. Replication cycles in plant viruses - Answer (click here)
102. Viroids - Answer (click here)
103. Prions - Answer (click here)
104. Cultivating viruses - Answer (click here)
105. Viral diseases in humans - Answer (click here)
106. How do we know genes are made of DNA? - Answer (click here)
107. DNA replication - Answer (click here)
108. DNA replication in procaryotes - Answer (click here)
109. What happens when replication goes wrong? - Answer (click here)
110. DNA replication in eucaryotes - Answer (click here)
111. What exactly do genes do? - Answer (click here)
112. Regulation of gene expression - Answer (click here)
113. Molecular basis of mutations - Answer (click here)
114. Genetic transfer in microorganisms - Answer (click here)

Microorganisms in Genetic Engineering


1. What is microbiology? - Answer (click here)
2. Why is microbiology important? - Answer (click here)
3. How do we know? Microbiology in perspective: to the ‘golden age’ and
beyond - Answer (click here)
4. Light microscopy - Answer (click here)
5. Electron microscopy - Answer (click here)
6. Atomic structure - Answer (click here)
7. Isotopes - Answer (click here)
8. Chemical bonds - Answer (click here)
9. Acids, bases, and pH - Answer (click here)
10. Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
11. Carbohydrates - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
12. Proteins - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
13. Higher levels of protein structure - Answer (click here)
14. Nucleic acids: Structure of DNA and RNA - Answer (click here)
15. Lipids - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
16. Cell Structure and Organisation - Answer (click here)
17. The procaryotic cell and its structure - Answer (click here)
18. Eucaryotic cell Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Cell division in procaryotes and eucaryotes - Answer (click here)
20. Microbial Nutrition and Cultivation - Answer (click here)
21. Microbial Nutritional categories - Answer (click here)
22. How do Microbial nutrients get into the microbial cell? - Answer (click
here)
23. Laboratory cultivation of microorganisms - Answer (click here)
24. Estimation of microbial numbers - Answer (click here)
25. Factors affecting microbial growth - Answer (click here)
26. The kinetics of microbial growth - Answer (click here)
27. Growth in multicellular microorganisms - Answer (click here)
28. Why is energy needed? - Answer (click here)
29. Enzymes - Answer (click here)
30. Principles of energy generation - Answer (click here)
31. Oxidation - reduction reactions - Answer (click here)
32. Glycolysis - Answer (click here)
33. Aerobic respiration - Answer (click here)
34. Oxidative phosphorylation and the electron transport chain - Answer (click
here)
35. Fermentation - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolism of lipids and proteins - Answer (click here)
37. Anaerobic respiration - Answer (click here)
38. Energy may be generated by the oxidation of inorganic molecules -
Answer (click here)
39. Photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
40. Anoxygenic photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
41. Anabolic reactions - Answer (click here)
42. Regulation of metabolism - Answer (click here)
43. A few words about Microbial Classification - Answer (click here)
44. Procaryote Diversity - Answer (click here)
45. Domain: Archaea : Classification and General features - Answer (click here)
46. Phylum: Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
47. Photosynthetic Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
48. Nitrifying Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
49. Iron- and sulphur-oxidising Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
50. Hydrogen-oxidising Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
51. Nitrogen-fixing Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
52. Methanotrophic Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
53. Sulphate- and sulphur-reducing Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
54. Enteric Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
55. Vibrio and related genera - Answer (click here)
56. Pseudomonads - Answer (click here)
57. Acetic acid bacteria - Answer (click here)
58. Stalked and budding Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
59. Sheathed Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
60. Predatory Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
61. Spirilla - Answer (click here)
62. Rickettsia - Answer (click here)
63. Phylum Cyanobacteria: the blue-green bacteria - Answer (click here)
64. Phylum Chlorobi (green sulphur bacteria) and phylum Chloroflexi
(green non-sulphur bacteria) - Answer (click here)
65. Phylum Aquificae and phylum Thermotogae: the deeply branching
bacteria - Answer (click here)
66. Phylum ‘Deinococcus-Thermus’ - Answer (click here)
67. Phylum Planctomycetes - Answer (click here)
68. Phylum Chlamydiae - Answer (click here)
69. Phylum Spirochaetes - Answer (click here)
70. Phylum Bacteroidetes - Answer (click here)
71. Phylum: Verrucomicrobia - Answer (click here)
72. The Gram-positive bacteria: phylum Firmicutes and phylum
Actinobacteria - Answer (click here)
73. Phylum Firmicutes: The low GC Gram-positive bacteria - Answer (click
here)
74. Phylum Actinobacteria: The high GC Gram-positive bacteria - Answer
(click here)
75. Bacteria and human disease - Answer (click here)
76. General biology of the Fungi - Answer (click here)
77. Classification of the Fungi - Answer (click here)
78. Fungi and disease - Answer (click here)
79. The Algae - Answer (click here)
80. Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click here)
81. Euglenophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
82. Dinoflagellata - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
83. Diatoms - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click here)
84. Chlorophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
85. Phaeophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click here)
86. Rhodophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
87. Protozoa - Answer (click here)
88. Zooflagellates (Mastigophora) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
89. Ciliates (Ciliophora) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
90. Amoebas (Sarcodina) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
91. Sporozoans (Apicomplexa) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
92. The slime moulds and water moulds (the fungus-like protists) - Answer
(click here)
93. Protistan taxonomy: a modern view - Answer (click here)
94. What are viruses? - Answer (click here)
95. Viral structure - Answer (click here)
96. Classification of viruses - Answer (click here)
97. Viral replication cycles - Answer (click here)
98. Replication cycles in bacteriophages - Answer (click here)
99. Replication cycles in animal viruses - Answer (click here)
100. Replication of RNA viruses - Answer (click here)
101. Replication cycles in plant viruses - Answer (click here)
102. Viroids - Answer (click here)
103. Prions - Answer (click here)
104. Cultivating viruses - Answer (click here)
105. Viral diseases in humans - Answer (click here)
106. How do we know genes are made of DNA? - Answer (click here)
107. DNA replication - Answer (click here)
108. DNA replication in procaryotes - Answer (click here)
109. What happens when replication goes wrong? - Answer (click here)
110. DNA replication in eucaryotes - Answer (click here)
111. What exactly do genes do? - Answer (click here)
112. Regulation of gene expression - Answer (click here)
113. Molecular basis of mutations - Answer (click here)
114. Genetic transfer in microorganisms - Answer (click here)
115. Microorganisms in Genetic Engineering - Answer (click here)
116. Plasmid cloning vectors - Answer (click here)
117. Bacteriophages as cloning vectors - Answer (click here)
118. Expression vectors - Microorganisms in Genetic Engineering - Answer
(click here)
119. Eucaryotic cloning vectors - Answer (click here)
120. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - Answer (click here)

The Control of Microorganisms


1. What is microbiology? - Answer (click here)
2. Why is microbiology important? - Answer (click here)
3. How do we know? Microbiology in perspective: to the ‘golden age’ and
beyond - Answer (click here)
4. Light microscopy - Answer (click here)
5. Electron microscopy - Answer (click here)
6. Atomic structure - Answer (click here)
7. Isotopes - Answer (click here)
8. Chemical bonds - Answer (click here)
9. Acids, bases, and pH - Answer (click here)
10. Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
11. Carbohydrates - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
12. Proteins - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
13. Higher levels of protein structure - Answer (click here)
14. Nucleic acids: Structure of DNA and RNA - Answer (click here)
15. Lipids - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
16. Cell Structure and Organisation - Answer (click here)
17. The procaryotic cell and its structure - Answer (click here)
18. Eucaryotic cell Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Cell division in procaryotes and eucaryotes - Answer (click here)
20. Microbial Nutrition and Cultivation - Answer (click here)
21. Microbial Nutritional categories - Answer (click here)
22. How do Microbial nutrients get into the microbial cell? - Answer (click
here)
23. Laboratory cultivation of microorganisms - Answer (click here)
24. Estimation of microbial numbers - Answer (click here)
25. Factors affecting microbial growth - Answer (click here)
26. The kinetics of microbial growth - Answer (click here)
27. Growth in multicellular microorganisms - Answer (click here)
28. Why is energy needed? - Answer (click here)
29. Enzymes - Answer (click here)
30. Principles of energy generation - Answer (click here)
31. Oxidation - reduction reactions - Answer (click here)
32. Glycolysis - Answer (click here)
33. Aerobic respiration - Answer (click here)
34. Oxidative phosphorylation and the electron transport chain - Answer (click
here)
35. Fermentation - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolism of lipids and proteins - Answer (click here)
37. Anaerobic respiration - Answer (click here)
38. Energy may be generated by the oxidation of inorganic molecules -
Answer (click here)
39. Photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
40. Anoxygenic photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
41. Anabolic reactions - Answer (click here)
42. Regulation of metabolism - Answer (click here)
43. A few words about Microbial Classification - Answer (click here)
44. Procaryote Diversity - Answer (click here)
45. Domain: Archaea : Classification and General features - Answer (click here)
46. Phylum: Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
47. Photosynthetic Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
48. Nitrifying Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
49. Iron- and sulphur-oxidising Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
50. Hydrogen-oxidising Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
51. Nitrogen-fixing Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
52. Methanotrophic Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
53. Sulphate- and sulphur-reducing Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
54. Enteric Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
55. Vibrio and related genera - Answer (click here)
56. Pseudomonads - Answer (click here)
57. Acetic acid bacteria - Answer (click here)
58. Stalked and budding Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
59. Sheathed Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
60. Predatory Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
61. Spirilla - Answer (click here)
62. Rickettsia - Answer (click here)
63. Phylum Cyanobacteria: the blue-green bacteria - Answer (click here)
64. Phylum Chlorobi (green sulphur bacteria) and phylum Chloroflexi
(green non-sulphur bacteria) - Answer (click here)
65. Phylum Aquificae and phylum Thermotogae: the deeply branching
bacteria - Answer (click here)
66. Phylum ‘Deinococcus-Thermus’ - Answer (click here)
67. Phylum Planctomycetes - Answer (click here)
68. Phylum Chlamydiae - Answer (click here)
69. Phylum Spirochaetes - Answer (click here)
70. Phylum Bacteroidetes - Answer (click here)
71. Phylum: Verrucomicrobia - Answer (click here)
72. The Gram-positive bacteria: phylum Firmicutes and phylum
Actinobacteria - Answer (click here)
73. Phylum Firmicutes: The low GC Gram-positive bacteria - Answer (click
here)
74. Phylum Actinobacteria: The high GC Gram-positive bacteria - Answer
(click here)
75. Bacteria and human disease - Answer (click here)
76. General biology of the Fungi - Answer (click here)
77. Classification of the Fungi - Answer (click here)
78. Fungi and disease - Answer (click here)
79. The Algae - Answer (click here)
80. Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click here)
81. Euglenophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
82. Dinoflagellata - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
83. Diatoms - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click here)
84. Chlorophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
85. Phaeophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click here)
86. Rhodophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
87. Protozoa - Answer (click here)
88. Zooflagellates (Mastigophora) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
89. Ciliates (Ciliophora) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
90. Amoebas (Sarcodina) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
91. Sporozoans (Apicomplexa) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
92. The slime moulds and water moulds (the fungus-like protists) - Answer
(click here)
93. Protistan taxonomy: a modern view - Answer (click here)
94. What are viruses? - Answer (click here)
95. Viral structure - Answer (click here)
96. Classification of viruses - Answer (click here)
97. Viral replication cycles - Answer (click here)
98. Replication cycles in bacteriophages - Answer (click here)
99. Replication cycles in animal viruses - Answer (click here)
100. Replication of RNA viruses - Answer (click here)
101. Replication cycles in plant viruses - Answer (click here)
102. Viroids - Answer (click here)
103. Prions - Answer (click here)
104. Cultivating viruses - Answer (click here)
105. Viral diseases in humans - Answer (click here)
106. How do we know genes are made of DNA? - Answer (click here)
107. DNA replication - Answer (click here)
108. DNA replication in procaryotes - Answer (click here)
109. What happens when replication goes wrong? - Answer (click here)
110. DNA replication in eucaryotes - Answer (click here)
111. What exactly do genes do? - Answer (click here)
112. Regulation of gene expression - Answer (click here)
113. Molecular basis of mutations - Answer (click here)
114. Genetic transfer in microorganisms - Answer (click here)
115. Microorganisms in Genetic Engineering - Answer (click here)
116. Plasmid cloning vectors - Answer (click here)
117. Bacteriophages as cloning vectors - Answer (click here)
118. Expression vectors - Microorganisms in Genetic Engineering - Answer
(click here)
119. Eucaryotic cloning vectors - Answer (click here)
120. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - Answer (click here)
121. Sterilisation - Control of Microorganisms - Answer (click here)
122. Sterilisation by heat - Control of Microorganisms - Answer (click here)
123. Sterilisation by irradiation - Control of Microorganisms - Answer (click
here)
124. Sterilisation using ethylene oxide - Control of Microorganisms - Answer
(click here)
125. Disinfection - Control of Microorganisms - Answer (click here)
126. Kinetics of cell death - Answer (click here)

Antimicrobial Agents
1. What is microbiology? - Answer (click here)
2. Why is microbiology important? - Answer (click here)
3. How do we know? Microbiology in perspective: to the ‘golden age’ and
beyond - Answer (click here)
4. Light microscopy - Answer (click here)
5. Electron microscopy - Answer (click here)
6. Atomic structure - Answer (click here)
7. Isotopes - Answer (click here)
8. Chemical bonds - Answer (click here)
9. Acids, bases, and pH - Answer (click here)
10. Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
11. Carbohydrates - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
12. Proteins - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
13. Higher levels of protein structure - Answer (click here)
14. Nucleic acids: Structure of DNA and RNA - Answer (click here)
15. Lipids - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
16. Cell Structure and Organisation - Answer (click here)
17. The procaryotic cell and its structure - Answer (click here)
18. Eucaryotic cell Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Cell division in procaryotes and eucaryotes - Answer (click here)
20. Microbial Nutrition and Cultivation - Answer (click here)
21. Microbial Nutritional categories - Answer (click here)
22. How do Microbial nutrients get into the microbial cell? - Answer (click
here)
23. Laboratory cultivation of microorganisms - Answer (click here)
24. Estimation of microbial numbers - Answer (click here)
25. Factors affecting microbial growth - Answer (click here)
26. The kinetics of microbial growth - Answer (click here)
27. Growth in multicellular microorganisms - Answer (click here)
28. Why is energy needed? - Answer (click here)
29. Enzymes - Answer (click here)
30. Principles of energy generation - Answer (click here)
31. Oxidation - reduction reactions - Answer (click here)
32. Glycolysis - Answer (click here)
33. Aerobic respiration - Answer (click here)
34. Oxidative phosphorylation and the electron transport chain - Answer (click
here)
35. Fermentation - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolism of lipids and proteins - Answer (click here)
37. Anaerobic respiration - Answer (click here)
38. Energy may be generated by the oxidation of inorganic molecules -
Answer (click here)
39. Photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
40. Anoxygenic photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
41. Anabolic reactions - Answer (click here)
42. Regulation of metabolism - Answer (click here)
43. A few words about Microbial Classification - Answer (click here)
44. Procaryote Diversity - Answer (click here)
45. Domain: Archaea : Classification and General features - Answer (click here)
46. Phylum: Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
47. Photosynthetic Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
48. Nitrifying Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
49. Iron- and sulphur-oxidising Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
50. Hydrogen-oxidising Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
51. Nitrogen-fixing Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
52. Methanotrophic Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
53. Sulphate- and sulphur-reducing Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
54. Enteric Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
55. Vibrio and related genera - Answer (click here)
56. Pseudomonads - Answer (click here)
57. Acetic acid bacteria - Answer (click here)
58. Stalked and budding Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
59. Sheathed Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
60. Predatory Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
61. Spirilla - Answer (click here)
62. Rickettsia - Answer (click here)
63. Phylum Cyanobacteria: the blue-green bacteria - Answer (click here)
64. Phylum Chlorobi (green sulphur bacteria) and phylum Chloroflexi
(green non-sulphur bacteria) - Answer (click here)
65. Phylum Aquificae and phylum Thermotogae: the deeply branching
bacteria - Answer (click here)
66. Phylum ‘Deinococcus-Thermus’ - Answer (click here)
67. Phylum Planctomycetes - Answer (click here)
68. Phylum Chlamydiae - Answer (click here)
69. Phylum Spirochaetes - Answer (click here)
70. Phylum Bacteroidetes - Answer (click here)
71. Phylum: Verrucomicrobia - Answer (click here)
72. The Gram-positive bacteria: phylum Firmicutes and phylum
Actinobacteria - Answer (click here)
73. Phylum Firmicutes: The low GC Gram-positive bacteria - Answer (click
here)
74. Phylum Actinobacteria: The high GC Gram-positive bacteria - Answer
(click here)
75. Bacteria and human disease - Answer (click here)
76. General biology of the Fungi - Answer (click here)
77. Classification of the Fungi - Answer (click here)
78. Fungi and disease - Answer (click here)
79. The Algae - Answer (click here)
80. Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click here)
81. Euglenophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
82. Dinoflagellata - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
83. Diatoms - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click here)
84. Chlorophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
85. Phaeophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click here)
86. Rhodophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
87. Protozoa - Answer (click here)
88. Zooflagellates (Mastigophora) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
89. Ciliates (Ciliophora) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
90. Amoebas (Sarcodina) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
91. Sporozoans (Apicomplexa) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
92. The slime moulds and water moulds (the fungus-like protists) - Answer
(click here)
93. Protistan taxonomy: a modern view - Answer (click here)
94. What are viruses? - Answer (click here)
95. Viral structure - Answer (click here)
96. Classification of viruses - Answer (click here)
97. Viral replication cycles - Answer (click here)
98. Replication cycles in bacteriophages - Answer (click here)
99. Replication cycles in animal viruses - Answer (click here)
100. Replication of RNA viruses - Answer (click here)
101. Replication cycles in plant viruses - Answer (click here)
102. Viroids - Answer (click here)
103. Prions - Answer (click here)
104. Cultivating viruses - Answer (click here)
105. Viral diseases in humans - Answer (click here)
106. How do we know genes are made of DNA? - Answer (click here)
107. DNA replication - Answer (click here)
108. DNA replication in procaryotes - Answer (click here)
109. What happens when replication goes wrong? - Answer (click here)
110. DNA replication in eucaryotes - Answer (click here)
111. What exactly do genes do? - Answer (click here)
112. Regulation of gene expression - Answer (click here)
113. Molecular basis of mutations - Answer (click here)
114. Genetic transfer in microorganisms - Answer (click here)
115. Microorganisms in Genetic Engineering - Answer (click here)
116. Plasmid cloning vectors - Answer (click here)
117. Bacteriophages as cloning vectors - Answer (click here)
118. Expression vectors - Microorganisms in Genetic Engineering - Answer
(click here)
119. Eucaryotic cloning vectors - Answer (click here)
120. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - Answer (click here)
121. Sterilisation - Control of Microorganisms - Answer (click here)
122. Sterilisation by heat - Control of Microorganisms - Answer (click here)
123. Sterilisation by irradiation - Control of Microorganisms - Answer (click
here)
124. Sterilisation using ethylene oxide - Control of Microorganisms - Answer
(click here)
125. Disinfection - Control of Microorganisms - Answer (click here)
126. Kinetics of cell death - Answer (click here)
127. Antimicrobial Agents - Answer (click here)
128. Antibiotics - Answer (click here)
129. What other properties should an antibiotic have? - Answer (click here)
130. How do antibiotics work? - Answer (click here)
131. Resistance to antibiotics - Answer (click here)
132. How does antibiotic resistance work? - Answer (click here)
133. How does antibiotic resistance arise? - Answer (click here)
134. Antibiotic susceptibility testing - Answer (click here)
135. Antifungal and antiviral agents - Answer (click here)
Microbial Associations
1. What is microbiology? - Answer (click here)
2. Why is microbiology important? - Answer (click here)
3. How do we know? Microbiology in perspective: to the ‘golden age’ and
beyond - Answer (click here)
4. Light microscopy - Answer (click here)
5. Electron microscopy - Answer (click here)
6. Atomic structure - Answer (click here)
7. Isotopes - Answer (click here)
8. Chemical bonds - Answer (click here)
9. Acids, bases, and pH - Answer (click here)
10. Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
11. Carbohydrates - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
12. Proteins - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
13. Higher levels of protein structure - Answer (click here)
14. Nucleic acids: Structure of DNA and RNA - Answer (click here)
15. Lipids - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
16. Cell Structure and Organisation - Answer (click here)
17. The procaryotic cell and its structure - Answer (click here)
18. Eucaryotic cell Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Cell division in procaryotes and eucaryotes - Answer (click here)
20. Microbial Nutrition and Cultivation - Answer (click here)
21. Microbial Nutritional categories - Answer (click here)
22. How do Microbial nutrients get into the microbial cell? - Answer (click
here)
23. Laboratory cultivation of microorganisms - Answer (click here)
24. Estimation of microbial numbers - Answer (click here)
25. Factors affecting microbial growth - Answer (click here)
26. The kinetics of microbial growth - Answer (click here)
27. Growth in multicellular microorganisms - Answer (click here)
28. Why is energy needed? - Answer (click here)
29. Enzymes - Answer (click here)
30. Principles of energy generation - Answer (click here)
31. Oxidation - reduction reactions - Answer (click here)
32. Glycolysis - Answer (click here)
33. Aerobic respiration - Answer (click here)
34. Oxidative phosphorylation and the electron transport chain - Answer (click
here)
35. Fermentation - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolism of lipids and proteins - Answer (click here)
37. Anaerobic respiration - Answer (click here)
38. Energy may be generated by the oxidation of inorganic molecules -
Answer (click here)
39. Photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
40. Anoxygenic photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
41. Anabolic reactions - Answer (click here)
42. Regulation of metabolism - Answer (click here)
43. A few words about Microbial Classification - Answer (click here)
44. Procaryote Diversity - Answer (click here)
45. Domain: Archaea : Classification and General features - Answer (click here)
46. Phylum: Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
47. Photosynthetic Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
48. Nitrifying Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
49. Iron- and sulphur-oxidising Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
50. Hydrogen-oxidising Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
51. Nitrogen-fixing Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
52. Methanotrophic Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
53. Sulphate- and sulphur-reducing Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
54. Enteric Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
55. Vibrio and related genera - Answer (click here)
56. Pseudomonads - Answer (click here)
57. Acetic acid bacteria - Answer (click here)
58. Stalked and budding Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
59. Sheathed Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
60. Predatory Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
61. Spirilla - Answer (click here)
62. Rickettsia - Answer (click here)
63. Phylum Cyanobacteria: the blue-green bacteria - Answer (click here)
64. Phylum Chlorobi (green sulphur bacteria) and phylum Chloroflexi
(green non-sulphur bacteria) - Answer (click here)
65. Phylum Aquificae and phylum Thermotogae: the deeply branching
bacteria - Answer (click here)
66. Phylum ‘Deinococcus-Thermus’ - Answer (click here)
67. Phylum Planctomycetes - Answer (click here)
68. Phylum Chlamydiae - Answer (click here)
69. Phylum Spirochaetes - Answer (click here)
70. Phylum Bacteroidetes - Answer (click here)
71. Phylum: Verrucomicrobia - Answer (click here)
72. The Gram-positive bacteria: phylum Firmicutes and phylum
Actinobacteria - Answer (click here)
73. Phylum Firmicutes: The low GC Gram-positive bacteria - Answer (click
here)
74. Phylum Actinobacteria: The high GC Gram-positive bacteria - Answer
(click here)
75. Bacteria and human disease - Answer (click here)
76. General biology of the Fungi - Answer (click here)
77. Classification of the Fungi - Answer (click here)
78. Fungi and disease - Answer (click here)
79. The Algae - Answer (click here)
80. Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click here)
81. Euglenophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
82. Dinoflagellata - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
83. Diatoms - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click here)
84. Chlorophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
85. Phaeophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click here)
86. Rhodophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
87. Protozoa - Answer (click here)
88. Zooflagellates (Mastigophora) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
89. Ciliates (Ciliophora) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
90. Amoebas (Sarcodina) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
91. Sporozoans (Apicomplexa) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
92. The slime moulds and water moulds (the fungus-like protists) - Answer
(click here)
93. Protistan taxonomy: a modern view - Answer (click here)
94. What are viruses? - Answer (click here)
95. Viral structure - Answer (click here)
96. Classification of viruses - Answer (click here)
97. Viral replication cycles - Answer (click here)
98. Replication cycles in bacteriophages - Answer (click here)
99. Replication cycles in animal viruses - Answer (click here)
100. Replication of RNA viruses - Answer (click here)
101. Replication cycles in plant viruses - Answer (click here)
102. Viroids - Answer (click here)
103. Prions - Answer (click here)
104. Cultivating viruses - Answer (click here)
105. Viral diseases in humans - Answer (click here)
106. How do we know genes are made of DNA? - Answer (click here)
107. DNA replication - Answer (click here)
108. DNA replication in procaryotes - Answer (click here)
109. What happens when replication goes wrong? - Answer (click here)
110. DNA replication in eucaryotes - Answer (click here)
111. What exactly do genes do? - Answer (click here)
112. Regulation of gene expression - Answer (click here)
113. Molecular basis of mutations - Answer (click here)
114. Genetic transfer in microorganisms - Answer (click here)
115. Microorganisms in Genetic Engineering - Answer (click here)
116. Plasmid cloning vectors - Answer (click here)
117. Bacteriophages as cloning vectors - Answer (click here)
118. Expression vectors - Microorganisms in Genetic Engineering - Answer
(click here)
119. Eucaryotic cloning vectors - Answer (click here)
120. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - Answer (click here)
121. Sterilisation - Control of Microorganisms - Answer (click here)
122. Sterilisation by heat - Control of Microorganisms - Answer (click here)
123. Sterilisation by irradiation - Control of Microorganisms - Answer (click
here)
124. Sterilisation using ethylene oxide - Control of Microorganisms - Answer
(click here)
125. Disinfection - Control of Microorganisms - Answer (click here)
126. Kinetics of cell death - Answer (click here)
127. Antimicrobial Agents - Answer (click here)
128. Antibiotics - Answer (click here)
129. What other properties should an antibiotic have? - Answer (click here)
130. How do antibiotics work? - Answer (click here)
131. Resistance to antibiotics - Answer (click here)
132. How does antibiotic resistance work? - Answer (click here)
133. How does antibiotic resistance arise? - Answer (click here)
134. Antibiotic susceptibility testing - Answer (click here)
135. Antifungal and antiviral agents - Answer (click here)
136. Microbial associations with animals - Answer (click here)
137. Microbial associations with plants - Answer (click here)
138. Microbial associations with other microorganisms - Answer (click here)

Microorganisms in the Environment


1. What is microbiology? - Answer (click here)
2. Why is microbiology important? - Answer (click here)
3. How do we know? Microbiology in perspective: to the ‘golden age’ and
beyond - Answer (click here)
4. Light microscopy - Answer (click here)
5. Electron microscopy - Answer (click here)
6. Atomic structure - Answer (click here)
7. Isotopes - Answer (click here)
8. Chemical bonds - Answer (click here)
9. Acids, bases, and pH - Answer (click here)
10. Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
11. Carbohydrates - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
12. Proteins - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
13. Higher levels of protein structure - Answer (click here)
14. Nucleic acids: Structure of DNA and RNA - Answer (click here)
15. Lipids - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
16. Cell Structure and Organisation - Answer (click here)
17. The procaryotic cell and its structure - Answer (click here)
18. Eucaryotic cell Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Cell division in procaryotes and eucaryotes - Answer (click here)
20. Microbial Nutrition and Cultivation - Answer (click here)
21. Microbial Nutritional categories - Answer (click here)
22. How do Microbial nutrients get into the microbial cell? - Answer (click
here)
23. Laboratory cultivation of microorganisms - Answer (click here)
24. Estimation of microbial numbers - Answer (click here)
25. Factors affecting microbial growth - Answer (click here)
26. The kinetics of microbial growth - Answer (click here)
27. Growth in multicellular microorganisms - Answer (click here)
28. Why is energy needed? - Answer (click here)
29. Enzymes - Answer (click here)
30. Principles of energy generation - Answer (click here)
31. Oxidation - reduction reactions - Answer (click here)
32. Glycolysis - Answer (click here)
33. Aerobic respiration - Answer (click here)
34. Oxidative phosphorylation and the electron transport chain - Answer (click
here)
35. Fermentation - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolism of lipids and proteins - Answer (click here)
37. Anaerobic respiration - Answer (click here)
38. Energy may be generated by the oxidation of inorganic molecules -
Answer (click here)
39. Photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
40. Anoxygenic photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
41. Anabolic reactions - Answer (click here)
42. Regulation of metabolism - Answer (click here)
43. A few words about Microbial Classification - Answer (click here)
44. Procaryote Diversity - Answer (click here)
45. Domain: Archaea : Classification and General features - Answer (click here)
46. Phylum: Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
47. Photosynthetic Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
48. Nitrifying Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
49. Iron- and sulphur-oxidising Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
50. Hydrogen-oxidising Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
51. Nitrogen-fixing Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
52. Methanotrophic Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
53. Sulphate- and sulphur-reducing Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
54. Enteric Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
55. Vibrio and related genera - Answer (click here)
56. Pseudomonads - Answer (click here)
57. Acetic acid bacteria - Answer (click here)
58. Stalked and budding Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
59. Sheathed Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
60. Predatory Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
61. Spirilla - Answer (click here)
62. Rickettsia - Answer (click here)
63. Phylum Cyanobacteria: the blue-green bacteria - Answer (click here)
64. Phylum Chlorobi (green sulphur bacteria) and phylum Chloroflexi
(green non-sulphur bacteria) - Answer (click here)
65. Phylum Aquificae and phylum Thermotogae: the deeply branching
bacteria - Answer (click here)
66. Phylum ‘Deinococcus-Thermus’ - Answer (click here)
67. Phylum Planctomycetes - Answer (click here)
68. Phylum Chlamydiae - Answer (click here)
69. Phylum Spirochaetes - Answer (click here)
70. Phylum Bacteroidetes - Answer (click here)
71. Phylum: Verrucomicrobia - Answer (click here)
72. The Gram-positive bacteria: phylum Firmicutes and phylum
Actinobacteria - Answer (click here)
73. Phylum Firmicutes: The low GC Gram-positive bacteria - Answer (click
here)
74. Phylum Actinobacteria: The high GC Gram-positive bacteria - Answer
(click here)
75. Bacteria and human disease - Answer (click here)
76. General biology of the Fungi - Answer (click here)
77. Classification of the Fungi - Answer (click here)
78. Fungi and disease - Answer (click here)
79. The Algae - Answer (click here)
80. Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click here)
81. Euglenophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
82. Dinoflagellata - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
83. Diatoms - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click here)
84. Chlorophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
85. Phaeophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click here)
86. Rhodophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
87. Protozoa - Answer (click here)
88. Zooflagellates (Mastigophora) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
89. Ciliates (Ciliophora) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
90. Amoebas (Sarcodina) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
91. Sporozoans (Apicomplexa) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
92. The slime moulds and water moulds (the fungus-like protists) - Answer
(click here)
93. Protistan taxonomy: a modern view - Answer (click here)
94. What are viruses? - Answer (click here)
95. Viral structure - Answer (click here)
96. Classification of viruses - Answer (click here)
97. Viral replication cycles - Answer (click here)
98. Replication cycles in bacteriophages - Answer (click here)
99. Replication cycles in animal viruses - Answer (click here)
100. Replication of RNA viruses - Answer (click here)
101. Replication cycles in plant viruses - Answer (click here)
102. Viroids - Answer (click here)
103. Prions - Answer (click here)
104. Cultivating viruses - Answer (click here)
105. Viral diseases in humans - Answer (click here)
106. How do we know genes are made of DNA? - Answer (click here)
107. DNA replication - Answer (click here)
108. DNA replication in procaryotes - Answer (click here)
109. What happens when replication goes wrong? - Answer (click here)
110. DNA replication in eucaryotes - Answer (click here)
111. What exactly do genes do? - Answer (click here)
112. Regulation of gene expression - Answer (click here)
113. Molecular basis of mutations - Answer (click here)
114. Genetic transfer in microorganisms - Answer (click here)
115. Microorganisms in Genetic Engineering - Answer (click here)
116. Plasmid cloning vectors - Answer (click here)
117. Bacteriophages as cloning vectors - Answer (click here)
118. Expression vectors - Microorganisms in Genetic Engineering - Answer
(click here)
119. Eucaryotic cloning vectors - Answer (click here)
120. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - Answer (click here)
121. Sterilisation - Control of Microorganisms - Answer (click here)
122. Sterilisation by heat - Control of Microorganisms - Answer (click here)
123. Sterilisation by irradiation - Control of Microorganisms - Answer (click
here)
124. Sterilisation using ethylene oxide - Control of Microorganisms - Answer
(click here)
125. Disinfection - Control of Microorganisms - Answer (click here)
126. Kinetics of cell death - Answer (click here)
127. Antimicrobial Agents - Answer (click here)
128. Antibiotics - Answer (click here)
129. What other properties should an antibiotic have? - Answer (click here)
130. How do antibiotics work? - Answer (click here)
131. Resistance to antibiotics - Answer (click here)
132. How does antibiotic resistance work? - Answer (click here)
133. How does antibiotic resistance arise? - Answer (click here)
134. Antibiotic susceptibility testing - Answer (click here)
135. Antifungal and antiviral agents - Answer (click here)
136. Microbial associations with animals - Answer (click here)
137. Microbial associations with plants - Answer (click here)
138. Microbial associations with other microorganisms - Answer (click here)
139. Microorganisms in the Environment - Answer (click here)
140. The carbon cycle - Microorganisms in the Environment - Answer (click
here)
141. The nitrogen cycle - Microorganisms in the Environment - Answer (click
here)
142. The sulphur cycle - Microorganisms in the Environment - Answer (click
here)
143. Phosphorus - Microorganisms in the Environment - Answer (click here)
144. Microbiology of soil - Answer (click here)
145. Microbiology of freshwater - Answer (click here)
146. Microbiology of seawater - Answer (click here)
147. Beneficial effects of microorganisms in the environment - Answer (click
here)
148. Harmful effects of microorganisms in the environment - Answer (click here)
Industrial and Food Microbiology
1. What is microbiology? - Answer (click here)
2. Why is microbiology important? - Answer (click here)
3. How do we know? Microbiology in perspective: to the ‘golden age’ and
beyond - Answer (click here)
4. Light microscopy - Answer (click here)
5. Electron microscopy - Answer (click here)
6. Atomic structure - Answer (click here)
7. Isotopes - Answer (click here)
8. Chemical bonds - Answer (click here)
9. Acids, bases, and pH - Answer (click here)
10. Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
11. Carbohydrates - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
12. Proteins - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
13. Higher levels of protein structure - Answer (click here)
14. Nucleic acids: Structure of DNA and RNA - Answer (click here)
15. Lipids - Biomacromolecules - Answer (click here)
16. Cell Structure and Organisation - Answer (click here)
17. The procaryotic cell and its structure - Answer (click here)
18. Eucaryotic cell Structure - Answer (click here)
19. Cell division in procaryotes and eucaryotes - Answer (click here)
20. Microbial Nutrition and Cultivation - Answer (click here)
21. Microbial Nutritional categories - Answer (click here)
22. How do Microbial nutrients get into the microbial cell? - Answer (click
here)
23. Laboratory cultivation of microorganisms - Answer (click here)
24. Estimation of microbial numbers - Answer (click here)
25. Factors affecting microbial growth - Answer (click here)
26. The kinetics of microbial growth - Answer (click here)
27. Growth in multicellular microorganisms - Answer (click here)
28. Why is energy needed? - Answer (click here)
29. Enzymes - Answer (click here)
30. Principles of energy generation - Answer (click here)
31. Oxidation - reduction reactions - Answer (click here)
32. Glycolysis - Answer (click here)
33. Aerobic respiration - Answer (click here)
34. Oxidative phosphorylation and the electron transport chain - Answer (click
here)
35. Fermentation - Answer (click here)
36. Metabolism of lipids and proteins - Answer (click here)
37. Anaerobic respiration - Answer (click here)
38. Energy may be generated by the oxidation of inorganic molecules -
Answer (click here)
39. Photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
40. Anoxygenic photosynthesis - Answer (click here)
41. Anabolic reactions - Answer (click here)
42. Regulation of metabolism - Answer (click here)
43. A few words about Microbial Classification - Answer (click here)
44. Procaryote Diversity - Answer (click here)
45. Domain: Archaea : Classification and General features - Answer (click here)
46. Phylum: Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
47. Photosynthetic Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
48. Nitrifying Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
49. Iron- and sulphur-oxidising Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
50. Hydrogen-oxidising Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
51. Nitrogen-fixing Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
52. Methanotrophic Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
53. Sulphate- and sulphur-reducing Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
54. Enteric Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
55. Vibrio and related genera - Answer (click here)
56. Pseudomonads - Answer (click here)
57. Acetic acid bacteria - Answer (click here)
58. Stalked and budding Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
59. Sheathed Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
60. Predatory Proteobacteria - Answer (click here)
61. Spirilla - Answer (click here)
62. Rickettsia - Answer (click here)
63. Phylum Cyanobacteria: the blue-green bacteria - Answer (click here)
64. Phylum Chlorobi (green sulphur bacteria) and phylum Chloroflexi
(green non-sulphur bacteria) - Answer (click here)
65. Phylum Aquificae and phylum Thermotogae: the deeply branching
bacteria - Answer (click here)
66. Phylum ‘Deinococcus-Thermus’ - Answer (click here)
67. Phylum Planctomycetes - Answer (click here)
68. Phylum Chlamydiae - Answer (click here)
69. Phylum Spirochaetes - Answer (click here)
70. Phylum Bacteroidetes - Answer (click here)
71. Phylum: Verrucomicrobia - Answer (click here)
72. The Gram-positive bacteria: phylum Firmicutes and phylum
Actinobacteria - Answer (click here)
73. Phylum Firmicutes: The low GC Gram-positive bacteria - Answer (click
here)
74. Phylum Actinobacteria: The high GC Gram-positive bacteria - Answer
(click here)
75. Bacteria and human disease - Answer (click here)
76. General biology of the Fungi - Answer (click here)
77. Classification of the Fungi - Answer (click here)
78. Fungi and disease - Answer (click here)
79. The Algae - Answer (click here)
80. Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click here)
81. Euglenophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
82. Dinoflagellata - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
83. Diatoms - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click here)
84. Chlorophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
85. Phaeophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click here)
86. Rhodophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists - Answer (click
here)
87. Protozoa - Answer (click here)
88. Zooflagellates (Mastigophora) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
89. Ciliates (Ciliophora) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
90. Amoebas (Sarcodina) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
91. Sporozoans (Apicomplexa) - Protozoa - Answer (click here)
92. The slime moulds and water moulds (the fungus-like protists) - Answer
(click here)
93. Protistan taxonomy: a modern view - Answer (click here)
94. What are viruses? - Answer (click here)
95. Viral structure - Answer (click here)
96. Classification of viruses - Answer (click here)
97. Viral replication cycles - Answer (click here)
98. Replication cycles in bacteriophages - Answer (click here)
99. Replication cycles in animal viruses - Answer (click here)
100. Replication of RNA viruses - Answer (click here)
101. Replication cycles in plant viruses - Answer (click here)
102. Viroids - Answer (click here)
103. Prions - Answer (click here)
104. Cultivating viruses - Answer (click here)
105. Viral diseases in humans - Answer (click here)
106. How do we know genes are made of DNA? - Answer (click here)
107. DNA replication - Answer (click here)
108. DNA replication in procaryotes - Answer (click here)
109. What happens when replication goes wrong? - Answer (click here)
110. DNA replication in eucaryotes - Answer (click here)
111. What exactly do genes do? - Answer (click here)
112. Regulation of gene expression - Answer (click here)
113. Molecular basis of mutations - Answer (click here)
114. Genetic transfer in microorganisms - Answer (click here)
115. Microorganisms in Genetic Engineering - Answer (click here)
116. Plasmid cloning vectors - Answer (click here)
117. Bacteriophages as cloning vectors - Answer (click here)
118. Expression vectors - Microorganisms in Genetic Engineering - Answer
(click here)
119. Eucaryotic cloning vectors - Answer (click here)
120. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - Answer (click here)
121. Sterilisation - Control of Microorganisms - Answer (click here)
122. Sterilisation by heat - Control of Microorganisms - Answer (click here)
123. Sterilisation by irradiation - Control of Microorganisms - Answer (click
here)
124. Sterilisation using ethylene oxide - Control of Microorganisms - Answer
(click here)
125. Disinfection - Control of Microorganisms - Answer (click here)
126. Kinetics of cell death - Answer (click here)
127. Antimicrobial Agents - Answer (click here)
128. Antibiotics - Answer (click here)
129. What other properties should an antibiotic have? - Answer (click here)
130. How do antibiotics work? - Answer (click here)
131. Resistance to antibiotics - Answer (click here)
132. How does antibiotic resistance work? - Answer (click here)
133. How does antibiotic resistance arise? - Answer (click here)
134. Antibiotic susceptibility testing - Answer (click here)
135. Antifungal and antiviral agents - Answer (click here)
136. Microbial associations with animals - Answer (click here)
137. Microbial associations with plants - Answer (click here)
138. Microbial associations with other microorganisms - Answer (click here)
139. Microorganisms in the Environment - Answer (click here)
140. The carbon cycle - Microorganisms in the Environment - Answer (click
here)
141. The nitrogen cycle - Microorganisms in the Environment - Answer (click
here)
142. The sulphur cycle - Microorganisms in the Environment - Answer (click
here)
143. Phosphorus - Microorganisms in the Environment - Answer (click here)
144. Microbiology of soil - Answer (click here)
145. Microbiology of freshwater - Answer (click here)
146. Microbiology of seawater - Answer (click here)
147. Beneficial effects of microorganisms in the environment - Answer (click
here)
148. Harmful effects of microorganisms in the environment - Answer (click here)
149. Microorganisms and food - Answer (click here)
150. Microorganisms as food - Answer (click here)
151. Microbial spoilage of food - Answer (click here)
152. Microorganisms in the production of biochemicals - Answer (click here)
153. Products derived from genetically engineered microorganisms - Answer
(click here)
154. Microorganisms in the mining industry - Answer (click here)